NCEF Resource List: School Preparedness for School Shootings or Terrorism
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Information on the protection of school and campus facilities from school shootings or terrorism, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition Adobe PDF
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p

Cost-Effective and Resilient Enterprise-Wide User Notification Methods
(THE Journal, Mar 28, 2012)
White paper on delivering quick and effective communications in times of emergency. The modern day classroom with new technologies brings a new set of standards, expectations, and needs when it comes to protecting and alerting the student community during emergency situations. This discusses a cost effective mass notification desktop alerting solution. 6p

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.
Report NO: NCES 2011320

Proactive School Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning.
Trump, Kenneth
(Corwin Press, Apr 2011)
Outlines school security issues and provides nuts-and-bolts strategies for preventing violence and preparing for crises. Chapters include: The Evolving Threats to School Security; Comprehensive School Safety Planning and Leadership; School Security Assessments; School Security Strategies and Issues including board meeting and administration office security, athletic and large event security, bomb threats and suspicious devices, cell phones and text messaging, gangs, hotlines and anonymous reporting, private and independent schools, SROs and school police, school security staffing, student involvement in school safety planning, Tasers and school police, transportation security, uniforms and dress codes, zero tolerance. Additional chapters on Managing bullying; Preparing Schools for Terrorism; Managing School Safety on Tight Budgets; Parents and School Safety; Early Warning Signs of Violence; Assessing and Managing Threats; Lessons Learned from School Crisis Incidents; Emergency Preparedness Planning and Preparation; Emergency Response and Crisis Management; Managing Media and Parent Communications on School Safety and Crisis Issues; The Post-Crisis Crisis; and Future Directions: State, Federal, and Academic Support for School Safety. 328p.

Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.

Mass Notification for Higher Education. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Discusses essential considerations when designing a campus-wide mass notification system, and the pros and cons of current notification systems. 8p.

Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know.
Borland, Larry
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. 46p.

Columbine 10th Anniversary: Lessons Learned and Glaring Gaps Remain, The Legacy of Columbine Ten Years Later.
Trump, Ken
Apr 2009
Discusses changes in school security after the April, 1999 shooting at Columbine High School. Topics include: 1)What has improved? 2)What gaps remain? 3)How have budgets for school safety changed? 4)What key elements are missing from many school safety plans? 5)What should administrators and parents do to improve and sustain school safety? Videos of news interviews with the author accompany the text.

Emergency Management Standards. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). 2p.

Preventing Violence and Crime in America's Schools: From Put Downs to Lock Downs.
Lassiter, William; Perry, Danya
(Greenwood/Praeger Press, Santa Barbara, CA , 2009)
Provides educators, parents, law enforcement officials, and other youth-serving professionals with a perspective on the topic of school violence, offering solutions to the problems facing all schools when it comes to violence and safety. The authors examine specifics relating to school violence, opportunities to prevent and intervene, and the importance of planning for a crisis. The book highlights both research and practitioner viewpoints, balancing insights gained through real-world experiences with research on best practices. 256p.

Safe School Initiatives. Adobe PDF
(Office of the Missouri State Auditor, Jefferson City , Aug 2008)
Reports on an audit that evaluated education officials and school districts based on compliance with state laws and recommendations from the Missouri Center for Safe Schools. The review found that school districts had not always provided parents and students with complete disciplinary policies that spells out specific punishments, needed to do a better job of educating students about potential Internet dangers and could do more to prepare for emergencies. The audit s findings, which were highly critical of the state education department, found examples of school districts that had not taken proper safety precautions because of ignorance of state guidelines. 71p.
Report NO: 2008-52

School Disaster Reduction and Readiness Checklist. Adobe PDF
(Risk Reduction Education for Disasters, California , Jul 15, 2008)
Offers a brief checklist that assesses the presence or absence of 33 elements of school disaster preparedness. 2p.

Campus Violence Prevention and Response: Best Practices for Massachusetts Higher Education. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Dept. of Higher Education, Boston , Jun 2008)
Reports on current practice for violence prevention on Massachusetts higher education campuses. In four sections, the report defines the nature and scope of campus violence, reviews previous reports of study groups and task forces and discusses established best practices for enhancing campus safety and violence prevention, examines the current state of security and violence prevention at institutions of higher education throughout Massachusetts, and makes 27 recommendations for how Massachusetts schools can best improve their security and violence prevention efforts. The report also cites numerous safety deficiencies across the state system and urged the 29 public colleges to take immediate steps to rectify them. 127p.

The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech. Adobe PDF
(Midwestern Higher Education Compact, Minneapolis, MN , May 2008)
Reports how higher education institutions have addressed campus as a result of safety audits conducted after recent shootings at Virginia Tech and other campuses. Survey methodology, a summary of safety audits, prevention, mitigation, recovery, notification systems, security monitoring and enhancement, recognizing and responding to student behavior, and budgetary impacts are addressed. 32p.

Overview of the Virginia Tech Tragedy and Implications for Campus Safety: The IACLEA Blueprint for Safer Campuses. Adobe PDF
(International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, West Hartford, CT , Apr 2008)
Synthesizes reports written following the April 16, 2007 shooting at Virginia Tech. The document concludes that unmanaged mental health issues, easy access to firearms, a lack of communication among campus direct service providers, and erroneous interpretation of federal laws all coalesced to compound the risk and the tragedy. Twenty recommendations for campus safety and a statement by the publishing organization are included. 14p.

Emergency Response Information for School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Discusses the information required for managing school buildings, grounds, occupants, and rescue and recovery personnel during and after a crisis: neighborhood maps; aerial and ground photos; campus plans; command post and staging area locations; alternative evacuation routes and sites; school floor plans; fire alarm, sprinkler, utility, and television shutoff procedures; first aid supply locations; contact information for emergency responders, staff, and outside assistance; and the provision of building keys. 3p.

Emergency Management Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(Eastern Kentucky University, Kentucky Center for School Safety, Richmond , 2008)
Provides a template with which a school or school district can build a customized emergency response plan. The document offers sections with checklists for mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. These are followed by advice and resources for incident command, communication, a district plan, a school plan, emergency management for specific events, recovery, and a list of references and resources. 149p.

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
This NCEF publication describes a process for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds, making a hazard mitigation plan, and implementing the plan. Steps include: select an assessment tool; assemble an assessment team; look at the record; perform the assessment; write up the results; create a standing committee on hazard mitigation; prepare a hazard mitigation plan; understand risk; weigh passive vs. active safety; select security technology with care; improve school climate; calculate costs, locate funding; seek input; coordinate hazard mitigation with crisis planning; start small, think big; justify thoroughly; meet regularly, advocate continually; and benefit mutually. 4p.

NCEF School Safety Assessment Guides.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
The 25 guides found on the lower portion of this web page assist in the school safety assessment process. Each downloadable guide addresses a specific area or space within the school, presenting a series of "yes-no" questions that assess the safety and security of physical features typical for that area. 67p.

Vermont School Crisis Guide. Adobe PDF
(Vermont School Crisis Planning Team, Crittenden East Supervisory Union, Richmond , 2008)
Presents general information on school crisis management that individual schools or districts can tailor to fit local needs and capabilities. The Guide is a framework to implement local school policy and administrative procedures, which are based on a comprehensive school emergency operations plan and policies. Sections of the guide cover the crisis planning team, various committees, accidents, terrorism and criminal acts, natural disasters, medical emergencies, and additional policies and procedures. 83p.

A Holistic Approach to Mass Notification. Adobe PDF
Trumbo, Berkly
(Inova Solutions, Charlottesville, VA , Jan 2008)
Cites disadvantages to audio mass notification, and advocates strategically placed visual alerting and smart LED signage in campus high traffic and gathering areas. 4p.

School Emergency Management Planning: Hazard Vulnerability Assessments.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security , Oct 05, 2007)
Advocates hazard vulnerability assessments (HVAs) as essential elements of school emergency management planning. Schools can utilize HVA's to identify potential hazards and to prioritize prevention and mitigation efforts in cases of emergency. HVAs are typically conducted by risk assessment teams that include school personnel and representatives from the local emergency management community. A list of 22 resources is included. 7p.

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics , Sep 2007)
Uses data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, bomb threats, and hazardous materials threats are included. 75p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-361

Report to the President: On Issues Raised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Dept. of Education, U.S. Dept. of Justice; Washington, DC , Jun 13, 2007)
Summarizes findings from meetings between federal delegations and state officials in the aftermath of the April 16, 2007 shooting at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). The findings include: 1) Obstacles exist to critical information sharing between education officials, healthcare providers, law enforcement personnel, and others. 2) State laws and practices do not uniformly ensure that information on persons restricted from possessing firearms is appropriately captured and available to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). 3) Parents, students, and teachers must learn to recognize warning signs and encourage those who need help to seek it. 4) Meeting the challenge of adequate and appropriate community integration of people with mental illness requires effective coordination of community service providers. Though state and local leaders pointed out that these issues reside primarily with states and localities, this report also identifies steps the three federal agencies can take to ensure federal law and activities support, rather than impede, state and local efforts to deal with the complex issues raised by the Virginia Tech tragedy. 22p.

Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. Adobe PDF
(United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC , Jun 2007)
Assesses the roles of federal and state governments and school districts in establishing requirements and providing resources for emergency management planning, what school districts have done to plan and prepare for emergencies, and the challenges school districts have experienced in planning for emergencies. Surveys, interviews, and document reviews were conducted at the federal, state, and district level. Most states and school districts reported having requirements for emergency planning, and federal and state governments and school districts provide financial and other resources. Thirty-two states reported having laws or other policies requiring school districts to have emergency management plans. Most school districts have developed emergency management plans, but many plans do not include federally recommended practices. The GAO estimates that over one-quarter of school districts have never trained with any first responders and over two-thirds of school districts do not regularly train with community partners on how to implement their school district emergency management plans. 74p.
Report NO: GAO-07-609

Emergency Management: Status of School Districts' Planning and Preparedness. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accountability Office, Washington, DC , May 17, 2007)
Reports on the current state of emergency preparedness in U.S. school districts, illustrating percentages of districts that have plans for intruders, bomb threats, natural disasters, terrorism, radiation, anthrax, and pandemic influenza. Some plans and school districts have taken steps to plan for a range of emergencies, as most have developed multi-hazard emergency management plans. However some plans and activities do not address federally recommended practices. In an estimated 62 percent of districts, officials cited a lack of equipment and expertise as impediments to emergency planning. Absence of door locks necessary for implementing a lockdown and a lack of two-way radios are two examples of facility and equipment deficiencies. Also noted was a shortage of expertise in both planning for and managing emergencies, as well as an inability to incorporate special needs students in emergency management planning. An estimated 39 percent of districts with emergency plans experience challenges in communicating and coordinating with local first responders, lacking partnerships with all or specific first responders, limited time or funding to collaborate with first responders on plans for emergencies, or a lack of interoperability between the equipment used by the school district and equipment used by first responders. 25p.
Report NO: GAO-07-821T

Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.

Department of Defense Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Defense, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
This document seeks effective ways to minimize the likelihood of mass casualties from terrorist attacks against Department of Defense personnel in the buildings in which they work and live. However, the document has been approved for public release and distribution is unlimited. The standards provide appropriate, implementable, and enforceable measures to establish a level of protection against terrorist attacks, and can be achieved through prudent master planning, real estate acquisition, and design and construction practices. Design strategies include: 1) maximize standoff distance; 2) prevent building collapse; 3) minimize hazardous flying debris; and 4) limit airborne contamination. 49p.

Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide for Utah Schools.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2007)
Assists Utah schools in compliance with state regulations mandating emergency preparedness plans for schools. The guide outlines responsibilities for school officials and staff; criteria, components, and organization of an emergency preparedness plan; hazard analysis; communications and evacuation plans; and specific advice for itemized threats. Appendices include the text of the state rule, additional advice for specific age groups, sample forms, and a list of recommended first aid equipment and supplies. 93p.

Pennsylvania Office of Attorney General School Safety Project.
(Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General, Harrisburg , 2007)
This CD instructs school districts on how to create an interactive and secure website with critical information about each school in the district that only can be accessed by first responders in the case of an emergency. Information to be placed on the website includes detailed floor plans of each school, interior and exterior photographs, a complete contact list of all teachers and administrators, and a crises management response plan for the district.

Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, D.C. , Jan 2007)
School districts may be touched either directly or indirectly by a crisis of some kind at any time, including natural disasters, school shootings, or acts of terrorism. This guide is intended to give schools, districts, and communities the critical concepts and components of good crisis planning, stimulate thinking about the crisis preparedness process, and provide examples of promising practices. Sections include: 1) Mitigation/Prevention; 2) Preparedness; 3) Response; 4) Recovery; and 5) Resources. Each section contains an action checklist and action steps. 146p.

Safe School Facilities Checklist.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
A checklist that combines the nation's best school facility assessment measures into one online source for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds. It includes over 400 measures covering school surroundings, school grounds, buildings and facilities, communications systems, building access control and surveillance, utility systems, mechanical systems, and emergency power. The checklist is updated frequently and may be used for planning and designing new facilities or assessing existing ones.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

The Presidential Role in Disaster Planning and Response: Lessons from the Front. Adobe PDF
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2007)
Details eight "lessons learned," as synthesized from the advice of ten higher education presidents who led their respective institutions through a natural or man-made disaster. The lessons focus on leadership, communication, recovery, minimizing enrollment loss, and dealing with "matters of the heart." 12p.

With the Public's Knowledge, We Can Make Sheltering in Place Possible. Adobe PDF
(New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY , 2007)
Identifies serious and unanticipated problems that currently make it neither feasible nor safe for many people to shelter in place in case of an emergency. The report is based on two years' work gathering the insights and experiences of nearly 2,000 people who live and work in four communities around the country. Among the many gaps uncovered was the fact that while schools have been preparing for emergencies that affect the school directly, children are also at risk if their parents and other guardians need to shelter in place because of an emergency and no other adult is available to pick the children up or be at home with them after school. 62p.

Hazard Identification And Risk Assessment For Schools.
(State of Maine, Augusta , Nov 2006)
Offers a workbook to identify and assess hazards to school property and occupants in order to develop a more thorough emergency response plan. 22p.

Arizona School Site Emergency Response Plan Template.
(Arizona Dept. of Education, Arizona Division of Emergency Management, Phoenix , Sep 2006)
Provides school districts with comprehensive guidelines to follow in case of any of nineteen types of emergencies. Checklists, communication instructions, staff responsibilities, job descriptions, and a wide variety of forms for inventory, release, skills assessment, and site review are included. 79p.

Campus Public Safety Preparedness for Catastrophic Events: Lessons Learned from Hurricanes and Explosives. Adobe PDF
(International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, West Hartford, CT , 2006)
Presents the demographic information, chronology of priorities, emergency plans, command and coordination, equipment and logistics, communications, staff and critical incident stress management, recall and staffing, lessons learned, and unmet needs of fifteen higher education institutions affected by Hurricanes Katrina or Rita, or by bomb incidents. 148p.

Working with Students with Disabilities in a Disaster.
Daylin, Chris; Vincent, Ray; Ybarra, William
(Los Angeles County Office of Education, California , 2006)
Advises on the accommodation of the disabled during a disaster, covering levels and types of disabilities, special equipment and supplies to have on hand for the disabled, and procedures for working with individuals impaired in hearing, vision, learning, and mobility, as well as their service animals. Advice on evacuation planning, psychological symptoms, stress factors, and communication is included. 45p.

School Safety: Lessons Learned. Adobe PDF
Heffelfinger, Thomas; Cooney, Jeanne
(United States Attorney's Office, District of Minnesota, Minneapolis , 2006)
Advises on school safety and security, covering threat assessment, school climate, violence prevention programs, building safety assessment, crisis response plans, law enforcement response, security technology, communication during an emergency, trends in student violence, and lessons learned from incidents at schools in Minnesota 54p.

Secure/Safe [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Safe Committee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2005)
Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates—and then protects—the building occupants, resources, structure, and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide discusses four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: Plan for Fire Protection; Ensure Occupant Safety and Health; Resist Natural Hazards; and Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets.

Safe Schools Guide: Selected Strategies and Resources. Adobe PDF
(Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City , Jun 2005)
Advises on preventive strategies for school security. Facilities issues covered include assessment of buildings and grounds, safe storage and handling of hazardous materials, disaster management. Numerous checklists, forms, and additional resources are provided. 88p.

School Nurse Role in Bioterrorism Emergency Preparedness and Response. Position Statement. Revised. Adobe PDF
(National Association of School Nurses. , Jun 2005)
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that school nurses should be designated and recognized as first responders to mass casualty emergencies, including those resulting from bioterrorist events. School nurses should be trained in protection, detection, and treatment of victims of such events and in the command and control management techniques of the logistics of such a situation. The strategic position of well-prepared nurses within the school environment has significant potential for minimizing the effects of a bioterrorist attack in school settings and, subsequently, in the community at large 3p.

Macon State College Emergency Response Plan. Adobe PDF
(Macon State College, Macon, GA , May 25, 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for explosions, aircraft crashes, fires, earthquakes, storms, snow, ice, floods, hazardous materials spills, bomb threats, violence or criminal behavior, and civil disturbances. Evacuation procedures and a bomb threat reporting form are included. 15p.

The Role of Schools in Bioterrorism Preparedness.
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , Apr 04, 2005)
Outlines possible roles of schools in bioterrorism incidents, including linking the community to local public health agencies, emergency responders, and emergency plans; education students and parents about bioterrorism; providing facilities if needed during an emergency; and early detection of disease within the school population. 4p.

Advice for Safeguarding Buildings Against Chemical or Biological Attack.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , 2005)
This web site is intended for emergency personnel and for building operators. It contains current advice for dealing with a biological or chemical release in a building. Immediate actions that should be taken, as well as long-term actions, are detailed. Includes training aids.

Sinclair Community College. Adobe PDF
(Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH , 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for bomb threats, civil disturbances, earthquakes, evacuations, fire, explosions, hazardous material spills, human bodily fluid spills, lockdowns, medical emergencies, power outages, suspicious packages and envelopes, an severe weather. Locations of emergency telephones are included. 30p.

The Role of Schools in Homeland Security.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2005)
Presents 19 steps that a school should take to prepare for a terrorist attack, organized as items that one can do to establish a safe campus and preparing a response plan should an emergency occur. 5p.

Y.I.K.E.S. Your Inventory for Keeping Everyone Safe: Planning Guide for Emergency Response Planning in Child Care Planning Guide. Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care and Head Start, Augusta , Jan 2005)
Serves as a tool for emergency response planning in child care programs. This guide provides basic emergency preparedness and planning information that can be customized to fit the size and needs of differing programs. It covers specific disasters such as earthquake, flood, severe weather, bomb threat, contamination, power failure, fire, hazardous materials, abduction, transportation incident, medical emergency, and building collapse. A sample emergency relocation shelter agreement and a sample emergency transportation permission agreement are appended. 28p.

Innocent Targets: When Terrorism Comes to School.
Dorn, Michael; Dorn, Chris
(Safe Havens International, Macon, GA , 2005)
Examines the history of terrorism attacks at schools from a 1970 incident in Israel to the present. Chapters advise on the tendencies of terrorists, public reaction to terrorism, school buses and terrorism, planning for possible incidents, and hiring of security consultants. The probabilities, possible actions, and the emotional and political impacts of terrorism at school are discussed. The authors attempt to dispel myths and show how alarmists and reckless disinformation further the goals of the terrorists. Includes 28 references. 153p.
TO ORDER: Safe Havens International, PMB #201, 5540 Thomaston Road, Suite F, Macon, Georgia 31220.

Bioterrorism: A Guide for Facility Managers.
Gustin, Joseph
(Lilburn, GA, The Fairmont Press , 2005)
Protecting a building and its occupants from chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) attacks that are designed to disrupt and/or destroy operations is becoming an increasingly important priority for facility managers. This book addresses CBR attacks, as well as other forms of terrorism concerns, such as mailroom security and bomb threats, along with the necessary steps for prevention, how to assess vulnerability, how to improve emergency preparedness, and how to assure optimum response and recovery in the event of an attack. Examples of "lessons learned" and mistakes to avoid are also included. 269p.
TO ORDER: Fairmont Press, Inc., 700 Indian Trail, Lilburn, GA, 30047; Tel: 770-925-9388

National Summit on Campus Public Safety. Strategies for Colleges and Universities in a Homeland Security Environment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services [COPS], Sep 24, 2004)
This report is the result of a COPS-sponsored project led by the Mid-Atlantic Regional Community Policing Institute to take an in-depth look at current activities and future needs in the field of campus safety. By identifying notable successes in campus safety and security and how they may be replicated, campus police agencies, local law enforcement, and national organizations can plan courses of action, short-term and long-term, for advancing safety and security on the nation's college and university campuses. 84p.

Preparedness in America's Schools: A Comprehensive Look at Terrorism Preparedness in America's Twenty Largest School Districts. Adobe PDF
(The America Prepared Campaign, Inc., New York, NY , Sep 2004)
Reports on the crisis preparedness of America's twenty largest school systems. The systems were evaluated by steps outlined in the U. S. Department of Education's publication "Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities" ( The steps were divided into categories of planning, drilling, and communicating. A team of six conducted interviews of administrators, principals, emergency management officials, community members, journalists, and parents from the twenty systems to evaluate their preparedness in each category. From these interviews the school systems were rated as follows: Best-three systems, Good-seven systems, Needs Improvement-seven systems, and Failing-two systems. The criteria that each system had to meet and the findings for each system are detailed. (Includes 157 references) 71p.

Pre-Incident Site Planning: Site Hazards.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC , Apr 19, 2004)
Site hazard information must be easily accessible in the event of a school emergency. Storing information and resources, ranging from a master key to evacuation routes, in a locked box near the site provides critical site data to the first responder in the first few minutes on scene. 2p.

School Safety in the 21st Century: Adapting to New Security Challenges Post-9/11. Adobe PDF
(National Strategy Forum, Chicago, IL , Mar 2004)
Presents the results of a conference intended to expand the school emergency preparedness to include an "all-hazard" approach. This is necessary so that catastrophic terrorism incidents (CTI's) can be accommodated. Difficulties peculiar to a CTI may be that the school might be required to feed and shelter students for an extended period of time without full access to emergency resources. Suggestions for emergency plans, crisis team formation, safety assessments, and additional resources are offered. 38p.

A Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs: Developing A Biosecurity Management Plan. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Services, Washington , 2004)
Offers information on developing a plan and checklists for storage areas, hazardous chemicals, foodservice equipment, foodservice and food preparation areas, areas outside the school building, water and ice supply, and handling mail. 49p.

Homeland Security for Schools: Threat Status Alert Worksheet.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2004)
This worksheet includes suggested actions for schools based on general recommendations from the Homeland Security Department according to the color-coded Homeland Security Advisory System Designation. 6p.

Safe Spaces: Designing for Security and Civic Values. Adobe PDF
(American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC , 2004)
Presents abstracts of papers from a 2004 conference that offer practical information and case studies demonstrating risk assessment, planning, construction methods and materials, and policy tools for determining appropriate landscape architectural responses to security. Much of the publication is devoted to reinforcing security in public spaces, such as federal buildings and parks, and includes an overview of FEMA's newly published Risk Management Series, which provides building design guidance for mitigating potential terrorist attacks. 66p.

Safeguarding Schools Against Terror.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA , 2004)
This learning module is designed to help school administrators and their law enforcement partners to preserve and enhance the educational mission in times of turmoil and prepare to effectively respond to a crisis. The module includes sections on understanding terrorism; the school violence connection; finding the appropriate response; the case for self-reliance; strategies for preparation and response; and web resources and tools. 15p.

Terrorism and School Safety: School Safety Issues Related to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States.
(National School Safety and Security Services, Cleveland, OH., 2004)
These school security and crisis planning strategies for preventing and responding to terrorism include information on heightened school security procedures during terrorist threats; general recommendations related to terrorism and school safety; anthrax, mail procedures, and other chemical and biological crises; 9/11 anniversary issues, and additional information sources. This information is provided by a consulting firm.

Designing For Homeland Security
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL, 2004)
This paper addresses how to reduce the threats and vulnerabilities in the built environment by changing how to design and use space. Design professionals can use three basic strategies for security design, also known as CPTED. They are natural access control, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. Each of the strategies can be implemented through three methods: mechanical, natural, and organized.

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. , Dec 2003)
This primer provides guidance to protect students, faculty, staff, and their school buildings from terrorist attacks. It also provides guidance to the building science community of architects and engineers working for local institutions on school projects. This document is intended for use by schools who feel that they are at risk to terrorist attacks. It provides necessary guidance to those who desire to increase the performance of their school and related infrastructure. Not all schools are at risk of terrorist attacks. The decision-makers in each school district should use current and available threat information from the proper sources to make this determination. The use of experts to apply the methodologies contained in this document is encouraged. This primer references several sources for additional information, including publications completed by other government agencies. Chapters include: 1) Asset Value, Threat/Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk; 2) Site and Layout Design Guidance; 3) Building Design Guidance and Safety Plans; 4) Explosive Blast; 5) Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Measures; and 6) Safe Rooms Within Schools. 306p.
Report NO: FEMA 428

Statewide Policy for Strengthening Domestic Security in Florida's Public Schools Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Sep 10, 2003)
This provides policy guidance to Florida school districts in terms of terrorism protection procedures and training focused on deterrance, and explores infrastructure enhancements and policy guidance for infrastructure. A list of policy requirements is provided for access control, emergency equipment, training, communication and notification procedures, coordination with partners, and vulnerability assessment. A list of resources and a glossary is included. 6p.

What Did We Learn From 9/11?
(New York State Center for School Safety, New Paltz , Sep 2003)
Presents a summary of information gleaned from schools by the New York City Board of Education, after the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center. These are: 1) In a catastrophic event, all staff members may not follow your emergency plan. 2) School districts must develop a communication system that is not dependent on any one means of communication. 3) Emergency plans must include procedures to deal with human responses to extraordinary situations. 4) Identify teachers, school nurses and staff members willing to stay with students until they are picked-up. 5) School personnel must be briefed prior to the opening of schools following a disaster. 6) Expect and prepare for a decline in academic performance, following a major crisis. 7) The most important factor that contributed to the safety of students in New York City on September 11, 2001 was the ability of principals to think on their feet. 2p.

Schools and Terrorism. A Supplement to the National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism Recommendations to the Secretary. Adobe PDF
(Centers for Disease Control, National Advisory Committee on Children and Terrorism, Atlanta , Aug 12, 2003)
This document is a recommendation to the Secretary of Education concerning the effects, both directly and indirectly, on schools in the case of a terrorist attack. It contains key points on the need for preparedness and mitigation. 24p.

Building a Disaster-Resistant University.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 2003)
This guide is intended to support efforts by universities to reduce and manage their vulnerability to hazards. It includes a description of a disaster-resistant university; how to perform a risk assessment; developing interest and support; developing a loss reduction plan; maintaining interest; and additional information. This is both a how-to guide and a distillation of the experiences of six universities and colleges that have been working to become more disaster-resistant 55p.

Campus Public Safety: Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Protective Measures.
(U.S. Department of Education; U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office for Domestic Preparedness, Washington, D.C. , Apr 2003)
The Office for Domestic Preparedness, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has compiled suggestions for the approximately 4,000 Title IV institutions of post-secondary education in the United States serving 15 million students, and several million faculty, staff and visitors. Within available resources, and consistent with each college or university's policies, procedures and governing philosophy, consideration may be given to the affirmative steps listed on this webpage to prevent, deter, or effectively respond to a weapons of mass destruction terrorist attack. These steps may be calibrated to local, state, or national alert levels.

New York State Homeland Security System for Schools.
(University of the State of New York, State Education Department, and New York State Police, Apr 2003)
The purpose of this guidance document is to provide a uniform system for notifying school districts of possible threats and appropriate response actions. It is meant to provide guidelines for school officials to make informed decisions in consultation with local law enforcement and emergency personel in the context of district and building School Safety Plans. Includes a color coded risk level system and recommended actions for schools flowchart; definitions; school safety plan review; response actions; school safety audit checklist; resources; bomb threat response instruction card; and legal citations. 29p.

The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness. Adobe PDF
Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill
Mar 2003
This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff had been exposed to anthrax. After describing the incident, the paper details the various procedures and plans created conjointly by district and school administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and officials from the local health department, police department, fire department, and medical community. The district looked to the Federal Emergency Management Agency for guidance. The plans included steps to prevent bioterrorism attacks; an update of the school’s and district’s crisis-management plan; a training program for all personnel, including part-time staff, substitute teaches, volunteers, and district office staff; the installation of a crisis team coordinator at each school in the district; and the creation of guidelines for helping children, and the community, cope with the aftereffects of a crisis.

Structural Design for External Terrorist Bomb Attacks. Adobe PDF
Schmidt, Jon A.
(Structure Magazine, Reedsburg, WI , Mar 2003)
This article summarizes the methods available to define an external terrorist bomb threat and estimate structural design loads and element responses using simple dynamic system models and principles. By maximizing standoff distances and hardening key elements, designers can give building occupants a reasonable chance of escaping death and serious injury during an event. 5p.

Terrorism Supplement to the Indiana Department of Education's Checklist for a Safe and Secure School Environment. [Indiana]
(Indiana Department of Education, Feb 2003)
This checklist supplement covers three types of terrorist activities: radiological, biological, and chemical. The supplement is divided into two sections: first, an overview of terrorism and the types of attacks that might result from terrorist activity; second, some suggestions to help schools prepare for terrorism. 20p.

Homeland Security: The Role of Schools in a Post 9/11 Environment.
(National School Safety Center, West Lake Village, CA, 2003)
Many of the strategies that would be used in a natural disaster, such as an earthquake or tornado, have significant application for managing the effects of a terrorist attack involving explosions or chemical, biological, or radiological warfare. While dealing with a human-caused terrorist attack is more unsettling for many than dealing with a natural disaster, the key for both is to be prepared. This discusses: Is Your School Prepared?; Reasonable Expectations; A School Safety Focus; Planning for Safe Schools and Crisis Response; and Preparing for National Emergencies.

Proactive Guide for the Threat of Terrorism in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Texas School Safety Center, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX., 2003)
Although American schools have not been targeted for terrorist activity, circumstances do warrant that schools adopt a heightened state of awareness. This guide addresses the potential for terrorist activity within the context of September 11, 2001, and the new reality America faces. A significant portion of the information in this guide was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies that share responsibility for keeping the public safe and informed. It contains a prevention/awareness checklist that makes recommendations with steps and participants to consider, and completion dates. With regard to biological terrorism, the guide discusses how to recognize suspicious packages and what to do if a bio-threat is received by phone. It also contains questions and answers about anthrax, botulism, and smallpox. Chemical terrorism, and bombs and explosives are discussed. Disaster planning differs from most other types of planning because the utter chaos that commonly accompanies such situations needs to be considered; recommended steps are presented with that caveat in mind. Terrorism and emergency preparedness resources are listed at the end of the guide. The information is current and will be updated on a timely basis. (Contains 10 resource web sites.) 37p.
TO ORDER: Texas School Safety Center, Southwest Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666. Tel: 512-245-3696

2002 School Resource Officer Survey. Final Report on the 2nd Annual National Survey of School-Based Police Officers.
(National Association of School Resource Officers, Anthony, FL, Sep 25, 2002)
Findings from a survey conducted by the National Association of School Resource Officers show the vulnerability of schools. An overwhelming majority of school-based police officers feel that their schools are vulnerable to a terrorist attack, and that the schools are not adequately prepared to respond. Officers reported significant gaps in their school's security, and that school crisis plans are both inadequate and untested. School-based officers report receiving limited training and minimal support from outside agencies in preparing for a terrorist attack upon schools. This report includes detailed findings and graphic illustrations. 47p.

Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks.
(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC, May 2002)
In January 2002, the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) formed the Interagency Workgroup on Building Air Protection which includes representatives from agencies across the Federal government. One of the first tasks of the Workgroup was to produce guidance to building owners and managers that would contain a set of recommendations they could implement now to better protect the indoor environments of their buildings from terrorist threats. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in close collaboration with Workgroup members, took on the task of drafting this document. Preparatory recommendations cover knowing your building, and specific recommendations include things not to do; physical security; ventilation and filtration; maintenance, administration and training. 40p
Report NO: NIOSH 2002-139

International Meeting on Helping Schools Prepare for and Respond to Terrorist Attacks. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France., Feb 13, 2002)
Proceedings of an international meeting focusing on helping schools plan and respond to terrorist attacks. The meeting took place on February 13 and 14, 2002, in Washington, D.C., and was hosted by the U.S. Department of Education, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the U.S. State Department. The purpose of the meeting was to gain a better understanding of how other countries have dealt with the issue of possible attacks on schools and students; to look at the impact of such events; to explore lessons learned; to identify what works and what doesn't; and to develop an informal sharing group of international educators and others who work with security and crisis management issues. 14p.

Introduction to NBC Terrorism. An Awareness Primer and Preparedness Guide for Emergency Responders. Adobe PDF
Heyer, Robert J.
(The Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association, Longmont, CO., Oct 15, 2001)
This primer in intended to provide an awareness-level introduction to the subject of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (NBC) for first responders and community officials who need to be ready to deal with any possible situation quickly, efficiently and professionally. This provides enough basic information for responders to safeguard themselves and those for whom they are responsible. This material is also suitable for use as talking points for public information officers and those training or educating volunteer organizations or the general public. 15p

Dealing with Bomb Threats at School. Adobe PDF
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , 2001)
Briefly reviews what the community should know about bomb threats, when to close or evacuate a school, alternatives to evacuation, and actions that discourage false bomb threats. Includes four references. 4p.

How to Cope With Terrorism & Violence in our Schools. Adobe PDF
Della-Giustina, Daniel E.
(American Society of Safety Engineers Foundation, Des Plaines, IL., Mar 2000)
Researchers who completed a recent study on school emergency preparedness recommend that each school system develop customized guidelines that can be incorporated into a comprehensive plan that best serves its distinctive needs. They advise that school officials work with local authorities and submit current scale diagrams of their facilities to local first-responder authorities such as the police and fire departments; conduct school drills to prepare all for such a crisis. Additionally they suggest holding biannual assemblies to discuss conflict resolution and how to identify violent behavior and to improve school security by installing magnetic metal detectors and setting up other ways to keep a closed campus. 7p.

Indiana School Safety Plan.
(Indiana Dept. of Education, Indinapolis , 2000)
Outlines the elements of a school safety plan and recommends additional resources. 2p.

Structural Design for Physical Security: State of the Practice.
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA , 1999)
Provides guidance to structural engineers in the design of civil structures to resist the effects of terrorist bombings. Eight chapters outline the steps commonly followed in this practice. These are the determination of the threat, methods by which structural loadings are derived for the determined threat, the behavior and selection of structural systems, the design of structural components, the design of security doors, the design of utility openings, and the retrofitting of existing structures. This Report is the first transfer of this technology from the military to the civil sector. 210p.

Designing Against Terror: Site Security Planning and Design Criteria
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. Published in Architectural Graphics Standards: 1999 Revision., 1999)
With the increasing threats to persons and property, from acts of terrorism, workplace violence, and street crime, the first and most important line of defense is securing the site perimeter and the careful placement of the building/s on the given site. This brief includes a statement of the problem; the assessment process; a discussion of security layering; GSA security standards on perimeter and exterior security, entry security, interior security, and security planning; application of security standards; and CPTED.

Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage: Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications.
(National Research Council, Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technologies and Design Methodologies from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings., 1995)
This book provides a brief overview of worldwide terrorist activity and reviews technologies and methods for designing blast resistant buildings. These techniques, primarily developed by the military, have applicability and relevance to the design of civilian structures. The volume recommends that a program of applied research and technology transfer be undertaken to hasten the availability and utility of these techniques to the civilian building community. 112p
TO ORDER: National Academy of Sciences

Ready to Respond Emergency Preparedness Plan for Early Care and Education Centers.
(Bright Horizons, Watertown, MA , Jan 1994)
Assists child care directors and staff in responding to emergency situations. Overall operational crisis/emergency roles and responsibilities are described, with the following situations covered: 1) evacuation procedures and process, 2) sheltering in place, 3) medical emergencies, 4) natural disasters, 5) utility disruption, 6) fire/smoke emergencies, 7) hazardous materials, 8) bomb threat, 9) suspicious articles, 10) potentially violent situations, 11) random acts of violence, 12) disgruntled/impaired parents, 13) hostage situations, and 14) a missing child. Attachments include an emergency numbers list, an emergency evacuation plan, emergency kit supplies list, guidelines for handling medical emergencies, procedures for conducting a fire drill, bomb threat report form, and organizational roles and responsibilities. 29p.

Incorporation of Shelter into Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, Washington, DC , Nov 1962)
Discusses ways that shelter against nuclear attack can be incorporated economically in school construction without detriment to the education program. To this end it will discuss the problems that must be considered in the preliminary planning of the school shelter and information for the guidance of the architect in preparing working drawings and specifications. In addition, it discusses some special problems which arise with regard to climate, locality or specific weapons effects. 67p.

References to Journal Articles

Keeping Students Safe
Kroll, Karen
Building Operating Management; , p22-29 ; Jul 2012
Four part story: College Campus Shootings Prompt New Emergency Preparedness Steps; Public Safety, Police And Security Professionals Can Help Assess Campus Security Threats; Campus Layout Can Help Mitigate Threats, But Good Security Plan Needed; and Policies, Training Are Keys to Keeping Campus Safe.

Ready, Set, Emergency!
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.

How Prepared Are America's Colleges and Universities for Major Crises?
Mitroff, Ian; Diamond, Michael; Alpasian, Murat
Change (Reprinted by SCUP); Nov 2011
Outlines a set of recommendations to college and university leaders and governing bodies on how to develop crisis-management systems to ensure that their institutions are as well prepared as possible for a wide range of crises. These recommendations are based, in part, on crisis-management programs developed for various business organizations. Results of a survey of colleges and universities to determine the general level of crisis-management preparation are also included.

Who Is In Charge?
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.

School Security after 9/11
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n10 , p18-20,22,23 ; Jun 2011
Brings historical perspective to the evolution of school security after 9/11, especially the demand for improved communication with all constituencies. School officials are encouraged to become familiar with the Department of Homeland Security's National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS's six components are preparedness, resource management, communications and information management, supporting technologies, and ongoing management and maintenance.

Raising the Alarm.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p58,60,62 ; May 2011
Reviews emergency notification systems at GateWay Community College, Gettysburg College, and UCLA. The different systems of each institution is described, along with backup capabilities and requirements for emergency notification under the Clery Act.

When Parents Need to Know.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p50-52 ; May 2011
Advises on mass notification systems, describing how to determine the right capacity, suggesting wording for emergency notification messages, approaches to man-made and natural threats, and creative uses such as delivering inspirational wake-up messages to chronically absent students.

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.

Evaluating the Viability of Cloud Computing.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p64-66 ; May 2011
Describes the pros and cons of the University of Dayton cloud computing efforts. Applications include parking management and emergency notification.

At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
Sharp, Linda
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.

Emergency! What Will You Do if Someone Pulls a Gun and Starts Shooting.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p78-81 ; Apr 2011
Discusses elements of a school emergency plan, including risk assessment, prevention and mitigation of incidents, preparedness, and response and recovery.

In Case of Disaster: Emergency Operations Centers.
Berman, Scott
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p38,40-43 ; Nov 2010
Discusses higher education emergency operations centers (EOCs), addressing how they can be economically set up in existing facilities, and how they should be equipped and staffed. Examples from three institutions are included.

Disaster-No Exageration!
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Education s four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.

Critical Communications.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.

Is It an Emergency if No One is Listening?
Morin, Rhonda
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jun 2010
Discusses implementation of emergency alert systems at Jackson State and Lewis and Clark College. Prudent engagement of the system during incidents and frustration with low number of students and faculty who enroll to receive alerts are addressed.

Using All Resources Available.
Timm, David
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p20,22,24 ; Apr 2010
Advises on the incorporation of students in a school security program, noting the benefits and cost-effectiveness of their many watchful eyes. Discomfort with incorporating students is addressed, and means informing them and including them in the security program are described.

Emergency Preparedness.
Giannini, Tom
American School and University; v82 n6 , pSS30-SS33 ; Feb 2010
Discusses safety assessment and needs analysis of schools, engaging stakeholders cooperation, creating a comprehensive life safety plan, and educating all building users on the plan through regular testing and maintenance.

What Is Your Plan?
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p20-25 ; Dec 2009
Advises on comprehensive school disaster planning for natural disasters, terrorism, and epidemics. Examples of school plans successfully executed are included.

Fire and Life Safety.
Haligan, Mike
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p60,61,62,64 ; Nov 2009
Discusses the need to practice lockdowns as well as evacuations at schools. The components of lockdown plans are discussed, as well as the need to get these approved by local officials, just as evacuation plans are.

Towson University Notifies the Masses.
Kneen, Jayson
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p49-51 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the integration of emergency notification systems at this institution, which previously required activation from within separate buildings. The system is self-monitoring, can survive a catastrophic event that damages any part of it, and delivers messages with high intelligibility.

Ready to Respond: IP-Based Emergency Mass Notification.
Pinero, Ramon
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p14,16,17 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Discusses the third generation, or network-centric mass notification systems. These systems can deliver alerts to all species of communications and computing devices, as well as to traditional sirens, radio, and television. They also accommodate response from recipients confirming their status. Examples from two universities are included.

Purposeful Redundancy.
Viel, Patrick
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS32,SS34,SS35 ; Sep 2009
Reviews the use of sirens, text messages, e-mail blasts, outdoor voice systems, intercoms, and LED signs for campus emergency notification. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are discussed, as are potential interoperabilities.

Keeping the Community in the Know.
Dyrli, Kurt
District Administration; v45 n7 , p41-43 ; Aug 2009
Discusses mass notification systems for schools, which are more frequently being used for everyday, non-emergency communication. Internet-based services do not require hardware, software, or additional phone line installation. Some fully hosted online notification services are briefly reviewed.

NIMS/ICS: The National Incident Management System/Incident Command System.
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Describes the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS). The divisions of the systems are described, followed by a discussion of its advantages to standardization, interoperability, federal preparedness funding, and cost effectiveness. Examples of campus applications of the system and advice on training staff are included.

Educational Program Emergency Planning.
Curtis, Tammy
Radiologic Technology; v80 n6 , p515-522 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were reviewed from a sample of accredited radiologic science programs. The review of the emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings. The article provides a chronological list of notable higher education campus shootings; addresses prevention, response, and recovery; cites points for enhancing campus security distilled from a review of the literature; and 42 references.

What Will You Do? Effective Responses Come From Great Preparation.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Describes how a Florida school system handled a crisis effectively through thorough planning that incorporated the National Incident Management System (NIMS).

Getting the Word Out.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p48,50-52 ; Jun 2009
Cites examples of how higher education institutions alerted their entire campus when crimes were committed nearby, describing the type of systems used. Features of various systems are highlighted, and advice on selecting a mass notification system is included.

Joining Forces.
Schachter, Ron
University Business; v12 n6 , p41-44 ; Jun 2009
Highlights programs at Virginia Tech, Boston University, Bryant University, Kent State University, and the University of Philadelphia, that strengthen ties and cooperation between college and university security and emergency officials and their local, regional, and state counterparts. The programs connect cell phones, land lines, computers, 400 megahertz and 800 megahertz radios, and walkie-talkies to the common denominator of an IP network, enabling system-wide with one call.

Crisis Communications. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p11 ; May 2009
Presents an interview with a school security professional that discusses reactions to the recent swine flu outbreak, improvements in school security since the 1999 shooting at Columbine High School, and a short-term forecast for school security.

Your Attention, Please.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p46,48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews technological enhancements to school public address systems that coordinate class bells, two-way communication to classrooms, emergency communication, and wireless clocks.

Facility Survival Guide. [Emergency Planning Strategies.]
Lang, Robert
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2009
Advises facility managers on emergency response, with eight recommendations: 1) Develop an emergency action plan, not a guidebook. 2) Don't plan to rely solely on first responders. 3) Use Department of Homeland Security mandated NIMS courses. 4) Establish tabletops, drills, and exercises. 5) Establish a working relationship with first responders. 6) Create a perimeter group. 7) Use technology. 8) Don;t rely on product sales pitches.

Communicating Safety.
Trump, Kenneth
American School Board Journal; v196 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Advises what should and should not be said to the public in the event of a school tragedy, withmany typical messages being discouraged as being over-used or indicating a lack of recognition of the victims. A list of safety communication ideas for disaster preparation, rumor and threat management, and during and after a crisis are included.

Bioterrorism: Averting a Crisis.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p26 ; Feb 2009
Discusses how biological agents might enter a building in a terrorism event, the role of HVAC systems in excluding or at least containing biological agents, and points of an HVAC audit to determine the system's ability to respond to contamination.

Prevent Campus Assaults with Proven Methods.
Dorn, Michael
Doors and Hardware; v73 n1 , p34-38 ; Jan 2009
Discusses prevention of assaults with weapons, including banning of high risk individuals, aggressive traffic enforcement, staff training, visual screening for weapons on persons, room searches, metal detection and X-ray equipment, trained detection animals, and plain view vehicle checks.

Villano, Matt
Campus Technology; v 22 n4 , p26-30 ; Dec 2008
Presents an interview with John Turner of Brandeis University that describes the mass notification systems and strategies used by the school. Software selection and implementation, coordination with phone systems and speakers, and some early instances when it was used for weather emergencies are described.

Campus Emergency Management: It Takes a Village.
Templeton, Dennie; Ellerman, Gary; Branscome, Todd
Campus Safety; v18 n6 , p30,32-35 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Elaborates on themes of the varying nature of potential campus emergencies according to location, and the necessity of coordination of campus and community emergency response. The example of Virginia's Radford University is cited, where an office for emergency preparedness was established. The continuing work of the office in preparing an emergency response plan, and the details of its coordination with the community and neighboring higher education institutions is detailed.

This is Not a Drill!
Bermahn, Simon
College Planning and Management; v11 n10 , p33,34,36 ; Oct 2008
Discusses campus-wide emergency alert systems, using UCLA's "BruinAlert" and its successful engagement after a July 28, 2008 earthquake as an example. UCLA's selection process, along with the features and operation of the system are detailed.

Prepared for the Worst.
Lemmon, Karla
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p38,40,42 ; Oct 2008
Discusses mass notification systems for school emergencies, citing their advantages over traditional phone trees and even local television and radio stations. Examples of how mass notification systems have been used by school systems with weather, hazardous material, and suspicious persons situations are included.

Get the Word Out.
Chretien, Wendy
Campus Technology; v22 n1 , p30-35,34,36,38,39 ; Sep 2008
Reviews considerations for mass notification systems on college campuses. Creating a system in-house or outourcing it, targeted alerts, contact methods, standalone or integrated systems, and examples of deployments at a variety of institutions are discussed.

Your Key to Effective Lockdowns.
Dorn, Michael
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p32-34 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Advises on strategies to create an effective campus lockdown policy. Lockdown protocols should address various scenarios, involve all campus and local law enforcement stakeholders, identify securable space, incorporate self-directed decision making, be appropriate to the age levels of occupants, and incorporate extensive staff, faculty, and student training.

When Seconds Count.
Fiel, Patrick
American School and University; v81 n1 , pSS48,SS50,SS52 ; Sep 2008
Discusses elements of an effective campus emergency plan, including widespread participation of and coordination between the occupants and local officials, practicing drills, and mass-notification systems.

The Evolution of Notification Systems.
Devoe, Jeanne
District Administration; v44 n9 , p40-44 ; Aug 2008
Reviews features of current emergency notification systems that combine text, email, and telephone communication. Examples of how various systems have been deployed are included, as are costs to institutions and to families who subscribe to them.

Do You Know the Drill?
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v44 n9 , p32-34,36-38 ; Aug 2008
Emphasizes the rehearsal of school emergency preparedness programs, and cites three districts that have noteworthy programs with drills that vary with each exercise and are complemented with follow up analysis.

California Community Colleges Get Prepared.
Burnett, Tod
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p50,52,53 ; Jul 2008
Profiles California's efforts to improve crisis preparedness at its community colleges. The statewide effort addressed preparedness at 109 community colleges by providing centralized assistance with disaster mitigation, prevention, planning, preparedness, response, and recovery. Wildfires and dangerous winds in 2007 offered a first test of the new preparedness, which was deemed successful.

Finding the Right Emergency Notification System.
Dorn, Michael
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p54 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Advises on sorting through the more than sixty vendors and their various emergency notification products. Points to consider are: 1) an "apples-to-apples" comparison through a careful RFP, 2) the stability and viability of the vendor, 3) the volume of messages the system can handle, 4) foreign language messaging ability, 5) ease of use, and 6) auxiliary features.

Operating in a New Era of Campus Security.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n12 , pS6-S8 ; Jul 2008
Advises on current approaches to higher education campus security, emphasizing conformance to National Incident Management system standards, improving mass notification systems, and how to solicit vendor help with security communication and technology.

Ready to Respond.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n12 , pS9-S13 ; Jul 2008
Presents the responses of four higher education security officers as to how they are adapting their security measures in response to recent high-profile campus shootings. Procedural and communications issues, advice on choosing emergency notification systems, and obstacles to enhancing emergency response are also addressed.

Memo to Staff.
Silk, Stephanie
American School and University; v80 n12 , pS14-S16 ; Jul 2008
Advises on how to enlist the awareness and participation of custodial, administrative, teaching, food service, and nursing staff, as well as students in the security preparation of a school.

Staying Ahead: Building a Culture of Preparedness.
Gingera, Donna; Masson, Aaron
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p8,10-12 ; Jun 2008
Discusses school emergency preparedness plans, citing established national standards, the roles of leadership structures and senior management, risk assessment, mitigation strategies, and the components of the plan. Keeping the plan current, professional development for staff, and plan testing are emphasized.

Sounding the Alarm.
Kneen, Jayson; Welch, Beth
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p68-74 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the evolution of simple fire alarm systems to emergency mass notification systems that increasingly use wireless technology and are more impervious to destruction by the event. Components of mass notification systems are discussed, as are applicable codes, and effective communication to occupants with disabilities.

Get the Word Out-Fast and Accurate.
Zalud, Bill
Security Magazine; , p76-78 ; Jun 2008
Reviews wide-area emergency mass notification systems, addressing their components and function. Special considerations for campus systems are illustrated with an example of the system in place at The University of California, Los Angeles.

Best Practices Breakdown.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p10,12 ; May-Jun 2008
Lists ten best practices in campus emergency text messaging.

Can You Hear Me Now?
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p2-4,6,7 ; May-Jun 2008
Advises on creating campus emergency notification systems with thorough coverage. Evaluation of systems already in place and what is needed, along with features that can be added to existing systems are discussed. Examples, benefits, and disadvantages of outdoor loudspeakers, signage, paging, and e-mail alert systems are described. Charts illustrate reasons for mass notification systems deployment, reasons for non-deployment, solutions currently in use, and those soon to be deployed.

Take It from the Experts When Crafting Your Text Message.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p14,15 ; May-Jun 2008
Outlines tips on crafting campus emergency messages, including repeating audible announcements; keeping messages short, clear, originating from an authority, and location specific; and having messages approved by communications officials.

Text Message Troubleshooting: Four Challenges Your Campus Should Address.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p8,9 ; May 2008
Discusses challenges with slow transmission, low enrollment, privacy and database security, and authority to issue alerts with emergency text messaging.

Your Mass Notification Cheat Sheet.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p16,18,20-22 ; May-Jun 2008
Presents a detailed table that outlines strengths and weakness of 17 types of audible, electronic, and visual emergency alert modalities.

Ready, Set, Respond.
Herrmann, Michelle
University Business; v11 n3 , p40-46 ; Apr 2008
Reviews the rapid expansion of emergency notification systems (EMS) on higher education campuses, in response to recent high-profile shootings. Multimodal alert systems include text messaging, emails, IP signage, and telephone calls. Examples of specific systems and strategies deployed at various institutions are detailed.

Put Your Disaster Plan to the Test.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n3 , p46-48,50 ; Mar 2008
Discusses organization of a disaster plan drill, including scenario selection, designation of responsibilities, observations, and follow-up after the event.

Virginia Tech One Year Later: How Campuses Have Responded.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n2 , p18-20,22-26,28 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews improved higher education campus security since the April, 2007, Virginia Tech shooting, based on a survey by this magazine. Areas of improvement discussed are mental health services, information sharing, emergency planning, funding for security, and access control. Charts and graphs illustrate the percentages of increase.

Planning for Battle.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
American School and University; v80 n7 , p30,32,33 ; Mar 2008
Discusses communication strategies for campus emergencies, with particular attention to electronic messaging systems (EMS). System selection, implementation, and use during a crisis are addressed.

MNS Solutions for a Changing World.
Welch, Beth
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n2 , p14-16 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews the origins of mass notification systems (MNS), criteria for these systems found in military and National Fire Protection Association codes, and current technology for marriage of fire alarms and MNS.

Creating a Plan: 10 Ways to Tame the Beast.
Messler, Mark
Campus Safety; v16 n1 , p32,34-37 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Outlines ten steps in creating a campus emergency plan: 1) Designate a program coordinator. 2) Develop a known hazards and assets list. 3) Create a comprehensive all hazards list. 4) Determine campus vulnerability and risk. 5) Analyaze how hazards will impact your organization. 6) Check the laws that affect the plan. 7) Align the assets list to the hazards. 8) Define responsibilities via the incident command structure. 9) Plan mitigation activities. 10) Enhance the plan with mutual aid agreements.

Preparing for the Unthinkable. (Is Your District's Safety Plan Up To Date?)
Salmans, Gary
American School Board Journal; v194 n12 , p32,33 ; Dec 2007
Briefly reviews major points of school emergency mitigation and prevention, preparation, response, and recovery, as part of a comprehensive emergency plan.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Five Lessons Learned from the Platte Canyon School Schooting.
Dempsey, Kate; Hodges, Lori
Hospital, School, & University Campus Safety; v15 n6 , p34,37-39 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Summarizes five lessons learned, as identified by local authorities after this shooting, including principles of design for traffic control and crime prevention through environmental design.

Enhancing Campus Safety and Preparedness.
Giannini, Tom
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS12, S14,S16-S19 ; Nov 2007
Proposes twelve recommendations to higher education institutions as they assess existing campus life safety systems and enhance emergency preparedness. These recommendations focus on long-range thinking that considers the entire campus and even beyond, involves all stakeholders, phases in changes, seeks creative funding, and involves proper compliance, flexibility, training, and maintenance.

A Phased Approach to Campus Safety and Security Planning.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS3,S4,S6 ; Nov 2007
Describes a phased-in approach to campus security at South Texas College. Phase one included threat assessment based on statistics, information from campus focus groups and cooperation with local emergency responders. The second phase brought the development of various plans to deal with natural and man-made emergencies. The third phase involved implementation of the plans and emergency communications systems. The fourth phase established regular drills and regular review of the plans.

Emergency and Safety Communications.
Royal, Greg
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p21,22 ; Nov 2007
Describes a "multimodal" approach to school security notification, involving mobile and desktop phones, e-mail, and faxes. Internet-based solutions are favored, and varieties of equipment and service delivery options are discussed.

After Va. Tech, Campuses Rush to Add Alert Systems.
Foster, Andrea
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n6 , pA1,A31,A32 ; Oct 05, 2007
Reviews combinations of low- and high-tech alerting techniques that are rapidly being deployed on college campuses in response to recent violent incidents. Challenges in getting students to sign up for alert services are discussed, as are the widely varying participation rates on selected campuses.

Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnerships Approach to Large-Scale Crisis.
Mann, Timothy
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p54-64 ; Oct 2007
Proposes a framework for emergency management at higher education campuses that includes planning, response, management, and recovery. Roadblocks and program evaluation are discussed, and special emphasis and detail is given to consortium-style planning that involves cooperation between campuses. Includes two references.

Seven Best Practices for Emergency Notification.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; v20 n12 , p16-18,20,22,24-26 ; Aug 2007
Advises on communication strategies for school emergencies, recommending that institutions thoroughly assess their resources and alternatives, internalize and practice emergency plans, be able to make decisions on incomplete information, limit the number of people involved in decision-making, generate alerts in different formats, pre-define what constitutes an emergency and communicate it to the community, and layer approaches to communication.

Reaching Out.
Hall, Julie
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl. 16,18,20,21 ; Jul 2007
Discusses high- and low-tech methods for campus emergency notification, illustrated with examples of how some institutions and districts use their systems, require appropriate redundancy, and craft the emergency messages that they send.

Seeking Secure Schools.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl 6,8,10 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the recommendations of federal agencies on ways to improve school security, following the April 16, 2007 shooting at Virginia Polytechnical University.

Preventing School Weapons Attacks.
Dorn, Michael; Dorn, Chris
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p61,62,64,66,67 ; Jun 2007
Reviews policies, procedures, and facilities-related measures for preventing school weapons assaults, including risk assessment, metal detection, and triggering behaviors. A safe campus checklist is included.

Proven Tactics to Prevent Campus Weapons Assaults.
Dorn, Michael; Dorn, Chris
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p22,24,26,28,29 ; Jun 2007
Reviews policies, procedures, and facilities-related measures for preventing higher education campus weapons assaults, including access control, traffic enforcement, metal detection, and a variety of search and threat assessment techniques.

Tragic Lessons.
Butler, Kevin
District Administration; v43 n5 , p56-60 ; May 2007
Reveiews steps taken by four school districts in the wake of shooting tragedies. These include upgraded security systems, closer involvement with law enforcement, inclusion of parent volunteers in access control, and increased training of students and teachers.

Get a Head Start on Mass Notification Code Regulations.
Kempel, Jim
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p23-25 ; May 2007
Reviews current and upcoming codes for mass notification systems that are coupled with fire alarm systems. These include multi-channel systems that accommodate customized messages for different areas or situations and high audio intelligibility.

Crisis on Campus.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n10 , p18-20,22,24,25 ; May 2007
Reviews the sequence of events in the April 16, 2007 shooting at Virginia Tech University, and some of the particular security issues on multi-building college campuses. Various methods of notifying entire campuses of an emergency are discussed, as are the costs of training, technology, and mental health intervention.

Be Prepared.
Nolan, Harry
American School and University; v79 n10 , p40,42,43 ; May 2007
Discusses evacuation plans for college campuses, keeping all types of natural and man- made threats in mind. The institution's plan, to be reviewed by local emergency responders, should include a fully equipped command station, a trained early-stage response team, safety information and training for building occupants, and special considerations for high-rise buildings.

Don't Wait for Safety: Education Security Advisor Discusses Strategies for School Safety.
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v10 n4 , p14,15 ; May-Jun 2007
Discusses school emergency management techniques and responsibilities, including mass notification, sheltering in place, entrance and exit control, and security upgrades for older schools.

Safe Schools: Experts Look to Technology to Help Make Schools Safe.
Perry, Amy
School Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p19,20 ; May-Jun 2007
Advises on selecting and installing school security systems, school access control, surveillance, emergency communication and response, and formation of a long-range security plan.

Communications Systems.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , p22-24 ; Apr 2007
Discusses school emergency communications plans and systems, illustrating these with a case from the Clark County (Nevada) School District, in which schools were locked down during a police shootout across from an elementary school. Lockdowns, parent notification, and technologies of varying sophistication are covered.

Serious Incident Management in Australia. Adobe PDF
Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara
PEB Exchange; n59 , p1-4 ; Feb 2007
Briefly describes training and simulation exercises used to prepare New South Wales school staff for threats of violence.

Duquesne Stands Strong After Campus Shooting.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v10 n2 , p20,22,24 ; Feb 2007
Describes this institution's response to a shooting by visiting teenagers, including effective communications and a review of campus safety measures. Additional crowd control for events, as well improved security cameras, lighting, and signage were suggested by the review.

A Measured Approach. Adobe PDF
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p26,27 ; Dec 2006
Reviews recent deadly shootings at schools and suggests prevention and crisis management measures. These include observation and reporting of suspicious behavior, as well as formulating lockdown and evacuation plans in case of an incident.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Terrorism Protective Measures.
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , pS8 ; Nov 2006
Presents 16 measures to help prevent, deter, and respond to a campus terrorism threat.

You Can Prevent Most School Shootings.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS3, S4,S6 ; Nov 2006
Discusses techniques to prevent school shootings, including policy changes, visual screenings, metal detection, trained dogs, and armed officers.

Beyond Fire Drills.
Black, Susan
Threshold; v3 n1 , p5-9 ; Fall 2006
Discusses new and complex natural and man-made threats to school safety, citing statistics indicating a widespread lack of preparedness. Tools and resources to assist with disaster mitigation and preparation are listed, and checklists to develop or revise a school emergency preparedness plan are included.

It Takes a Community.
Holland, Holly
Threshold; v3 n1 , p28-31 ; Fall 2006
Reviews Spokane's effective school emergency preparedness plan, which is coordinated with first responders, uses custom software, and has proved valuable in actual emergencies. Five steps to community-wide preparedness are also included.

Security Viewpoint: Threat Assessment.
Dunn, Martin
American School and University; v79 n1 , pSS10,SS11 ; Sep 2006
Advises on assessing human threats to school security, emphasizing the distinction between legitimate and innocuous threats, and encouraging a reaction that is properly scaled to the situation.

Keeping Watch.
Fiel, Patrick
American School and University; v79 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2006
Presents a series of safety questions for school administrators to ask concerning school access points, visitor management, electronic surveillance, equipment security, IT security, environmental hazards, fire detection, and integration of systems.

Food Safety and Food Defense for Schools. Adobe PDF
ERCMExpress; v2 n5 , 6p. ; Jun 23, 2006
It is recommended that schools adopt a multi-hazard approach to addressing their vulnerabilities. Food service operations--including school cafeterias, central kitchens, warehouses or food delivery services--pose risks to schools. Emergency management plans should not overlook the possibility of food service operational disruptions such as equipment failures, loss of power or contamination.

Pathways to Safety.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n11 , p36,39,40 ; Jun 2006
Recommends crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), police presence, surveillance technology, educational programs, and crisis response plans to improve school security.

Reducing Risk: Mitigation vs. Management.
Mellinger, Bob
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p14,15 ; Jun 2006
Discusses mitigation of safety risk, which is typically more effective than managing incidents after they occur. Advice on risk determination, prioritizing risks to be mitigated, and effective communication as an element of mitigation is offered.

Using Technology to Connect with Parents--Instantly.
O'Brien, Tim
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p25,26 ; Jun 2006
Describes use of broadcast messaging to alert school parents to school events, changes in scheduling, and emergencies. Parents may elect to be notified by phone or email, and may vary the way they are contacted according to the urgency of the message.

Effective Crisis Communications and Emergency Notification.
Shafir, Nedda
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p6-8,10 ; Jun 2006
Advises on the elements of effective crisis communications that are brief, clearly stated in non-technical language, target only those affected, provide the official basis for the warning, indicate appropriate response, and provide a source for more detailed information. Methods of communicating with parents are also listed. Includes four references.

Wisconsin's Safe Schools.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p38,39 ; May 2006
Describes Wisconsin's program to train school personnel to in turn train district staff to assess their facilities and be better aware of school security issues.

Enemy at the Gates.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v30 n5 , p36-40,42,44,46,47 ; May 2006
Discusses increased security at collegiate sporting events, citing steps taken by specific universities, security programs that have earned national recognition, and cost-effective interventions where such large numbers of people are involved.

Security: A Blueprint for Reducing Risk.
Sutell, Robin
Buildings; v100 n2 , p34-39 ; Feb 2006
Discusses aspects of physical systems, operations, and education to address when assessing a building security program. Advice on understanding liability, everyday security breaches, security by design (CPTED), and access control is included.

Mass-Casualty Events at Schools: A National Preparedness Survey.
Graham, J.; Shirm, S.; Liggin, R.; Aitken, M.; Dick, R.
Pediatrics; v117 n1 , p e8-e15 ; Jan 2006
Presents the results of a survey of U.S. school superintendents assessing preparedness for prevention of and response to a mass-casualty event. From 2137 responses, 86.3% superintendents reported having a response plan, but only 57.2% have a plan for prevention. 95.6% have an evacuation plan, but 30% had never conducted a drill. 22.1% have no disaster plan provisions for children with special needs, and 25%reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. 42.8% had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures.

The Preparedness of Schools to Respond to Emergencies in Children: A National Survey of School Nurses. Adobe PDF
Olympia, Robert; Wan, Eric; Avner, Jeffrey
Pediatrics; v116 n6 , p e738-e745 ; Dec 2005
Examines the preparedness of schools to respond to pediatric emergencies and potential mass disasters, using published guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. Although schools are in compliance with many of the recommendations for emergency preparedness, specific areas for improvement include practicing the medical emergency response plan several times per year, linking all areas of the school directly with emergency medical services, identifying authorized personnel to make emergency medical decisions, and increasing the availability of automated external defibrillators in schools.

All-Hazards Campus Safety: From Tornadoes to Terrorism.
Dorn, Michael
College Planning and Management; v8 n11 , pS-2,2-4,S-6 ; Nov 2005
Emphasizes the importance of a risk and vulnerability assessment before dramatic and expensive campus security measures are put in place. Four types of assessment tools are outlined, accompanied by advice on hiring consultants and how to write a plan that covers prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery.

Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools.
Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda
Journal of School Health; v75 n8 p327 , p327 ; Oct 2005
School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school districts in Arkansas have plans for responding to a mass casualty event, but less than one half have a plan for prevention or mitigation of such an event. Since this survey was conducted, Arkansas has passed a law requiring all school districts to develop such an emergency response plan. The findings highlight a need for continued planning and preparation. For example, most schools had not conducted a mass casualty drill. Most superintendents had not met with local EMS officials, and only a few have regularly scheduled meetings. Schools should continue to plan and prepare for the unwelcome prospect of a disaster at a school.

Bioterror Brigade.
Rathmann, Charles
Building Design and Construction; v46 n9 , p55,56 ; Sep 2005
Discusses isolation, HVAC and other safety requirements for laboratories where biohazards are handled.

Prepare Your School for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Threats.
Sechena, Ruth
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review; v70 n8 , p6-9 ; Apr 2005
Recent accidents highlight that chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) agent exposure risk isn't just about terrorism. In this article, the author, a parent and public health physician, wrestles with the fact that total protection from CBRs is probably not feasible in her son's or in the majority of American schools. Capital investments, for special air filtering and pressurization, protective equipment, exhausting and purging, etc., that might reduce risk, are huge. Therefore, she urges, that to maximize protection, school districts must approach CBR planning from a community-wide perspective. The author discusses the importance of conducting a (CBR) exposure readiness in schools. In general, two basic tools are used to protect children and staff. The first is school evacuation, and the second is shelter-in-place.

A Plan of Your Own.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2005
In the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., many anxious educators worried whether schools and universities might become targets of similar strikes. This article advises on the creation of specific campus emergency-preparedness plans, rather than the use of generic plans which might not address the particular issues of a given facility. Elements of a proper plan and sources of grant funding are discussed.

The Beslan Reaction.
Godfree-Thom, Susan
HS Today (Homeland Security); v1 n8 , p14-19 ; Dec 2004
Describes the softness of most schools as terrorist targets, several school systems' endeavors to strengthen school security, political and financial obstacles to increasing security, and some federal government efforts in this area.

When Terrorism Comes to School: The Sky Is Not Falling.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS-6,S-8 ; Nov 2004
Describes recent notable terrorist attacks on schools, but cautions against alarm, because these events are still extremely rare.

Update on the National Electric Code. Adobe PDF
Anthony, Michael A.
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p35-37 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes changes in the 2005 National Electric Code, which introduces a variety of safety and survivability enhancements brought about by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the major power outage of August 14, 2003.

Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the Setting of Child Care.
Gaines, Sherry; Leary, Janie
Community Health; v27 n3 , p260-265 ; 2004
Discusses child care emergency preparedness, offering recommendations for consultants working with child care providers. The complexity of emergency preparedness in child care calls for the involvement of community health professionals, such as child care health consultants (CCHCs), who can assist child care providers in preparing to respond to a crisis. CCHC's are uniquely positioned to address emergency plans and are aware of resources that can support child care facilities during a crisis. Plans should describe how child care fits in with the larger public health and emergency management response to a community-wide event. A list is included of recommended child care emergency supplies.

The Role of Schools in Meeting Community Needs During Bioterrorism.
Stein, Bradley D.; Tanielian, Terri L.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Rhodes Hilary J.; Burna, M. Audrey
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science; v1 n4 , 273-281p. ; Jan 2004
This article examines the potential role of schools and school districts in meeting community needs during a bioterrorism attack. The authors draw on research describing school responses to previous disasters and consider some of the specific challenges and emotional and behavioral issues associated with bioterrorism. This discusses how existing strategies and tools might be improved, and suggests that schools and school districts become active and full partners in communitywide public health responses to any event involving a biological weapon.

The State of School Security: Preparing for School Violence Spikes, Terrorism and New Safety Threats.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v42 n11 , pS8,S10,S11 ; Nov 2003
Reviews current threats to school safety from violence within and terrorists without. Gaps in preparedness, budgeting, and mindset are discussed, along with suggestions for improvement.

Homeland Security Hits Home.
Sullivan, Edward
Building Operating Management; May 2003
This discusses how the war in Iraq and a Code Orange alert brought tighter facility security. Facilities managers took small, sometimes temporary steps intended to make it a bit harder to get into facilities, to improve lines of communication, and to assure that plans work as expected. Examples incude actions taken by several universities, such as Georgia Institute of Technology, University of Miami, and Emory University.

No Safe Havens.
Trump, Kenneth S.; Lavarello, Curtis
American School Board Journal; v190 n3 , p19-21 ; Mar 2003
This article discusses the results of a survey of U.S. school-based officers on terrorism and school safety. The survey found that a majority of officers believe that schools are vulnerable to a terrorist attack. This advises school officials to develop prevention strategies and emergency measures to plan, prepare, and practice for the worst possible incidents of violence.

As Alert Issued, Schools Urged To Review Security.
Bowman, Darcia Harris; Galley, Michelle
Education Week ; v22 n23 , p1, 14 ; Feb 19, 2003
Security experts are advising schools to review and practice their crisis plans and to communicate emergency procedures to parents and students in response to warnings to the nation of an increased chance of terrorist attacks. This discusses the concept of sheltering-in-place for schools. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Preparing Schools for Terrorism.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v42 n2 , p42-46 ; Feb 2003
Describes various efforts schools have made toward "homeland security" to combat the threat of terrorism directed at schools, despite a lack of legislation or funding.

School Security Moves into the Digital Age.
Garza, Katie
T.H.E. Journal; v30 n5 , p44-45 ; Dec 2002
Discusses school security procedures following not only the September 11 terrorist attacks but also earlier school shootings. Highlights include zero tolerance policies; campus surveillance systems; digital systems that work on PCs; remote monitoring; and protecting central administration buildings and staff.

Defensive Filtration.
Miller, James D.
ASHRAE Journal; v44 n12 , p18-28 ; Dec 2002
A building's air filtration system can serve as a significant defense component during an airborne chemical and/or biological attack from an external release. To assist building owners and designers in risk analyses and management decisions, this article provides a general introduction to biological and chemical agents considered most likely to be used in a terrorist attack. HVAC safeguards are discussed, followed by a description of air filters suitable for use in the chemical and biological arena.

Safety and Security: Lessons Learned from 9/11.
Schmitz, William J.
College Planning and Management; v5 n12 , p20-22 ; Dec 2002
Discusses issues faced by the Borough of Manhattan Community College following the September 11th terrorist attacks: the expense of recovery and budgeting for it, developing an emergency preparedness plan, the characteristics of emergency management and disaster recovery plans, technology and its role in emergency management, being prepared for obstacles in recovery, documentation, HVAC and air handling systems, building and facility design, and business management and purchasing.

School Preparedness for Terrorism.
Lavarello, Curtis; Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , pS2-S4 ; Nov 2002
Discusses a survey of U.S. school-based police which revealed gaps in security, emergency plans, and training.

Safeguarding Campus Assets.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n1 , p42-44 ; Sep 2002
Explores the need by colleges and universities, especially after 9-11, to provide more than routine security for sensitive research projects and valuable or historically significant articles. Offers examples from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Ohio State University of approaches taken to security.

September 11: An Elementary School at Ground Zero.
Lehmuller, Pierre; Switzer, Anna
Principal; v81 n4 , p52-54 ; Mar 2002
Describes what happened at New York City's Public School 234 after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11. The prekindergarten through grade 5 elementary school of 655 students was located near ground zero. Emphasizes efforts to ensure students' immediate safety and security, provide rapid evacuation, and move to another building

Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p37-39 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness.

Preparing Against Threats. School Security Supplement.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2002
Discusses the September 11 terrorist attacks' implications for school safety. Explores various schools' security procedures and any changes that have been made in the aftermath. Includes a sidebar on dealing with suspicious packages.

Expect the Best, Plan for the Worst.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p22-24,25,28 ; Jan 2002
Makes some observations on college and university disaster planning as these schools attempt to prepare for the possibility of campus terrorism following the attacks of September 11. Several highlighted articles provide additional thoughts on outsourcing security services, using security card systems, and learning how security will change in the future.

Closer Scrutiny.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n4 , p48-50 ; Dec 2001
Examines strategies that some universities are using to make their stadium sporting events more secure in the post September 11 era. Schools reveal how they are minimizing their terrorism risks and providing a greater security presence.

Keeping the Madness at Bay. Adobe PDF
Romano, Gerry
Business Officer; v35 n6 , p22-28 ; Dec 2001
In the first of a series on terrorism's affect on higher education, college officials describe security steps their schools are taking against terror attacks.

Schools Plan Responses to Bioterrorism.
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Education Week; v21 n9 , p1, 12 ; Oct 31, 2001
Describes what schools need to do for bioterror defense. Includes websites of organizations and government agencies that offer guidance on how to respond to bioterrorism threats. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Surviving a Crisis.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v38 n10 , p31,32,36 ; Oct 1999
Discusses crisis management planning for college and university campuses that can contribute to effective and rapid response and wise decision making during not only natural disasters, but also those that are manmade.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).