WINDOWS AND DOORS IN SCHOOL FACILITIES
Information on school building windows and doors selection, installation, safety and security, maintenance, and replacement in new and retrofitted facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Window Opening Behaviour in a Naturally Ventilated School.
Dutton, Spencer; Shao, Li
(International Building Performance Simulation Association , Jan 2010)
Reports on a post occupancy assessment of a new primary school was performed over a period of over one year. Concurrent measurement of window open state, CO2 concentration, temperature, and exterior environmental conditions were taken at a frequency of two minutes. In addition, classroom daily occupancy levels and monthly building energy usage were recorded. A probabilistic model of the proportion of windows open throughout the day as the occupants interact with the windows was developed based on the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis. The model was used to schedule window opening in the EnergyPlus simulation program. Predictions of both CO2 concentration and building energy performance, using the occupant behavior model, were shown to give more accurate predictions than a model based on temperature set points. [author's abstract] 9p.
Door Locking Options for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.
The Efficient Windows Collaborative Tools for Schools.
(Efficient Windows Collaborative, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Advises schools on window design parameters, performance factors, and efficient window options. Daylighting, shading, insulation value, air leakage, coatings, framing, skylights, and natural ventilation are addressed. 17p.
Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven; Collins, David; Juroszek, Steven; Ching, Francis
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2007)
Analyzes and illustrates the intent and potential interpretations of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) as it applies to educational facilities. The book discusses how the Code was developed and how it is organized, and should be used along with the Code. The chapters of the book correspond to those of the code, and cover building dimensions, types of construction, finishes, safety, accessibility, interior environment, energy efficiency, exteriors, roofs, foundations and structural considerations, and soils. 412p.TO ORDER: 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030; Tel: 201-748-6011
School Access and Visitor Control
(National School Safety and Security Services , 2006)
Access control to school campuses and buildings is a top concern for most school officials. School administrators struggle with maintaining a balance between having a user-friendly, welcoming school climate and a facility which is secure from unwanted intruders. This is a list of some practical steps for improving school access control to reduce the risks of unauthorized access. 2p.
Changing Rules for Wired Glass.
(SchoolFacilities.com , 2004)
Discusses increased impact requirements for wired glass, which is indicated for fire safety, but has traditionally necessitated a building code exemption for its weak impact resistance. The exemption is now disappearing from codes and higher impact requirements are in place. Different types of fire-resistant, unwired glass and films are described. 4p.
Uncovering Security Lapses with a Simple Hardware Review.
(Sargent Manufacturing; SchoolFacilities.com , Nov 04, 2003)
Recommends a two-step process for reviewing the efficacy of a school's security hardware. The first step is to review traffic patterns and determine how doors can be most effectively used to control access and egress. It may be that many doors should be converted to egress only use. The second step is to review the door hardware itself, ensuring that the doors and their locks work properly. Different types of locking and door operation hardware are discussed. 3p.
Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Appendix.
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Progam, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
These appendices contain the technical supporting analysis for the conclusions in the report Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Includes technical definitions, onsite data collection forms, model descrptions and results, the mean temperature radiant analysis, and classroom acoustic analysis. 69p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-8
Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment.
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
This study investigates whether daylight and other aspects of the indoor environment in elementary school student classrooms have an effect on student learning, as measured by their improvement on standardized math and reading tests over an academic year. The study uses regression analysis to compare the performance of over 8000 3rd through 6th grade students in 450 classrooms in the Fresno Unified School District, located in California's Central Valley. Statistical models were used to examine the relationship between elementary students' test improvement and the presence of daylight in their classrooms, while controlling for traditional education explanatory variables, such as student and teacher demographic characteristics. Numerous other physical attributes of the classroom were also investigated as potential influences, including ventilation, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, acoustics, electric lighting, quality of view out of windows, and the type of classroom, such as open or traditional plan, or portable classroom. The study also utilized on-site observations of classrooms and surveys of teachers to provide additional insight into comfort conditions. This study found that various window characteristics of classrooms had as much explanatory power in explaining variation in student performance as more traditional educational metrics such as teacher characteristics, number of computers, or attendance rates. The study provides a range of likely effect sizes for environmental variables that other researchers can use to refine the needs of future studies. [Authors' abstract] 131p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-7
The Property Professional's Guide to the ANSI/WCA 1-14.1 Window Cleaning Safety Standard.
(Building Owners and Managers Association International, Washington, DC, 2003)
Written specifically for building owners and property managers, the guide focuses on safety guidelines for the use of window cleaning access equipment, and contains information for manufacturers, designers, and installers of window equipment. The standard also addresses rope descending systems, transportable and permanent suspended scaffolds, ladders, and man-lifts. 40p.TO ORDER: BOMA, Tel: 800-426-6292, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Daylighting in Schools: Reanalysis Report.
Heschong, Lisa; Elzeyadi, Ihab; Knecht, Carey
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER), Sacramento, CA. New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA. , Feb 14, 2002)
This study expands and validates previous research that found a statistical correlation between the amount of daylight in elementary school classrooms and the performance of students on standardized math and reading tests. The researchers reanalyzed the 1997–1998 school year student performance data from the Capistrano Unified School District (California) and the Seattle Public School District (Washington) to answer questions from the peer review panel. The reanalysis findings are as follows: (1) overall, elementary school students in classrooms with the most daylight showed a 21 percent improvement in learning rates compared to students in classrooms with the least daylight; (2) a teacher survey and teacher bias analysis found no assignment bias that might have skewed the original results; more experienced or more educated teachers ("better" teachers) were not significantly more likely to be assigned to classrooms with more daylighting; (3) a grade level analysis found that the daylighting effect does not vary by grade; (4) an absenteeism analysis found that physical classroom characteristics (daylighting, operable windows, air conditioning, portable classrooms) are not associated with variations in student absenteeism. This seems to contradict claims that have been made about the health effects of daylight or other environmental conditions, as reflected in absenteeism rates of building occupants. These results, which are consistent with the original findings, affirm that daylight has a positive and highly significant association with improved student performance. These findings may have important implications for the design of schools and other buildings. (Appendices contain the survey and data tables.) 105p.Report NO: P500-03-082-A-3
A Room with a View: A Review of the Effects of Windows on Work and Well-Being.
Farley, K.M.J.; Veitch, J.A.
(Natioanl Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa, Canada , Aug 2001)
Presents a literature review showing that views of nature were found to enhance work and well-being in a number of ways including increasing job satisfaction, interest value of the job, perceptions of self-productivity, perceptions of physical working conditions, life satisfaction, and decreasing intention to quit, and the recovery time of surgical patients. However, the access to a view did not improve the performance of students or actual productivity of office workers. The positive psychological and health effects of natural views are explained in the context of recent psychological theories. Includes 59 references. 33p.Report NO: IRC-RR-136
The Effects of Windowless Classrooms on the Cognitive and Affective Behavior of Elementary School Students.
Romney, Bryan Miles
Windowless school buildings are currently being proposed as a design solution to the problems of vandalism, energy conservation, and building costs. However, little consideration is being given to the effects of windowless classrooms on the students and teachers inside. This thesis describes the effect of windowless classrooms on three specific areas of cognitive behavior: rote learning, concept formation, and perceptual ability. In addition, a description of student and teacher affective behavior, based on formal observations, is included. Two identical sixth-grade classes were selected for the study. The experimental period was divided into two three-week phases. Each classroom had all existing windows covered during one phase. Students were randomly divided into three test groups for the testing phases of the study. No consistent trends emerged to allow definitive judgment that windowless classrooms are detrimental to student cognition and learning. The only definitive trend is in the realm of affective behavior, indicating that student aggression increases in windowless environment.
References to Journal Articles
Lock And Roll. University Working Groups Agree to Update Dorm Locks
Jensen, Ralph C.
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Describes how Princeton University retrofitted more than 3,200 doors with a new, state-of-the-art wireless locking system.
New Windows and Doors Revitalize Older Buildings
Building Design + Construction; Apr 2012
With their improved aesthetics, energy efficiency, and durability, replacement windows and doors can add significant value to a renovation project.
Doors & Hardware; , p14-17 ; Apr 2012
Discusses the growing number of options for green hardware when striving for LEED certification.
Let the Sunshine (and Students) In
College Planning and Management; , p26-29 ; Dec 2011
Selecting windows and doors for today's student residence renovation and new construction projects requires a balanace between energy efficiency, durability, cost, sustainability, and aesthetics.
School Planning and Management; , p38-39 ; Dec 2011
Describes retrofitting with window film, a cost-effective option with diverse benefits for schools.
No Blinding Light
Martin, David H.
School Planning and Management; , p37 ; Dec 2011
Integrated internal blinds help control classroom daylighting while reducing maintenance.
Door Selection Process Starts With Needs Assessment.
Building Operating Maintenance; , 1p ; Oct 2011
Details the door selection process, starting with a needs assessment.
Step by Step Process Helps Choose Doors, Hardware.
Building Operating Maintenance; , 1p ; Oct 2011
Proper selection requires a thorough understanding of the way both occupants and visitors will need to enter and move through the facility. It also requires an understanding of how issues such as security and accessibility impact product decisions.
High-Performance Glass for High-Performance Schools.
Design Cost Data; , p11,50 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Through energy modeling, shows that daylighting strategies can have a significant impact on energy consumption in educational facilities, particularly those that incorporate advanced solar control, low-e glasses such as double-silver-coated Solarban 60 glass and triple-silver-coated Solarban 70XL glass by PPG.
LEED for Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2011
Addresses the impact the LEED for schools has on the acoustic performance fo classroom entry doors. The sound transmission class (STC) ratings for walls and doors are discussed, along with determining the difference between background noise and the STC ratings.
Industry Trends in K-12 Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul 2011
Discusses funding trends in public school services and programs in light of the current recession. According to the survey, security staff has been reduced, sustainable building enhancements have increased, value engineering has increased, lower quality products are being specified, and collection time on payments has increased.
Door Hardware: Code Considerations.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p19,20 ; Jun 2011
Reviews highlights of major codes regarding door hardware, with particular attention to maintaining both fire safety and security, as well as compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act.
Opening Windows to Cutting-Edge Education Design.
Environmental Design + Construction; May 26, 2011
Features the Center for Energy Efficient Design (CEED), a Franklin County public middle school located in Rocky Mount, Virginia and designed and built by Structures Design/Build. Unlike any other school in the nation, the school is designed and built according to Passive House (or Passivhaus) standards, the world’s highest standards in energy efficient construction. The CEED serves as a hands-on education facility to teach students and the community about green building technologies.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p39-42 ; May 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked decisions attached to selecting appropriate doors for schools. Who will be coming and going in and out of them? How much control is needed over comings and goings? What level of monitoring is desirable and necessary? What technology is needed to meet these goals? What wear and tear can be expected? What natural emergencies (hurricanes, etc.) need to be anticipated? Recommendations are given also for access control, interior doors, and classroom doors.
Security: A Matter of Performance. [Door Hardware: Focus on Security]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p27,28 ; May 2011
Advises on door maintenance, listing the parts of a door assembly in need of preventive maintenance, typical problems that prevent proper door function, lock maintenance, and electronic door access.
Creating Quiet, Comfortable Learning Spaces.
Gille, Steve; Fronek, Steve
The Construction Specifier; v64 n3 , p20-22,24,26,28,29 ; Mar 2011
Advises on creating quiet classrooms, discussing determining accurate levels of noise disturbance between decibels and pitch. ANSI and LEED standards are discussed, as are typical sources of noise in buildings. Reducing interior noise and limiting the intrusion of exterior noise is discussed, and extensive information on windows is included.
Door Hardware: Safety and Security Strategies.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p12,13 ; Feb 2011
Recognizes rapidly improving technology for door hardware components and provides insights on staying abreast of what is available and what should be considered when selecting.
Form and Function.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p10-12 ; Dec 2010
Discusses recent advances in glass technology that allow more extensive use of glass for daylighting and security, but offer fire resistance as well.
Let the Sun Shine in: New Thinking about the Oldest Lighting Strategy.
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p10,12,13 ; Dec 2010
Promotes the use of controlled daylighting, cautioning against direct sunlight, which produces glare. Basic concepts for bringing daylight into the center of a building are presented, and the superiority of skylights to windows for daylighting is discussed. Advice on assembling an essential team for daylighting design, tuning and maintaining a daylighting system, and treating windows is included.
Security at the University of Kentucky.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n11 , p16-18,20 ; Nov 2010
Describes access control at the University of Kentucky coliseum, along with its attached new athletic addition. The keyless system enables complex control of access during lockdown, day-to-day operations, and special events. The configuration of the hard-wired, computer-controlled doors and battery-operated doors is described, as is the necessity of separating spectators from players.
Considerations When Upgrading Renovating Window Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on window selection for campus buildings, emphasizing energy efficiency, building orientation, appropriate window style, and glass selection. Acoustics, daylighting, thermal comfort, and aesthetics are also addressed.
Windows and Doors.
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p56,58,60,62 ; Oct 2010
Recommends considering independent, rather than manufacturer, ratings for window and door energy efficiency, and compares various types of materials and construction for their insulating properties. An integrated approach to window and door selection balances environmental quality, lighting, and ventilation.
Door Hardware: An Open and Shut Case.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p18,20,21 ; Oct 2010
Discusses codes, ADA standards, and NFPA standards for doors, as well as current technology for security and access control. Proximity card access is highlighted, as are maintenance and testing requirements for durability.
Close a Window, Open a Door.
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p45,46,48 ; Oct 2010
Discusses developments in window and door technology, detailing insulating factors, and addressing the increased use of recycled components in their construction.
Case Study: Cobb County School District.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n8 , p14-16 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the upgrade of elementary school door locks in Georgia's Cobb County School District. The research of existing systems, standardization of doors and electronic locks, and flexibility of the system are described.
Security System Blends Keys and Credentials.
Ayers, Mark; Crook, Kevin
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p20-22,24 ; Jul 2010
Describes the Boulder Valley School Districts switch from keys to electronic door access, which enabled the district to control an employee's access to spaces, ended complicated key production, and relieved itinerant employees of having to carry multiple keys.
Securing a School 24 Hours a Day.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p10-12 ; Jul 2010
Describes how Miami's Mater Academy High School replaced their mechanical door key system with electronic locks, thus eliminating the need to re-key doors if a key was lost, as well as the threat from keys in the possession of former employees.
Sounding Off About Noise Retention Innovation.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p14-16,18 ; Jul 2010
Describes new lightweight doors with high sound transmission class (STC) ratings, that are an alternative to traditional, heavy acoustical doors. The new doors are easier to install and operate. Testing methods and standards for acoustical isolation are also addressed.
Fighting the War on Germs in Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2010
Describes touch-free door systems that prevent the spreading of germs, particularly in schools, where young children are negligent about washing their hands.
Light and Cool.
American School and University; v82 n11 , p32-64 ; Jun 2010
Advises on window selection and placement to keep classrooms properly illuminated without unnecessary heat gain. Design of roof monitors and light shelves are highlighted.
An Automatic Solution for Door Closing Force/ADA Conflicts.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the use of automatic door operators when standards for closing force and standards for openability cannot be resolved. Conflicts between ANSI, ADA, and Fire safety codes are discussed, as are varying state requirements.
Finding the Real Problem with Your Problem Door.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p20-23 ; Mar 2010
Discusses investigation of "problem doors" that require constant maintenance and repair. Reasons for failure are usually due to the hinges. Also, improperly specified or installed doors that cannot handle heavy traffic and abuse are noted. A variety of hinge options are discussed and illustrated.
Life Safety, Security and Operational Conflicts.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n2 , p17-19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses security features of doors, including anti-tailgating technology, door prop alarms, delayed egress, and electrified dogging.
Building Information Modeling and the Door and Hardware Industry.
Bevill, Doug; Arsenault, Peter
Doors and Hardware; v74 n2 , p18-20,22,23 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the connection of building information modeling (BIM) with door and hardware specification, which is in its infancy, since most manufacturers BIM content is currently not interoperable with the designer's. Advice on what to look for when selecting BIM products is included.
The Key to Door Closers.
Construction Specifier; v63 n1 , p44--49 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the selection of door closers, considering firm closure for security and fire safety, but also resistance low enough to pass accessibility requirements, where necessary. Applicable codes and accessibility tests are cited.
Door Hardware Goes Hi-Tech.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p8,9 ; Dec 2009
Reviews the current generation of door hardware technology, with a variety of computerized features that are now largely available in a wireless mode. Advice on training front-line technicians is included.
Increasing Door Accessibility: Balancing Form, Function, and Compliance.
Construction Specifier; v62 n11 , p70-77 ; Nov 2009
Addresses accessible doors in the context of retrofit and new construction. Particular attention is paid to aesthetics and architectural integrity. Topics covered include high/low switches, vertical actuation bars, and custom bollards
Case Study: Vacaville Schools Upgrade Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n11 , p18-20,22 ; Nov 2009
Details the upgrading of this California school systems locks. The systems schools have classroom doors that open to the outdoors. Locks were changed so that doors that could be locked from the inside, which was not previously possible. Upgrades to the key system and consultation with experts before work was begun is also described.
Case Study: Piedmont California Schools Lock Down Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Oct 2009
Describes this district's replacement of 50 classroom door locks that can be locked from inside with a key, new panic bars for exit doors that can be found in the dark, and standardization of the key system.
Optimizing Building Energy Performance.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n9 , p10-12,14 ; Sep 2009
Advises on improving the energy efficiency of buildings through improved door assemblies. Thermal break door frames, insulated doors, gasketing, Kerf frames, properly sized and calibrated door closers, and revolving doors are described.
Putting a Lock on Security.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n9 , p12,14 ; Sep 2009
Discusses affordable retrofits of door locks that do not require switching to a fully automated system. Electronic lock cylinders are emphasized, with their programmability and scalability detailed, as well as their independence from hard wiring.
Looking through the Past.
May, Lisa; Fronek, Steve
The Construction Specifier; v62 n7 , p18-20,22-27 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the virtues of aluminum in historic window replacements. The article cites the energy-saving properties, flexible design potential, and installation options available.
The Basics on Architectural Hardware.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n7 , p59-63 ; Jul 2009
Discusses the specification of operating trim, closing devices, protective plates, and various accessories in door installation.
The Key to Closers.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n6 , p22-24,26,27 ; Jun 2009
Discusses door closers in detail, covering requirements for accessibility, fire safety, aesthetics, various designs, aesthetics, and manufacturer reputation.
The Basics on Architectural Hardware: Hanging and Securing Devices.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n6 , p106-112,114 ; Jun 2009
Describes design and performance features of various door hinges and pivots, with particular attention to their durability and the type of weight they can support. Also discussed are features of locksets and exit hardware.
A Call to Arms. How to Select the Best Arm Type and Functionality for Door Closers.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n5 , p36-38 ; May 2009
Discusses the arm component of door closers, describing the features and proper specification of standard, dead stop, hold open, specialty, and track arms.
A Clear View.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p36-38 ; Apr 2009
Discusses advantages of window film to school energy savings, how glass transfers heat, and how to select the right type of film for the type of windows being considered.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p32-34 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the advantages of campus keyless access systems, particularly in combination with other access control technologies that help deter intruders and "piggybacking" of the unauthorized with the authorized.
Optimizing Openings: The Basics of Energy-Efficient Doorways.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n4 , p82-86 ; Apr 2009
Discusses optimization of the thermal performance of doors, including thermal break frames, insulated doors, gasketing, door closers, and revolving doors.
Can these Windows Be Saved?
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p13,14,16 ; Mar 2009
Advises on care, repair, and replacement of windows. Avoiding water penetration; the effects of moisture, condensation, and mold; and determining whether to repair or replace windows are addressed.
Bethany College Toughens Up Exit Devices for Better Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2009
Describes how this college upgraded to electronic door latches, although initial equipment did not stand up to the heavy use, and had to be upgraded yet again.
Doors to Opportunity.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p22.23 ; Feb 2009
Discusses the recent expansion of choices in door locks, hinges, handles, closers, and automatic openers, along with door inspection requirements and maintenance tasks.
The Basic Fundamentals of Doorway Security.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p10,12,13 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews door security applications, including types of bolts, locksets, latchsets, strikes, cylinders, door closers, protection of the door from traffic damage, gaskets, and signage.
Security, Life Safety, and the Building Codes: Unlocking the Burning Mysteries of Door Hardware.
The Construction Specifier; v61 n12 , p56-64 ; Dec 2008
Reviews door and wayfinding considerations for emergency egress. Luminescent exit pathways and signs on doors, audio-based wayfinding, fire door and frame testing, door smoke gaskets, fire tolerance of door hardware, and accessibility requirements are addressed.
Bellevue School District Centralizes Access Control.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n12 , p26-28,30 ; Dec 2008
Profiles this Washington school system's access control system that coordinates highly restricted key blanks, proximity cards, removable core key locks, and teacher cabinet locks.
Closing the Envelope.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p8,9 ; Dec 2008
Discusses regular maintenance procedures for doors, fire doors, and exterior masonry walls.
Getting ahead of the Curve on Upcoming Fire Door Inspections.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n11 , p14,15,17 ; Nov 2008
Details Georgia State University's program to inspect, document, and maintain all of its fire doors in advance of state requirements for mandatory annual fire door inspections.
Balancing Convenience and Safety.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n9 , p42-44 ; Sep 2008
Illustrates with examples a variety of situations where convenience of access to a school facility should be a lower priority than safety, in order to prevent violent incidents. The article emphasizes appropriate access control, visitor sign-in, identification badges, a dress code, consistent enforcement, and drills and exercises.
Safe Entry, Easy Exit.
American School and University; v81 n1 , p40,-42 ; Sep 2008
Discusses the importance of school door design that keeps out intruders, but allows easy egress in an emergency. Fewer doors, card systems, keypads, biometrics, lighting, video surveillance, alarms, intercoms, and crime prevention through environmental design are considered.
Five Critical Door Closer Solutions.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n9 , p28-31,33 ; Sep 2008
Discusses five critical issues when considering door closers: durability, ADA accessibility, safety, security, and design.
Doors and Hardware: Making a Smooth Entrance.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p28,29 ; Sep 2008
Reviews door and door hardware components, as well as card-operated systems. Typical maintenance, alignment, and insulation issues are also discussed.
Delivering Security, Life-Safety and Convenience.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n8 , p40-42,44,45 ; Aug 2008
Discusses integration of access control into building design, detailing types of locks and strikes, electromechanical access control, switching, as well as non-locking components such as hinges and frames.
College Planning and Management; v11 n8 , p28,30,32 ; Aug 2008
Advises on specifying energy-efficient windows and glass-paneled doors. Definitions and descriptions of window and door parts are included.
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p26-29 ; Aug 2008
Advises on the decision to restore or replace school windows, citing issues of historic value, sustainability, and cost. The decision to replace windows frequently does not consider improved restoration products, and can also lead to replacement windows of a quality inferior to that of the existing windows. The process of restoring valuable school windows is illustrated with the example of John Handley High School in Winchester, Viginia.
The Sustainable Entrance.
Doors and Hardware; v72 n7 , p42-44,46,47,49 ; Jul 2008
Discusses the durability of door types, with particular attention to high-traffic areas such as school entrances. The types of environmental and human abuse that a door should be able to withstand over a long period of time is considered, as is the interaction of the door and its hardware. Thermal performance and contribution of doors to indoor air quality are also addressed.
A Practical Guide to Access Control and Security.
Current, Rick; Jenkins, Joseph
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p58-62,64-66 ; Jun 2008
Advises on design and specification of building access control systems, noting typical mistakes caused by excluding access control engineers from the planning process. Mismatched components, low bids that do not indicate life cycle costs, planning of the access control room, door technology, and subsystem gateways are addressed.
Always Be Closing.
The Construction Specifier; v61 n5 , p132-134,136 ; May 2008
Reviews design and durability considerations for door closers, advising investment in the features and material content of better models. Maintenance and signs of deterioration are addressed, as are the risks to doors, their frames, and building security when closers do not work properly.
Waterproofing and Insulation.
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p47,49,50,52,53 ; Feb 2008
Discusses the importance of securing the school building envelope against moisture, beginning with the site plan and design phase, and continuing through construction and maintenance. Recommendations for roofing, windows, skylights, doors, exteriors, below-grade drainage, waterproofing, and wall systems are included.
Getting a Handle on Access Control.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n12 , p15,16 ; Dec 2007
Discusses door handles and locks, including types, features, functions, specification, durability, and inspection guidance.
Integrated Doors and Elevator Lobbies: Practical Applications under the Codes.
The Construction Specifier; v60 n11 , p46-48,50-52 ; Nov 2007
Discusses the use of integrated door assemblies at an elevator entrance to create an aesthetically pleasing alternative to conventional fire doors that separate an elevator lobby from a corridor. Elements of design, installation, and two examples are detailed.
Unlocking the Mystery: Electrified Hardware and Electronic Access Control Systems.
The Construction Specifier; v60 n11 , p38-44 ; Nov 2007
Reviews the benefits of electrified door hardware to security and life safety, describes electromechanical versions of locks, and discusses the components of an access control system, including the power source, load, control, and conductor.
When a Door Closes...
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p42,44,46,47 ; Aug 2007
Reviews recent developments in door and window construction, installation, and maintenance, with advice on designing and specifying safe, durable, aesthetically pleasing units in schools.
Seeing Through Today's Fire-Rated Glass.
College Planning and Management; v10 n8 , p40,42 ; Aug 2007
Reviews applications for fire-rated glass, typically constrained by the very high prices of the newest products. Advantages of glass to building transparency and subsequent reduced dependancy on artificial light can lead to energy savings that will offset the cost of the glass. Ratings, advantages, and disadvantages of old and new fire-rated glass products are discussed.
Low Energy Automatic Door Operators for ADA Applications.
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the specifications and standards for both automatic and assist low-energy power doors. Also included is advice on installation and safety checking.
An Automatic Choice.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p44-46 ; Jul 2007
For students with disabilities, the obstacles they face often are literal ones: manual doors. Accommodating those with disabilities or physical limitations is one reason for schools to consider installing automatic doors, but it is not the only one. Automatic doors can modernize the aesthetics of a building and create a positive first impression. This describes automatic swinging, sliding, and revolving doors, emphasizing a planned maintenance program for them and detailing steps to be taken in their daily inspection.
Let the Sun Shine In.
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p70,72-75 ; Jun 2007
Discusses two window coverings that admit daylight, but not glare and heat. These are mesh fabric shades and smart glass that changes tinting or opacity via electronic control.
Window Film: Reduces HVAC Cost, Enhances IAQ & Improves Appearance.
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan 2007
Reviews benefits of window film, cautioning against very reflective products that block too much natural daylight and may actually drive up energy use through overuse of artificial lighting.
Controlling the Ins and Outs of Campus Buildings.
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , pS12 ; Nov 2006
Reviews six criteria that should be met in order for access-controlled egress doors to meet codes.
A Head Start on Firestops.
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p28,29 ; Oct 2006
Discusses the proper use of firestops to seal openings in fire-rated walls and doors. Code requirements and the most commonly used materials are described, as is maintenance and the technique of linking the firestop to fire alarm and suppression systems.
Going Green: From Cleaning to Construction.
College Planning and Management; v9 n10 , p32,34,36-38 ; Oct 2006
Discusses certification programs for environmentally-sensitive construction, equipment, and cleaning products. The Greenguard program certifies building products for emissions. The SmartWood program certifies wood for sustainable origin, harvesting, and delivery. The Green Label program certifies carpeting, flooring adhesives, padding, and vacuum cleaners. Green Seal certifies paints, coatings, cleaners, windows, and doors.
Let 'em In?
American School and University; v79 n1 , pSS7-SS9 ; Sep 2006
Discusses access control concepts, with an emphasis on retrofitting buildings and creating procedures for facilities that were built before security was a critical issue. Reconfiguring doors and lock, lighting, card access systems, and human surveillance are highlighted.
A Sustainable Approach.
del Monte, Betsy
American School and University; v78 n12 , p19,20,22 ; Jul 2006
Describes elements of sustainable school design in the areas of HVAC efficiency, windows, insulation, roofing, landscaping, and recycling.
Keeping Old Doors and Windows.
College Planning and Management; v9 n3 , p30,32,34,35 ; Mar 2006
Explores the debate between conserving historic windows and doors, or replacing them with more energy-efficient modern ones. Consideration of operational versus embodied energy in building systems is included, illustrating how it might be more cost-effective to retain older windows and doors.
Using Windows and Doors to Provide Safety and Security.
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p26,28,30,32,33 ; Mar 2006
Describes safety considerations for school window and door installations, emphasizing use of operable windows to improve egress and ventilation options, with strategic arrangement of locked and unlocked doors to control access.
Opening the Doors to Learning.
Van Schelven, Michael
American School Board Journal; v193 n3 , p54,55 ; Mar 2006
Describes Forest Hills Eastern High School of Ada, Michigan. The LEED-certified school features hallways without lockers and classrooms with double doors that incorporate the corridors and adjacent open areas into the learning space.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Great Expectations: How to Ensure that Specified Door, Frame, Hardware and Access-Control Software Components Will Perform as Planned.
American School and University; v78 n7 , p46-48 ; Mar 2006
Discusses the inter-relationship of doors, door frames, and door hardware to create the most secure system possible. Advice on choosing access-control systems is included.
American School and University; v78 n6 , p34-36 ; Feb 2006
Describes selective solar films for windows that improves indoor air quality by reducing the amount of conditioned air needed and reducing offgassing from carpet and furniture. Films that admit natural light while blocking heat will support a daylit environment, thus reducing a subsequent need for increased artificial illumination.
Door Hardware: Specifying for Security.
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2005
Advances in new-generation locks, handles, hinges, and operators help managers enhance the security and safety of occupants and operations. Among the key features managers must look for in specifying door hardware include: an aesthetically pleasing look; durability consistent with the level and severity of use; robust designs that require minimal maintenance; support for building safety and security; and ease of use. Besides these demands, door hardware must meet important regulations and standards. These include access guidelines set forth by Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), green-building guidelines, fire-safety codes, and state and local building codes and standards, which match doors and hardware for proper fit in various applications.
Enhancing the Envelope.
American School and University; v78 n2 , p35,36,39 ; Oct 2005
Discusses window and door selection for insulation, security, and daylighting.
Doors, Dollars and Common Sense
Building Operating Management; Jul 2005
When purchasing doors and door hardware, it makes sense to pay attention to basics. The goal is to select products that will operate as they’re supposed to, for as long as they’re needed, even if they cost a bit more upfront. Making sure doors are properly installed, then providing the maintenance necessary is also critical. This discusses door hardware standards, maintenance, and access control.
Is Laminated Glass Right for Your Project?
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p36,38,40,42 ; Jun 2005
Reviews the construction and performance properties of laminated glass, which is increasingly being used in schools situated where storm winds are likely and where schools also serve as community shelters during natural disasters. Laminated glass is also desirable where resistance to man-made disasters is sought.
Window Film to the Rescue!
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p55-57 ; Jun 2005
Describes the benefits of window film that can limit solar heat gain, glare, and deterioration of furnishings from ultraviolet radiation. Minimal shattering protection is also obtained when these films are applied, but safety films (which can also control light) are required if window strengthening is sought.
Keep it Safe.
College Planning and Management; v8 n6 , p52,54,56,58 ; Jun 2005
Reviews recent changes in fire safety codes, with emphasis on sprinklers, exit doors, and wired or filmed glass. A fire sprinkler "Q & A" is included.
Durable Door Hardware
Maintenance Solutions; Apr 2005
Educational facilities give doors, door hardware and other access-control devices their toughest daily tests. This article describes solutions for managers seeking hardware that enhances access, protects operations and occupants, and stands up to use and abuse. It covers closer considerations, hinges, and locks.
New Windows Mean Many Choices
Building Operating Management; Mar 2005
If facility managers weigh their options carefully, replacement windows can pay off in long-term energy and maintenance savings. This discusses evaluating window frames, replacement methods, alternatives to replacement, and storm windows.
A View to Safety.
American School and University; v77 n4 , p35-37 ; Dec 2004
Describes glass films that improve impact resistance and can be retrofitted onto existing windows at significantly less cost than replacing the glass. Also described are solar films for use in reducing heating and cooling costs.
Throwing Away the Key.
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , pS-23,S-24 ; Nov 2004
Describes the savings realized when switching to card access systems and the configuration and costs of different types of online and offline card access door systems.
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p25,26 ; Nov 2004
Describes various school districts' approach to maintenance of the exterior elements of walls, roofs, windows, stairs, and landscaping.
American School and University; v77 n1 , p36,39,40 ; Sep 2004
Describes security considerations for school doors, door frames, and windows. Doors should be few in number and constructed of metal or solid-core hardwood. The hardware should be at least forty inches away from breakable glass, and exterior hardware should be on main doors only. Windows in inaccessible areas can be of regular glass, but safety glass is indicated in exposed areas. First floor windows require extra security, and window guards are recommended. Vigilant monitoring of window conditions is necessary for security.
What's the Password?
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , p18,20,22 ; Jul 2004
Describes the simple but effective door security in the new Clackamas (Oregon) High School. This includes doors that can be locked or unlocked from a central location, card access, keyed mullions on double doors, and interchangeable cylinders.
How Safety Conscious Should You Be?
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n1 , p68-71 ; Jan 2004
Describes developments in window and door materials that make them more impact and blast resistant. Impact resistance protects against storms and is more practical than blast resistance, which is of little use unless the entire building has been built to be blast resistant.
Windows on the World.
College Planning and Management; v7 n1 , p80,81 ; Jan 2004
Describes new disaster-resistant window products, how they are rated, and their installation requirements.
Comparing the Energy Conservation Capabilities of Spectrally Selective and Conventional Applied Window Film.
College Planning and Management; v6 n11 , p22,24-25 ; Nov 2003
Recommends the use of spectrally selective over conventional window film. Spectrally selective film does not alter the exterior appearance of the building by being overly reflective, and, unlike conventional film, it does not block a high percentage of natural light, thereby avoiding the necessity to raise levels of interior artificial illumination and energy consumption.
Windows: Life After Wire.
American School and University; v75 n11 , p42,44-46 ; Jul 2003
Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks. Many glass products are suitable replacements for wired glass, including ceramics and glass fire walls.
Preventive Safety Measures: A Guide to Security Hardware.
Gottwalt, T. J.
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p26-30 ; Jun 2003
Emphasizes the importance of an annual security review of a school facility's door hardware and provides a description of the different types of locking devices typically used on schools and where they are best applied.
Educating the Engineer.
Wallace, Melanie; Wallace, Mack
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p46-49 ; May 2003
Presented as a conversation between a teacher and engineer about school design, addresses educators' preferences and engineers perspectives on issues such as windows, sustainable design, sinks, acoustics, and natural ventilation.
How To Integrate Windows into a Building Project.
Altenhofen, David W.
College Planning and Management; v6 n1 , p22-23 ; Jan 2003
Discusses three steps to successful window installation during a building project: the decision-making and design process, clear documentation of requirements, and conscientious construction.
Seeing Glass Contractors Clearly.
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p19-20 ; Jan 2003
Offers seven tips for finding and working with an effective glass contractor. For example, schools should consider the company's reputation and longevity of service, and whether it has in-house engineering capabilities.
Through the Front Door.
School Planning and Management; v41n12 , p16-20 ; Dec 2002
Discusses challenges that arise in creating school entranceways that meld accessibility with attractiveness, noting the importance of considering both aesthetic impact and the design mandates of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Creative solutions include tying a walkway into a progressive stair; incorporating the ramp into a masonry wall; incorporating the ramp into the design of a stairway system; and using plantings to create a shielding screen.
Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Education.
Pivik, Jayne; McComas, Joan; LaFlamme, Marc
Exceptional Children; v69 n1 , p97-107 ; Fall 2002
Reports on research in which 15 students and 12 parents identified four categories of physical environment and attitudinal barriers at their schools. Environmental barriers involved doors, passageways, restrooms, stairs and ramps, lockers, water fountains, and recreational areas. Recommendations for promoting accessibility are provided and discussed in relation to inclusive education efforts.
The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.
Goyal, R. C.
College Planning and Management; v5 n8 , p33-34 ; Aug 2002
Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface.
Getting In, Getting Out.
College Planning and Management; v5 n7 , p20,22 ; Jul 2002
Describes door and door hardware products that manufacturers are offering to the college and university market. Examples include laminate doors, automatic glass doors, recessed exit devices, and weather-resistant wall switches.
All in One.
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p34-40 ; Jun 2002
Describes integrated door assemblies, a recent development in design that combines the exit device, hardware, door, and frame into a single unit. Explains how the doors help schools save money on installation, maintenance, and repairs by reducing the likelihood of vandalism and daily abuse.
Gateways to Learning.
American School and University; v74 n8 , p38,40,42 ; Apr 2002
Discusses the factors that educational facilities managers must consider when selecting doors and windows for their buildings. These include finding a balance in terms of security, energy efficiency, accessibility, aesthetics, and durability; cleaning and maintenance; and noise issues.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p84-85 ; Jan 2002
Argues that using aluminum-clad wood windows can help contain school maintenance and energy costs. Reviews benefits derived from wood windows relative to their diversity, adaptability, and structural strength.
Classic Look, Modern Efficiency.
American School and University; v74 n4 , p28-31 ; Dec 2001
Reveals how schools and universities can improve the performance of their windows without sacrificing aesthetics or architectural significance. Offers tips for properly restoring or replacing windows in older historically significant buildings.
Applying the CPTED Concept: Creative, Cost-Effective Design Elements Make a Safer School.
SHW Concepts; Fall 2001
Presents basic design solutions to help improve school security, focusing on bathrooms, corridors, doors, lockers, and central control rooms.
Window Replacement Tips.
College Planning and Management; v4 n8 , p28-30 ; Aug 2001
Explores ways to replace facility windows more easily and efficiently by evaluating long-term needs and window options. Recommends obtaining references from window manufacturer and installer, scheduling the work during times the facility is unoccupied, and ensuring that historic and life-safety issues be considered.
A Clear View.
Rush, Richard D.
American School and University; v73 n11 , p34,36 ; Jul 2001
Surveys advances in window design and glass technology that can permit windows to better play their often diametric role of letting in and keeping out just the right level of light, cold, heat, noise, air, etc. Also considers the challenges of providing adequate window areas while maintaining satisfactory acoustics within the classroom.
Door Closers: More Than Meets the Eye.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n5 , p30-33 ; May 2001
Discusses selection criteria as well and building codes for school doors.
Improve Security and Keep the Bugs Out.
College Planning and Management; v4 n1 , p68,70 ; Jan 2001
Addresses the issue of cost versus durability when choosing security screens for educational facility windows over traditional screens. Security screens and their use in break-in prevention is discussed relative to the Student Right-to-Know and Campus Security Act of 1990, as are screen standards.
Making Decisions On New Windows
Building Operating Management Online; Dec 2000
Selecting replacement windows is a complex task, but careful planning can bring multifaceted payoffs. This article discusses window replacement economics, energy efficiency, impact of climate, and aesthetic issues.
The Flames Stop Here.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p406-409 ; Nov 2000
Explains how advancements in glass manufacturing can help prevent fire and smoke from spreading through a building. The benefits of using wired glass and see-through ceramics are highlighted, as is the importance of glass in minimizing smoke and reducing smoke-related mortality.
Stop Sagging Doors.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p392-95 ; Nov 2000
Explains how continuous geared hinges can help prevent doors from pulling away from their frames and can last as long as 20 years with little maintenance. Descriptions of three main applications for continuous geared hinges are described.
Super Heavy-Duty Door Hardware.
School Planning and Management; v39 n11 , p50-54 ; Nov 2000
Discusses the new generation of durable school-door hardware and innovations that can resist everyday abuse. Concluding comments address cross-corridor door innovations that can help doorways more easily accommodate the passage of oversized items, and classroom door locking systems.
Building Operating Management Online; Oct 2000
Although restoring older windows entails a lot of work, the end result can be worth the time and effort. This details identifying windows by type, getting the job done right, restoring metal windows, and evaluating a window replacement job.
Replacement Windows Define the Newly Renovated Fiterman Hall.
College Planning and Management; v3 n8 , p23-24 ; Aug 2000
Explores the planning and testing involved in successfully replacing windows in a corporate office building converted into an academic building. Inspection procedures and performance testing are examined.
The Evolving Doorframe.
College Planning and Management; v3 n7 , p29-31 ; Jul 2000
Discusses decision making factors when choosing doorframes for educational facilities. Focus is placed on how doorframes have evolved over the years in ways that offer new choice options to consider.
American School and University; v72 n8 , p40,42 ; Apr 2000
Discusses security requirement needs when selecting windows and doors for schools and university buildings. Issues addressed include key and lock management, window sturdiness, and emergency exiting.
A Look Behind Door Hardware
Maintenance Solutions ; Mar 2000
Few areas of commercial and institutional facilities receive as much use as doors and door hardware do, and few receive as much abuse. And while these elements of facility operations are among facilities’ most heavily scrutinized pieces of equipment, myths and misconceptions continue to hinder their proper specification and application. A closer look at these gray areas can help maintenance and engineering managers specify the right products and ensure their long-term performance.
Existing School Door Hardware Puts Teachers at Risk During Emergencies.
Guidi, Peter J.
Eschool News Online; Mar 01, 2000
Provides a brief history of classroom door locking mechanisms ("locksets") and recommends dual cylinder, ANSI F88 locksets for classroom use. F88 locksets allow doors to be locked from either side to prevent entry into the classroom from the corridor side, but they cannot be locked (in accordance with building and fire code requirements) to prevent egress from the classroom. The capability to quickly lock the door from either side is the fastest solution for “lockdown” situations. Additionally, F88 lever-style locksets meet all ADA requirements. Installation costs are several hundred dollars per door.
Revolving Doors Spin Off Benefits.
College Planning and Management; v3 n2 , p30,32-33 ; Feb 2000
Discusses how revolving doors can serve as security tools and help control energy costs for college buildings. Reduction of tailgater entries and passback techniques to help unauthorized people enter buildings are addressed. Concluding comments highlight revolving door features that assist emergency exiting and energy cost savings potentials.
How To Select Replacement Windows.
Martin, David H.
College Planning and Management; v3 n1 , p41-42 ; Jan 2000
Provides 11 suggestions that can make a college or university's window replacement project less complex and more easily completed. A window selection guide is included.
Combine Security and Safety with the Right Door Hardware.
Olmstead, Patrick R.
College Planning and Management; v2 n11 , p29-30 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how door design and construction can add safety and security to educational facilities. Exit device variations, and electromagnetic locks and access control are explored. Also discussed are inexpensive ways to improve the safety and security profiles of a building using door hardware.
Custom Windows: The Choice Is Crystal Clear.
College Planning and Management; v2 n8 , p44-45 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the 12 services schools should request of their window manufacturer to satisfy building aesthetics, enhance performance needs, and control risks.
Ensuring Upgrades Meet ADA Standards.
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Jul 1999)
American School and University; Jul 1999
Focuses on the need for school planners to be aware of the accessibility standards required by the Americans with Disabilities Act as they renovate and upgrade their facilities, particularly with respect to entrances.
The Ins and Outs of Modern Doors.
College Planning and Management; v2 n6 ; Jun 1999
Discusses the qualities and trends in modern metal doors for educational facilities that include fire protection and sound control attributes. Addresses important differences in door manufacturing materials and methods; lists sound transmission class values, ratings, and rating descriptions.
From the Outside In.
American School and University; v71 n9 , p28,30,32 ; May 1999
Discusses educational facility planning for windows and doors that helps ensure long-term performance. Planning issues cover energy efficiency, accessibility, aesthetics, security, and costs and quality. Screen repair tips are highlighted.
College Planning and Management; v2 n2 ; Feb 1999
Provides advice from university administrators and manufacturers on door purchasing, installation, and maintenance. Door manufacturing companies and selected products are highlighted.
Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.
College Planning and Management; v2 n1 , p85-86 ; Jan 1999
Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project to energize a campus. It explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present.
Making a Good Fit
Education FM; v1 n4 , p20-22 ; Nov 1998
Discusses the importance of paying attention to facility requirements when selecting windows during a school building retrofit. Facility requirements to consider include security needs, lighting, energy conservation, and the cost of maintenance.
Keeping Cool with Window Film.
College Planning and Management; v1 n4 , p45-46,48 ; Jul 1998
Explains how using window film is a cost-effective way to shield buildings from heat, glare, and ultraviolet rays. The pros and cons of replacement windows and window film are highlighted.
More Than a View.
American School and University; v70 n4 , p16, 18 ; Dec 1997
Explains how window replacement produces significant energy and maintenance cost savings and offers an implementation process once a decision on window replacement has been made. The assessment of fuel bills, review of maintenance costs, and analysis of security features are covered.
Making an Entrance.
Young, Grant O.
American School and University; v70 n4 , p19-20 ; Dec 1997
Describes the planning process when choosing the appropriate doors for school entrances. The importance of door framing, hardware, and closers in helping make the school's hallways quieter are addressed.