WINDOWS AND DOORS IN SCHOOL FACILITIES
Information on school building windows and doors selection, installation, safety and security, maintenance, and replacement in new and retrofitted facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Window Opening Behaviour in a Naturally Ventilated School.
Dutton, Spencer; Shao, Li
(International Building Performance Simulation Association , Jan 2010)
Reports on a post occupancy assessment of a new primary school was performed over a period of over one year. Concurrent measurement of window open state, CO2 concentration, temperature, and exterior environmental conditions were taken at a frequency of two minutes. In addition, classroom daily occupancy levels and monthly building energy usage were recorded. A probabilistic model of the proportion of windows open throughout the day as the occupants interact with the windows was developed based on the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis. The model was used to schedule window opening in the EnergyPlus simulation program. Predictions of both CO2 concentration and building energy performance, using the occupant behavior model, were shown to give more accurate predictions than a model based on temperature set points. [author's abstract] 9p.
Door Locking Options for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.
References to Journal Articles
Lock And Roll. University Working Groups Agree to Update Dorm Locks
Jensen, Ralph C.
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Describes how Princeton University retrofitted more than 3,200 doors with a new, state-of-the-art wireless locking system.
New Windows and Doors Revitalize Older Buildings
Building Design + Construction; Apr 2012
With their improved aesthetics, energy efficiency, and durability, replacement windows and doors can add significant value to a renovation project.
Doors & Hardware; , p14-17 ; Apr 2012
Discusses the growing number of options for green hardware when striving for LEED certification.
Let the Sunshine (and Students) In
College Planning and Management; , p26-29 ; Dec 2011
Selecting windows and doors for today's student residence renovation and new construction projects requires a balanace between energy efficiency, durability, cost, sustainability, and aesthetics.
School Planning and Management; , p38-39 ; Dec 2011
Describes retrofitting with window film, a cost-effective option with diverse benefits for schools.
No Blinding Light
Martin, David H.
School Planning and Management; , p37 ; Dec 2011
Integrated internal blinds help control classroom daylighting while reducing maintenance.
Door Selection Process Starts With Needs Assessment.
Building Operating Maintenance; , 1p ; Oct 2011
Details the door selection process, starting with a needs assessment.
Step by Step Process Helps Choose Doors, Hardware.
Building Operating Maintenance; , 1p ; Oct 2011
Proper selection requires a thorough understanding of the way both occupants and visitors will need to enter and move through the facility. It also requires an understanding of how issues such as security and accessibility impact product decisions.
High-Performance Glass for High-Performance Schools.
Design Cost Data; , p11,50 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Through energy modeling, shows that daylighting strategies can have a significant impact on energy consumption in educational facilities, particularly those that incorporate advanced solar control, low-e glasses such as double-silver-coated Solarban 60 glass and triple-silver-coated Solarban 70XL glass by PPG.
LEED for Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2011
Addresses the impact the LEED for schools has on the acoustic performance fo classroom entry doors. The sound transmission class (STC) ratings for walls and doors are discussed, along with determining the difference between background noise and the STC ratings.
Industry Trends in K-12 Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul 2011
Discusses funding trends in public school services and programs in light of the current recession. According to the survey, security staff has been reduced, sustainable building enhancements have increased, value engineering has increased, lower quality products are being specified, and collection time on payments has increased.
Door Hardware: Code Considerations.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p19,20 ; Jun 2011
Reviews highlights of major codes regarding door hardware, with particular attention to maintaining both fire safety and security, as well as compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act.
Opening Windows to Cutting-Edge Education Design.
Environmental Design + Construction; May 26, 2011
Features the Center for Energy Efficient Design (CEED), a Franklin County public middle school located in Rocky Mount, Virginia and designed and built by Structures Design/Build. Unlike any other school in the nation, the school is designed and built according to Passive House (or Passivhaus) standards, the world’s highest standards in energy efficient construction. The CEED serves as a hands-on education facility to teach students and the community about green building technologies.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p39-42 ; May 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked decisions attached to selecting appropriate doors for schools. Who will be coming and going in and out of them? How much control is needed over comings and goings? What level of monitoring is desirable and necessary? What technology is needed to meet these goals? What wear and tear can be expected? What natural emergencies (hurricanes, etc.) need to be anticipated? Recommendations are given also for access control, interior doors, and classroom doors.
Security: A Matter of Performance. [Door Hardware: Focus on Security]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p27,28 ; May 2011
Advises on door maintenance, listing the parts of a door assembly in need of preventive maintenance, typical problems that prevent proper door function, lock maintenance, and electronic door access.
Creating Quiet, Comfortable Learning Spaces.
Gille, Steve; Fronek, Steve
The Construction Specifier; v64 n3 , p20-22,24,26,28,29 ; Mar 2011
Advises on creating quiet classrooms, discussing determining accurate levels of noise disturbance between decibels and pitch. ANSI and LEED standards are discussed, as are typical sources of noise in buildings. Reducing interior noise and limiting the intrusion of exterior noise is discussed, and extensive information on windows is included.
Door Hardware: Safety and Security Strategies.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p12,13 ; Feb 2011
Recognizes rapidly improving technology for door hardware components and provides insights on staying abreast of what is available and what should be considered when selecting.
Form and Function.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p10-12 ; Dec 2010
Discusses recent advances in glass technology that allow more extensive use of glass for daylighting and security, but offer fire resistance as well.
Let the Sun Shine in: New Thinking about the Oldest Lighting Strategy.
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p10,12,13 ; Dec 2010
Promotes the use of controlled daylighting, cautioning against direct sunlight, which produces glare. Basic concepts for bringing daylight into the center of a building are presented, and the superiority of skylights to windows for daylighting is discussed. Advice on assembling an essential team for daylighting design, tuning and maintaining a daylighting system, and treating windows is included.
Security at the University of Kentucky.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n11 , p16-18,20 ; Nov 2010
Describes access control at the University of Kentucky coliseum, along with its attached new athletic addition. The keyless system enables complex control of access during lockdown, day-to-day operations, and special events. The configuration of the hard-wired, computer-controlled doors and battery-operated doors is described, as is the necessity of separating spectators from players.
Considerations When Upgrading Renovating Window Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on window selection for campus buildings, emphasizing energy efficiency, building orientation, appropriate window style, and glass selection. Acoustics, daylighting, thermal comfort, and aesthetics are also addressed.
Windows and Doors.
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p56,58,60,62 ; Oct 2010
Recommends considering independent, rather than manufacturer, ratings for window and door energy efficiency, and compares various types of materials and construction for their insulating properties. An integrated approach to window and door selection balances environmental quality, lighting, and ventilation.
Door Hardware: An Open and Shut Case.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p18,20,21 ; Oct 2010
Discusses codes, ADA standards, and NFPA standards for doors, as well as current technology for security and access control. Proximity card access is highlighted, as are maintenance and testing requirements for durability.
Close a Window, Open a Door.
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p45,46,48 ; Oct 2010
Discusses developments in window and door technology, detailing insulating factors, and addressing the increased use of recycled components in their construction.
Case Study: Cobb County School District.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n8 , p14-16 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the upgrade of elementary school door locks in Georgia's Cobb County School District. The research of existing systems, standardization of doors and electronic locks, and flexibility of the system are described.
Security System Blends Keys and Credentials.
Ayers, Mark; Crook, Kevin
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p20-22,24 ; Jul 2010
Describes the Boulder Valley School Districts switch from keys to electronic door access, which enabled the district to control an employee's access to spaces, ended complicated key production, and relieved itinerant employees of having to carry multiple keys.
Securing a School 24 Hours a Day.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p10-12 ; Jul 2010
Describes how Miami's Mater Academy High School replaced their mechanical door key system with electronic locks, thus eliminating the need to re-key doors if a key was lost, as well as the threat from keys in the possession of former employees.
Sounding Off About Noise Retention Innovation.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p14-16,18 ; Jul 2010
Describes new lightweight doors with high sound transmission class (STC) ratings, that are an alternative to traditional, heavy acoustical doors. The new doors are easier to install and operate. Testing methods and standards for acoustical isolation are also addressed.
Fighting the War on Germs in Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2010
Describes touch-free door systems that prevent the spreading of germs, particularly in schools, where young children are negligent about washing their hands.
Light and Cool.
American School and University; v82 n11 , p32-64 ; Jun 2010
Advises on window selection and placement to keep classrooms properly illuminated without unnecessary heat gain. Design of roof monitors and light shelves are highlighted.
An Automatic Solution for Door Closing Force/ADA Conflicts.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the use of automatic door operators when standards for closing force and standards for openability cannot be resolved. Conflicts between ANSI, ADA, and Fire safety codes are discussed, as are varying state requirements.
Finding the Real Problem with Your Problem Door.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p20-23 ; Mar 2010
Discusses investigation of "problem doors" that require constant maintenance and repair. Reasons for failure are usually due to the hinges. Also, improperly specified or installed doors that cannot handle heavy traffic and abuse are noted. A variety of hinge options are discussed and illustrated.
Life Safety, Security and Operational Conflicts.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n2 , p17-19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses security features of doors, including anti-tailgating technology, door prop alarms, delayed egress, and electrified dogging.
Building Information Modeling and the Door and Hardware Industry.
Bevill, Doug; Arsenault, Peter
Doors and Hardware; v74 n2 , p18-20,22,23 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the connection of building information modeling (BIM) with door and hardware specification, which is in its infancy, since most manufacturers BIM content is currently not interoperable with the designer's. Advice on what to look for when selecting BIM products is included.
The Key to Door Closers.
Construction Specifier; v63 n1 , p44--49 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the selection of door closers, considering firm closure for security and fire safety, but also resistance low enough to pass accessibility requirements, where necessary. Applicable codes and accessibility tests are cited.
Door Hardware Goes Hi-Tech.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p8,9 ; Dec 2009
Reviews the current generation of door hardware technology, with a variety of computerized features that are now largely available in a wireless mode. Advice on training front-line technicians is included.
Increasing Door Accessibility: Balancing Form, Function, and Compliance.
Construction Specifier; v62 n11 , p70-77 ; Nov 2009
Addresses accessible doors in the context of retrofit and new construction. Particular attention is paid to aesthetics and architectural integrity. Topics covered include high/low switches, vertical actuation bars, and custom bollards
Case Study: Vacaville Schools Upgrade Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n11 , p18-20,22 ; Nov 2009
Details the upgrading of this California school systems locks. The systems schools have classroom doors that open to the outdoors. Locks were changed so that doors that could be locked from the inside, which was not previously possible. Upgrades to the key system and consultation with experts before work was begun is also described.
Case Study: Piedmont California Schools Lock Down Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Oct 2009
Describes this district's replacement of 50 classroom door locks that can be locked from inside with a key, new panic bars for exit doors that can be found in the dark, and standardization of the key system.
Optimizing Building Energy Performance.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n9 , p10-12,14 ; Sep 2009
Advises on improving the energy efficiency of buildings through improved door assemblies. Thermal break door frames, insulated doors, gasketing, Kerf frames, properly sized and calibrated door closers, and revolving doors are described.
Putting a Lock on Security.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n9 , p12,14 ; Sep 2009
Discusses affordable retrofits of door locks that do not require switching to a fully automated system. Electronic lock cylinders are emphasized, with their programmability and scalability detailed, as well as their independence from hard wiring.
Looking through the Past.
May, Lisa; Fronek, Steve
The Construction Specifier; v62 n7 , p18-20,22-27 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the virtues of aluminum in historic window replacements. The article cites the energy-saving properties, flexible design potential, and installation options available.
The Basics on Architectural Hardware.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n7 , p59-63 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the specification of operating trim, closing devices, protective plates, and various accessories in door installation.
The Key to Closers.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n6 , p22-24,26,27 ; Jun 2009
Discusses door closers in detail, covering requirements for accessibility, fire safety, aesthetics, various designs, aesthetics, and manufacturer reputation.
The Basics on Architectural Hardware: Hanging and Securing Devices.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n6 , p106-112,114 ; Jun 2009
Describes design and performance features of various door hinges and pivots, with particular attention to their durability and the type of weight they can support. Also discussed are features of locksets and exit hardware.
A Call to Arms. How to Select the Best Arm Type and Functionality for Door Closers.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n5 , p36-38 ; May 2009
Discusses the arm component of door closers, describing the features and proper specification of standard, dead stop, hold open, specialty, and track arms.
A Clear View.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p36-38 ; Apr 2009
Discusses advantages of window film to school energy savings, how glass transfers heat, and how to select the right type of film for the type of windows being considered.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p32-34 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the advantages of campus keyless access systems, particularly in combination with other access control technologies that help deter intruders and "piggybacking" of the unauthorized with the authorized.
Optimizing Openings: The Basics of Energy-Efficient Doorways.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n4 , p82-86 ; Apr 2009
Discusses optimization of the thermal performance of doors, including thermal break frames, insulated doors, gasketing, door closers, and revolving doors.
Can these Windows Be Saved?
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p13,14,16 ; Mar 2009
Advises on care, repair, and replacement of windows. Avoiding water penetration; the effects of moisture, condensation, and mold; and determining whether to repair or replace windows are addressed.
Bethany College Toughens Up Exit Devices for Better Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2009
Describes how this college upgraded to electronic door latches, although initial equipment did not stand up to the heavy use, and had to be upgraded yet again.
Doors to Opportunity.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p22.23 ; Feb 2009
Discusses the recent expansion of choices in door locks, hinges, handles, closers, and automatic openers, along with door inspection requirements and maintenance tasks.
The Basic Fundamentals of Doorway Security.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p10,12,13 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews door security applications, including types of bolts, locksets, latchsets, strikes, cylinders, door closers, protection of the door from traffic damage, gaskets, and signage.