THERMAL COMFORT IN SCHOOLS
Information on thermal comfort in school classrooms and facilities, including temperature ranges, ventilation rates, and humidity levels.
References to Books and Other Media
Improved Academic Performance. Student Health and Academic Performance: Using Research to Make the Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2012)
Provides links to research reports that link key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Includes the latest scientific data on indoor environmental quality, health and academic performance. Discusses why the physical environment of a school is important; what environmental factors are important and practical to address; and how much improvement can be expectec in academic performance and health.
Thermal Comparison between Ceiling Diffusers and Fabric Ductwork Diffusers for Green Buildings.
Fontanini, Anthony; Olsen, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
(Iowa State University, Ames , Jul 2011)
Compares the performance of conventional ductwork with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. The article focuses on the transient behavior of an on/off control system, as well as the steady state behavior of the two ductwork systems. Transient, fully three dimensional validated computational (CFD) simulations are performed to determine flow patterns and thermal evolution in rooms containing either conventional or fabric ductwork. The results conclusively show that fabric ducting systems are superior to the conventional systems in terms of efficiency. Observations from the data show that fabric ducting systems heat the room faster, more uniformly, and more efficiently. The increase in performance demonstrates the potential benefits of moving away from conventional systems to fabric systems for the construction of green buildings: particularly in conjunction with adaptive control systems. 41p.
Study of the Relationship Between Air-Conditioned Classrooms and Student Achievement.
Lemasters, Linda K.; Earthman, Glen
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2011)
Previous research on the effect air-conditioning has upon the well being and performance of students has produced some very positive results indicating there is a relationship between the thermal environment and student achievement. Three hypotheses were developed to test the proposition that air-conditioned classrooms had an effect upon student performance. The present study used the 2001 student results of the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition in the 4th, 6th, and 9th grades to measure the effect air-conditioned classrooms have upon this performance. The mean scaled scores of the 10 subtests were used to make the comparison. The population of the study consisted of 10 school divisions in Virginia. Half of the school divisions had all of the buildings air-conditioned, while the other half had no air-conditioned buildings. Although only one statistical significant relationship was found through the ANCOVA, observations of other relationships indicated a recognizable difference between the 9th grade scores of students in air-conditioned and non air-conditioned buildings that was not present in the 4th grade scores. This leads to the belief that the longer students attend an air-conditioned building, the higher will be their achievement scores. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org
Application of a School Building Thermal Response Numerical Model in the Evolution of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort Level in the Mediterranean Environment.
Conceição, Eusébio; Nunes, Abel; Gomes, João; Lúcio, Manuela
(International Journal of Ventilation, v9 n3, Dec 2010)
Reviews the adaptive thermal comfort model and then applies and compares it with the performance of the conventional thermal comfort model for a school located in a Mediterranean weather environment. Measurement data, combined with a building thermal response numerical model, are used to define the comfort performance under ambient natural ventilation and passive conditions for various classrooms. These results can then be used to identify the locations that require further measures to improve comfort, such as extra passive heat load and shading measures. The school design is based on that of an actual school and consists of three buildings, with 94 rooms. Envelope construction consists of opaque panels, 307 glazed window units and concrete floors and ceilings. The adaptive method uses external and internal environmental variables. Input data include occupation pattern and ventilation strategies. External environmental variables include air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and wind direction. Internal parameters include occupancy cycle, occupant activity level, clothing level, airflow rate and flow velocity. Indoor ventilation conditions are based on the airflow rate and the air velocity values measured in real classrooms. [author's abstract] 287-304
Education Case Studies.
(Lennox, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2010)
Provides case studies for ten schools that variously improved indoor air quality, saved energy, and improved thermal comfort with Lennox equipment.
Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank.
(Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, 2010)
Provides information for public health professionals, building professionals, and others who seek scientific information about the effects of IAQ on people's health or work performance. School-specific sections include Temperature and School Work Performance, Ventilation Rates and School Performance, Ventilation Rates and Absences in Offices and Schools, and Daylight, View, and School and Office Work Performance.
Window Opening Behaviour in a Naturally Ventilated School.
Dutton, Spencer; Shao, Li
(International Building Performance Simulation Association , Jan 2010)
Reports on a post occupancy assessment of a new primary school was performed over a period of over one year. Concurrent measurement of window open state, CO2 concentration, temperature, and exterior environmental conditions were taken at a frequency of two minutes. In addition, classroom daily occupancy levels and monthly building energy usage were recorded. A probabilistic model of the proportion of windows open throughout the day as the occupants interact with the windows was developed based on the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis. The model was used to schedule window opening in the EnergyPlus simulation program. Predictions of both CO2 concentration and building energy performance, using the occupant behavior model, were shown to give more accurate predictions than a model based on temperature set points. [author's abstract] 9p.
Winter Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Acoustic Performance of Newly Built Secondary Schools in England.
D. Mumovica, et al
(Building and Environment, Volume 44, Issue 7, Jul 2009)
Previous studies have found that classrooms are often inadequately ventilated, with the resultant increased risk of negative impacts on the pupils. This paper describes a series of field measurements that investigated the indoor air quality, thermal comfort and acoustic performance of nine recently built secondary schools in England. The most significant conclusion is that the complex interaction between ventilation, thermal comfort and acoustics presents considerable challenges for designers. The study showed that while the acoustic standards are demanding it was possible to achieve natural ventilation designs that met the criteria for indoor ambient noise levels when external noise levels were not excessive. Most classrooms in the sample met the requirement of limiting the daily average CO2 concentration to below 1500 ppm but just a few met the need to readily provide 8 l/s per person of fresh air under the easy control of the occupants. It would seem that the basic requirement of 1500 ppm of CO2 is achieved as a consequence of the window areas being just sufficient to provide the minimum of 3 l/s per person at low and intermittent occupancy. Thermal comfort in the monitored classrooms was mostly acceptable but temperatures tended to be much higher in practice than the design assumed. [Authors' abstract] p1466-1477TO ORDER: http://www.mendeley.com/research/winter-indoor-air-quality-thermal-comfort-and-acoustic-performance-of-newly-built-secondary-schools-in-england/
Temperature and School Work Performance.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Reports results of studies revealing the effect of too cool or too warm classrooms on student performance. Speed and accuracy of work were assessed and found to be affected differently. 2p.
References to Journal Articles
Cause a Stir.
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 2011
Discusses destratification of air in large athletic spaces with fans or fabric ducts. Common HVAC mistakes in these spaces are also addressed.
Building Blueprints: Kindergarten Classrooms.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p58,59 ; Nov 2010
Advises on the design of kindergarten classrooms, emphasizing the available of intimate spaces for individual and small group activities, natural light and access to nature, thermal comfort, acoustics, and appropriate scale.
Considerations When Upgrading Renovating Window Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on window selection for campus buildings, emphasizing energy efficiency, building orientation, appropriate window style, and glass selection. Acoustics, daylighting, thermal comfort, and aesthetics are also addressed.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p223 ; Nov 2010
Discusses the use of low-speed, large diameter ceiling fans to improve thermal comfort in schools.
Walls, Ceilings, and Learning.
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p28-31 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the role of prevention of water intrusion into the school building envelope, ceiling tile selection, and insulation in creating a healthy, quite, and comfortable learning environment.
Maintaining Student Performance.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Jun 2010
Describes how proper maintenance of school HVAC systems contributes to educational achievement through better air quality and thermal comfort. An example of preventive maintenance on systems in the Round Rock (Texas) School District illustrates many procedures, their respective costs, and benefits.
On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies.
Mavrogianni, A.; Mumovic, D.
Indoor and Built Environment; v 9 n 3 , 340-354 ; Jun 2010
Focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. [author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://ibe.sagepub.com/content/19/3/340.abstract
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p20-22,24 ; May 2010
Addresses challenges and solutions for LEED-Silver (New Construction) certification for air conditioning a dormitory that regularly must content with 100-degree F temperatures. Architects and engineers must consider building design, energy efficiency, IAQ and thermal comfort, innovation, operation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness, all within university evolving targets. Follow-up includes instructing students on window use.
Out with the Old.
Rydeen, James; Stofferahn, Terry; Lange, Jim
American School and University; v82 n9 , p33-35 ; Apr 2010
Describes conventional and induction displacement ventilation in schools. The cost effectiveness, increased ventilation, and acoustical benefits are addressed, as are building and room design requirements for effective deployment of displacement ventilation.
The Thermal Comfort Zone.
Buildings; v104 n1 , p38-40 ; Jan 2010
Discusses the difficulty of achieving a unanimous perception of thermal comfort in a building, and the advantages of displacement ventilation in that endeavor. Advice on designing, computer modeling, and installing displacement ventilation is included.
Growing Green Schools.
Edutopia; v5 n6 , p30-32 ; Dec 2009
Reviews the benefits of "green" schools in terms of indoor air quality, thermal comfort, acoustics, cleanability, and energy savings. The nominal costs of building green and the significant increase in student achievement and life cycle costs are also described.
Cooling with Less Air.
Weidner, Steve; Doerger, Jerome; Walsh, Michael
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n12 , p34-40 ; Dec 2009
Discusses underfloor air distribution and chilled beam systems for cooling that uses less energy and delivers superior occupant comfort. The function, design, and combination of these systems are detailed, illustrated by an example of a 376,000 square foot facility housing 2,200 people.
Building Envelope: Focus on Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses use of infrared technology and visual inspection to identify air leaks, wet insulation, and thermal bridging, along with suggested elements of a maintenance checklist and current products to remedy unsatisfactory conditions.
Circulating Ideas on HVLS Fans.
The Construction Specifier; v62 n6 , p116-120,122-125 ; Jun 2009
Disucsses advances in high-volume, low-speed (HVLS) ceiling fans that have created quiet and energy-efficient devices that can deliver significant HVAC savings by reducing the amount of ductwork needed, de-stratifying the indoor air, and allowing thermostats to be set higher in the summer and lower in the winter.
Moving Air for Comfort.
Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p18-20,22,24,26-28 ; May 2009
Describes field study findings that reveal preferences for air movement among building occupants. In general, most occupants prefer more air movement than what they presently have. Risk of draft is small at temperatures above 72.5 degrees. Tables and charts illustrate sensory perceptions, opinions of acceptable or unacceptable air movement, and recommended elevated air speed for warmer temperatures. Includes 21 references.
American School and University; v81 n7 , p46,48 ; Mar 2009
Focuses on making existing campus buildings more sustainable, beginning with assessment of energy and water use, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, materials, and construction.
Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools.
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n4 , p19-22 ; 2009
Describes carpet’s benefits to the learning environment, including contributions to indoor air quality; thermal, visual and acoustical comfort, and safety.
Underfloor Air Distribution 101.
Teplitsky, Alex; Stoehr, Todd
Buildings; v103 n1 , p44,45 ; Jan 2009
Describes underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems, created under raised floors that also provide space for most other types of service distribution systems. Pressurized and zero-pressure floors are described, as are opportunities for energy savings and improved occupant comfort.