NCEF Resource List: School Preparedness for School Shootings or Terrorism
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Information on the protection of school and campus facilities from school shootings or terrorism, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition Adobe PDF
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p

Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.
Report NO: NCES 2011320

Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
Trump, Kenneth
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.

Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.

References to Journal Articles

Keeping Students Safe
Kroll, Karen
Building Operating Management; , p22-29 ; Jul 2012
Four part story: College Campus Shootings Prompt New Emergency Preparedness Steps; Public Safety, Police And Security Professionals Can Help Assess Campus Security Threats; Campus Layout Can Help Mitigate Threats, But Good Security Plan Needed; and Policies, Training Are Keys to Keeping Campus Safe.

Ready, Set, Emergency!
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.

How Prepared Are America's Colleges and Universities for Major Crises?
Mitroff, Ian; Diamond, Michael; Alpasian, Murat
Change (Reprinted by SCUP); Nov 2011
Outlines a set of recommendations to college and university leaders and governing bodies on how to develop crisis-management systems to ensure that their institutions are as well prepared as possible for a wide range of crises. These recommendations are based, in part, on crisis-management programs developed for various business organizations. Results of a survey of colleges and universities to determine the general level of crisis-management preparation are also included.

Who Is In Charge?
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.

School Security after 9/11
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n10 , p18-20,22,23 ; Jun 2011
Brings historical perspective to the evolution of school security after 9/11, especially the demand for improved communication with all constituencies. School officials are encouraged to become familiar with the Department of Homeland Security's National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS's six components are preparedness, resource management, communications and information management, supporting technologies, and ongoing management and maintenance.

Raising the Alarm.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p58,60,62 ; May 2011
Reviews emergency notification systems at GateWay Community College, Gettysburg College, and UCLA. The different systems of each institution is described, along with backup capabilities and requirements for emergency notification under the Clery Act.

When Parents Need to Know.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p50-52 ; May 2011
Advises on mass notification systems, describing how to determine the right capacity, suggesting wording for emergency notification messages, approaches to man-made and natural threats, and creative uses such as delivering inspirational wake-up messages to chronically absent students.

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.

Evaluating the Viability of Cloud Computing.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p64-66 ; May 2011
Describes the pros and cons of the University of Dayton cloud computing efforts. Applications include parking management and emergency notification.

At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
Sharp, Linda
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.

Emergency! What Will You Do if Someone Pulls a Gun and Starts Shooting.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p78-81 ; Apr 2011
Discusses elements of a school emergency plan, including risk assessment, prevention and mitigation of incidents, preparedness, and response and recovery.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).