NCEF Resource List: Urban School Facility Issues
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Information on urban school facilities issues including funding challenges, equity and adequacy, site and size considerations, schools as agents for urban revitalization, historic preservation, and schoolyards.

References to Books and Other Media

Transforming Philadelphia’s Public Schools. Key Findings and Recommendations Adobe PDF
(Boston Consulting Group, Aug 2012)
A management firm has concluded that the Philadelphia school district should close between 29 and 57 schools in the next five years. 120p

Tax Increment Financing and Chicago Public Schools Construction Projects Adobe PDF
Farmer, Stephanie
(?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Chicagoland Researchers and Advocates for Transformative Education, Jun 2012)
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) is one of Chicago’s leading financing tools for development. This white paper examines the nature of TIF funded public school construction projects. The paper begins by categorizing the types of schools receiving TIF revenues for construction projects and where they are located in the city. Next, student and community demographics of these schools are examined to get a sense of the socio-economic characteristics of the groups benefiting from the allocation of TIF revenues. The white paper finds that the TIF program is contributing to income and race/ethnicity place-based inequality in the city of Chicago. TIF financial support for school construction projects is uneven and polarized between high and low-income communities, neglecting the middle.School construction projects funded by TIF revenues favor exclusive schools (selective enrollment schools, charter schools and magnet schools, etc.) while underfunding inclusive neighborhood area attendance schools. This is directly playing a role in the move toward an inequitable, two-tiered public education system. 7p

Review of the Illinois Facility Fund's Analysis of School Location and Performance in Washington, D.C. Adobe PDF
Siegel, Michael; Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C. , Feb 09, 2012)
On January 25th, 2012 the District of Columbia Deputy Mayor for Education released "Quality Schools, Every Child, Every School, Every Neighborhood" a report that purports to identify "service gap" between the supply of and demand for "performing seats" in both DC Public Schools and public charter schools. The authors completed a review of the Illinois Facility Fund's analysis. This study addresses its flawed methodology, analyses and recommendations. 12p

Quality Schools: Every Child, Every School, Every Neighborhood. An Analysis of School Location and Performance in Washington, D.C. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Facility Fund, Jan 2012)
Study recommends that Washington, D.C., overhaul or close more than three dozen traditional public schools in its poorest neighborhoods and expand the number of high-performing charter schools. After explaining the research methodology, the study provides a district-wide analysis, with findings and recommendations. Includes maps and tables. 80p

School Siting and Healthy Communities: Why Where We Invest in School Facilities Matters
Miles, Rebecca; Adelaja, Adesoji; Wyckoff, Mark
(Michigan State University Press, Dec 2011)
In recent decades, many metropolitan areas in the United States have experienced a decline in the population of urban centers and rapid growth in the suburbs, with new schools being built outside of cities and existing urban schools facing closure. These new schools are increasingly larger and farther from residences; in contrast, urban school facilities are often in closer proximity to homes but are also in dire need of upgrading or modernization. This book explores the compelling health and economic rationales for new approaches to school siting, including economic savings to school districts, transportation infrastructure needs, and improved child health. An essential examination of public policy issues associated with school siting, this compiled volume will assist policy makers and help the public understand why it is important for government and school districts to work together on school siting and capital expenditures and how these new outlooks will improve local and regional outcomes. [Authors' abstract]

Rebuilding, Expanding, and Maintaining Our Facilities. 2011-2012 Through 2015-2016. Five Year Capital Plan.
(Miami-Dade Public Schools, FL, 2011)
Includes a summary of capital projects and work plans.

Moving the Classroom Outdoors. Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action.
Broda, Herbert W.
(Stenhouse Publishers, 2011)
Designed to provide teachers and administrators with a range of practical suggestions for making the schoolyard a varied and viable learning resource, this presents examples of how urban, suburban, and rural schools have enhanced the school site as a teaching tool. Includes ideas for seating, signage, planting considerations, teaching/meeting areas, outdoor classroom management, pathways, equipment storage, raised gardens, and more. The book also provides an outdoor activity sampler, information on incorporating technology into the outdoor learning experience, and a chapter on the unique concerns of urban schools.

Closing a School Building: A Systematic Approach. Adobe PDF
McMilin, Edward
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Sep 2010)
Cites a decline in some regions' school enrollment due to demographics, economics, and school choice. The author then presents a step-by-step analysis for deciding to close a school, and then for closing the building once the decision to close has been made. De-commissioning steps for each month of the last year of the school are suggested, and advice for maintaining the vacant building included. Re-purposing the building while maintaining ownership is strongly recommended, and successful examples of this are cited. 23p.

Transforming the High School Experience: How New York City's New Small Schools Are Boosting Student Achievement and Graduation Rates. Adobe PDF
Bloom, Howard; Thompson, Saskia; Unterman, Rebecca; Herlihy, Corinne; Payne, Collin
(MDRC, New York, NY , Jun 2010)
Presents encouraging findings from a study of New York City's 123 small schools of choice (SSCs), providing evidence that, in roughly six years, a large system of small public high schools can be created and can markedly improve graduation prospects for many disadvantaged students. Since 2002, New York City has closed more than 20 underperforming public high schools, opened more than 200 new secondary schools. SSCs were intended to be viable alternatives to the neighborhood high schools that were closing. SSCs are small facilities that emphasize strong, sustained relationships between students and faculty. Each SSC also received start-up funding as well as assistance and policy protections from the district and other key players to facilitate leadership development, hiring, and implementation. 189p.

New Construction. Strategic Execution Plan 2010. Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Facilities Services Division. , Jan 2010)
Outlines the Los Angeles Unified School District's continuing effort in delivering new schools for the students of the Los Angeles Unified School District. By 2010, 81 new schools, 60 classroom additions and more than 88,500 K-12 classroom seats have been delivered. In addition, more than 30 new K-12 schools are under construction. In 2010, the plan is to open 20 new K-12 schools, two of which are opening a year earlier than previously anticipated. The mission, vision and organizational structure of the program are outlined, and the scheduling and costs of every project are provided, along with maps and renderings. 274p.

New Schools, New Sites-in Older Cities: School Siting Practices in New Jersey. Adobe PDF
Hersh, Robert
(Center for Public Environmental Oversight, Mountain View, CA , Nov 2009)
Proposes better school siting policies than currently in place in New Jersey. The options of building on land already owned by the school district, or building on a new site are examined, as are factors influencing site selection, remediation of brownfields, and acreage requirements. A case study from the Brown City School District is included, as are 19 references. 18p.

The Mechanics of City-School Initiatives: Transforming Neighborhoods of Distress & Despair into Neighborhoods of Choice & Promise. Adobe PDF
McKoy, Deborah; Bierbaum, Arial; Vincent, Jeffrey
(Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley, CA , Nov 2009)
Presents an evidence-based framework for improving the quality of public education and creating more vibrant and healthy neighborhoods through integrated city-public school initiatives. Case studies reveal how to simultaneously leverage innovations in the built environment, educational practice, and collaborative policymaking. These lessons draw on work with six city-school district partnerships in the San Francisco Bay Area. 23p.

School Overcrowding: Limiting Hispanic Potential.
(United Neighborhood Organization, Chicago, IL , Apr 2009)
Reports that 69 percent of overcrowded Chicago elementary schools have enrollments that are more than 50 percent Hispanic. Also reported is that whereas Hispanic students make up 43.5 percent of public elementary school enrollment, their presence at charter schools is only 35.1 percent. 23p.

Partnerships for a Sustainable Future: Schools and Community, The Rosa Parks School. [Video]
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC, Mar 2009)
This video profiles the Rosa Parks School, which opened in 2007 to students in one of the most impoverished areas of Portland, Oregon. Facing a burgeoning population and a tightened budget, Portland Public Schools (PPS) and the Housing Authority of Portland (HAP) joined forces with The Boys & Girls Club of Portland and the City of Portland’s University Park Community Center to create a two-acre educational campus. PPS developed a gold-standard Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified sustainable building. The school is a model for how multiple partners and creative design can result in a sustainable school and a sustainable community.

Still Crowded Out: School Construction Fails to Keep up with Manhattan Building Boom. Adobe PDF
(Manhattan Borough President's Office, New York , Sep 2008)
Reports on New York City's continuing plans for residential growth, without adding school space to accommodate the occupants. New 2008 units permitted will, by the city's own estimate, produce as many as 1,100 new children, much of that growth in eighborhoods where the schools are now at or over capacity. Borough officials and the teachers union call on using the upcoming five-year capital plan to create a public/private partnership to solve the problem, assuming that mayoral control of the school system is used to the extent that it could be. City Hall oversees the various city agencies involved in school construction and has access to public and private entities across a wide spectrum. 32p.

Growing Pains: Reforming Department of Education Capital Planning to Keep Pace with New York City's Residential Construction. Adobe PDF
(Office of the New York City Comptroller, NY , May 2008)
Reports how New York City's capital planning process is a reason the New York City public school system is failing to build enough new schools to accommodate children in many neighborhoods experiencing residential construction booms. Shortcomings of the capital planning process are discussed, followed by analyses of neighborhoods where population growth is not matched by increased school capacity. Persistent elementary and middle school overcrowding in some neighborhoods is attributed enrollment projections based only on Community School District (CSD) and not for individual neighborhoods. Recommendations include improvements to the capital planning process for schools and an increase in accountability within that process. 117p.

Crowded Out: School Construction Fails to Keep up with Manhattan Building Boom.
(Manhattan Borough President's Office, New York , Apr 2008)
Reports on how Manhattan's development boom, which has led to at least 40,000 new apartments approved for construction over the past eight years, has not been matched by an increase in seats in neighborhood elementary and middle schools. Four areas of Manhattan are at especially high risk of neighborhood-wide school overcrowding, where from 2000 to 2007 the city approved enough new buildings to add up to 2300 new students to these four neighborhoods alone. During the same time period, the Department of Education added only 143 seats to just one of these four neighborhoods. A three-point plan for growth involving the Department of Education and School Construction Authority is outlined. 61p.

Good Buildings, Better Schools: An Economic Stimulus Opportunity with Long-term Benefits. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Advocates federal spending to improve the condition of school buildings, noting the respective short- and long-term economic benefits of construction industry promotion and an improved learning environment. The document includes an examination of the size and condition of the U.S. school inventory, a discussion of the importance of school facility quality, details on how capital investment in schools can improve local economies and close achievement gaps between low- and higher-income students. Charts illustrate per student maintenance and operation expenditures, as well as construction spending according to school district levels of free and reduced lunch students. Includes 22 endnotes and references. 9p.

Local Governments and Schools: A Community-Oriented Approach. Adobe PDF
(International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC , 2008)
Provides local government managers with an understanding of the connections between school facility planning and local government management issues, with particular attention to avoiding the creation of large schools remotely sited from the community they serve. It offers multiple strategies for local governments and schools to bring their respective planning efforts together to take a more community-oriented approach to schools and reach multiple community goals--educational, environmental, economic, social, and fiscal. Eight case studies illustrate how communities across the U.S. have already succeeded in collaborating to create more community-oriented schools. Includes 95 references and an extensive list of additional online resources. 40p.
Report NO: E-43527

One More Broken Window.
(NASUWT, Birmingham, United Kingdom , 2008)
Discusses how British schools are not being given enough support from government authorities in meeting their duty to provide a safe and secure environment for pupils and staff. School staff felt that living in run-down areas encourages pupils to carry out minor crimes, such as vandalism and graffiti; that substandard housing, a lack of play areas, and insecure school sites were all felt to have a negative impact on pupil behavior and achievement; that areas with low quality housing tend to have highly transient populations, which has a negative impact on schools' ability to meet education standards and promote positive pupil behavior. 74p.

Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Adobe PDF
Shields, Rebis; Miles, Karen
(Education Resource Strategies, Watertown, MA , 2008)
Illustrates how nine high performing, small urban high schools across the U.S. are thinking about and organizing their resources strategically to best meet their students' most pressing needs. The report provides a look at how leaders in these schools carefully and purposefully think about how they use every staff member, each moment of the school day, and every dollar to support student learning. The report also illustrates how principals carefully select teaching staff to meet high standards and fit specific school design needs, how students spend 20% more time (on average) in school each day and 233 more days over four years on core academic compared to their peers in traditional high schools, and how teachers devote five times more hours to collaborating and professional development than local districts require. 108p.

Baltimore City's High School Reform Initiative: Schools, Students, and Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Smerdon, Becky
(The Urban Institute, Washington, DC , Dec 2007)
Presents findings from a study of Baltimore's five-year high school reform, which included breaking large schools into smaller, more autonomous units. Using administrative data, the researchers found that test scores and attendance rates were higher for students in Baltimore's innovation high schools than in the city's comprehensive or newly formed neighborhood high schools. Students in innovation and neighborhood schools also showed more stability in their enrollment than their counterparts in comprehensive schools. These findings remained after controlling for students' backgrounds and previous achievements even though students at innovation schools were more academically advantaged than their peers in other schools prior to entering high school. 31p.

Rebirth of a University.
Fabris, Peter
Building Design and Construction; v48 n14 , p26-30,32,36,38 ; Nov 2007
Reviews the ongoing revitalization of the Drexel University campus, from a financially challenged institution with eroding facilities in the mid-1990's, to a financially sound institution with rising enrollment and in the midst of large capital renewal program. Accomplishments of that program are featured, and plans to initiate $160 million in new construction in the next year are outlined. Challenges and opportunities of this urban university's master plan are highlighted, as are relationships with architects and the city of Philadelphia.

Rethinking High School: Inaugural Graduations at New York City's New High Schools.
(WestEd, San Francisco, CA , 2007)
Examines 14 of New York City's new, smaller high schools that graduated their first class in June, 2006. Data indicate that attendance is high, ninth grade promotion rates are high, and a majority of students are graduating. A significant number of those graduates are applying to and being accepted by postsecondary institutions, over half of whom will be the first in their family to attend college. The report provides a snapshot of the promise and impact of these small high schools in the lives of adolescent learners from some of New York's most underserved communities. Includes ten references. 23p.

New Orleans Nexus.
Bingler, Stephen
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Outlines a vision for a site in New Orleans that will co-locate school, housing, social services, retail, recreational, and other services. The author feels that such a project is particularly appropriate in New Orleans, where Hurricane Katrina left many services in disarray. 4p.

The Walls Still Speak: The Stories Occupants Tell. Adobe PDF
Uline, Cynthia; Tschannen-Moran, Cynthia; Wolsey, Thomas
(San Diego State University, National Center for the Twenty-First Century Schoolhouse , 2007)
Explores the complicated intricacies of how a school building's physical properties influence teaching and learning. Two high poverty schools, within the upper quartile of facilities quality, were identified from an earlier quantitative study. One school is urban, the other rural. Preliminary results of the research indicate that ongoing interactions between the design of the built environment and the occupants of that environment helped to define the learning climate of these schools. Reciprocally, the climate helped to shape the interactions that took place, fostering environmental understanding, competence and control and supporting academic learning. From the data, several broad themes related to building quality emerged as central to this interaction between the built environment and building occupants, including movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, and elbow room. 57p.

Homes, Schools, and Parks.
Siegel, Lenny; Hersh, Robert
(Center for Public Environmental Oversight, Mountain View, CA , Dec 2006)
Discusses the use of brownfield sites for schools and other community needs, the hazards that accompany landfills, capping and other remediation techniques, and funding cleanup. 7p.

Site Assessment and Soil Remediation Can Help Keep Schools Safe.
Leonard, Michael
(, Orange, CA , 2006)
Discusses remediation issues with ground contamination at school sites, including assessment, public interest, benefits of using brownfield sites, and the removal of contaminants from both existing and potential school sites. 2p.

Big Buildings, Small Schools: Using a Small Schools Strategy for High School Reform
(Jobs for the Future and The Education Alliance at Brown University, 2005)
This book focuses on how large, under-performing urban high schools can become learning environments characterized by academic rigor, curricular relevance, and mutually supportive relationships. This book explores how these communities are using small school development as a central strategy for improving large high schools and overhauling the way school districts do business.

The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America.
Kozol, Jonathan
(Crown Publishers, New York, NY , 2005)
Reports on the re-segregation of America's educational system, focusing on overcrowded and underfunded urban schools, and the unsatisfactory disciplinary and instructional experiences of the minority children who attend them. Appendices illustrate per-pupil spending in public schools of six metropolitan areas and an extensive bibliography is included. 404p.

Engaging Communities in the Planning of New Urban Public Schools.
Tom-Miura, Allison
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles , Dec 2004)
Examines how school districts and communities can work together to address facility and academic achievement inequalities affecting African-American and Latino students, as part of their school construction programs. This study explores the hypothesis that when school districts engage community stakeholders in a clear, consistent and meaningful way in the long-range planning and site selection of new public schools, they can build schools more effectively and achieve better academic outcomes and overall benefits for impacted communities, as well as increased support. A case study of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) sheds light on the numerous challenges school districts face in engaging communities as key partners in the long-range planning and site selection process for new urban schools while trying to address educational and facility inequalities and community development needs. From 1999 2001 quantitative and qualitative data on LAUSD was collected through first-hand observation and from primary and secondary sources. Qualitative research on the community engagement practices and policies of thirteen other school districts from nine different states was collected through the use of surveys and phone interviews. Promising practices were identified from these school districts, chosen for their high rates of growth and active school construction programs and key guiding principles were developed. The research provided invaluable insight on how school districts can more effectively engage communities in the long-range planning, prioritization, and site selection process for new urban schools while working to reduce facility and educational inequalities and support community revitalization and development needs. 235p.
Report NO: 3155487


Breaking Ground: Rebuilding New Jersey's Urban Schools The Abbott School Construction Program. Adobe PDF
Ponessa, Joan
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Apr 2004)
Recounts the history of New Jersey's Abbott School Construction Program, from 1990 court rulings on school facility deficiencies in poorer school districts to the present. The work of the Program in creating facilities plans, integrating planning and design with educational needs, and lessons learned from the first years of the program are described. It is written to assist policy-makers and advocates in New Jersey and elsewhere in their efforts to renovate and construct educationally adequate, and community-centered public schools. 40p.

The Effects of School Facility Quality on Teacher Retention in Urban School Districts. Adobe PDF
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; Shang, Yi
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Feb 2004)
The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a great challenge for schools and school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts. Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates why teachers quit and how they might be better induced to stay. The authors build upon this literature by suggesting another important factor: the quality of school facilities. The importance of facility quality is investigated using data from a survey of K-12 teachers in Washington, D.C. The authors find in their sample that facility quality is an important predictor of the decision of teachers to leave their current position. [Author's abstract] 12p.

Cesar E. Chavez Education Center, Oakland, California
The Cesar Chavez Educational Center is one of the winners of California's 2004 Savings By Design Energy Efficiency Integration Awards Competition for their integration of energy efficiency with outstanding architectural design. The jurors were impressed by the efforts made to bring the best of energy-efficient, sustainable design to a tough, constrained urban site. They particularly noted the effort to align the classrooms on a north/south axis for maximum use of daylighting despite the site’s orientation--and the delightful building forms that resulted from this effort.

Strategic Execution Plan, Los Angeles Unified School District.
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Facilities Services Division , Jan 2004)
Describes the Los Angeles Unified School District's plan to deliver over 11,000 new classroom seats by 2010, with a goal of returning all schools to a 180-day, two-semester calendar and allowing all students to attend a neighborhood school. The mission, vision and organizational structure of the program are outlined, and the scheduling and costs of every project are provided, along with maps and renderings. 208p.

Creating a School for the Future: John A. Johnson Achievement Plus Elementary School: A Case Study. Adobe PDF
Feister, Leila
(Achievement Plus, St. Paul,MN , 2004)
Describes the inception and realization of this revered community school created within a restored 1911 St. Paul, Minnesota, high school building, and combined with an adjoining new YMCA facility. The community collaboration required for the condemnation of four homes and relocation of several businesses is described, along with the results of these moves. Restoration and renovation of the deteriorated high school, the design of the YMCA, and the naming process for the new facility are discussed. 42p.

Concept Plan for Relocation to the Nichols Avenue School. Adobe PDF
(The 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Dec 29, 2003)
Presents a conceptual plan for locating a law-related charter high school to a small, historic neighborhood school building. The deficiencies described include lack of administrative, physical education, cafeteria, and assembly spaces, and sufficient classroom space. Site plans illustrate the design remedies and are accompanied by cost estimates. 59p.

Back to the Agora: Workable Solutions for Small Urban School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Lawrence, Barbara Kent
(AEL, ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV , Sep 2003)
Suggests adapting the model of the ancient Greek "agora" to create successful small schools and describes several that have done so while reducing costs. These innovative urban small schools are the modern equivalent of the agora, where students and adults interact with the community, share resources, and learn from each other. Strategies used by communities to keep schools small and local include sharing facilities with other schools, reconfiguring large high schools, sharing with an education partner, sharing with a noneducation partner, sharing with the community, leasing space in the community, using the small facility in new ways, leasing the whole facility, and capitalizing on the facility. (Contains 18 references.) 2p.

The Economic Impact of Implementing the Cincinnati Public Schools' Facilities Master Plan on Greater Cincinnati. Adobe PDF
Rexhausen, Jeff
(Cincinnati University, Economics Center for Education & Research, Ohio. , Apr 2003)
The construction proposed in the Cincinnati Public Schools' Facilities Master Plan will have a significant impact on the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, economy. Highlights include: (1) the Facilities Master Plan of the Cincinnati Public Schools envisions a 10-year program with $985 million in construction spending. The funding of this program includes $211 million from the State of Ohio, which increases the purchasing power of the $774 million local funding commitment; (2) the Facilities Master Plan will generate a total of $2.35 billion in economic impact, including $718 million in local household wages and salaries, meaning an average annual impact of the Facilities Master Plan for the next 10 years of $232 million, and household earnings totaling $71 million and 2,339 jobs will be generated for area residents each year; (3) the return of $718 million in wages and salaries for $774 million in local dollars is important, meaning that every $100 in local funding ultimately returns $93 in wages and salaries to the pockets of local workers; (4) business activity will especially be stimulated in the construction, business services, real estate, and retail sectors; and (5) economic benefits may result from improvements in educational quality, quality of life, and physical conditions of neighborhoods, but are not measured here. 35p.

School Crowding in New York City: Progress, Problems and Projections. Adobe PDF
Describes current school overcrowding in New York City and the progress that the system is making to remedy it. The ability of the current capital program to meet the need is discussed and recommendations on overcrowding for the New York State Dept. of Education are included. 15p.

Saving America's School Infrastructure. Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice.
Crampton, Faith E., Ed.; Thompson, David C., Ed.
(Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT , 2003)
This book addresses funding for school facilities. Contents of section 1, "Overview and Scope of the Problem," are: (1) "Unmet School Infrastructure Funding Need as a Critical Educational Capacity Issue: Setting the Context" (Faith E. Crampton); (2) "Financing School Infrastructure Needs: An Overview across the 50 States" (Catherine C. Sielke); (3) "Canadian Approaches to the Financing of School Infrastructure" (Vivian J. Hajnal); and (4) "Financing Captial Facilities in Higher Education" (Mary McKeown-Moak). Section 2, "Current Challenges to Funding of School Infrastructure," contains the following chapters: (5) "Capital Needs and Spending in Urban Public School Systems: Policies, Problems, and Promises" (James G. Cibulka and Bruce S. Cooper); (6) "Funding School Infrastructure in Rural America" (Jeffrey Maiden); (7) "Infrastructure Funding Considerations and Students with Disabilities" (William T. Hartman); (8) "School Finance Litigation: One Strategy To Address Inequities in School Infrastructure Funding" (David C. Thompson and Faith E. Crampton); (9) "Funding Technology versus Bricks and Mortar: Can We Have It All?" (Faith E. Crampton, Janis M. Hagey, and Kathleen C. Westbrook); and (10) "Should Principals Be Involved in School Renovations?" (Brian O. Brent and Marie Cianca). Part 3, "The Future of School Infrastructure Funding," contains the following chapter: (11) "Striking a Balance in School Infrastructure Funding" (David C. Thompson). 270p.
TO ORDER: Information Age Publishing, 80 Mason St., Greenwich, CT 06830, Tel: 203-661-7602

Urban School Facilities: An A-Z Primer. Adobe PDF
DeJong, William
(DeJong, Dublin, OH , 2003)
This describes essential characteristics required to successfully develop and implement an educational facility planning processs. The intent of these essential characteristics is to outline an approach for addressing the facility challenges confronting urban school districts that is cost effective and realistic. Discusses such characteristics as shared vision, agreed upon process, consultant leadership, internal capacity, adequate funding, and broad based involvement. 8p.

Schools for Cities: Urban Strategies. Adobe PDF
Haar, Sharon; Robbins, Mark
(National Endowment for the Arts, NEA Series on Design, Washington, DC. , 2003)
This monograph presents papers from the 2000 Mayors' Institute on City Design and the public forum that followed it. Essays include: "Schools for Cities: Urban Strategies" (Sharon Haar); "Reenvisioning Schools; The Mayors' Questions" (Leah Ray); "Why Johnny Can't Walk to School" (Constance E. Beaumont); "Lessons from the Chicago Public Schools Design Competition" (Cindy S. Moelis and Beth Valukas); "Something from `Nothing': Information Infrastructure in School Design" (Sheila Kennedy); "An Architect's Primer for Community Interaction" (Julie Eizenberg); "The City of Learning: Schools as Agents for Urban Revitalization" (Roy Strickland); and "Education and the Urban Landscape: Illinois Institute of Technology" (Peter Lindsay Schaudt). Case Studies include: "Prototypes and Paratypes: Future Studies" (Sharon Haar); "Lick-Wilmerding High School, San Francisco" (Pfau Architecture Ltd.); "Architecture of Adjustment, New York City' (kOnyk Architecture); "Booker T. Washington School for the Performing and Visual Arts, Dallas" (Allied Works Architecture Inc.); "Camino Nuevo Middle School, Los Angeles" (Daley, Genik Architects); "Elementary School Prototypes, Chicago Public Schools" (OWP/P Architects). 103p.
TO ORDER: Princeton Architectural Press, 37 East Seventh Street, New York, NY 10003. Tel: 800-722-6657.

Architecture for Education: New School Designs from the Chicago Competition. Adobe PDF
Robbins, Mark; Moelis, Cindy S.; Clarke, Pamela H.; Hendrickson, Jamie; Nowaczewski, Jeanne L.; Haar, Shar
(Art Publishers , 2003)
This volume documents the work that resulted from the Chicago Public Schools Design Competition, explaining research and policies underlying the competition's criteria. The volume has three parts. Book 1, "The Chicago Experience," written by the competition's organizers, describes the competition's process and explains how it allowed community members, educational experts, and architects to collaborate in the design of schools that will foster the education of students, support quality teaching, and increase community involvement. It also chronicles the changing trends in public school architecture in Chicago. Book 2, "New School Designs," offers plans and ideas for schools designed for the 21st century. The competition's two winning designs and those of the finalists are extensively documented in drawings and renderings. Book 3, "Policies and Principles," explores policies that provided the impetus for the Chicago competition. It discusses the advantages of smaller learning environments; the benefits to students, teachers, and communities of universal design; application of sustainable design to the creation of public schools; and the importance of cost feasibility when building on a public budget. The section ends with a complete list of the winning, finalist, and notable architectural firms involved in the competition and a list of professional resources for creating new schools. 136p.

Learning to Grow and Growing to Learn: Connecting Policies for School Facilities and Urban Growth.
Scott, Brian
(Doctoral Dissertation, Portland State University, OR , 2003)
Presents a descriptive case study of the politics surrounding Portland Public Schools' facilities policy reform from 2000 through 2003. Portland is a revelatory case because of its history of urban growth management, neighborhood organizing, and its culture of civic innovation and intergovernmental cooperation. The research analyzes the recent and future implementation of several innovations currently being pursued by the school district as a foundation for connecting school and regional development planning. Applying theoretical models to local experience, the study predicts likely outcomes and suggests necessary actions to make ongoing cooperation successful. 398p.
Report NO: 3118693

TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email:

The City of Learning: School Design and Planning as Urban Revitalization in New Jersey, Berkeley, and Washington, D.C. Adobe PDF
Strickland, Roy
(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor , 2003)
Presents an emerging strategy for revitalizing urban public school systems, a background for the City of Learning (COL), and outlines COL's principles. The paper presents a selection of COL projects developed for Berkeley, CA, Washington, DC, and Union City, Paterson, and Trenton, NJ; and summarizes COL's local and national outcomes. It also reflects on challenges that must be overcome in innovative design and planning for urban public schools. Finally, it concludes with reflections on the potential advantages of school systems in urban environments as they subscribe to COL. 19p.
Report NO: URRC 03-07

Chicago Public Schools: State of the Buildings. The Capital Improvement Program. Adobe PDF
(Chicago Public Schools, IL , Apr 2002)
This describes the recent accomplishments that have been made by Chicago Public Schools's Capital Improvement Program (CIP). This reviews CIP funding history, discusses overcrowding, the e-rate technology program, science laboratories, ADA upgrades, health centers, early childhood and pre-K classroom renovations, playlots and exterior enhancements, and operations and maintenance improvements. 25p.

School Treasures: Architecture of Historic Boston Schools.
Cole, Doris
(Font and Center Press, Weston, MA. , 2002)
This book explores the architectural treasures of the Boston, Massachusetts public schools. It includes photographs and descriptions of 129 buildings that were constructed in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century and notes that the first and oldest public school in the United States was founded in Boston in 1635. Eight chapters focus on: (1) "Exploring for Treasure"; (2) "Turning the Century"; (3) "Growing Up"; (4) "The Roaring Twenties"; (5) "A New Deal"; (6) "After the War"; (7) "Suburban Spread"; and (8) "Turning the Century--Again." A CD-ROM with over 100 images and descriptive captions of the architectural treasures of the Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts is included. 138p.

The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly: An Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools' Capital Improvement Plan. Adobe PDF
Ryan, Matt; Schwartz, Chris
(Neighborhood Capital Budget Group, Chicago, IL , Mar 2001)
This report examines the Chicago Public School System's need for capital improvement, and it highlights action plans for the future. The report reveals that many planned school improvements projects are unfunded and that there is about $229 million worth of projects that no longer appear in the city's capital improvements plan. Overcrowding remains a persistent and unresolved problem, and there has been no clear plan for integrating educational technology. The Chicago public school system alone has $2.5 billion in unfunded capital needs for its schools, but funds allotted for statewide capital needs are rapidly disappearing, and federal assistance in local school construction and repair needs is in jeopardy. It is recommended that, to ensure that the Capital Improvement Program is as fair and efficient as possible, the Chicago Public Schools should release the building assessments for each school facility and make public its demographic predictions for enrollment growth. Appendices contain highlights of capital programs in other major midwestern cities and a summary of Chicago's Teachers' Pension Fund Proposal. 49p.

Creating a New Vision of the Urban High School. Carnegie Challenge, 2001. Adobe PDF
Baldwin, Joyce
(Carnegie Corporation of New York, NY , 2001)
This paper focuses on how urban high schools may be not only revitalized but also transformed into institutions that are designed to help students at the crossroads of their academic careers. It discusses the rationale for change, historic highlights of this effort, and a new vision for American high schools. Some of the promising approaches to change include: transforming large impersonal schools into small schools; using whole-school design; reaching out to parents and other community members to increase their involvement in education; and partnering with businesses and universities. The paper highlights the Carnegie Corporation's Schools for a New Society initiative, which has awarded planning grants to 10 community-school district partnerships working on urban high school reform. The paper also focuses on principles outlined by the New Century High Schools for New York City Consortium, a $30 million commitment to high school reform in New York City announced in December 2000 by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Open Society Institute, and the Carnegie Corporation. 14p.
TO ORDER: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022. Tel: 212-371-3200

Designing a City of Learning: Paterson, NJ.
Strickland, Roy
(New American School Design Project. Sponsored by Paterson Public Schools. , 2001)
Presents concepts for using public school capital projects as tools for revitalizing a post-idustrial American City. It applies the school design and planning strategy called City of Learning [COL] to historic Paterson, New Jersey. COL embraces educators' argument that healthy neighborhoods support successful learning and makes school design and programming holistic by looking beyond the school building to the school setting at the neighborhood, town, and city scales. By doing so, it identifies schools as a potent new force in urban revitalization as it explands preK-12 educational options. The first section describes the framework of the "City of Learning" concept, which involves building schools as neighborhood foci and converting industrial and commercial facilities into schools. Subsequent sections present the plans for four nontraditional learning environments, using the city's rich architectural heritage, parks, existing schools, and libraries. 220p.

Still No Room To Learn: Crowded NYC Schools Continue To Jeopardize Smaller Class Size Plans. A Follow-Up Report to No Room To Learn and to the Class Size Summit Working Papers. Adobe PDF
Green, Mark
(Public Advocate for the City of New York , Dec 2000)
This follow-up report revisits the overcrowded classroom issues facing the New York City Public School system after one year's efforts to correct the problem. The study reveals that: (1) 53 percent of all New York City elementary school buildings and annexes are overcrowded and continue to operate at 99 percent or greater capacity; (2) in 10 school districts, 70 percent or more of elementary school buildings are operating at 99 percent or greater capacity; (3) minischools and transportables, both ways to quickly increase capacity, are also overcrowded; and (4) over the last year, New York City collected less than 31 percent of the state's reimbursable school building aid despite enrolling almost 40 percent of the state's students. To end the class-size crunch and improve student performance, the report's author, the public advocate for the City of New York, recommends that a number of specific actions be taken by the board of education, the State, and the City, including lobbying for new federal assistance. 13p.

Small Schools: Great Strides; A Study of New Small Schools in Chicago. Adobe PDF
Wasley, Partricia et al
(Bank Street College of Education, New York, NY, 2000)
According to a new study released by Bank Street College of Education, reconfiguring large urban schools into smaller schools is having a positive impact on student performance, school climate, professional collegiality, and parent satisfaction. Relying on the largest database assembled to date on small schools, this suggests that even though smallness by itself is not the cure to all that ails urban schools, policymakers can have a significant impact on a variety of important education issues if they integrate small schools into a comprehensive reform strategy. 87p.

What If.
Bingler, Steven
(Metropolitan Forum Project, New Schools Better Neighborhoods, Los Angeles, CA , Sep 1999)
This paper addresses the growing population trends in California; the need to counteract the current model of community sprawl by designing smarter schools and community growth strategies; and the changes in planning, policies, and practices needed to achieve these goals. Recommended strategies described support the following actions: more participatory and community-based planning; innovative educational facilities that promote the concept of learning communities and schools as centers of community; the joint use of all public facilities; the planning of urban and suburban projects based on the principles of smart growth; the assessment of all public expenditures based on the concept of integrated resource development; and the development of an ongoing vehicle for communications and decision-making between all agencies, institutions and organizations involved in education reform and smart growth issues. Six case studies are highlighted that illustrate some of the goals outlined for smarter schools and smarter growth strategies. 37p.
TO ORDER: James Irvine Foundation, One Market Steuart Tower, Suite 2500, San Francisco, CA 94105; Tel: 415-777-2244.

Urban Planning and School Architecture: Homologies in Governing the Civic Body and the School Body. Adobe PDF
Hennon, Lisa
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1999)
This paper is a preliminary examination of homologous shifts in U.S. discourses on the design and building of schools and "planning" as they relate to curricular reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques. The purpose is to question underlying assumptions about "space" and historical reasonings about a place called school. Particular historical junctures in discourses of school architecture provide the contingent conditions and reasonings on which the current debates about reform of school design seem reasonable and make sense. Schematically, they are: (1) the common school discourses of the "school house" during the 19th century; (2) the emergence of the "school-plant," which introduced city "planning" discourses into the discourses of school design during the 1920s and 1930s; (3) the "open-plan" in the 1950s that followed as a critique of the "school-plant"; and (4) the enfolding and redeployment of elements of the "school-house," "classroom school-plant," and the "open plan" in the "school-as-community." 25p.

Schools and Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: The Community Development Challenge. Chapter 8. Urban Problems and Community Development.
Stone, Clarence. et al
(Brookings Institution, 1999)
Discusses how schools are natural forces for community development efforts. The authors claim that schools, by becoming more active and open to the communities they serve, allow a rising generation to achieve the capacity to overcome social disadvantage and poverty. p339-380
TO ORDER: Brookings, 1775 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20036; Tel: 202-797-6000

Urban Schools: Lessons Learned for All Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Sep 26, 1998)
The American Institute of Architect's Committee on Architecture for Education convened a conference addressing the urban school relative to quality of public education for all students, entitlement and privilege, community ideology, racial tensions, and the reopening and refurbishing of aging facilities. This report presents synopses of the discussions, including question and answer exchanges, overviews of the school tours conducted, highlights of opening remarks, and links to relevant Web sites provided by attendees and speakers. Speakers examine the new urban school and present case studies as examples of new school designs that allow unique experiential learning opportunities for students; explore how architects can lead in the managing and organizing tasks of urban school design projects; examine the teaming of architects with educators, administrators, and politicians in developing prototype facilities; discuss the historical issues surrounding public schools; review ideas on assessing educational facilities to help balance the ideals with the monetary realities; and present ideas on collaborative efforts across sectors to solve urban school problems. Concluding comments explore the building of community consensus on school infrastructure repair, methods for tapping into the multifaceted roles of architects, and seeking out creative financial strategies. A list of conference speakers is provided. 35p.

The Boston Schoolyard Initiative: An American City's Approach to Sustainable Schoolyard Development. Adobe PDF
Meyer, Kirk
(Paper presented at the Learning through Landscapes: Grounds for Celebration Conference , Sep 21, 1997)
This presentation describes the development process behind the Boston Schoolyard Initiative: a 5-year, inner city, community-driven initiative to transform neglected and unwelcome schoolyards into active centers of school and community use. Each phase of the initiative is discussed from community organizing through design, construction, and ongoing maintenance. The initiative shows sustainable schoolyard programs need total involvement from all potential users in the design and development phases, a focus on the multi-use approach, the integration of the school grounds into the life of the school, and inclusion of the school yard in future budgeting allocations. 8p.

The Challenge of the Urban School Site Adobe PDF
Martin, Deborah, Ed.; Lucas, Bill, Ed.; Titman, Wendy, Ed.; Hayward, Siobhan, Ed.
(Learning Through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
This guidebook provides information on improving urban school grounds to enhance children's lives. Chapters provide the experiences from other schools on the topics of greening the urban school grounds; the multi-cultural aspects of developing urban school grounds; organization of limited space; issues involving seating, shelter, and raised structures; and playground art. The unique difficulties involved in secondary school ground development are addressed in the areas of curriculum linkage, social needs, and the management and organization of change. Additionally discussed are areas of special consideration in urban school grounds development, such as vandalism prevention, school security, tarmac removal, and new surface installation. Resource information is provided along with a list of schools and their locations which have created winning grounds development schemes. 110p.

Downsizing Schools in Big Cities. Adobe PDF
Raywid, Mary Anne
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY , 1996)
This digest briefly reviews the current movement to downsize urban schools to help educators decide whether and why to pursue such a move, and to indicate which models appear most promising. Research evidence is strong that small schools benefit the entire school community. Small schools are particularly beneficial for disadvantaged youth, who profit from the extra attention and sense of belonging promoted in a small school. Putting several small schools into an existing large-school building can rejuvenate the building and enhance educational possibilities. The founding principles of small urban schools are: (1) cohesion; (2) autonomy; (3) focus or theme; and (4) a constituency assembled on the basis of shared interests. There are many difficulties in implementing small urban schools, but many more are being planned. They combine features currently being recommended by educational researchers as important in transforming schools. (Contains 10 references.)

Schools for Cities.
Duckenfield, Mike
(Organisation for Co-Operation and Economic Development, Paris, France , 1995)
Presents an essay concluding that the world needs a vision of a "learning city" for the future, and then focuses on six themes that illustrate the connections between education and aspects of economic development: 1) investing to enhance the built environment; 2) modernizing and improving school buildings; 3) making more of educational facilities; 4) adult learners in colleges and schools; 5) the place of vocational education; and 6) uncoupling schools and buildings. Subsequent chapters examine families, poverty, race, ethnicity, and crime; planning issues in creating the learning city, with emphasis on the role of government; and nine case studies about the renovation of urban schooling in Australia, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom, Greece, the Netherlands, France, the United States, and Scotland. (Includes 128 references.) 156p.

Renewing Urban Schools. Adobe PDF
Mayfield, John
(Paper presented at the Organisation for Co-Operation and Economic Development Seminar, Baltimore, MD , Jun 03, 1992)
This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper discusses the MFP educational component, where resources can be found to achieve both urban renewal and the new urban development, and the importance of community involvement. Final comments summarize the important points of each educational renewal component. 16p.

References to Journal Articles

Urban Schools: What’s Next
DeJong, William
School Construction News; May 23, 2012
Today there is a potpourri of public schools operating within urban school districts, including typical PK-12 neighborhood schools; magnet, thematic and choice schools; and a wide variety of charter schools that are operated by the school district or independently. This fragmented scenario creates new challenges and opportunities for facility planners and the facilities divisions in urban public school systems. Recommends creating a non-profit real-estate organization that manages all educational facility assets in a city. Discusses effectively disposing of excess property, or closed school buildings.

North Charleston School District Creates Its First Shared Campus
Wasserman, Sue
School Construction News; Dec 2011
Describes how the Charleston County School District participated in the transformation of an older neighborhood into a successful, sustainable community. CCSD engaged both the community and local government leaders, creating its own school master plan to construct facilities designed to attract young families and foster local neighborhood development. Details the design of the new 330,000-square-foot Center of Arts and Academics, located on a 55-acre abandoned school site in North Charleston, that is now a state-of-the-art arts facility and a community asset.

Urban Consolidations Raise Issues Similar to Rural Consolidations.
Rural Matters; Apr 2011
The drive to turn around so-called failing schools is one factor fueling a spate of urban school consolidations across the country, as well as declining enrollment, poor facilities, and budget crises — all factors familiar to rural communities who have long been in the trenches trying to maintain local rural schools.

Building Blueprints: Playgrounds and Outdoor Spaces.
Lewis, Pip
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p82,83 ; Apr 2011
Highlights how an urban Boston charter school created play and exercise areas on their small site, formerly six-acre industrial property.

Urban Sustainability.
Mattison, Erica
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p44, 46,48,50 ; Apr 2011
Describes sustainability efforts at Boston's Suffolk University, whose urban campus boasts exemplary waste reduction, supplies conservation, recycling, energy conservation, green cleaning, adaptive reuse of facilities, and connection to public transportation.

Charles W. Morey Elementary School.
Architectural Record; v199 n1 ; Jan 2011
Profiles this Massachusetts elementary school that fits a large facility onto a tight site, and mimics the colors and textures of the surrounding residential neighborhood.

Media Production Center, Columbia College Chicago.
Gonchar, Joann
Architectural Record; v198 n11 , p115-119 ; Nov 2010
Profiles this urban communication arts facility, built rapidly with pre-cast walls and carefully designed to mitigate noise from nearby train and car traffic. A green roof reduces the noise of rain as well. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants accompany the text.

The Richard E. Griffin Academic Center: College Sets Its Sights on a Difficult Site.
Schneider, Jay
Building Design and Construction; v51 n5 , p44-46 ; Sep 2010
Profiles this academic and administrative center built on a 7,500 square foot lot in a sensitive neighborhood that had been damaged by urban renewal projects of the past. Two below-ground levels and a traditional brick façade mitigate the impact.

Green Roofs and Schools.
Peck, Steven; Van der Linde, Damon
Green Building Pro; Aug 23, 2010
Lists opportunities for instruction that a green roof provides, especially in dense urban neighborhoods. In addition to environmental benefits, a green roof supports plant species, insects, birds, and examples of urban agriculture.

Camino Nuevo High School Los Angeles, California.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this school on a long and narrow urban site, bounded by four busy streets. The solution was to create the common area on the interior of the building, as an open courtyard between two two-story wings. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

Green Dot Animo Leadership Charter High School.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Lennox, California, facility. The small site near a freeway was addressed with an inner courtyard design, featuring 650 solar panels. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

The East Harlem School, New York, New York.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this New York City middle school, highlighting its approach to building a light and airy school on a tight urban site. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

A Win-Win for Campus and Community.
Eckstut, Stan; Rosenfeld, Fran
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p52-54,56 ; Jun 2010
Dicusses mitigating the disadvantages and enhancing the benefits of being an urban higher education campus. Cooperation between institutions and neighborhoods, creation of green spaces, promoting community development, and access to public transportation are illustrated with examples of New York City's MetroTech Center and Cooper Union, as well as Rutgers University.

A Small Footprint.
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p58,60,62 ; Apr 2010
Profiles this prototype school that was built on an infill site by virtue of its small footprint and its proximity to public facilities. The site selection, community participation, building design, "green" features, and use of the building as a teaching tool are described.

Hang On to Those Buildings.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p94 ; Jan 2010
Advises on how to operate small schools when enrollment declines, in order to avoid selling school buildings that might be needed when enrollment rebounds. Multi-grade classrooms, careful scheduling of school specialists, doing without a principal, and inviting community programs to use surplus space are discussed.

Roy Romer Middle School.
Amelar, Sarah
Profiles this new school that serves an underprivileged Los Angeles neighborhood, wrapping itself in an "L" shape around the school's "town square." Project information, plans, and photographs are included.

The Pride of East 103rd Street.
LaBarre, Suzanne
Metropolis; v29 n6 , p66-74 ; Jan 2010
Profiles this private middle school in Harlem, highlighting the rebuilding of their old facility, and the architect's absolute control over the design and construction of the school.

Central Force.
Meacock, Merilee
School Construction News; v16 n1 , p14--16 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Examines siting schools in urban, mixed-use developments. The advantages to sharing of facilities and convenience to other civic amenities are cited, and advice on how to consider traffic and other environmental conditions of a site are offered.

PS 59 - The Beekman Hill International School.
Minutillo, Josephine
Architectural Record; v198 n1 , p104,105 ; Jan 2010
Profiles this renovation of a former nurse's dormitory into a temporary home for this New York City school. Project information, plans, and photographs are included.

When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research, Oct 2009)
Examines the impact that the closing of some Chicago schools had on the students who attended these schools. The research focused on regular elementary schools that were closed between 2001 and 2006 for underutilization or low performance and asked whether students who were forced to leave these schools and enroll elsewhere experienced any positive or negative effects from this type of school move. Student outcomes, including reading and math achievement, special education referrals, retentions, summer school attendance, mobility, and high school performance were examined. Also examined were characteristics of the receiving schools and if the differences in these schools had any impact on the learning experiences of the students who transferred into them. Students ages eight and older who were displaced by school closings were compared to a group of students in similar schools that did not close. 48p.

Dublin High School Looks to the Future with its Campus-Wide Master Plan. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v30 n5 , p14,15 ; May 2009
Reviews this California district's multi-year, multi-phase plan to increase the size and program of its high school without increasing its footprint or building a second high school.

Trends in Urban School Design.
Dezina, Ima
Schooldesigner; Apr 2009
Discusses sustainability, finding space, special education needs, and the school as community anchor, all of which figure prominently in the creating of inner-city schools.

Nobody's There.
McMilin, Edward
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p38-40 ; Feb 2009
Addresses declining school enrollment in some regions, suggesting an organized and thoughtful procedure for closing a school, preparing and securing a school for vacancy, and maintaining a vacant school.

Contrast and Context.
Sokol, David
Architectural Record; Supplement , p16-19 ; Jan 2009
Profiles a variety of additions to existing schools, focusing on urban facilities that experiencing enrollment increases due to families moving back into the city.

Coming Together: The Pros and Cons of School Consolidation.
Dolph, David
School Business Affairs; v74 n11 , p26,27 ; Dec 2008
Reviews the benefits of school consolidation to curriculum and extracurricular offerings, staffing, student diversification, and financing. Possible disadvantages include loss of a sense of community around closed schools, opposition to levies from these constituents, and objection to large schools and classes. Includes three references.

The High School "Space Race": Implications of a School-Choice Market Environment for a Michigan Metropolitan Region.
Militello, Mathhew; Metzger, Scott; Bowers, Alex
Education and Urban Society; v41 n1 , 30p. ; Nov 2008
Examines the implications of competition between school districts in a mid-Michigan metropolitan area. Over the past decade, many urban and suburban districts have found themselves competing over per-pupil state funding. Suburban districts need extra students in order to make up budgetary shortfalls and protect instructional programs that are essential in today's political climate of school accountability. Several districts in this study have built new or substantially renovated state-of-the-art high schools, possibly signaling a "space race" between the districts to build bigger, better, newer capital assets in order to attract more students. The central-city district, surrounded by growing suburbs with higher-value taxable property, is at a disadvantage in this competition. [Authors' abstract]

Elementary School Design Meets Time, Sustainability Targets.
Ostroff, Tracy
AIArchitect; v15 , p2 ; Oct 10, 2008
Reviews how the architectural team met a number of architectural and design challenges when they adapted a nurses' residence and a hospital annex at Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital (MEETH) into a pre-K through Grade 5 public school. They completed the project in just 19 months, from concept to completion, including designing an innovative, new rooftop gymnasium.

A Moving Target. (Using Demographics in Your School Construction Plan.)
Sack-Min, Joetta
American School Board Journal; v195 n10 , p20-23 ; Oct 2008
Discusses use of demographic information in school planning, including predicting areas of growth that will need schools and areas of decline that may necessitate closing or consolidating schools. Costs of maintaining underutilized or vacant schools, the practice retaining them in case of an unforseen upswing, the negative effects of school closures on neighborhoods, and some particular issues surrounding shifts between neighborhoods within metropolitan areas are considered.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Cultural Exchange. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v11 n6 , p30-33 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Profiles the expansion of Shanghai's Concordia International School, with comments on the planning for a dense urban site, classroom and community space considerations, the peculiarities of the building design and construction process in China, and aesthetics.

Can Good Design Boost the Case for School Consolidation?
Bates, Tom
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 28, 2008
Discusses some benefits of consolidating under-utilized schools, and how thoughtful facility design can ease the trauma of consolidation, and even better serve the educational program.

One of the "One Thousand Points of Light" Guides Development of Laura Rodriguez Elementary School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v29 n8 , p10, 11 ; Aug 2008
Profiles this San Diego K-5 school that recovered a blighted urban site. Coordinating the building of seven structures on a 6.5-acre site is emphasized.

Millions Could Be Earmarked for Downtown School.
Alpert, Emily
Voice of San Diego; Jul 07, 2008
Discusses the dilemma of a lack of downtown schools in San Diego, at a time when the population of school-age children in the inner city seems to be growing. The debate between building new classrooms downtown or transporting students to outlying schools is highlighted, as many of the district's schools are under-enrolled.

The Final Decision: Community Participation and School Closure Decisions.
Lavner, Mark; Finnigan, Kara
School Business Affairs; v74 n2 , p22,24-26 ; Feb 2008
Reviews one district's experience with public engagement during a school closure process. The criteria used to rank the schools are detailed, as is the presence or absence of community support for various schools under consideration. Recommendations for running a fair and equitable school closure process are included.

Innovative Use of Space Forecast for US Educational Facility Planning Market.
CEFPI E-News; Dec 2007
Offers projections for educational facility planning in 2008 from four educational facilities planners. They were asked to comment on the following: 1) Spending on school facilities: Will you see increases, decline, urban vs. rural? 2) Trends in design for 2008. 3) Energy spending: Do you foresee schools making this a major initiative or will it remain status quo? 4) School size: Trends 5) Role of the facility planner: What new roles will the Planner take as more and more communities seek out different types of schools?
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Urban Security.
Copeland, E.J.; Barnett, Randy
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , pS3,S4 ; Nov 2007
Profiles security design and equipment features at the new Medrano Middle School in Dallas, Texas. These include site design, traffic control, alarms, motion and metal detectors, and surveillance systems.

Greening the Past: Inner City School Gets State-of-the-Art Retrofit.
Edwards, Owen
Edutopia; Aug 31, 2007
Profiles St. Philip's Academy in Newark, New Jersey. The private K-8 school serves 330 inner-city students in a 1920's building that was once a chocolate factory. The process of configuring a school within the abandoned factory, and retaining exposed structural elements to serve the curriculum is discussed.

Dena New Primary Center, Los Angeles, California.
Architectural Record; Jul 2007
Profiles this new elementary school in an urban setting, where small learning communities are housed in a building that is organized inward, around a central elliptical courtyard that provides a safe and sheltered common area. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

John C. Daniels School, New Haven, Connecticut.
Architectural Record; Jul 2007
Profiles this new elementary school in a mixed residential and commercial urban setting. For safety, the building is organized around an interior courtyard that features an amphitheater, reading areas, and play spaces. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

PS 253Q, Far Rockaway, New York.
Architectural Record; Jul 2007
Profiles this 750-student elementary school constructed on a tight urban site The three- story classroom blocks surrounds a protected play area. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

Camino Nuevo High School, Los Angeles, California.
Lubell, Sam
Architectural Record; v195 n7 , p130-135 ; Jul 2007
Profiles this school built on a peculiar site that was essentially a traffic island bounded by four busy streets. The solution was to create the common area on the interior of the building, as an open courtyard between two two-story wings. Building statistics, a list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

L.A. County Schools Embracing Density: Panorama High School Stacks Four Levels Around a Quad.
Livingston, Heather
AIArchitect; v14 ; Jun 22, 2007
Profiles this four-storey, 2,100-student high school designed to work on an urban site half as large as is typically indicated for a school of that size.

The Sky's the Limit.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p29-32 ; Jun 2007
Profiles an exemplar high-rise school design, conceived for tight urban sites in the United Kingdom. The small footprint of the design allows for it to be built alongside the school it will replace. Lighting and ventilation issues within the multi-story design are discussed.

Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; 2007/5 ; May 2007
Describes this recently completed primary school, illustrating how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a distressed area, and can meet the particular needs of the student community. The article presents the architectural description and comments from the school's Board of Management.

The Kids are Coming Cesar Chavez Middle School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v28 n4 , p10,11 ; Apr 2007
Profiles this Lynwood, California middle school on a small site. The school features three two-story classroom buildings, a lunch shelter, and gymnasium along a "street" concept, with basketball courts on top of the parking structure.

Public Choices.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n9 , p18-20,22,24,26 ; Apr 2007
Reviews with statistics the trend toward enrollment in schools of choice, including private schools, charter schools, and schools outside the resident's district. Voucher programs from a number of states are described, as are some of the serious drains on enrollment prompted by school choice. Facilities implications of these fluid situations are also covered.

Move Toward Neighborhood-Scale Schools Slowly Gains Momentum
Langdon, Philip
New Urban News; Apr-May 2007
Decisions on where schools are built and how much land they occupy are gradually beginning to reflect New Urbanism’s belief in the importance of physically fitting the schools into their communities. This discusses school siting, minimum acreage requirements for schools, and using non-traditional structures and sites.

Urban Design.
Wilson, Kyla
New York Construction; Apr 2007
Profiles New York City's new P.S./I.S. 260 in Queens, built five stories high on an extremely tight site. A list of project participants is included.

Two into One Will Go.
SchoolsforLife; n4 , p46-49 ; Mar 2007
Profiles a proposed British school designed to accommodate both primary and secondary levels. The school fits on a tight urban site and its design, operational efficiencies, benefits, and costs are described.

Culture Club.
Sokol, David
Architectural Record; Supplement , p110-115 ; Jan 2007
Profiles the new Detroit School of Arts. The small site compelled an unusually tall six-story structure that is scaled down at the edges to acknowledge the low-scale neighborhood. Plans, photographs, and a list of project participants are included.

The Hardest Choices.
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p38-41 ; Dec 2006
Reviews school closure crises in Seattle, San Francisco, and Chicago, cities where enrollment has declined as families have migrated to more affordable suburbs. Community backlash was considerable in all cases. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to contend with it are described.

Dealing with Decline.
Stover, Del
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p42-44 ; Dec 2006
Discusses various reasons for decline in urban school enrollment, including migration out of the city and competition from private and charter schools. Examples from Detroit, Portland (Oregon), and Buffalo illustrate the problem, which typically calls for closing schools, reducing staff, and raising community support.

Alternative Learning Spaces in New York City.
Macrae-Gibson, Gavin
School Planning and Management; v45 n8 , p36-38 ; Aug 2006
Profiles six creative solutions that made school architecture out of abandoned, unused, or under-used spaces in this urban setting. Recovery of spaces from rooftops, above courtyards, in abandoned buildings, and within a new condominium are highlighted.

South Gate New Elementary School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v27 n4 , p10 ; Apr 2006
Profiles this new Los Angeles Unified School District facility on an urban site, with underground staff parking and recreational areas that accommodate community use.

Corona New Primary School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v27 n1 , p11 ; Jan 2006
Profiles this new K-2 school on an urban site, with underground staff parking.

Tight School Sites.
Cooper, Lynne
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n1 , p34-36 ; 2006
Profiles a new Los Angeles elementary and high school built on restricted urban sites. The massing of the buildings, traffic and parking, athletic facilities, scale, and accommodation of community use are described.

Artists for Humanity EpiCenter.
Architectural Record; Dec 2005
Describes this Boston private art-oriented school for at-risk teens that was constructed on a small site in an industrial zone requiring environmental remediation. The resulting LEED platinum-certified school is able to sell surplus electricity from its photovoltaic arrays. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, plans, and photographs are included.

Perspectives Charter School.
Kamin, Blair
Architectural Record; v193 n12 , p138-141 ; Dec 2005
Describes this Chicago school that takes advantage of its tight and unusually-shaped triangular site with a building that features daylighting and balconies overlooking a heavily-used multipurpose room "commons." Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, plans, and photographs are included.

Getting Physical about Education.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p20-24 ; Nov 2005
Describes Denver s Learning Landscape Alliance (LLA) , where a public/private partnership was formed to upgrade the city s elementary school playgrounds. 22 learning landscapes were created in underprivileged neighborhoods first, and this became the catalyst for a successful bond that funded 36 additional sites. Components of some of the learning landscapes, the volunteer labor contributed, subsequent benefits of the children s increased physical activity are decribed.

Chartered Territory.
Lamprecht, Barbara
Architecture; v94 n9 , p50-57 ; Sep 2005
Describes The Accelerated School in Los Angeles, a charter facility in a distressed urban setting that features high security without looking like a fortress. The educational program was successfully compressed into a small site, a nearby park is used for athletic activities, and daylighting is featured throughout the building. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants are included.

Mouse and Cockroach Allergens in the Dust and Air in Northeastern United States Inner-city Public High Schools.
Chew, G; Correa, J; Perzanowski, M.
Indoor Air; v15 n4 , p228-234 ; Aug 2005
Levels of mouse and cockroach allergen were measured in vacuumed settled dust in 87 classrooms in 11 New York City schools. At the same time, two five-day air samples were collected by 53 students at school and at home. The percentage of samples where the allergens were measured to be over analytical detection limits were as follows: mouse allergen in school dust, 81%; cockroach allergen in school air, 71%; mouse allergen in school air, 5%; cockroach allergen in school air, 22%.

Small Schools, Poverty, and the Achievement Gap.
Strange, Marty
School Business Affairs; v71 n5 , p20,22,23 ; May 2005
Discusses the mitigating effect of small schools in situations where poverty is an obstacle to educational achievement. In both rural and urban settings, large schools are shown to exacerbate the achievement gap between rich and poor. School size recommendations for poor, affluent, and mixed-income schools are offered, and benefits to small communities that retain their schools are described. Includes five references.

Downtown Schools. The New Urban Frontier.
Zimmerman, Martin
On Common Ground; , p52-57 ; Winter 2005
Describes successful urban schools created in San Francisco, Minneapolis, and Raleigh, citing how they were sited and funded, the community services they provide, and the constituencies they serve.

So Long, Mom, I'm Off to the Factory
Saulny, Susan
New York Times; , p30 ; Dec 19, 2004
These days in New York City, it is possible to find a public school almost anywhere that can hold a few hundred students and accommodate a redesign for classrooms and a cafeteria. They are popping up all over, in the most unexpected places: an old salami factory in the Bronx, the boxy remains of a defunct department store in Harlem, a warehouse vacated by Sotheby's on the Upper East Side, the 13th floor of a downtown skyscraper. And the Department of Education plans to spend more than $1 billion over the next five years creating more of them, turning on its head the traditional - some say outdated - notion of what a public school should be.

Intellectual Capital.
Egan, Nancy; Nakazawa, Paul
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p72-78 ; Oct 2004
The physical developments at powerful urban universities are reshaping metropolitan culture and character. Case studies of new buildings at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Philadelphia's University City area, the Cooper Union campus in New York City, and campus redevelopment at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

The Link Between Schools and Land Value.
Newberg, Sam
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p102-103 ; Oct 2004
Schools play an important role in urban planning and development. Across the country, a variety of solutions are being tested to improve schools and their relationship to surrounding communities. Describes the new schools at the Stapleton development in Denver, a new urbanist community.

Coordinating School and Government Thinking.
Salvesen, David
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p91 ; Oct 2004
School boards often make site selection decisions without consulting the local governments, despite the long-term impact schools can have on local property values, nearby land use, traffic, etc. This discusses getting school boards and local governments to work together. Describes interlocal agreements required in Florida.

University-Related Development in Chicago Invests Billions.
Szatan, Jerry
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p79-80 ; Oct 2004
Over the last ten years, university development in Chicago has been changing the landscape of large swaths of Chicago, including the downtown areas. Universities have given new life to old buildings, adressed land use conflicts and historical and architectural preservation issues, turned outward to remake neighborhoods, and forged innovative partnerships.

Urban Facility Planning: Broad-Based Involvement.
Dejong, William; Glover, Troy
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p77-79 ; Jun 2004
Discusses an unsuccessful and a successful broad-based school planning endeavor in two urban school districts. The unsuccessful district had a monolithic structure, little grassroots involvement, and pursued a business model approach. The successful district divided the city into planning areas, aggressively solicited community participation, and pursued a community dialogue approach. Committee structures and responsibilities for a successful campaign are suggested.

Straight A's: Horace Mann Elementary School by Moore Ruble Yudell. [San Jose, California]
ArchNewsNow; , 2p. ; Apr 13, 2004
Located on three acres at the eastern edge of historic downtown San Jose, California, the new $21.5 million Horace Mann Elementary School, designed by Santa Monica-based Moore Ruble Yudell, is a cohesive campus of forms and courtyards that respond to the urban context. The new buildings step from one to three stories, and a variety of courtyards, turf play areas, terraces, and gathering spaces provide a link between the school and the larger community.

Scarcity of Property Is Growing Obstacle to Building Schools.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n28 , p15-16 ; Mar 2004
A lack of land for new schools and additions is a common problem across the country, particularly in urban and fast-growing areas. To confront the problem, districts are building multistory schools, converting existing buildings to schools, and persuading housing developers to donate land or help build schools. Other districts in fast-growing areas have bought land on speculation while the cost is relatively modest. And in severe cases, districts that have the power of eminent domain—the right of governments to force owners to sell their land to them at fair market value for public purposes—have taken homes, businesses, farms, and other properties to build schools. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Smart Growth and School Reform.
Baum, Howell
Journal of the American Planning Association; v70 n1 , p14-26 ; Winter 2004
Considers the relationship of race, community, and education to sprawl and examines education as a means toward managing sprawl. Desegregating and improving urban schools is detailed as a means to attract students and encourage close-in living. Includes 93 references.

Edge-ucation. The Compulsion to Build Schools in the Middle of Nowhere.
Gurwitt, Rob
Governing; v14 n6 , p22-26 ; Mar 2004
Driven in part by concerns about stemming urban sprawl, in part by movements promoting smaller, neighborhood schools as antidotes to ailing educational quality, and in part by concern over keeping community cores intact, many people are asking whether it makes sense to keep putting up large new schools on the edge of town. Just as schools going up on the periphery of a community can promote sprawl, so a decision to build or renovate in the central city can generate revitalization.

Public School Facilities: Providing Environments that Sustain Learning. Adobe PDF
(Campaign for Fiscal Equity, New York, NY, Winter 2004)
ACCESS: The Quarterly Journal of the Advocacy Center for Children's Educational Success with Standards; v4 n1 , 4p. ; Winter 2004
Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of quality facilities, a number of obstacles impair efforts to build and maintain schools that are conducive to learning, including: state funding systems that limit financial support and provide incentives to build schools cheaply and defer maintenance; a growing number of facilities requirements; and significant enrollment growth. Urban and rural districts face additional challenges due to dense and sparse populations, respectively, and state policies that limit funding specifically for their school facilities. As a result of these barriers, countless students across the country, and particularly those in urban and rural areas, attend school in substandard facilities that negatively affect their education.

Transforming Inner-City School Grounds: Lessons from Learning Landscapes.
Brink, Lois; Yost, Bambi
Children, Youth and Environments; v14 n1 , p208-232 ; 2004
Relates the history of Denver's first Learning Landscapes project, at an elementary school, and the aftermath of its success as the program spread to schools throughout the district. The objectives, funding, educational programming, types of ecosystems created, social outcomes, and the role of the University of Colorado, Denver, are described, Includes 20 references.

Planning and Designing an Urban High School: The New Lewis Cass Technical High School. Adobe PDF
Buehler, Jake
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n2 , p8-11 ; 2004
Describes the planning and design process for this Detroit school, with attention to the design challenges presented by a small urban site in an area that compelled attention to architectural context and preservation of the venerated historical facility it replaced.

Community Schools Soften Tough Neighborhoods. Adobe PDF
Franceschi, Carl
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n2 , p3-7 ; 2004
Discusses elements of a successful school and community partnership aimed at addressing social issues in the neighborhood. Planning, design, and implementation issues are described, illustrated by two Boston case studies. Includes four references and resources.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Successful School Design for Small Urban Sites. Adobe PDF
Gillmore, Don; McLean, Andrea
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n2 , p12-15 ; 2004
Outlines design issues related to K-12 schools built on small urban sites, including parking, setbacks, bulk and height restrictions, service access drives, shared facility use, and school building structures in an urban context. Design solutions proposed ard based on Seattle Public Schools 1995-2008 Building Excellence (BEX) school construction program.

The Center School: Opportunities and Challenges in Planning and Building a Small Urban High School.
McConachie, Lorne; Lang, Dale
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n4 , p19-23 ; 2004
Describes the creation of this small high school within the vibrant Seattle Center neighborhood. The program and design of the school take advantage of the nontraditional setting, using renovated commercial space, wireless technology, and flexible interiors.

Urban Myths.
School Construction News; v6 n7 , p20-22 ; Oct 2003
Presents an interview with Raymond Bordwell that discusses the condition of urban school buildings, the particular make-up of thier student body, and the socio-economic issues that affect school design in urban settings.

Getting the Most from Urban Schools. Education is Essential to a City's Future, but Can Schools Help Shape the City, Too?
Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative Quarterly; v3 n1 ; Winter 2003
This explores how schools can help define and enliven urban places. Includes a description of the Cities of Learning Project in Paterson, New Jersey, led by urban designer Roy Strickland, that envisions a network of learning facilities – schools, libraries, arts groups, mobile computer labs – all turned loose to infiltrate the economic and social life of a mid-size industrial city that desperately needs to reverse its fortunes.

Creative Density.
Doublet, Jennifer
Architecture; v91 n10 , p56-61 ; Oct 2002
Describes the design of Wildwood School, an urban prep school in Los Angeles that reclaimed a warehouse, including the educational context and design goals. Includes building plans and photographs.

Urban Blight or Urban Hope?
Enderle, Jerry
School Planning and Management; v41 n10 , p38-41 ; Oct 2002
Discusses ways urban communities can improve neglected educational facilities, including converting existing commercial buildings into "new paradigm" schools and breaking large schools into small, specialized academies.

A Tight Squeeze.
Anderson, James; Cooper, Peter; Kluver, Roland
American School and University; v74 n12 , p152-55 ; Aug 2002
Discusses how education institutions can deal with time and space constraints when upgrading utilities on urban campuses. Addresses funding, cooperating with owners, innovative technology, and community relations. Offers the example of such construction at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

The New Breed.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n10 , p20-24 ; Jun 2002
Discusses how, as they struggle to improve academically and manage their facilities and finances more effectively, some school systems--especially large urban districts--are seeking out leaders with business expertise outside the field of education. Includes sidebars on one such leader and on schools that have chosen this path.

Two Compact Urban Schools
Logan, Katharine
Architecture Week; , D1 ; Jul 25, 2001
This describes the Gonzalo and Felicitias Mendez Fundamental Intermediate School in Santa Ana, California, that is tucked behind a shopping mall, on top of a parking garage, and the Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design in Vancouver, British Columbia, that occupies a similar site in a mixed-use redevelopment of an industrial waterfront. Each of these two schools turn the liabilities of its dense urban site into an asset and respond to an increasingly critical challenge: combining people, cars, and buildings in less space.

Urban Renewal.
Johnston, Robert C.
Education Week; v20 n40 , p32-35 ; Jun 13, 2001
Discusses the court-ordered, multibillion-dollar infusion of funds to New Jersey cities for improving their school facilities and whether these additional funds will cause an urban renaissance. Some examples of New Jersey urban school facility needs are highlighted. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

In Housing a School, Unused Commercial Space Sells Itself.
Jones, Morgan
School Construction News; v4 n1 , p20-21 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Discusses how the Pomona School District (California), an urban area facing a shortage of available real estate, purchased and renovated part of a retail complex into an elementary school.

Blending Old and New.
Smith, Sylvia J.
American School and University; v72 n12 , p156-60 ; Aug 2000
Discusses how schools and universities can transform outmoded urban structures, such as factories, warehouses, and department stores, into attractive and functional school facilities. Issues addressed include the importance of sound planning to maximize building funds, the problems of blending new facilities with older ones, and working without the benefit of an older building's original architectural drawings.

Location, Location, Location.
Finucan, Karen
Planning; v66 n5 , p4-8,11 ; May 2000
Discusses how good schools have drawing power in revitalizing both urban and rural communities and increasing property values. Several examples of the value of school renovation and its impact on the surrounding community and enrollment are discussed, including descriptions of planning and financing renovation efforts by some communities.

Green (Sustainable) Urban Educational Facilities.
Kirkbride, Ed
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p11 ; Apr 2000
Sustainable "green" schools are places where it is obvious that there is a concern for a sustainable future. This is shown in the practical decisions in the design of the facilities and school sites, during the construction or renovation process, in the inclusion of students and custodial in energy efficiency training and initiatives, in the district's transportation policies and in ongoing maintenance.

The Jewel of the Community.
Fanning, Ronald H.; Howey, Clair E.
American School and University; v72 n5 , p20-21 ; Jan 2000
Discusses why and how K-12 schools of the future will return to the community and become more of a focal point in urban planning. How information flow and technology will decentralize the way education is delivered is explored.

Interdistrict Downtown School, Minneapolis
Hammel, Bette
Architectural Record; , p114-117 ; Nov 1999
Describes a Minneapolis urban school design based on diversity of the public magnet school's students and community integration. Design data, photos, and floor plans are included.

Alternative Locations for School Buildings
Earthman, Glen I.
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p43-48 ; Jul 1999
Examines the plight of school systems in urbanized or highly-developed areas that have difficulties locating suitable sites for new buildings. Presents examples of schools that have found alternative locations, including the Parkway Program in Philadelphia; the Work Place School in Alberta, Canada; the Metropolitan Learning Alliance in Minnesota; and the Schoolhouse Boat in Vienna, Austria.

Step By Step.
Cox, Susan M.
American School and University; v71 n10 , p.56-57 ; Jun 1999
Explains how, despite limited funds, one urban California school district is working to modernize its schools while facing the challenges of displacing students into portable buildings, opening three middle schools, organizing a complete district-wide grade reconfiguration, and maintaining day-to-day school operations. Descriptions of the school district and specific school challenges faced are highlighted.

New York City's Cool Schools; Within the Country's Largest School System, Architectural Innovation Finds a Foothold
Gould, Kira L.
AIArchitect; v6 , p13 ; May 1999
Describes how extraordinary collaborations between agencies, educators, architects, and others created special places to learn within the New York City school system. It discusses this group approach in fostering commitment and achieving success in creating innovative educational facility designs.

A Tight Fit
Williamson, Susan
Texas Architect; v49 n1 , p42-43 ; Jan 1999
Describes the campus design of the University of Houston (Texas) as an example of an urban campus where space is limited; the siting of new buildings was straightforward; and the planning focused on the campus' identity, accessibility, and enhancement. Two drawings of the campus layout from the master plan are included.

The Urban Challenge.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p18-20,24,26 ; Jul 1998
Discusses the myriad of challenges facing urban schools and the problems their districts must struggle through in finding solutions. The severity of these problems, such as additional facility demand, school deterioration, increasing rates of school takeovers, and tight budgets are described.

The Inner Struggle.
Cox, Susan M.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p60-61 ; Jul 1998
Describes one inner-city school district's struggles with old buildings and community apathy that has caused no school funding issues to be passed in 2 decades. Showing the school district's ability to give value back to the neighborhood is considered an important element in changing public opinion.

Little Village Academy Chicago, Illinois
Pearson, Clifford
Architectural Record; v185 n10 , p108-113 ; Oct 1997
Presents a K-8 school design in Chicago that bridges the gap between the Hispanic culture of its students and an Anglo-American society by creating a Mexican feeling without making it look foreign to its surroundings. It describes the community in which the school resides, the planning strategy for its development, its architectural features, cost control aspects, floor planning, and interior color and materials.

Education as a City’s Basic Industry.
Kerchner, Charles Taylor
Education and Urban Society; v29 n4 , p424-41 ; Aug 1997
Examines the function of public education in contemporary cities and argues that public education needs to be seen and function as a basic industry: an industry that creates forward and backward linkages, multiples investments, and attracts people and capital. It suggests urban schools should be seen as being builders of modern cities, not builders of expensive social programs.

Urban Renewal.
Coffey, Daniel P.
School Planning and Management; v35 n1 , pC1-C4 ; 1996
Presents an account of how De Paul University's downtown Chicago campus, which is geared toward professional students, mounted a search for new space, which led to the acquisition of a city-owned landmark 1912 department store. By purchasing from the city, De Paul gained many financial advantages, and the city benefitted since it was able to make money from a building it was about to demolish. An essentially new building was developed in an old shell.

Master Gardener Classroom Garden Project: An Evaluation of the Benefits to Children.
Alexander, Jacquelyn; North, Mary-Wales; Hendren, Deborah
Children's Environments; v12 n2 , p123-133 ; Jun 1995
Analyzes data collected on 52 second and third grade students participating in this project that provides inner-city children in the San Antonio Independent School District with an experiential way of learning about horticulture, gardening, themselves, and their relationships with their peers. Qualitative interviews indicate that participation in the gardening project has had many positive effects on the school children. The children have gained pleasure from watching the products of their labor flourish, and have had the chance to increase interactions with their parents and other adults. In addition, the children have learned the anger and frustration that occur when things of value are harmed out of neglect or violence. Includes six references.

Tierra Buena: The Creation of an Urban Wildlife Habitat in an Elementary School in the Inner City.
Bradley, Lucy
Children's Environments; v12 n2 , p102-110 ; Jun 1995
Describes an urban wildlife habitat in central Phoenix, created by elementary school student parents, teachers, administrators, and the surrounding community. The students now spend time in a natural setting, interacting with adults modeling environmental stewardship, and learning a specific and general knowledge of ecology. They are taking personal responsibility for creating and protecting this habitat and are having a positive impact on their environment. Includes 13 references.

Savage Inequalities.
Kozol, Jonathan
(Crown Publishers, New York, 1991)
Documents the segregated and unequal public education of children from poor families in the inner cities and less affluent suburbs, and describes how children of poor families get less real education, less hope, and less concern than children from rich families. Deplorable facility conditions in many of the nation's urban schools are described, with examples from East St. Louis, New York, San Antonio, Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Camden. 262p.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).