SCHOOL PREPAREDNESS FOR SCHOOL SHOOTINGS OR TERRORISM
Information on the protection of school and campus facilities from school shootings or terrorism, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p
Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p
Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.Report NO: NCES 2011320
Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.TO ORDER: http://www.schoolsecurity.org/security_crisis_book.html
Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.
Mass Notification for Higher Education.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Discusses essential considerations when designing a campus-wide mass notification system, and the pros and cons of current notification systems. 8p.
Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know.
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. 46p.
Columbine 10th Anniversary: Lessons Learned and Glaring Gaps Remain, The Legacy of Columbine Ten Years Later.
Discusses changes in school security after the April, 1999 shooting at Columbine High School. Topics include: 1)What has improved? 2)What gaps remain? 3)How have budgets for school safety changed? 4)What key elements are missing from many school safety plans? 5)What should administrators and parents do to improve and sustain school safety? Videos of news interviews with the author accompany the text.
Emergency Management Standards.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). 2p.
Preventing Violence and Crime in America's Schools: From Put Downs to Lock Downs.
Lassiter, William; Perry, Danya
(Greenwood/Praeger Press, Santa Barbara, CA , 2009)
Provides educators, parents, law enforcement officials, and other youth-serving professionals with a perspective on the topic of school violence, offering solutions to the problems facing all schools when it comes to violence and safety. The authors examine specifics relating to school violence, opportunities to prevent and intervene, and the importance of planning for a crisis. The book highlights both research and practitioner viewpoints, balancing insights gained through real-world experiences with research on best practices. 256p.TO ORDER: http://www.greenwood.com/
References to Journal Articles
Keeping Students Safe
Building Operating Management; , p22-29 ; Jul 2012
Four part story: College Campus Shootings Prompt New Emergency Preparedness Steps; Public Safety, Police And Security Professionals Can Help Assess Campus Security Threats; Campus Layout Can Help Mitigate Threats, But Good Security Plan Needed; and Policies, Training Are Keys to Keeping Campus Safe.
Ready, Set, Emergency!
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.
How Prepared Are America's Colleges and Universities for Major Crises?
Mitroff, Ian; Diamond, Michael; Alpasian, Murat
Change (Reprinted by SCUP); Nov 2011
Outlines a set of recommendations to college and university leaders and governing bodies on how to develop crisis-management systems to ensure that their institutions are as well prepared as possible for a wide range of crises. These recommendations are based, in part, on crisis-management programs developed for various business organizations. Results of a survey of colleges and universities to determine the general level of crisis-management preparation are also included.
Who Is In Charge?
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.
School Security after 9/11
American School and University; v83 n10 , p18-20,22,23 ; Jun 2011
Brings historical perspective to the evolution of school security after 9/11, especially the demand for improved communication with all constituencies. School officials are encouraged to become familiar with the Department of Homeland Security's National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS's six components are preparedness, resource management, communications and information management, supporting technologies, and ongoing management and maintenance.
Raising the Alarm.
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p58,60,62 ; May 2011
Reviews emergency notification systems at GateWay Community College, Gettysburg College, and UCLA. The different systems of each institution is described, along with backup capabilities and requirements for emergency notification under the Clery Act.
When Parents Need to Know.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p50-52 ; May 2011
Advises on mass notification systems, describing how to determine the right capacity, suggesting wording for emergency notification messages, approaches to man-made and natural threats, and creative uses such as delivering inspirational wake-up messages to chronically absent students.
Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.
Evaluating the Viability of Cloud Computing.
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p64-66 ; May 2011
Describes the pros and cons of the University of Dayton cloud computing efforts. Applications include parking management and emergency notification.
At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.
Emergency! What Will You Do if Someone Pulls a Gun and Starts Shooting.
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p78-81 ; Apr 2011
Discusses elements of a school emergency plan, including risk assessment, prevention and mitigation of incidents, preparedness, and response and recovery.
In Case of Disaster: Emergency Operations Centers.
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p38,40-43 ; Nov 2010
Discusses higher education emergency operations centers (EOCs), addressing how they can be economically set up in existing facilities, and how they should be equipped and staffed. Examples from three institutions are included.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Educations four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.
Is It an Emergency if No One is Listening?
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jun 2010
Discusses implementation of emergency alert systems at Jackson State and Lewis and Clark College. Prudent engagement of the system during incidents and frustration with low number of students and faculty who enroll to receive alerts are addressed.
Using All Resources Available.
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p20,22,24 ; Apr 2010
Advises on the incorporation of students in a school security program, noting the benefits and cost-effectiveness of their many watchful eyes. Discomfort with incorporating students is addressed, and means informing them and including them in the security program are described.
American School and University; v82 n6 , pSS30-SS33 ; Feb 2010
Discusses safety assessment and needs analysis of schools, engaging stakeholders cooperation, creating a comprehensive life safety plan, and educating all building users on the plan through regular testing and maintenance.
What Is Your Plan?
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p20-25 ; Dec 2009
Advises on comprehensive school disaster planning for natural disasters, terrorism, and epidemics. Examples of school plans successfully executed are included.
Fire and Life Safety.
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p60,61,62,64 ; Nov 2009
Discusses the need to practice lockdowns as well as evacuations at schools. The components of lockdown plans are discussed, as well as the need to get these approved by local officials, just as evacuation plans are.
Towson University Notifies the Masses.
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p49-51 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the integration of emergency notification systems at this institution, which previously required activation from within separate buildings. The system is self-monitoring, can survive a catastrophic event that damages any part of it, and delivers messages with high intelligibility.
Ready to Respond: IP-Based Emergency Mass Notification.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p14,16,17 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Discusses the third generation, or network-centric mass notification systems. These systems can deliver alerts to all species of communications and computing devices, as well as to traditional sirens, radio, and television. They also accommodate response from recipients confirming their status. Examples from two universities are included.
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS32,SS34,SS35 ; Sep 2009
Reviews the use of sirens, text messages, e-mail blasts, outdoor voice systems, intercoms, and LED signs for campus emergency notification. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are discussed, as are potential interoperabilities.
Keeping the Community in the Know.
District Administration; v45 n7 , p41-43 ; Aug 2009
Discusses mass notification systems for schools, which are more frequently being used for everyday, non-emergency communication. Internet-based services do not require hardware, software, or additional phone line installation. Some fully hosted online notification services are briefly reviewed.
NIMS/ICS: The National Incident Management System/Incident Command System.
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Describes the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS). The divisions of the systems are described, followed by a discussion of its advantages to standardization, interoperability, federal preparedness funding, and cost effectiveness. Examples of campus applications of the system and advice on training staff are included.
Educational Program Emergency Planning.
Radiologic Technology; v80 n6 , p515-522 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were reviewed from a sample of accredited radiologic science programs. The review of the emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings. The article provides a chronological list of notable higher education campus shootings; addresses prevention, response, and recovery; cites points for enhancing campus security distilled from a review of the literature; and 42 references.
What Will You Do? Effective Responses Come From Great Preparation.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Describes how a Florida school system handled a crisis effectively through thorough planning that incorporated the National Incident Management System (NIMS).
Getting the Word Out.
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p48,50-52 ; Jun 2009
Cites examples of how higher education institutions alerted their entire campus when crimes were committed nearby, describing the type of systems used. Features of various systems are highlighted, and advice on selecting a mass notification system is included.
University Business; v12 n6 , p41-44 ; Jun 2009
Highlights programs at Virginia Tech, Boston University, Bryant University, Kent State University, and the University of Philadelphia, that strengthen ties and cooperation between college and university security and emergency officials and their local, regional, and state counterparts. The programs connect cell phones, land lines, computers, 400 megahertz and 800 megahertz radios, and walkie-talkies to the common denominator of an IP network, enabling system-wide with one call.
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p11 ; May 2009
Presents an interview with a school security professional that discusses reactions to the recent swine flu outbreak, improvements in school security since the 1999 shooting at Columbine High School, and a short-term forecast for school security.
Your Attention, Please.
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p46,48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews technological enhancements to school public address systems that coordinate class bells, two-way communication to classrooms, emergency communication, and wireless clocks.
Facility Survival Guide. [Emergency Planning Strategies.]
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2009
Advises facility managers on emergency response, with eight recommendations: 1) Develop an emergency action plan, not a guidebook. 2) Don't plan to rely solely on first responders. 3) Use Department of Homeland Security mandated NIMS courses. 4) Establish tabletops, drills, and exercises. 5) Establish a working relationship with first responders. 6) Create a perimeter group. 7) Use technology. 8) Don;t rely on product sales pitches.
American School Board Journal; v196 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Advises what should and should not be said to the public in the event of a school tragedy, withmany typical messages being discouraged as being over-used or indicating a lack of recognition of the victims. A list of safety communication ideas for disaster preparation, rumor and threat management, and during and after a crisis are included.
Bioterrorism: Averting a Crisis.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p26 ; Feb 2009
Discusses how biological agents might enter a building in a terrorism event, the role of HVAC systems in excluding or at least containing biological agents, and points of an HVAC audit to determine the system's ability to respond to contamination.
Prevent Campus Assaults with Proven Methods.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n1 , p34-38 ; Jan 2009
Discusses prevention of assaults with weapons, including banning of high risk individuals, aggressive traffic enforcement, staff training, visual screening for weapons on persons, room searches, metal detection and X-ray equipment, trained detection animals, and plain view vehicle checks.