NCEF Resource List: Technology Integration 1990-2007
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TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION 1990-2007

Information published between 1990 and 2007 on integrating technology into new or renovated school buildings.


References to Books and Other Media

Is Classrooms for the Future Changing Teaching and Learning in Pennsylvania Schools? A Preliminary Report on the First Few Months. Adobe PDF
Peck, Kyle; Clasuen, Robin; Byers, Celina; Fidishun, Delores; Murray, Orrin; Stoicescu, Christian
(Pennsylvania Dept. of Education, Harrisburg , Aug 31, 2007)
Reviews preliminary results of Pennsylvania's "Classrooms for the Future " program, a three-year effort to provide laptop computers, high-speed Internet access, state-of-the-art software, and intensive teacher training and support to high school classrooms across the state in the core subjects of English, math, science, and social studies. Observers and students reported that teachers spent significantly less time in whole-class lectures and more time interacting with small groups and individual students. Teachers reported that students spent significantly more time working in groups and that the physical setup of classrooms often changed to accommodate more collaborative student learning. There was a notable shift in the nature of assignments given to students toward "real world" topics and toward teaching styles in which students participate in hands-on projects. A before-and-after analysis indicated students using the technology tools in learning spent significantly less time "off task" and that there was a significant increase in the level of engagement. 77p.

Microsoft School of the Future.
(Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC, 2007)
Profiles Philadelphia's Microsoft School of the Future and its extensive integration technology.

The ICT Impact Report: A Review of Studies of ICT Impact on Schools in Europe. Adobe PDF
Balanskat, Anja; Blamier, Roger; Kefala, Stella
(European Communities, European Schoolnet, Brussels, Belgium , Dec 2006)
Draws on the evidence from 17 recent impact studies across Europe to identify 12 major findings concerning the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on teaching and learning, identifies three types of barriers and makes 13 recommendations to policy-makers, educators and researchers. The "impact studies" in focus include a variety of studies, large and small scale, national and European, and cover evaluations of ICT programmes, inspection reports, specific technology interventions, research reviews, European comparisons, and case studies. Recommendations are included for policy makers, schools and research and development. 75p.

Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994 2005: Highlights. Adobe PDF
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Nov 2006)
Presents 11 years of data from 1994 to 2005 (no survey was conducted in 2004) on Internet access in U.S. public schools by school characteristics. The report provides trend analysis on the percent of public schools and instructional rooms with Internet access and on the ratio of students to instructional computers with Internet access. It contains data on the types of Internet connections, technologies and procedures used to prevent student access to inappropriate material on the Internet, and the availability of hand-held and laptop computers to students and teachers. It also provides information on teacher professional development on how to integrate the use of the Internet into the curriculum, and the use of the Internet to provide opportunities and information for teaching and learning. 83p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-020


Carnegie's SNS Polling Project Final National Results.
(Carnegie Corporation, New York, NY , 2006)
Reports results from a January 2006 telephone poll assessing public sentiment on a variety of school issues. Facility issues surveyed included small learning communities and technology availability. 17p.

Personal Computer, Printer, and Portable Equipment Noise in Classrooms.
Hellweg, Robert; Dunens, Egons; Baird, Terrance; Olsen, John
(Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY , Sep 2005)
Recommends maximum sound power levels for personal computers, laptops, printers, projectors, and servers in classrooms. Also matches the types of devices with their respective sound output levels, with suggestions on how to arrange equipment so that noise impact is minimized. 4p.

IMPACT: Guidelines for North Carolina Media and Technology Programs. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Aug 2005)
Provides the standards for K-12 library media coordinators and instructional technology facilitators in North Carolina, including tenets on programs, personnel, budgets, resources, and facilities to guide the building of a technology-rich learning environment. Guidelines are provided in the following areas: 1) teaching and learning, including collaboration for instruction, information access, staff development, and public relations; 2) information access and delivery, including making resources accessible, planning and designing facilities for learning, developing educational specifications, educational specifications for school and media/technology spaces, educational specifications for the school library media center, educational specifications for furniture and shelving, and general technology infrastructure for instruction; 3) program administration, including planning the program, staffing the program, budgeting for the program, creating and implementing policies and procedures, building support for vision and programs, and issues and myths; 4) system-level guidelines, including system-level leadership, teaching and learning, information access and delivery, and program administration; and 5) research and evaluation, including how to evaluate programs, using output measures for evaluation, a reference chart of measures and what they support, and program evaluation rubrics. Includes a glossary. Includes 295 references. 345p.

Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space. Adobe PDF
Bennett, Scott; Demas, Sam; Freeman, Geoffrey; Frischer, Bernard; Oliver, Kathleen; Peterson, Christina
(Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
Presents six essays that consider the effect of online availability of research on the creation and design of library space. The authors consider the role of a library when it no longer needs to be a warehouse of books and when users can obtain information without setting foot in its doors. The authors include librarians, an architect, and a professor of art history and classics. The focus is primarily on research and academic libraries. The essays underscore the central, growing importance of the library as place, or base, for teaching, learning, and research in the digital age. They also encourage active participation of many stakeholders students, faculty, academic officers, information technologists, librarians as well as an experienced architect. 89p.
Report NO: CLIR Pub. No. 129


Some Efficient and Effective Classroom Designs That Accommodate Technology for Promoting Learning. Adobe PDF
Rogers, Vicki
(School Design and Planning Laboratory University of Georgia, Feb 2005)
In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the design of classrooms so that instructional technologies will enhance the learning environment. Good design does not happen accidentally, and when classroom designs are in the planning stages, the first priority should be the needs of the students. This paper discusses classroom design issues that can effectively and efficiently accommodate technology for promoting learning. 5p.

Cable Installation Guide.
(NetDay, 2005)
This includes detailed directions for running cables from a central point to schoolrooms, then, in order to make the schoolrooms connect, mounting wall jacks and wiring the schoolroom ends of the cables into the jacks, and finally, wiring one end of each cable to a kind of "switchboard" called a patch panel.

Hot Technologies for K-12 Schools.
(Consortium for School Networking, 2005)
This identifies the "must-have" technologies most likely to transform schools through innovation, including active highly portable large storage devices, datacasting, digital assessments, intelligent essay graders, intelligent pattern analysis performance projections, sound-field amplification, multisensory, customized learning tools, programmable phone systems, student information systems, learning management systems, blogs, and radio frequency identification data.
TO ORDER: Consortium for School Networking, 1710 Rhode Island Avenue NW, Suite 900, Washington, D.C., 200036. Tel: 202-861-2676.
http://www.cosn.org

New Classroom Model is Sustainable and Replicable.
(Educational Technology Support Center, Vancouver, WA, 2005)
Five K-12 classroom teachers have been selected to develop a replicable classroom model of technology integration that is sustainable and that supports research-based instructional strategies through the careful selection of technology tools, the provision of technology-related professional development, and through ongoing support and collaboration. Interactive whiteboards, document cameras and projectors, wireless response systems and classroom audio systems will be used. This describes the sustainable classroom model, the various technologies, and provides supporting documents.

Understanding Digital Kids. Teaching & Learning in the New Digital Landscape. Adobe PDF
Jukes, Ian; Dosaj, Anita
(InfoSavvy Group, Jun 2004)
Digital native learners prefer (1) receiving information quickly and from multiple resources; (2) parallel processing and multitasking; (3) processing pictures, sounds, and video before text; (4) random access to hyperlinked multimedia information; and (5) interacting and networking simultaneously with many others. 27p.

The High School of the Future: A Focus on Technology.
Merritt, Edwin; Beaudin, James; Sells, Jeffrey
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2004)
Offers guidance to ensure that high schools built today serve tomorrow's educational needs, use technological advances to control burgeoning square footages, and accommodate community groups and other after-hours users. It is written for boards of education, school building committees, district superintendents, and other decision-makers. Methods for involving stakeholders in the specifications, design, and project management are detailed. General and curriculum-specific design issues are covered along with conceptual drawings. Indoor air quality, technology, and accessibility considerations are covered in individual chapters. (Includes 11 references.) 151p.

A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy. Adobe PDF
Culp, Katie McMillan; Honey, Margaret; Mandinach, Ellen
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, Washington, D.C. , Oct 2003)
This paper provides an overview and analysis of twenty years of key policy reports addressing the challenges and opportunities involved in integrating technology into K-12 education in the U.S. The report summarizes recommendations made in these reports, and comments on the shifting rationales for and expectations of educational technology investments that have shaped those recommendations over time. [Authors' abstract] 32p.

Guidelines: General Recommendations for Computer Use.
(Ergonomics for Children & Educational Environments. A Technical Committee of the International Ergonomics Association, Jul 2003)
These guidelines incorporate basic ergonomic principles into all aspects of computer use in schools and at home. Through text and photographs, it recommends the position of students in relation to the keyboard/mouse height. There is also a discussion of the use of laptops by children and young adults.

Technology Master Plan: Charleston County School District.
(Charleston County School District, Charleston, SC , Jun 2003)
Presents the district's design, facilities, training, maintenance, and support plans for technology integration. The vision for technology and mission statement are explained, and state legislation for educational is cited. Cost estimates and a funding/implementation plan are provided. Appendices discuss E-rate and provide detailed specifications for telecommunications and server rooms, classrooms, computer labs, administrative spaces, and specialty rooms. 75p.

Clicks, Bricks and Spondulicks. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris , Mar 2003)
Summarizes the results of this March 2003 conference, which investigated the relationship between information technology and school facilities. Issues explored included 1) the difference in life expectancies of buildings, their interiors, and technology, 2)Impact on facilities of distributed learning environments (school common areas, homes, etc.), 3) funding ratios for technology versus buildings, 4) integrated capital planning for technology and buildings, 5) the balance between renovation and new construction, 6)impact on staffing, and 7) planning for uncertainty. 20p.

Universal Design in the Classroom and Computer Lab.
Burgstahler, Sheryl
(University of Washington, Seattle , Jan 2003)
Briefly addresses accessibility issues in school computer laboratories, emphasizing accommodation of sensory impairments in web pages, software, and audio-visual presentations. Includes 12 references. 4p.

Electronic Classrooms: Design, Use, and Evaluation. Adobe PDF
Contreas, Sylvia
Oct 2002)
Presents a floor plans and axonometric views for two electronic classroom designs. Includes 17 references. 10p.

The Role of Wireless Computing Technology in the Design of Schools. Adobe PDF
Nair, Prakash
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2002)
This document discusses integrating computers logically and affordably into a school building's infrastructure through the use of wireless technology. It begins by discussing why wireless networks using mobile computers are preferable to desktop machines in each classoom. It then explains the features of a wireless local area network (WLAN) and its common standards. The next section provides an update on advances, developments, and concerns in seven key areas: bandwidth, interference, system design and layout, security, network administration, occupant health, and vandalism. The document then addresses the impact of WLANs on learning and on the future of school design, and issues of costs and equitable access. (Contains a glossary of terms, a comparison of wireless standards, a discussion of Bluetooth and 3G, information on one-to-one computing, and 12 references.) 12p.

Impact of Technology on School Facility Design. [North Carolina]
(School Planning, North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Jul 2002)
This publication offers aid for North Carolina schools in planning new and renovated facilities to accommodate technology. It is a supplement to the North Carolina Public School Facilities Guidelines and should be used in conjunction with the STS-1000 Telecommunications Wiring Guidelines and the North Carolina School Technology Plan and other materials listed in "References for Further Reading" at the end of the publication. The emphasis of the STS-1000 is on network infrastructure, and the emphasis of the North Carolina Instructional Technology Plan is on the use of technology in schools and the specific equipment to support those uses. The material presented in this publication has a different emphasis--that of building needs to accommodate this technology equipment. The publication addresses: space, electrical, and cooling requirements for personal computers; computer and keyboarding labs; media centers; special use, computer aided design and drawing (CADD), graphics, and vocational labs; distance learning and information highway labs; administration areas; other uses of technology in schools; network wiring systems; head-end and file server rooms; and distributed wiring closets. 32p.

Impact of Clicks on Bricks: VET Facilities Planning in an Information Age, Final Report. Adobe PDF
Whitaker, Jan
(New South Wales Dept. of Education and Training, Syndey, Australia , Mar 2002)
Evaluates the effect of new learning technology on vocational education spaces in Australia. Topics covered include distance learning, miniaturization, property management, shared use of space between learning and working environments, planning, design, adequacy, and affordability. Includes 30 references. 15p.

Maryland Public School Standards for Telecommunications Distribution Systems: Infrastructure Design for Voice, Video, and Data Communications.
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore, MD , Feb 2002)
Examines the quality assurance codes and standards for telecommunications systems installed in Maryland's public schools; address specific issues concerning the design of school buildings relating to integrating the telecommunications infrastructure; describes minimum requirements for cabling types, topologies, distribution, and installation; outlines additional requirements, recommendations, and planning considerations for dedicated broadband video distribution systems; and discusses the building of electrical systems that are designed to accommodate telecommunications. The final section presents a glossary of terms used in document. 115p.
TO ORDER: State of Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 2nd Floor, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0100

NetDay Cyber Security Kit for Schools.
(NetDay, Irvine, CA, 2002)
This kit features tools and resources to raise awareness among K-12 educators, students and families about online safety and computer security. It includes a guide for school administrators with practical suggestions and resources for ensuring that school computer networks are secure from cyber attacks, and a list of cyber security and online safety web sites.

The Evolving Electronic Classroom
Cavenaugh, Robert
(In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2002 , 2002)
Electronic classrooms have become increasingly common over the past decade. The combination of data projectors, computers, video playback, and a range of ancillary devices have been found useful in a variety of instructional formats, resulting in pressures for more, and with an important institutional cost impact. Simultaneously, faculty recognize that the configuration of 'smart' rooms has a powerful influence on the conduct of instruction. A desire to facilitate collaborative/constructivist learning in such spaces has led Dickinson College and this researcher to devise new models for physical learning spaces, while simultaneously trimming the costs of creating them. This paper presents our developing 'Smart3' (3rd generation) classroom designs, including seminar, mid-sized, and larger spaces. Their rationale, underlying research, and the technological and physical features of these spaces are presented. [Author's abstract] p261-262
TO ORDER: Education and Information Technology Library
http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=10140

Thinking Outside the Circle: the Design of Face-to-Face Collaborative Learning Facilities
Cavenaugh, Robert
(Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2002 , 2002)
Learners working on collaborative assignments using computers (which may also involve blended/hybrid learning) must engage in social as well as intellectual tasks. Many existing facilities support such interaction badly if at all. This writer has undertaken a continuing investigation of persons-computer-facility interaction and has developed a series of learning facilities that appear to strengthen the quality of learner interaction by increasing time on tasks. This report demonstrates the process of creating groupwork oriented class and study spaces, the challenges and variables encountered, and the first pedagogical results of this work-in-progress. It also explores pedagogical strategies for instructors using such arrangements. [Author's abstract] p174-180
TO ORDER: Education and Information Technology Library
http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=15223

Great Expectations: Leveraging America's Investment in Educational Technology. Adobe PDF
Dickard, Norris; Harrington-Lueker, Donna; Honey, Margaret; Dede, Chris
(Benton Foundation, Washington, DC, Jan 2002)
Overview of the impact of various federal investments in educational technology, in particular the E-Rate Program, which has assisted in building the technology infrastructure of American K-12 schools. Suggestions for improving the E-Rate program are offered. 62p.

Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts. Adobe PDF
Nair, Prakash
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Dec 2001)
Considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard- wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the wireless option to WAN connectivity in educational facilities, examines its advantages and various limitations, and considers interface, security, and reliability issues. The author also examines the aspects of a school district that make it a good candidate for utilizing wireless technology in creating a WAN. Final comments discuss ways to perform a building site survey before deciding to install a wireless WAN, and WAN infrastructure requirements and installation costs.(Contains eight references). 6p.

Oversold and Underused: Computers in Classrooms.
Cuban, Larry
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, Sep 2001)
This book provides a critical look at the actual use of computers by teachers and students in early childhood education, high school and university classrooms. It combines an historical overview of school technologies with statistical data and direct observation of classroom practices in several Silicon Valley schools. The author contends that all the technology that has been infused in schools has done little to change the way teachers teach. He concludes that without a broader vision of the social and civic role that schools perform in a democratic society, our excessive focus on technology use in schools runs the danger of trivializing our nation's core ideals. 256p.

The Impact of ICT on Schools: Classroom Design and Curriculum Delivery, a Study of Schools in Australia, USA, England, and Hong Kong, 2000. Adobe PDF
Eadie, Gillian
(Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, Wellington, New Zealand , Feb 2001)
Evaluates current and possible future impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) on school timetables, curricula, and facilities. Facilities-related topics include new configurations of existing space, sharing of spaces, configurations and equipment for classroom flexibility, virtual and linked classrooms and campuses, wireless technology, changes to library areas, and reconfiguration of the teaching schedule. Includes 17 references and 42 website referrals. 46p.

Technology Solutions for Schools.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2001)
This report explores issues relating to technology implementation in school buildings, including cost and finance issues, space requirements, classroom configuration, equity in technology availability, staffing, infrastructure development, security, and environmental issues. The report also explains the development of building technology plans for both individual schools and school districts. Appendices provide Internet, book, and professional organizational resources for help and a basic technology checklist. 24p.

Classrooms and Computers: An Elementary School Case Study.
Bennett, Cheryl
(Proceedings of the International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety XV Annual Conference, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety. , 2001)
Children now use computers throughout their education. As schools have focused on purchasing computers and providing internet access, there has been little consideration of ergonomics. Even if educators and school administrators acknowledge students would benefit from better ergonomics, they may assume it is too expensive or not know where to begin. This paper describes the processes used to implement low cost ergonomic improvements and provide training for teachers, staff and students in an elementary school. 10p.

Designing Learning Environments That Excite Serious Play. Adobe PDF
Rieber, Lloyd
(Nowhereroad.com , 2001)
Proposes the phenomenon of play as a legitimate goal for interactive multimedia learning environments. Technology offers many routes to serious play. Some are aligned with the design of interactive multimedia, such as simulations and games. Others are aligned with design activities where students themselves take charge of multimedia tools. Three collaborative projects are offered as examples of this proposal and the issues that frame it involving elementary and middle school students, graduate students, and students with intellectual and behavioral disabilities. 9p.

Technology Planning Guide for Minnesota School Districts, Schools and Public Libraries. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Dept. of Children, Families and Learning, Roseville , Sep 2000)
This guide assists Minnesota school districts and libraries in technology planning by providing information for meeting the requirements for federal assistance through the Universal Service Fund E-rate program and gaining approval from the Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning. Fourteen technology plan criteria needing to be addressed for approval by the CFL are detailed. Final comments address the submission of technology plans to the CFL, and provide a checklist for technology planning and a list of suggested web resources that cover each of the guideline criteria. 60p.

Education Through Technology Integration: A Template for School Design.
Nair, Prakash
(Public Education Institute, Education Law Center, and UEF21 Conference, Rutgers University, NJ, Jun 23, 2000)
PowerPoint presentation on education through technology integration, and the use of this model as a template for school design.

IMPACT: Guidelines for Media and Technology Programs. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Instructional Technologies Division, Raleigh. , 2000)
This document provides the set of standards for K-12 library media coordinators and instructional technology facilitators in North Carolina, including tenets on programs, personnel, budgets, resources, and facilities to guide the building of a technology-rich learning environment. Guidelines are provided in the following areas: (1) teaching and learning, including collaboration for instruction, information access, staff development, and public relations; (2) information access and delivery, including making resources accessible, planning and designing facilities for learning, developing educational specifications, educational specifications for school and media/technology spaces, educational specifications for the school library media center, educational specifications for furniture and shelving, and general technology infrastructure for instruction; (3) program administration, including planning the program, being the change agent, advisory committee membership and responsibilities, staffing the program, budgeting for the program, creating and implementing policies and procedures, building support for vision and programs, and issues and myths; (4) system-level guidelines, including system-level leadership, teaching and learning, information access and delivery, and program administration; and (5) research and evaluation, including how to evaluate programs, using output measures for evaluation, a reference chart of measures and what they support, and program evaluation rubrics. Includes a glossary. (Contains 214 references.) 234p.

Designing for 21st Century Technology. First Annual School Construction Institute. Adobe PDF
Beaudin, James A.; Merritt, Edwin T.; Cornett, Dave
(Fletcher-Thompson, Bridgeport, CT , 2000)
This report summarizes survey findings on Connecticut high school designs meeting future educational demands and presents an overview of specific problems and solutions identified by the survey. Problem areas within the curriculum are highlighted; security issues in tomorrow's high school are addressed; and the problems and solutions in the utilization of technology to reduce square footage needs and maximize state reimbursement funding are discussed. New Milford High School is used as an example of a school designed to meet both present and future educational needs by incorporating the latest technological systems. 54p.

Managing InfoTech in School Library Media Centers.
Clyde, Laurel A.
(Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO, 2000)
Discusses the development of an information technology plan for a school library media center and how to effectively manage technology to achieve goals of the school. Emphasizing applications in the areas of management, services, and curriculum, this discusses issues in planning, selection of hardware and applications, budget, staffing and facilities, user education, publicity/promotion, and possible developments in the future. 290p.
TO ORDER: Libraries Unlimited, Libraries Unlimited, P.O. Box 6926, Portsmouth, NH 03802-6926; Tel: 800-225-5800.
http://lu.com/

Creating Technology Infrastructures in a Rural School District: A Partnership Approach. Adobe PDF
Jensen, Dennis
(Chapter 4 in: Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support., 2000)
Rural schools face significant challenges in upgrading their technology infrastructures. Rural school districts tend to have older school buildings that have multiple problems and lack climate control, adequate space, and necessary wiring. In rural districts, it may be difficult to find the leadership and expertise needed to provide professional development, create an appropriate technology plan, and manage and maintain building and system infrastructures. In addition, rural districts may not have local companies available or willing to partner with schools in technology projects, and staff members may not have the time or experience to write grant applications for technology development. Wayne (Nebraska) Community School District overcame these difficulties through a collaboration with Wayne State College, the chamber of commerce and city council, local businesses, federal and state agencies, and the students themselves. In 1992, a districtwide committee of diverse stakeholders developed goals and identified needs for a comprehensive technology plan. During the plan's implementation, the nearby college was a constant resource. Stages in the plan included installation of a computer lab, distance education activities, expansion of technology infrastructure with a corporate grant, and development of a communitywide computer network. Lessons learned from the Wayne experience concern the needs for careful planning, continual training of staff and students, and a vision for the future. 14p

Telematics and Electronic Communication and Their Effect on Educational Space. Adobe PDF
Morton, James E.
(American Institute of Architects,Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Jul 29, 1999)
A report examines technology's influence on the educational process as well as the physical classroom, and the needs and concerns these new technologies bring to architects and educators in designing an adaptable classroom. Technology and the classroom are examined in the following areas: the use of television; microcomputers and computer terminals; power and communication cable distribution; voice and data distribution; heating and air conditioning needs; furniture requirements; and security issues. 16p.

Managing Technology Efficiently in California K-12 Schools: Policies & Practices for Minimizing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Caspary, Kyra; Kusserow, Tim; Lavin, Jake; Movassaghi, Maziar
(Paper presented in association with the California Research Bureau, Richard & Ronda Goldman School of Public Policy, UC Berkeley , Jul 1999)
The total cost of ownership (TCO) of computer technology in California's K-12 public schools is assessed via a study of two high schools, one elementary school, and one school district that have implemented successful technology programs. The research covers four fundamental problems in such ownership that add costs to schools and create problems for educators: (1) lack of technical expertise; (2) lack of sustained funding; (3) lack of incentive to manage technology efficiently; and (4) difficulties in managing technology programs. Three State policies are recommended to help schools and school districts identify, plan, and manage TCO for technology. 76p.

Facilities Planning for School Library Media and Technology Centers
Baule, Steven M.
(Linworth Publishing, Inc., Worthington, OH , 1999)
Increased student enrollment, collection growth, the need for multimedia workspace, and other technology changes are all reasons for embarking on a facilities project in a library media center. This book describes the keys to success for library media centers of the future, and addresses the need for developing support for the facilities plan. Guidelines are provided for building a facilities project team, including advice on team selection and leadership. This step-by-step guide includes numerous checklists of critical strategies, questions and planning components, key forms for planning and analysis, and a suggested timeline to keep the facility design plans on track. Library media center layout samples provide a base; elementary, middle school and high school designs can be modified for any type of school. In addition to the bibliography, a list of library facilities related Web sites is included. 100p.
TO ORDER: Linworth Publishing, Inc., 480 East Wilson Bridge Rd., Suite L, Worthington, OH 43085

Designing Successful Technology-Rich Elementary Schools
McCreary, Faith; Reaux, Ray; Ehrich, Roger; Hood, Susan; and Rowland, Keith
(Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Society 42nd Annual Meeting, October 5-9, 1998. , 1999)
Computers and network connectivity in the classroom raise new challenges in workspace design. Unlike corporate or dedicated laboratory facilities, a technology-rich classroom plays multiple roles throughout its working day. Classroom design demands flexible and robust construction, particularly when applied in an elementary school setting. Using the PCs for Families project as a case study, this paper discusses design issues of a technology- rich networked classroom from ergonomic design to system support.

Technology and the Classroom: Current Practices in the Pennsylvania School System.
Williams, James; Sochats, Kenneth; Kyrish, Sandy; Kiely, Edward
(University of Pittsburgh, PA , 1999)
Reports the results of a classroom level study to determine how technology was being used in Pennsylvania schools and to discern the perceptions of principals, teachers, and students regarding information technology after three years of the states "Link-To-Learn Initiative," which had invested over $137 million in school technology. The study found that technology was being integrated across all grades and increased as the grade level rose, but that increased integration with the curriculum was still needed. Includes 85 references. 113p.

Computer Classroom and Laboratory Design: Bibliography
Kotlas, Carolyn
(University of North Carolina, Institute for Academic Technology, Aug 1998)
Incorporating computer technology into the education process involves redesigning the physical space where instruction takes place. Articles in this guide provide examples and advice on modifying existing classrooms to accommodate new technologies and on designing and building new teaching environments.

The Educational Leadership Toolkit: Facility Planning
(National School Board Association's Institute for the Transfer of Technology to Education , Jun 1998)
A chapter on facility planning includes strategies for future needs and retrofitting, specifications, planning sequence, self-evaluations, program management, facility planning personnel, and case studies.

Applications of Technology in Rural School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Jensen, Dennis
(Presented at Invitational Conference on Rural School Facilities, Kansas City, MO , May 1998)
Rural schools often have difficulty in developing and implementing a 21st century, K-12 technology plan. This report describes one rural school district's (Wayne, Nebraska) successful efforts at technology integration. It discusses the efforts of installing 25 networked computers in the local high school, linking buildings with fiber-optic cables, automating the middle school library, and creating a distance education program by upgrading software and hardware to link the schools to the community via the Internet. The report reveals that rural schools can succeed in integrating technology into the curriculum, but it takes a united effort combined with the rural districts' willingness to seek help from regional and state agencies. (Contains 3 references). 15p.

Guidelines and Standards for the Technology Infrastructure of 21st Century Educational Facilities. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept.,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY , Apr 1998)
New York State Regents directed that new guidelines and "standards" be developed for technology infrastructures in educational facilities in order to assist administrators and educators in planning technology integration during retrofits, renovations, or new construction of educational facilities. This document provides the first draft of these guidelines that respond primarily to the needs of rehabilitation and modernization projects, but also can be used for new construction. The guidelines are broken down into nine areas as follows: Environmental/Life Safety; Planning for Electrical Power; Lighting; Space Planning and Pathways; Structured Cable Plants; Libraries; Security; Wireless Systems; and Distance Learning Capabilities. Appendices presents information regarding asbestos regulations and resource addresses. 34p.

Preparing Your School Building for Technology. Adobe PDF
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ. , 1998)
A practitioners guide to preparing school buildings for tomorrow’s technology. This document includes information on: current and future trends in education and technology; technology applications; voice video and data systems; developing building and district technology plans; infrastructure and cabling; technology bid packages.

E-rate: A Resource Guide for Educators. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Fulton, David
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY , 1998)
This digest lists resources containing background information, instructions, application forms, help lines and other useful information related to the E-rate.

Technology & School Design: Creating Spaces for Learning.
Hardt, Richard W.; And Others
(National School Boards Association, Inst. for the Transfer of Technology to Education, Alexandria, VA , 1998)
This book guides school leaders through school facility planning and technology systems planning, describing the importance of long-range planning and revealing the decision-making faced by some school leaders who have led successful facility design efforts. It recommends a seven-step process that distinguishes what facilities a school district needs and how to gain community support. It also examines how to select an architectural firm and how to work with it to create educational specifications and building designs that accommodate technology use, including the design of technology-rich spaces such as media centers. Concluding chapters define the infrastructure options school leaders can choose from, and examine the step-by-step approach of a bond issue campaign a school district may need to fund new and remodeled facilities. 114p.
TO ORDER: National School Boards Association
http://www.nsba.org

Safeguarding Your Technology. Chapter Five: Protecting Your System: Physical Security.
Szuba, Tom
(Technology and Security Task Force of the National Forum on Education Statistics, Washington, DC , 1998)
These guidelines are written to help educational administrators and staff at the buildings, campus, district, and state levels better understand why and how to effectively secure their organization's sensitive information, critical systems, computer equipment, and network access. Chapter 5 covers physical security, which refers to the protection of building sites and equipment (and all information and software contained therein) from theft, vandalism, natural disaster, manmade catastrophes, and accidental damage (e.g., from electrical surges, extreme temperatures, and spilled coffee). It requires solid building construction, suitable emergency preparedness, reliable power supplies, adequate climate control, and appropriate protection from intruders. 11p.
Report NO: NCES 98297


Implementation Costs for Educational Technology Systems Adobe PDF
Meeks, Glenn E.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Dec 1997)
Personnel involved in planning or developing schools lack the costing tools that will enable them to determine educational technology costs. This report presents an overview of the technology costing process and the general costs used in estimating educational technology systems on a macro-budget basis, along with simple cost estimates for technology systems based on a per-port system. It offers suggestions on determining the quantity and types of space required during the preliminary stages of project design and how to determine the educational technology budget. A sample budgetary worksheet is included.

Facility Standards for Technology in New Jersey Schools Adobe PDF
Milone, Lawrence V.
(New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton , May 1997)
This document provides guidelines to assist local districts and county coordinating councils in developing their distance learning plans. The first section addresses the educational specifications in the classroom design that reflect a technology- rich learning environment. The design and review processes and the organization of the educational specifications are discussed. The second section presents guidelines for modernizing learning environments with educational technology. The final section details the new areas of school activity created when a technology infrastructure is adopted, including the use of instructional television, media centers, TV production facilities, and distance learning. Appendices provide an sample of an educational specifications form, a glossary of communications technology terms, a clarification of electronic communication systems terms, specifications on wiring and classroom diagrams, and a study supplement program and recommendations. 71p.

Educational Technology Options for New York City Public School Classrooms. Adobe PDF
(Ehrenkrantz&Eckstut Architects, New York, NY , Apr 11, 1997)
This study was prepared for the New York School Construction Authority whose principal aim was to provide options for the incorporation of education technology into classrooms within existing New York City public school buildings. This study was particularly targeted at grades 4 through 8. 27p.

Investing in School Technology: Strategies to Meet the Funding Challenge
(National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA, 1997)
This book provides information for school leaders on technology funding practices. It contains the following chapters: Educational Technology and the Investment Paradigm, Designing and Costing the Technology Plan, - Funding Strategies for the Technology Plan, and Case Studies of Funding Mechanisms in Action. Bibliography, resources and glossary included.

The School Technology Primer: A Non-Technical Guide to Understanding School Technology.
(Little Institute for School Facilities Research, Charlotte, NC. , 1997)
This booklet is designed to provide educational administrators and planners with an easy guide to understanding the constantly evolving elements of school technology. The booklet presents a comprehensive overview of modern information systems in schools and how they can enhance the students' learning environment. Seven sections address a variety of topics, including: a basic discussion of computer networks and technology in schools; a description of computer networking with suggestions for infrastructure selection and wiring; computer hardware; concerns regarding the selection, purchase; upgrading and maintenance of computers Internet accessibility, as well as security issues and educational opportunities available on the World Wide Web; integrated communications systems within a school; and design issues, such as electrical wiring and the classroom layout. 20p.
TO ORDER: The Little Institute for School Facilities Research, 5815 Westpark Drive, Charlotte, NC 28217.

Learn & Live Resource Book.
Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.
(George Lucas Educational Foundation, San Rafael, CA, 1997)
This resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in Section 2, "Teachers," focus on the role of the teacher and learning to teach. In Section 3, "Communities," the three chapters explore involving families, connecting communities, and business partnerships. In the final section, "Schools," the three chapters discuss reinventing schools, places for learning, and technology. Each chapter contains four elements: visionary essays; reports from individuals active in school reform; brief profiles describing how the concepts promoted in the book have been implemented in a variety of schools, communities, and successful programs; and a resource list of organizations, publications, and other contacts. A glossary and a list of electronic resources are included. 300p
TO ORDER: http://www.edutopia.org/

How to Choose Learning Stations and Seating for your Technology-based Classroom.
Sanborn, Fred
(Interactive Learning Systems , 1997)
Covers such topics as how to orient your room; shutting out visual distraction; width of student spaces; how high should tabletops be; modular workspaces. 7p.

Educators Perceptions of School Construction Design Components for Communication and Information Technology Implementation in Public Schools.
Seligman, Marc Alan
(Dissertation, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA , 1997)
This study compared the perceptions of public school principals about school construction design components for communication and information technology. Respondents from secondary schools built, renovated, or rewired prior to 1990 felt that many of the construction design component statements were worthy of high ratings. Secondary principals in newer schools rated each component lower than did secondary principals from the older schools. The reverse was true for elementary school principals. It appeared that secondary principals anticipated more benefit than was derived once the technologies were either in place or considered for inclusion in the school. Elementary principals did not think as highly of these elements until their schools were upgraded. 209p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9732875

TO ORDER: UMI Dissertation Express
http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb

Networking K-12 Schools: Architecture Models and Evaluation of Costs and Benefits. Adobe PDF
Rothstein, Russell Isaac
(Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA , Jun 1996)
This thesis examines the cost and benefits of communication networks in K-12 schools using cost analysis of five technology models with increasing levels of connectivity. Data indicate that the cost of the network hardware is only a small fraction of the overall networking costs. PC purchases, initial training, and retrofitting are the largest one-time costs for starting the network, and network support is the largest ongoing annual cost that schools must face. Over the first 5 years, support and training together comprise 46 percent of the total costs of networking schools. Costs are significantly reduced when aggregated at the district and state levels due to increased purchasing power. Using the Internet's CNN Newsroom to evaluate the benefits of K-12 networking reveal that students using CNN Newsroom placed more emphasis on the use of computers for school projects than did other students with similarly high access to technology. Lack of training and support was the biggest barrier for teachers and students, highlighting the need for school funding of the human infrastructure in addition to the network infrastructure. (Contains 48 references). 121p.

Classroom Ecosystems: Is Educational Technology Safe?
(University of North Texas, Texas Center for Educational Technology, Denton , 1996)
Discusses environmental implications of educational technology such as the impact of sustained exposure to video display terminals, recycling of computers, repetitive stress injuries, ergonomic furniture, and indoor air. Includes 27 references. 16p.

Guidelines for Instructional Technology Planning and Application.
(Office of Curriculum and Instruction, New York State Education Dept, Albany, NY , 1996)
This examines fiscal and instructional planning, acquisition, wiring, training, and applications for technology use for New York State schools, and presents general guidelines for staff development in instructional technology integration in educational facilities. 3p.

Maryland Public School Standards for Information and Communications Distribution Systems in New Construction and Renovation Projects
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore , 1996)
Details the standards established by Maryland public schools for information and communication distribution systems in new construction and renovation projects. The function of the communications distribution room (CDR) is to house the distribution equipment of the school's communications systems and may contain gateways, tuners, video cassette recorders, audio/video distribution systems, mainframes, documentation, and test equipment. It is connected to a communications closets (CC) for horizontal distribution to the end user. The CDR is the demarcation point for external systems such as telephone and cable lines. Primary considerations for CDR development are presented. In retrofitted facilities where a CDR cannot be provided, a CC can perform the termination and cable distribution function of the CDR. The CC distributes communications cable to end users or to communications distributions outlets to user areas. Development requirements for the CC are detailed. Horizontal distribution is described as the means by which information and communications services are brought from the CC to the user station or the communications outlet. Cable and wiring specifications for this transfer are discussed. Communications outlet requirements for the classroom and the laboratory are presented, along with electrical system requirements.
TO ORDER: Maryland State Dept. of Education, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201.

Technology and Cost Models for Connecting K-12 Schools to the National Information Infrastructure.
Rothstein, Russell I.; McKnight, Lee
1996)
Cost models representing equipment, services, software, and training needs are presented for evaluating the total cost of fully connecting K-12 schools to a national information infrastructure (NII). Analysis indicate that the baseline service required for connecting to the NII will cost $9.4 to $22.0 billion in one-time costs with annual maintenance costs of $1.8 billion to $4.6 billion or $212 to $501 in one-time installation costs and an ongoing annual cost of $40 to $105 per pupil respectively. Hardware is the most significant cost item for schools. PC expenditures represent most of the hardware costs, and costs for support of the network represent about one-third of all networking. Support and training together constitute 46 percent of the total costs of networking schools, and costs for telecommunications lines and services represent only 11 percent of the total costs. If all schools coordinate purchasing at the state level, cost savings will exceed $2 billion. If a nationwide program were instituted, potential savings would be $800 to $1.8 billion. Free Internet connectivity would provide a reduction in total costs for school Internet connections between $150 and $630 million. Financing for school networking remains to be adequately addressed. 12p.

Designing Schools To Accommodate Technology. Adobe PDF
Sorensen, Richard J.
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI, 1996)
This guide provides the layperson with a concise overview of factors to consider when making plans to outfit elementary and secondary schools with technology inexpensively. The guide includes sections on: the importance of planning; the basics of networks; the cost of technology; implications for school design; what technical information the planners need to know; and resources for advice on planning for educational technology.

Impact of Technology on School Facility Design. Adobe PDF
Etheridge, Bob
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Division of School Facility Services, Raleigh, NC , 1995)
Computers and other technological innovations are becoming a greater part of today's educational system requiring educational facility designers to plan for their use when designing or renovating new buildings. This booklet considers the building needs for accommodating new technology, particularly focusing on the impact of personal computers and their interconnectivity. It discusses space requirements for workstations and workstation layouts; the cooling and electrical requirements for personal computers; and the design considerations when building computer and keyboarding labs, media centers, head-end and file server rooms, special use rooms and vocational labs, and labs for distance learning and the information highway. Other uses of technology in schools are highlighted such as systems for food service, energy management, facility management, and network connections. The booklet's final section examines design considerations for network wiring and file server closets. (Contains 9 references.) 28p.

A User Assessment of Workspaces in Selected Music Education Computer Laboratories. Adobe PDF
Badolato, Michael Jeremy
(Doctor of Education Dissertation, Boston University, MA , May 1995)
A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of education computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a questionnaire encompassing 59 items, each representing a specific factor. Significant differences were found in user ratings across the four facilities as well as individual workspace factors. Analyses reveal a trend toward user satisfaction with workspace factors designed in accordance with ergonomic and environmental design guidelines. Included in the Appendices is a glossary of terms, student comments, and an equipment list of general workstation configurations of each lab. 297p.

School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Apr 1995)
Findings of a General Accounting Office study that examined the extent to which America's schools have the physical capacity to support learning into the 21st century. Specifically, it looked at facilities requirements, environmental conditions, educational technologies, and facility infrastructure. Findings indicate that although most schools met many key facilities requirements and environmental conditions for education reform and improvement, most were unprepared in critical areas for the 21st century. Most schools did not fully use modern technology and lacked access to the information superhighway. Forty percent of the schools reported that their facilities could not meet the functional requirements of laboratory science or large-group instruction. Over half reported unsatisfactory flexibility of instructional space necessary to implement many effective teaching strategies. Overall, schools in central cities and schools with minority populations above 50 percent were more likely to fall short of adequate technology elements and have a greater number of unsatisfactory environmental conditions than other schools. 71p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-95-95


Mississippi Master Plan for Education Technology. Adobe PDF
(Mississippi Council for Education Technology, Mississippi Center for Educational Leadership and Technology, Marlborough, MS , 1995)
This document contains a brief explanation of the planning methodology, key findings and recommendations and design principles and implementation strategies for the integration of technology into the Mississippi educational system for the next 5 years. The plan is divided into 10 major sections: (1) curriculum improvement and technology integration strategies/changing nature of curriculum; (2) education technology system design; (3) education accountability and reporting system design; (4) learning environments and facility planning; (5) distance learning; (6) professional development plan; (7) education technology policy and procedures; (8) technology standards and procurement strategies; (9) roles and responsibilities, staffing positions, and organizational structure; and (10) program monitoring and evaluation plan. The plan also discusses local technology planning; funding issues and strategies; implementation staging and phasing; and multiple viewpoints on the benefits of a statewide plan for educational technology. Changes in teaching, learning, and management that may be expected as a result are highlighted. 163p.

Technology: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC. , 1995)
Findings of a national survey of school facilities concerning whether America's schools have appropriate technologies, such as computers, and the facility infrastructure to support these technologies are reported. Ten thousand schools were surveyed, augmented with visits to 10 selected school districts. Remarks address: (1) the need for technology in the nation's schools, and (2) problems schools report having in meeting those needs. It was found that, overall, the nation's schools were not even close to meeting their basic technology needs. Most schools do not fully use modern technology, and not all students have equal access to facilities that can support education into the 21st century, even those attending school in the same district. 26p.
Report NO: GAO/T-HEHS-95-127


Technology and Educational Buildings and Records for Management of Buildings. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No. 7. Adobe PDF
Odell, John H.
(Association of Independent Schools of New South Wales, Ltd., Sydney, Australia , 1995)
A school construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects with guidance on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides guidance on how educational buildings should be designed to permit technological change with efficiency and minimum expense. Issues examined involve computers and buildings; industrial technology; integration of technology and other disciplines; and special requirements of storage, supervision, and after-hours use. Also discussed are the principles of good maintenance and record- keeping; and documentation needs for equipment, services, and providers. 23p.

Redefining the Place To Learn.
Stuebing, Susan; et al.
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France. , 1995)
Describes 21 educational buildings where innovative use was made of information technology in the educational process. Site visits were conducted during spring and autumn 1993 to the 21 schools in 14 countries. The report identifies four key indicators of change for the design and use of educational environments: 1)defining the place for learning; 2) building connections; 3) developing new building-use requirements; and 4) transforming support facilities for learning. The move toward a technology-rich learning environment raises concerns about relevance, social behavior, accessibility, professional development, equipment provision, and health and safety issues. A glossary is included. 173p.
TO ORDER: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2, rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France

The Report of the Task Force on Facilities and Technology.
Smith, Franklin L.
(District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC , 1994)
A task force was formed by the Center for Systemic Educational Change to plan for the inclusion of instructional technology during implementation of the Mathematics, Science, and Technology Initiative (MSTI) in the District of Columbia public school system. This Task Force report examines the mission, vision, beliefs, and purpose and role of technology; findings and issues resulting from a "walkthrough" survey of area schools to determine use of administrative and instructional technology; District technology implementation issues; and thoughts on building the infrastructure in the areas of policy, leadership, and financing. Concluding observations examine technology needs and teacher and staff development, and thoughts on the promise of technology for improving teaching and learning. (Contains 34 references.) 35p.

Ergonomic Guidelines for Designing Effective and Healthy Learning Environments for Interactive Technologies. Adobe PDF
Weisberg, Michael
(National Library of Medicine , 1993)
Many of the findings from ergonomics research on visual display workstations are relevant to the design of interactive learning stations. This paper briefly reviews ergonomics research on visual display workstations; specifically, (1) potential health hazards from electromagnetic radiation; (2) musculoskeletal disorders; (3)vision complaints; and (4) psychosocial stresses. Guidelines are provided on how to design an ergonomically correct workstation and learning environment that seek to balance human performance with learner satisfaction and well being. (Contains 64 references.) 15p.

New Technology and Its Impact on Educational Buildings.
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France , 1992)
Presents the results of the OECD's work on the impact of new technology on educational facilities. The introduction identifies issues posed by new technology to educational facility designers and managers, and includes two articles: "Myths and Realities," and "The Task of Educational Building Designers." The second section summarizes seminar papers with regard to changes in technology, society, education, buildings, and technology-based learning in continuing education and training. Technological, societal/political, and education/training trends are described in section 3, and the fourth section offers forecasts for buildings, structures, and use of building space. Section 5 provides conclusions pertaining to: the interface between technology, education, and society; changes in the educational structures and methods; and changes in buildings. 46p.

Learning Environment: An Architectural Interpretation of a New Designs. Archetype High School. Adobe PDF
Jilk, Bruce A.; And Others
(National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA , 1992)
The New Designs for the Comprehensive High School project used the break-the-mold design-down process to develop a prototype high school. The basic building block of this design is the personal workstation, not the classroom. Combining the personal workstation with the desire for teaming leads to the idea of a small, flexible group space that accommodates several personal workstations. High school students are grouped into approximately 100 pupils and gathered around a resource/production space to facilitate project-focused tasks. Neighborhoods that are virtually stand-alone schools are created. Along with the multiple-use commons, they give students a meaningful environment with a special identity. The flexible studio frees the school organization from the limitations of the physical environment and allows for the complete integration of vocational and academic subject matter. Support staff are located in as friendly and accessible a manner as possible. Learning technology permits information to be everywhere. Instructional material centers, computer rooms, and the problems of scheduling access to them no longer exist. Many places in the design provide for demonstration and display, now an important part of assessment. This design connects students to their surroundings and provides space for the community in the school. 40p.

Model Educational Specifications for Technology in Schools. Adobe PDF
1991
This description of the Model Edspec, which can be used by itself or in conjunction with the "Format Guide of Educational Specifications," serves as a comprehensive planning tool for the selection and application of technology. The model is designed to assist schools in implementing the facilities development process, thereby making electronic learning a reality in each and every school; to serve as a primer for incorporating electronic technology into the educational plan of a specific school; and to stimulate exploration beyond the current limits of technology. Based on 12 belief statements, the model is not intended to be prescriptive or restrictive, but to provoke thoughtful consideration of the school's requirements. The first section of the document describes electronic communications systems, including voice systems, video systems, data systems, and electronic networks. Building components, including structural, electrical, lighting, climate control, fire/life safety, security, and acoustics are addressed in the next section; and the third section discusses activity areas, including administration, food service, guidance, health, instruction, and the library media center. 118p.

Electronic Classroom. Adobe PDF
Price, Harry A.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Discusses the conversion of a limited-use auditorium at Middletown, New York’s Memorial Elementary School into an electronic classroom to be used as a flexible instructional space. 13p.

References to Journal Articles

Computing Made Practical for K-12 Schools.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p64,66,68,69 ; Oct 2010
Advocates the use of thin-client to zero-client systems to minimize hardware costs and centralize data service in one place for the entire school or school district. Thin-client systems offer increased security, lower energy use, and lower maintenance.

A Movable Feast.
Waters, John
T.H.E. Journal; Dec 2007
Reviews concepts for continuously adaptable classroom design, noting that wireless technology liberates arrangement from being fixed around the technology, that the L-shaped classroom provides new possibilities, and that areas outside the classroom are learning spaces too.

Voting with Their Seats: Computer Laboratory Design and the Casual User.
Spennemann, Dirk H. R.; Atkinson, John; Cornforth, David
Behaviour & Information Technology; v26 n5 , p409-420 ; Sep 2007
Student computer laboratories are provided by most teaching institutions around the world; however, what is the most effective layout for such facilities? The log-in data files from computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia were analysed to determine whether there was a pattern in student seating. In particular, it was investigated whether students and academic staff usage was affected by the layout of a computer laboratory and therefore a preference by students in where they were seated. It was found that the layout of the computer laboratories does not affect which computer layout a student will use. Further, it was found that academic staff prefer to use a computer laboratory designed along a more traditional lecture room layout when working with first-year students. This research will be valuable to institutions designing new computer laboratory facilities. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a769528854

The Technology Facade.
Tomei, Lawrence
American School Board Journal; v194 n9 , p44-49 ; Sep 2007
Offers 20 questions and a checklist that school officials can use to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a district's technology program. Facility issues addressed include the distribution of and access to computer facilities.
TO ORDER: http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2007/September/TheTechnologyFacade.aspx?DID=37859

A Brave New World.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p44-46 ; Jul 2007
Discusses the latest audiovisual technology available for classrooms, their typical costs, compatibility of the various components, and adoption and training possibilities for various devices.

Adjusting to Technology.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n11 , p26,28,30,31 ; Jun 2007
Discusses school furniture selection in the light of the technology that will be used. Traveling laptops, the smaller footprint of current hardware, and wireless networks are reviewed.

Audiovisual Technology and Sustainable Design.
Melchin, Jon
The Construction Specifier; v60 n6 , p100-102,104,106-108 ; Jun 2007
Advises on environmentally conscious audiovisual technology installations, including plasma and LCD screens which save energy and can be viewed in daylit rooms, use of lead-free or recycled content, design that allows easy access for inspection and maintenance, and attention to acoustics. Includes four references.

Fast Forward: A School District Redefines Learning.
Rubenstein, Grace
Edutopia; v3 n4 , p50-55 ; Jun 2007
Describes aggressive technology integration in the Lawrence Township (Indiana) School District. This has enabled extensive research even in the primary grades, distance learning, and community involvement.

Control Freak.
Waters, John
Campus Technology; v20 n10 , p34-36,38,40,41 ; Jun 2007
Reviews current classroom technology, including multi-window and multi-input whiteboards, advanced control podiums that allow a variety of input and mark-ups from the controller, and advanced remote monitoring of systems.

Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits.
Kaestner, Rich
The School Administrator; v64 n5 , p28-30,32,33 ; May 2007
Advises on how to accurately calculate costs and assess value for technology deployed in schools. Three categories for Total Cost of Ownership are detailed, consisting of amortized costs of equipment, and direct and indirect labor costs. Value of Investment is discerned by comparing costs and benefits to district goals and mandates, between varying projects vying for the same funds, and sustainability of the technology discerned by achievement.

Technology for Productivity.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , p33,34,36 ; May 2007
Presents an interview with Michael McCurdy, the assistant principal of Estridge High Tech Middle School in Boca Raton, Florida. The school features IP telephony, a totally wireless environment, classroom sound saturation systems, doors that lock and unlock automatically at class changes, and biometric hand scanners.

Have Phone Will Travel.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p34,36 ; Apr 2007
Discusses the demise of the land line on college campuses, particularly in residence halls. Programs that issue all students cell phones with GPS tracking for safety are covered, as well as their use with faculty and facility staff.

Tracking U.S.Trends.
Bausell, Carole; Klemick; Elizabeth
Education Week; v26 n30 ; Mar 29, 2007
Rates the states on their technology integration, awarding grades from A-D. The typical grade was a C+. Use of whiteboards and laptops, access to online curriculum, and educator competence are assessed.

Getting Up to Speed.
Trotter, Andrew
Education Week; v26 n30 ; Mar 29, 2007
Reviews the last ten years of technology integration into schools, including the effects of the E-rate and No Child Left Behind programs. The emphasis on testing and accountability is viewed as having a largely negative effect on technology integration.

Bridging the Digital Divide.
SchoolsforLife; n4 , p24-26 ; Mar 2007
Reviews technology-rich schools being built in some of the United Kingdom's most deprived areas. These were prioritized for funding to the typically disadvantaged state of the students.

What's Your Emergency?
Semer, Jeri; Ostrom, Dave; Peabody, Chris
American School and University; v79 n6 , pSS44,SS46,SS48 ; Feb 2007
Discusses the use of IP telephony to assist in location of emergency callers and enhance campus security. This enhanced 911 (E911) capability for multi-line phone systems is the law in a growing number of states. Issues of phone location identification and the necessity for meticulous maintenance of this information are also covered.

Toward a Future Wireless Classroom Paradigm.
Choi, Young B. ; . Abbott, Thomas A.; Arthur, Michelle A.; Hill Douglas N.
International Journal of Innovation and Learning ; v4 n1 ; 2007
The use of wireless computers in the classroom has become an increasing trend in the 21st century. This paper explains the roles and effectiveness of computers and the internet in an educational environment, as well as the importance of current technologies used in schools, including Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and tablet PCs. The use of handheld devices will be a valuable asset to students and teachers alike in future classrooms. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: http://inderscience.metapress.com/

Education, Unplugged.
Fortmeyer, Russell
Architectural Record; Supplement , p41,42,44 ; Jan 2007
Discusses infrastructure for wired and wireless networks, emphasizing the differences between outfitting new or existing schools, firewalls, the use of PDA's and smartphones.

Thinkering Spaces: A New Genre of Exploratory Environments for Kids.
Moura, Heloisa; Fahnstrom, Dale; Prygrocki, Greg
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n1 , p3-7 ; 2007
Presents concepts for development of interactive environments called "ThinkeringSpaces." These environments are proposed for content-rich sites, such as libraries, to help bridge the gap between physical and virtual learning experiences. Features of these installations are described, including "smart spaces," mutimodal technologies, sensorial objects, and activity nodes. Includes ten references.

Get Smart.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v9 n12 , p16,18 ; Dec 2006
Discusses automated HVAC, lighting, and security systems, along with the type of network these systems require, security for that network, and cooperation between facilities and IT staff.

Interactive Whiteboards.
Meissner, Rob
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , p24-26 ; Nov 2006
Describes a variety of ways that teachers use interactive whiteboards to engage students; display complex images, photographs, and websites; and the whiteboard's ability to appeal to a range of learning styles.

Envision This.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , p29,30 ; Nov 2006
Profiles Purdue's Envision Center, an advanced virtual reality facility, describing its features, funding, and the ways various department make use of it.

Display Technology: Picture This!
Villano, Matt
T.H.E. Journal; v33 n16 , p16-20 ; Nov 2006
From interactive whiteboards to handheld tablets, from digital projectors to newfangled video-editing systems, these products are grabbing student attention. Statistics indicate that kids prefer to learn in a visual world and like to have information at their fingertips. Across the board, the latest and greatest classroom display products meet these needs. This article discusses a spate of new multimedia tools that is putting a whole new face on the learning process.

Wiring the Dining Experience.
Esposito, Jennifer
University Business; v9 n9 , p56-60 ; Oct 2006
Describes web-based utilities that allow students to check their meal plan balances, menus, and nutritional content; order breakfast to be delivered to their first class; and order meals in advance so that proper quantities can be prepared.

Tech Trends: Five Creative Uses of Technology
Renwick, Lucille
District Administration; Oct 2006
This discusses five ed-tech trends, including emergency communications, digital storytelling, educasting for iPods, edugaming, and videoconferencing.

Computer Labs: Here to Stay?
Rivero, Victor
American School Board Journal; v193 n10 , p50,51 ; Oct 2006
Describes situations in which a computer laboratory is preferable to technology distributed to classrooms, particularly when the classroom cannot provide a one-on-one computer to student ratio. Adaptation of learning environments to a digital platform, rather than integrating technology into old environments is encouraged.

Do You Have a Strategy?
Kalina, David
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers; v81 n6 , p34-36 ; Sep 2006
Education is undergoing a transformation across the country as it responds to new understandings of the mechanisms for learning. These changes are affecting the physical environments where learning occurs, from individual rooms to entire building complexes. The impact of these trends on facilities is dramatic. Old classroom models will not support these new paradigms. This article offers strategic planning on facilities management as a way to boost student performance. The author proposes a change in the traditional thought process by focusing on a strategic plan to a facilities concept. A facilities project can be used to reinforce a culture of experimentation, assessment and implementation. Facilities should be designed with the purpose of empowering faculty and students to capitalize on change and explore alternative relationships between pedagogy, technology, curriculum, furniture and the encompassing architectural environment. In addition, rapidly changing technology should be evaluated to determine how technology can best support faculty and student exploration into more effective ways to learn
TO ORDER: http://www.acteonline.org

Improving School Communications with Television.
Kollie, Ellie
School Planning and Management; v45 n8 , p39,40,42,43 ; Aug 2006
Profiles two television broadcasting studios located at a middle and high school respectively. The studios are used for announcements, emergency messages, teleconferences, and distance learning. Twelve suggestions for getting started with the addition of a television studio to a school are offered.

What Can School Officials Do When Internet Abusers Target Schools?
Ashmore, Robert
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , pT14-T17 ; May 2006
Suggests ways to combat threatening or abusive Internet postings, noting opportunities and limitations under the law that affect pursuit of offenders. Key ways to reduce risk emphasize establishing limits on acceptable speech and diligently pursuing infractions.

The Skinny on the Virtualized Desktop.
Bahal, Dinesh
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , pT8,T10,T11 ; May 2006
Discusses the benefits "thin-client" computing, where applications and data are stored on servers only, and personal computers at individual workstations are not part of the system. Security and mobility is maximized in these configurations, while hardware and energy costs are reduced.

Bigger Bang for a School District's Buck: Merging Capital and Technology Plans and How to Fund Them.
Hayes, Bill
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , pT2,T4,T6 ; May 2006
Advocates bundling of capital construction and technology efforts to efficiently create adequate educational facilities and to take advantage of outside funding at the most opportune time. Advice on creating a district-wide plan joining technology and facilities personnel is offered, as is and example of how the Syracuse City School District accomplished such a project.

Power to the People.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v9 n5 , p26,30-32 ; May 2006
Describes the benefits of cellular flooring systems to schools. Delivery of electrical, data, and HVAC services through raised floors allows more flexibility, along with improved fire safety and environmental benefits. Raised floors are typically more expensive to install than conventional floors, but costs are recovered with savings realized at each move or reconfiguration of the space.

An Emerging New World.
Nelson, Pete
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , pT12,T13 ; May 2006
Discusses the convergence of data, voice, and video over internet protocol (IP). The implications for hardware and energy savings in schools is covered, as is the struggle between traditional telephone and cable operators for dominance in service delivery.

A Secure Balance.
Norlin, Luci
American School and University; v78 n6 , pSS44-SS46 ; Feb 2006
Describes procedures to improve information technology systems security, focusing on meta-directories for centralized access control. Advice on selecting the right meta-directory software solution is included.

Wireless Communication.
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v42 n2 ; Feb 2006
Describes the use of wireless technology in schools, with devices being used to photographically document drug dealing and gang activity, as well as to track students and identify locations of persistent security risk.

Creating a Rich Learning Environment.
THE Journal ; Jan 2006
The convergence of the Internet, classroom projectors, and peripherals such as interactive whiteboards and document cameras provides possibly the greatest opportunity in a decade for the integration of technology into daily teaching and learning. The biggest challenges are finding cost-effective devices that will make technology more accessible to students, and solving the home-to-school communication problem. This article offers solutions to those challenges.

Finding Space for Technology: Pedagogical Observations on the Organization of Computers in School Environments.
Jenson, Jennifer; Rose, Chloe
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology; v32 n1 ; Winter 2006
Discusses how the physical location and organization of computer technologies, whether in the lab, classroom, library, or even school hallway, delimits and shapes the ways in which teachers talk about and make use of computers in their schools. As with the distribution of and access to any kind of resource, the distribution and organization of computers has an impact on the frequency and quality of teachers' integration and implementation efforts. Three case studies are presented that highlight how the structuring and re-structuring of space in schools can be a significant factor in whether and how this technology is used by teachers and students.

Facility Departments Frustrated by Technology.
Meeks, Glenn
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n1 , p30-33 ; 2006
Outlines policies and processes that have been effective in integrating technology implementation projects in large school districts. The makeup and duties of a district technology steering committee is described, as are the benefits and possible threats of such a committee to the technology integration process. Regularly reviewed district guidelines are outlined, as are solutions to last minute changes and surprise projects.

What's after Wireless?
Swaim, Chuck
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p41-44 ; 2006
Describes five components of effective planning for future classroom technology, and then details six implications for future classroom technology components. These include converging networks, wired and wireless, cellular computers, and very thin appliances. Includes four references.

Creating Connections.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p9 ; Nov 2005
Briefly recounts the history of computers in classrooms and describes how classroom technology has made learning more personal, can help build student confidence, and has increased communication between students, parents, teachers, and experts outside the school.

High-Tech Makeovers.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Oct 2005
Discusses technology issues in school renovations, particularly in older buildings with more internal load-bearing walls. Technology integration inevitably drives up the cost of renovations, but inclusion of technology is generally not considered optional in today's learning environments. The information technology staff should be included in the planning stage, as they will have to maintain the systems once renovation is complete.

When Disaster Strikes.
Burton, John
University Business; v8 n9 , p42-46 ; Sep 2005
Describes backup procedures followed at several higher education institutions to protect their data during disasters.

Audiovisual Makes the Grade.
Eastman, Bob
American School and University; v77 n13 , p173-175 ; Aug 2005
Describes state-of-the-art audiovisual technologies currently available for classroom enhancement. These include networked controls, UTP cabling, and image window devices.

Tools of the Trade.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n8 , p23,24,26 ; Aug 2005
Explores the virtues of various technologies in the educational environment, including two-way digital radios, interactive whiteboards, sophisticated HVAC controls, and facility management software.

Technology Immersion.
Peterson, Dennis
The School Administrator; v62 n7 , p16-19 ; Aug 2005
Describes the Minnetonka, Minnesota, School District's bond-funded technology immersion classrooms, equipped with interactive whiteboards, projection units, computer display, sound systems, VCR/DVD players, and remote management tools. Most other secondary classrooms are equipped with a projector for Internet and streamed video. Secondary and middle schools are largely wireless. The effect of these and other handheld technologies on instruction and academic achievement is discussed.

Computer Labs in Elementary Schools?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p54 ; Jul 2005
Advocates combined computer labs adjacent to libraries in elementary schools, preferably with glass between them for acoustical separation that doesn't limit visibility. Stand-alone computer labs require additional staffing and are too easily usurped when more classroom space is needed. Single computers dispersed throughout the classroom are too likely to go unused.

Learning Space Design: Theory and Practice. Adobe PDF
Brown, Malcolm
Educause Review; v40 n4 , p30 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Presents a succinct table that maps from the "Net Generations" characteristics to learning theory, and then from theory to learning space applications and the technology that might support those applications.

The World of Wireless.
Millard, Elizabeth
District Administration; v41 n6 ; Jun 2005
Discusses implementation of wireless networks in schools, citing the advent of tablet PC's that recognize handwriting and several advantages of home-to-school computer access.

The (Hidden) Costs of Technology.
Meeks, Glenn
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p18,20,22-24 ; May 2005
Discusses the effect of technology integration on square foot allocations, furnishings, spatial relationships and infrastructure. Typical cost per square foot percentage increases are also detailed

High-Tech Classrooms.
Sturgeon, Julie
University Business; v8 n4 , p68-72 ; Apr 2005
Describes audiovisual and information technology networking combinations in four higher education institutions, with predictions of what future installations will look like.

Technology Tools.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n7 , p47,48,50 ; Mar 2005
Describes three technology innovations that have been particularly helpful in educational environments: internet-enabled communications, sophisticated library materials tracking by chips placed in books, and whiteboards.

Video Conferencing Expands Education.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n3 , p43-46 ; Mar 2005
Describes video-conferencing programs and installations that create access to courses being taught elsewhere and offsite meetings. IP and ISDN connections for videoconferencing are compared.

All-In-One: Multifunction Office Equipment.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v8 n3 , p24,26 ; Mar 2005
Describes multifunction peripheral (MFP’s) which combine photocopy, faxing, and scanning. These devices save paper, toner, and are able to track usage in detail.

The Danger Within.
Asheley, Mitchell
American School and University; v77 n6 , pSS8-SS10 ; Feb 2005
Advises on steps to be taken in the complex task of defending campus IT systems. Student computers must be registered before accessing the network and must have security software. Endpoint security products are also described.

Savvy Planning.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v77 n6 , p31-33 ; Feb 2005
Advises on proper planning for technology in new construction, including placing the technology specifications in the proper building specification (Division 17), which will enable technology vendors to bid directly to the institution, rather than to an electrical contractor. The advantages of optical fiber and voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP) are also discussed.

Microsoft High.
D'Orio, Wayne
District Administration; v41 n1 ; Jan 2005
Describes a new Philadelphia high school being built in partnership with Microsoft. The 750-student neighborhood anchor will feature one-to-one computing, a completely wireless environment, and broadband school-to-home connectivity. LEED principals are being observed in the design and construction of the school as well.

SmartTiles: Designing Interactive "Room-Sized" Artifacts for Educational Computing.
Elumeze, Nwanua; Eisenberg, Michael
Children, Youth and Environments; v15 n1 , p54-66 ; 2005
Describes educational computing accessories designed as moderate- to large-scale objects or furnishings with which children can interact. Also described is a working prototype of one such system SmartTiles, a system of large-scale programmable "tiles" that can endow surfaces such as walls with child-controlled dynamical behaviors. Notions of "room-sized educational artifacts" are contrasted with related research directions in interface design and educational computing, and the central issues in the design of such artifacts are discussed.
TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm

New E-Rate Changes Affect School Business.
Fitzgerald, Sara
School Business Affairs; v70 n11 , p18-20 ; Dec 2004
Explains more stringent document retention and equipment inventory requirements for E-rate recipients, beginning with the 2004 funding year. Also explained are new conditions that allow more schools to qualify for the rate. Includes one reference.

Acquisition Alternatives for Keeping Up with Technology.
Keane, Thomas
School Business Affairs; v70 n10 , p10,11 ; Nov 2004
Explains methods of financing or leasing technology acquisitions that create flexibility in meeting technology needs and payments that are spread out over the life of the equipment.

Secure Networks Equal Safe Schools.
Licari, Joe
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS-10 ; Nov 2004
Cautions against relying on students to filter harmful e-mail attachments, recommending specific and enforceable policies, coupled with antivirus software.

Student Awareness Strengthens IT Security.
Silverstone, Ariel
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , pS20-S22 ; Nov 2004
Describes Temple University's IT security program that teaches and promotes safe computer use and helps protect campus network integrity.

Can You Hear Me Now?
Ham, Eric; Warner, Jason
School Construction News; v7 n7 , p35 ; Oct 2004
Discusses the advantage of upgrading campus telecommunications to wireless. The installation is less invasive than traditional cabling, and the host campus can generally revenue from the use of the resulting network for cellular communication.

Look Ma, No Wires: Easy Steps to a Wireless Net Easy steps to a wireless network.
St. John, Donald
Edutopia; v1 n1 , p20 ; Sep-Oct 2004
Presents the installation of a wireless network in four steps, along with a "jargon buster" glossary.

Tech Talk: Are you In or Out?
Day, C. William
American School and University; Jun 2004
A whole new family of productivity-enhancing tools will make it easier to enhance student learning in the classroom. These new tools include: networking such as gigabit ethernet; voice over data networks (VoIP); interactive whiteboards; mobile computer carts; and data projectors.

Protecting Systems and Students from Cyber-Intruders.
Taylor, Glenn
School Business Affairs; v70 n6 , p13,14 ; Jun 2004
Describes computer security problems in the Braxton County (West Virginia) Public Schools, exacerbated by a limited budget and an arrangement where all the schools were behind a single firewall. The solution was a gateway security appliance at each school, managed from a centralized console. The rural district obtained federal E-Rate funding for the project.

How Much Does Technology Really Cost?
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n5 , p16,18,20,22-24 ; May 2004
Analyzes how technology investments can typically cost two additional dollars for every dollar spent on hardware, software, and dedicated labor. These costs include expenditures for Internet access, maintenance, system operations, and training. Formulas for calculating baseline costs and total costs of ownership (TCO) are offered.

Upgrading Communications for Maximum Efficiency.
Keniston, David
School Business Affairs; v70 n5 , p15,16 ; May 2004
Describes the inadequacies and subsequent replacement of the Peabody (Mass.) Public Schools' thirteen-year-old telephone system. The replacement system features the same equipment at every school, voice mail, a telephone in every classroom for security, and data capabilities.

Lessons Learned Deploying a Digital Classroom.
Rollins, Sami; Almeroth, Kevin
Journal of Interactive Learning Research; v15 n2 ; Apr 2004
A number of university campuses have undertaken the development of digital classrooms that enable presentation of digital media and digital lecture recording. While educators from across disciplines are interested in using the facilities these classroom spaces provide, deploying the infrastructure for a digital classroom is difficult at best even for a technically savvy person. As people from many disciplines become interested in building similar digital classroom spaces, there is a need to produce a useful set of design and implementation guidelines for determining the functionality of such a space and selecting and installing the equipment to achieve that functionality. The goal of this paper is to report on the deployment of the UCSB digital classroom. By using this paper as a guide, future digital classroom architects can reduce the project risk and steepness of the deployment curve. This paper: (1) motivates the use of technology in the classroom by discussing the impact of technology on education; (2) presents a phased model for classroom deployment; and (3) categorizes the set of lessons we have learned during our deployment efforts. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=5136

A Solid Foundation.
Bjornsen, Alan
American School and University; v76 n7 , p36,38-41 ; Mar 2004
Describes a variety of local, wide area, and personal wiring options that should be considered when planning a new or renovated facility. Adequate space for services and cabling, as well as flexibility to accommodate future technology is emphasized.

The Ever Changing Campus: Pedagogy, Technology, and Facilities. Adobe PDF
Lidsky, Arthur J.
Facilities Manager; v20 n2 , p22-25 ; Mar-Apr 2004
Explores the relationship between pedagogy, technology, and facilities, emphasizing advances in wireless and Internet communication. Effects on the design of classrooms, laboratories, administrative spaces, and libraries are described.

How These Tech Managers Learned to Work with Architects & Contractors
Zuckerman, Amy
University Business; Feb 2004
Technology managers from several universities discuss the lesson they learned that the only route to 'smart classroom' success is through partnering with design. Includes a list of 'smart' construction tips For IT and tech people.

Schools of Tomorrow.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n5 , p16-18,20-22,24-27 ; Jan 2004
Presents the opinions expressed at a roundtable of five education architects on school facilities and the issues of technology integration, community use, flexibility, sustainability, indoor environments, security, size, functionality, and adaptive reuse.

Educational Technology Trends: Back to Business
Hayes, Jeanne
Scholastic Administrator; Jan 2004
The latest technology trends in schools are to adopt solutions that drive improved administrative productivity and reduce Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by obtaining a good return on investment with such technologies as videoconferencing, web conferencing, and voice over IP to reduce telephone costs. Other new technologies are driving cost savings in the classroom arena: COWS (computers on wheels), Tablet PCs, and Wireless.

Teacher Connections.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n10 , p26-27 ; Dec 2003
Describes ways that wireless, cordless, and two-way radio systems can be used by teachers for security and communication with administration staff. The installation and operating requirements of various systems are outlined.

For the Long Term.
Constable, Peter
American School and University; v76 n3 , p324-26 ; Nov 2003
Discusses strategies for integrating technology in a way that will be widely usable and not become obsolete quickly, including selecting reliable technologies that are easily supported, training users, and tracking trends so that old technology is replaced by that which promises sustained development.

Integrating Technology into K-12 School Design.
Syvertsen, Ken
School Construction News; v5 n7 , p33 ; Nov-Dec 2003
Asserting that advanced technology in schools is no longer reserved solely for spaces such as computer labs, media centers, and libraries, discusses how technology integration affects school design, addressing areas such as installation, space and proportion, lighting, furniture, and flexibility and simplicity.

Powering Up.
Capps, R. Glenn; Jomes, Tim; Day, C. William
American School and University; v76 n2 , p34-36 ; Oct 2003
Discusses concepts in power supply for lighting and equipment in new and renovated educational facilities. Quantity, placement and reliability of circuitry and connections are outlined.

Re-inventing West Bloomfield High.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n10 , p17-18,20 ; Oct 2003
Describes the renovation of West Bloomfield High in West Bloomfield, Michigan. The renovation produced a revitalized facility that is completely reorganized around new state-of-the art technology systems. Resolution of difficulties with wiring, utilities and storage are also examined.(or "detailed")

Going Wireless.
Swanquist, Barry; Barza, Joel
American School and University; v76 n2 , p40,42,43,44 ; Oct 2003
Describes furnishing issues which arise when schools use wireless networks. Emphasizes coordinated planning of furnishings, power supplies, flexibility and security.

The Challenge of Computer Furniture.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p22,24,26-28 ; Aug 2003
Explains that classrooms and school furniture were built for a different era and often do not have sufficient power for technology, discussing what is needed to support modern technology in education. One solution involves modular cabling and furniture that is capable of being rearranged. Currently, there are no comprehensive standards from which schools can base their decisions about computer environments for children.

Optimizing the Design of Computer Classrooms: The Physical Environment.
Williams, Margot T.,Oostenink, Richard J.,Burns, Mathew B.,Reber, Emily S.,Reed, Virginia A.,Jernstedt, G. Christian,Huffman, Heather B.
Educational Technology; v43 n4 , p9-13 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Suggests two guiding principles as a framework to interpret the research findings of environmental psychology that focus on effective classroom design: effective design promotes attention in the classroom and allows for periodic shifts of learner activities. Examines these principles as they apply to the design of a computer classroom, reviewing components of the physical classroom environment. Elaborates on classroom design techniques that ease the transition between different tasks.

Retrofitting for Technology.
Jolicoeur, Mark
School Planning and Management; v42 n4 , p42-43 ; Apr 2003
Describes the renovation of Lisle Senior High School in Lisle, Illinois, including technology upgrades.

Building Better Cost-Effective Schools.
Cunningham, Cody; Chase, Greg
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p42-44 ; Mar 2003
Discusses how schools can effectively plan ahead for the rapid advancement of technology through use of wireless technology. Describes its flexibility and savings, and planning and design issues.

School Construction: Technology Is Changing the Way Kids Learn. . . and the Classrooms in which They Do It.
Daniels, Stephen H.
Architectural Record; v191 n3 , p159-63 ; Mar 2003
Examines recent trends in technology education and how learning success can be influenced by effective design. Describes several technology labs, including those in which modular units replace typical classrooms and curriculum, and discusses the environments necessary to accommodate successful project-based learning. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Maximizing the Potential of Telecommunications Technology.
Young, Dennis M.
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p24-27 ; Mar 2003
Offers advice on planning a reliable and cost-effective school telecommunications system, including issues such as the layered nature of many schools' systems, and the move from centralized to distributed networks.

Design Issues Related to the Creation and Delivery of Asynchronous Multimedia Presentations
Lightfoot, Jay M.
Journal of Educational Technology Systems ; v31 n3 , p343-356 ; 2003
Technology has advanced to the point where it is now possible to create and distribute digital multimedia recordings of class lecture over the Internet to remote learners. More importantly, the price of this technology has decreased to the point where it is also affordable to most instructional institutions. The main factor limiting its widespread use is the knowledge required to setup and apply the technology. This article attempts to alleviate this situation by providing a detailed design for a multimedia-enabled classroom. The design includes components, physical layout, and pricing considerations. It concludes by profiling an actual implementation of the design and discussing future research plans that take advantage of the unique capabilities provided by the room[Author's abstract]
TO ORDER: http://baywood.metapress.com/

Technology Master Planning.
Meeks, Glenn
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p70-72 ; Jan 2003
Explores important issues for schools to consider when making technology purchases. Emphasizes that a good technology master plan should represent a balanced approach to the "people," "places," and "things" of a technology implementation program.

New and Renovated Schools: Design of "Instructionally High Performance Learning Spaces."
Richardson, William M.; Wheeler, Lloyd B.
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n1 , p11-14 ; 2003
Discusses school layout design and furnishing options for maximum use of technology in education.

How Wireless Will Transform School Design.
Williams, Craig
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n1 , p7-10 ; 2003
Discusses the effect of wireless technology on education practices and the design of schools, citing examples from recently renovated schools. According to the author, public areas will become impromptu study and teaching areas, technology lab space will diminish, and classroom layout will be more flexible, requiring more power outlets and ventilation to accommodate laptop devices. (Includes five references.)

Tough Choices in Difficult Times
Scheer, Sage Ann
School Planning and Management; v41 n12 , p28-29 ; Dec 2002
Key areas school districts have used in making the decision to purchase technology applications include: what the district hopes to achieve by purchasing the system; how the proposed system will support the district's vision and help achieve the strategic plan; what the effect of the proposed solution will be on staffing; and what type of timeline requirements the proposed solution addresses.

A Sensible Approach to Wireless Networking.
Ahmed, S. Faruq
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , p23-25 ; Nov 2002
Discusses radio frequency (R.F.) wireless technology, including industry standards, range (coverage) and throughput (data rate), wireless compared to wired networks, and considerations before embarking on a large-scale wireless project.

Outfitting Classrooms.
Bjornsen, Alan
American School and University; v75 n3 , p365-67 ; Nov 2002
Discusses how selecting and properly installing audiovisual equipment and systems is critical to ensure that schools most effectively meet their educational objectives. K-12 school facilities must be prepared to support an expanding array of pedagogical tools, including videotape, DVD, CD-ROMs, and the Internet. Includes a detailed discussion of specifications for a distance learning room.

DVRs--A Superior Solution.
Carroll, Maureen
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , pS12-S16 ; Nov 2002
Describes the advantages, compared to closed circuit television recording to videotape, of the digital video recording (DVR) system implemented at an elementary school in Macon County, Georgia.

Going Modular.
Ewald, Michael
American School and University; v75 n3 , p324-25 ; Nov 2002
Describes how schools that install modular wiring systems can reap benefits in cost savings and service advantages.

Modular Wiring Offers Cost Savings and Future Flexibility.
Ewald, Mike; Ewald, Ann O Connor
Facilities Manager; v18 n6 , p36-38 ; Nov-Dec 2002
Discusses the advantages of modular wiring, a prefabricated wiring system that replaces branch circuits in buildings. Advantages include on-site and day-to-day labor savings, and future technology cost advantages. Includes questions to ask manufacturers.

Smart Classrooms, Dumb Decisions?
Long, Phillip D.
Syllabus. Technology for Higher Education; Nov 2002
More and more technology has been put into classrooms, hoping it makes the learning experience more effective and the teaching options more flexible. This discusses the implications for today.

The Electronically Enhanced Educational Experience: Back Down to Earth.
Rush, Richard D.
Facilities Manager; v18 n6 , p26-30 ; Nov-Dec 2002
Discusses the importance of designing for comfortable, effective interfaces between students and computers in classrooms. Explores the use of research and classroom mock-ups to ensure appropriate design.

Educational Infrastructure in an Age of Globalization: Intelligent Buildings, Virtual Facilities, and Virtual Instruction?
Gaines, MaryAnn C.
Educational Forum; v67 n1 , p63-68 ; Fall 2002
To ensure the most effective and up-to-date learning, educators should consider intelligent buildings that meet technological needs and flexibly accommodate change. Virtual schools alter the need for traditional physical facilities. (15 references)

High-Tech Classrooms with Low-Tech Voice.
Guderian, Ben
School Planning and Management; v41 n10 , p44-45 ; Oct 2002
Discusses how installing wireless telephone technology in schools can maximize efficiency, create a safer environment, and improve student performance.

The Black Box Theater and AV/IT Convergence: Creating the Classroom of the Future. Adobe PDF
Valenti, Mark S.
Educause Review; v37 n5 , p52-54,56,58,60,62 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Explains the concept of a "black box" classroom where there is a convergence of audiovisual and information technologies providing both the teacher and the students with essential tools and flexibility. Next generation technologies, such as smart furniture and smart building products, are explored.

Technology Infrastructure Standardization Project.
Yow, Donna
School Planning and Management; v41 n8 , p36-40 ; Aug 2002
Describes the development of technological design standards for a 35-school construction/renovation effort by Guilford County Schools in North Carolina. The standards encompassed the physical infrastructure, telephone systems, and paging systems.

Technology for Special Educators: How the Web and Some Wooden Blocks Are Changing the Life of a Boy.
Edds, Daniel B.
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p76-77 ; Jun 2002
Describes a Web-based application developed by InfoHandler.com of Carrboro, North Carolina, that makes paperwork for special educators quicker and easier, allowing more time for student instruction.

Broadband Comes to the Schoolroom.
Kranz, Maciej
School Planning and Management; v41 n5 , p32-36 ; May 2002
Describes how high-bandwidth networks are delivering new educational and administrative opportunities for K-12 school districts. Addresses implementing the new network, upgrading to a switched environment, adding intelligent switches, IP telephony, and wireless technology. Describes deployment and benefits of broadband in the Denver public schools and New Albany-Floyd County School District in southeastern Indiana.

Choosing the Right Integrator for Your Building Automation Project.
Podgorski, Will
School Planning and Management; v41 n5 , p50-52 ; May 2002
Examines the prevailing definitions and responsibilities of product, network, and system integrators for building automation systems; offers a novel approach to system integration; and sets realistic expectations for the owner in terms of benefits, outcomes, and overall values.

Arizona's Application Service Provider.
Jordan, Darla
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p24,26-28 ; Apr 2002
Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service provider (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, provides access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home.

Technology in the Classroom: How It Is Changing (and Not Changing) Learning.
School Planning and Management; v41 n3 , p43-45 ; Mar 2002
Explores the use of technology in the classroom, including learner-controlled, interactive learning supported by online systems, and design issues raised by the use of rapidly changing technology.

Planning for Technology.
Czubaj, Camilia Anne
Journal of Instructional Psychology; v29 n1 , p15-21 ; Mar 2002
Discusses the need to renovate existing schools and/or build new ones due to rising enrollments and rapid developments in technology. Topics include problems with technology use; technology budgeting; assessing the status of ongoing technology; community-based learning environments; school designs and partnerships; technology planning resources; and funding for technology.

All in One and One in All.
Herzog, Rodney
School Planning and Management; v41 n3 , p50,52 ; Mar 2002
Offers suggestions on the selection of office equipment and support systems for schools, including multifunctional products that incorporate equipment and applications to better coordinate office technology and control costs.

Using Technology To Enhance the Classroom Environment.
Levine, Lawrence E.
T.H.E. Journal; v29 n6 , p16-18 ; Jan 2002
Addresses the use of technology to enhance teaching and learning in a classroom environment. Discusses classroom setups, including networks and Internet connections; utilizing resources, including lecture notes, software demonstrations, and simulations; the use of laptop computers; and examples of technology use where students don't have access to computers.

By Design.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p16-22 ; Jan 2002
Examines some key areas that school administrators need to consider when creating new, or updating old, school spaces for students and staff. Design considerations encompass space management, building flexibility, technology integration, school accessibility to the disabled, sensitivity to the environment, and cost effectiveness.

Untangling the Maze.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v74 n4 , p43-45 ; Dec 2001
Explains how schools and universities can plan their technology cable management systems to avoid future problems. Offers points to consider when choosing overhead, in-the-floor, raised floor, and perimeter raceway systems.

Digital State Survey Part IV.
Patterson, Darby
Government Technology; Dec 2001
This survey was conducted by the Center for Digital Government, the knowledge-management and research division of e.Republic, and sponsored by the Progress & Freedom Foundation and 'Government Technology' magazine. How information is being harnessed to deliver education in colleges and universities and kindergarten though 12th grade institutions is featured. Specific mention is made of examplary efforts in Illinois, South Dakota, Utah, Georgia, North Carolina and Pennsylvania.

How Is Technology Impacting Student Performance?
Pflaum, Bill
School Planning and Management; v40 n12 , p41-43 ; Dec 2001
Examines the impact of educational technology on student performance by reviewing the extent to which classroom computers are oversold and underused. The review concludes that the lack of computer use in teaching, even when computers are present, stems from technology promoters ignoring teachers' motivations, needs, and institutional constraints.

Where Students Learn.
Rush, Richard D.
American School and University; v74 n3 , p360-62 ; Nov 2001
Discusses the challenges that schools face in keeping pace with rapidly changing technology in the school environment. Explores the spaces, furnishings, and planning and design issues that must be considered to successfully integrate computers into learning environments.

What's Happened to Hardware?
Coburn, Janet
School Planning and Management; v40 n10 , p35-37 ; Oct 2001
Discusses why the educational hardware and software industries appear to have stagnated and what to expect from educational technology in the future.

Communication Technology Enhances a Magnet School.
Harrison, Jennifer
School Planning and Management; v40 n10 , p38-40 ; Oct 2001
Explains how a Web-based management tool helped Foothill Technology High School successfully solve its school management and communication needs to keep parents in touch with their children s progress.

The 4-1-1 on Telephones in the Classroom.
Jordan, Darla
School Planning and Management; v40 n10 , p51-52 ; Oct 2001
Discusses whether telephones in the classroom are a productive tool in an educational environment. Presents case studies of classroom telecommunications implementation.

Technology Equipment Rooms.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v74 n1 , p42-43 ; Sep 2001
Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed.

Elementary School Computer Labs.
Barrett, Elizabeth
School Planning and Management; v40 n8 , p36-37 ; Aug 2001
Examines how computer labs in elementary schools should be designed to create an information-rich environment that lets students easily interact while learning new skills. Stresses computer lab designs that result in flexible multiple-purpose spaces that encourage students to collaborate.

Keying in on Bargains.
Enderle, Jerry
School Planning and Management; v40 n8 , p26-27 ; Aug 2001
Explores how, for 20 years, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has successfully conserved resources by purchasing technology-related equipment through a buyer s consortium.

The Downfall of the Dot-Coms [And Other Industry Trends].
Bigham, Vicki Smith
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p43-46 ; Jul 2001
Presents an industry insider's viewpoint on what effect the downfall of the "dot-coms" may have for educational technology and for schools using Internet services. Includes some key sign posts that point toward long-term success for these entrepreneurial education firms and for schools. Offers a checklist of what educators say they want from Internet companies.

School Construction and Technology...A Few Important Pointers
Griffin, Richard A.; Fowler, Laura S.
School Business Affairs; v67 n6 , p36-42 ; Jun 2001
The most overlooked facet of school construction is the dovetailing of permanent construction insurance and technology construction insurance. Advice is provided about technology and technology purchases, highlighting problems associated with costs, copyright infringements, delivery delays, electrical wiring, hardware, student records, vendors, consultants, and Internet providers.

Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.
Darnell, Charles
Facilities Manager; v17 n3 , p23-26 ; May-Jun 2001
Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments.

Cut Costs with Thin Client Computing.
Hartley, Patrick H.
School Planning and Management; v40 n5 , p69-70,72-73 ; May 2001
Discusses how school districts can considerably increase the number of administrative computers in their districts without a corresponding increase in costs by using the "Thin Client" component of the Total Cost of Ownership (TCC) model. TCC and Thin Client are described, including its software and hardware components. An example of a Thin Client deployment is highlighted along with the component s pros and cons.

Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v73 n8 , p54-55 ; Apr 2001
Discusses why schools and universities should incorporate testing procedures as a requirement in any wire bid specification for cable wiring. Notes that the increasing sophistication of wire cabling requires a much more sophisticated cable termination and that casual termination practices result in excessive attenuation, crosstalk, and other external influences. Includes definitions of key cabling terms.

Projecting a Better Image.
Morris, Casie
School Planning and Management; v40 n4 , p56,58,60-61 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the use of interactive whiteboards for enhancing technology in the classroom and helping both teachers and students in the learning process. Using whiteboards to project software images from computer screens for teaching about technology and engaging students in the learning process is examined.

Sustainable Funding: What to Do Before the Money Runs Out.
Ward, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v40 n4 , p71-72,74-75 ; Apr 2001
Provides advise on how schools and districts can establish continuing sources for their technology projects. Building fund sustainability into grant proposals is examined as are some general ways to sustain a project (both financially and programmatically) after the grant period.

Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles
Library Hi Tech; v19 n1 , p77 - 87 ; Mar 2001
This article applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. It discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of the physical space, environmental factors, and the workstations. Includes classroom layouts.
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Finding Tech Support Outside the School.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v40 n3 , p61-62,64-65 ; Mar 2001
Discusses the benefits of K-12 school districts outsourcing their information technology needs and the most common ways to fund such contracts. Key steps towards IT outsourcing are presented.

It's Over Our Heads.
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p65-69 ; Feb 2001
Presents expert advice on computer component wiring installation strategies that can help lessen the confusion within a school's ceilings and floors.

Pretty Cool for a School.
Cheek, Lawrence W.
Architecture; v90 n2 , p39-42 ; Feb 2001
Describes the redesigned features of the Edison Schools of New York, a for-profit company which runs 113 public charter schools in "partnership" with local school districts. Designs are modular assemblies focused on technology with no blackboards, bookcases, or windows. Photos are included.

Hiring a Consultant.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v73 n6 , p44-45 ; Feb 2001
Provides tips for hiring a consultant for educational technology projects, developing the request for proposal for a consultant, and evaluating proposals for awarding contracts. Some questions to ask when educational leaders are looking for expert help are listed.

Opening Up New Possibilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p20-22,24 ; Feb 2001
Discusses technology's impact on educational facilities and operations. Examines technology's influence on a school's ability to streamline its business operations and manage its facilities more efficiently. Describes how Baylor University in Waco, Texas, used technology to reduce its energy expenditures.

Towards a Learning Society: LETA 2000. Adobe PDF
Wilson, Cecilia
PEB Exchange; n42 , p13-19 ; Feb 2001
Provides a synopsis of the topics covered at the LETA 2000 international held in South Australia in September 2000 which focused on the role technology is playing and will play in the new learning environment. Several examples of Australia's embrace of technology and education and the experience of bringing learning and communities together.

Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Design Cost Data; v45 n1 , p37-39 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Presents design features of the Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School (North Carolina) that incorporates daylighting in the majority of the classrooms, the gymnasium, dining room, and media center. The design also uses advanced lighting controls, fiber optic networking, automatic environmental controls, and an energy management system that interfaces with the school's central management system. Photos are included.

What We've Learned about TCO.
Fitzgerald, Sara
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p84-87 ; Jan 2001
Presents the latest thinking on Total Cost of Ownership in educational technology and the management of its long-term costs. Areas examined include the costs of retrofitting to accommodate new technology and upgrading into wireless technology, and how infrastructure affects tech support.

What Broadband Means for Schools.
Moore, Bob
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p79-82 ; Jan 2001
Explains what a computer network broadband connection is and how having one benefits educational facilities that have implemented telecommunications. The importance of using an application service provider is discussed along with suggestions to help schools get started in adopting broadband communications.

New Technology and Education in Finland. Adobe PDF
Kivi, Ritva
PEB Exchange; n41 , p19-22 ; Oct 2000
Discusses Finland's new National Strategy for Education, Training, and Research in the Information Society for 2000-2004. The new strategy's objectives and how to achieve them are examined in the areas of planning of educational facilities and libraries, establishing virtual schools and distance learning, and integrating information technology in the curriculum.

Arizona's Long, Good Buy.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , p40-41 ; Oct 2000
Discusses the technology shopping spree that Arizona educators are conducting thanks to a $50 million budgeting allowance from the state s legislature to reduce the student-to-computer ratios. What the money was being spent on, and some of the problems created from a large influx of technology in some schools are highlighted.

Technology Calling.
Day, C. William
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Sep 2000)
American School and University; v73 n1 , p40-41 ; Sep 2000
For local-area networks (LAN), wide-area networks (WAN) and PCs to function most effectively, schools need a single districtwide communications system that is compatible with their existing infrastructure, but at the same time is capable of evolving to embrace new technologies. To do this, schools must fundamentally re-engineer the independent nature of their existing networks—voice, data, video and Internet. Administrators should be looking at combining and consolidating them into one comprehensive connection.

Advances in Protection.
Szczerba, Peter
American School and University; v73 n1 , p24,26,28 ; Sep 2000
Explains how integrating information technology can extend the capabilities of school security systems beyond traditional card access. Explores the use of biometric identification technologies such as hand geometry and facial recognition as well as the use of digitized event recording.

Wired To Flex.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p54,56-69 ; Aug 2000
Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and developments in technology.

Laying the Groundwork.
Kretchmer, Mark R.
American School and University; v72 n12 , p173-76 ; Aug 2000
Discusses how to avoid costly errors in high-tech retrofits through proper planning and coordination. Guidelines are offered for selecting cable installers, using multi-disciplinary consulting engineering firm, and space planning when making high-tech retrofits.

Rats! Of Rodents, Walls, and Wiring.
Przyborowsk, Danielle
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p6-7 ; Aug 2000
Discusses the use of trained rats to help thread wiring through school walls. The benefit of kid s interactions with the rodents is highlighted.

Technology Infrastructure.
Willard, Eric
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p20 ; Aug 2000
Provides a list of technology infrastructure questions that should be asked as part of a checklist of technology requirements. Discusses service entrance, main terminal room closet, and riser system. Includes recommendations regarding MC and TC construction.

Integrating Technology Into Our Schools: How Are We Doing and How Can We Tell?
Bond-Upson, Deborah; Latham, Andrew; Bartone, Linda
School Planning and Management; v39 n7, suppl. , p6-9 ; Jul 2000
Examines four methods of assessing the cost effectiveness of new technology in school districts. Evaluation methods include teacher self perception surveys and assessments of technology s affects on student learning.

Place and Space in the Design of New Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Jamieson, Peter; Fisher, Kenn; Gilding, Tony; Taylor, Peter; Trevitt, A.C.F.
Higher Education Research and Development; v19 n2 , p221-237 ; Jul 2000
Highlights examples of recent developments of new learning environments which have been enhanced by the contribution of educational developers at several Australian universities. A set of pedagogically-informed principles to guide the development of on-campus teaching and learning environments are detailed. These principals emphasize flexibility of space, use of vertical space, integration of previously discrete campus functions, and design to maximize user access, control and alignment of curricula. Includes 26 references.

What Do I Do with All These Plugs and Wires?
Johanson, Marlo
School Planning and Management; v39 n7 , p11-13 ; Jul 2000
Provides an overview of what maintenance personnel should know about a school s technological equipment and infrastructure in order to help them provide needed services. Concluding comments address what maintenance can do to help network personnel in making equipment function optimally.

Schools for the 21st Century: Are You Ready?
Nair, Prakash
Design Share; , 4p ; Jul 2000
Describes 15 trends happening in the field of education and related educational technology, many of which have direct facility ramifications. Can be used as a checklist for determining how many trends a school facility is designed to accomodate.

Wired for Performance
Qayoumi, Mohammad A.
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jul 2000
The rules of cabling and wiring are changing rapidly these days, and they are creating a series of issues that engineering and maintenance managers are having to address to keep their facilities operating smoothly. This discusses power and communication wiring; cabling distribution; an integrated solution; and common distribution benefits.

Lifelines to the Office.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n10 , p38-39 ; Jun 2000
Discusses the integration of the school intercom system with phones in the classroom to enhance main office to classroom communication with an element of privacy. The contribution of classroom phones to safety and security issues is highlighted.

Wired Versus Wireless. Adobe PDF
Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash
PEB Exchange; n40 , p22-24 ; Jun 2000
Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary education.

When You Can't Afford a Real Computer.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , suppl 3 p14-17 ; Jun 2000
Discusses some alternatives in acquiring computers that can help schools provide every student with some computer functionality at less cost. Several companies and their product offerings are highlighted.

Computer Labs: A Sensible Solution for the Foreseeable Future.
Smith, Molly
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , p24-25 ; Jun 2000
Discusses how to create effective school computer labs covering such topics as programming, planning considerations, planning a flexible infrastructure, and controlling the environment. Top considerations in designing a good computer lab are listed.

Getting Wired for Wireless: The Student Laptop Revolution.
Butterfield, Eric
School Construction News; v3 n3 , p18-19 ; May-Jun 2000
Presents a director of information technology's insight concerning the reasons his school district went wireless, including funding and cost issues. Also discussed is the decision making on going from 3-megabit cards to 11-megabit cards, renovating versus new construction, providing laptops to the students, and the benefits of laptops in large campuses.

Make Sure Cabling Designers Know What You Need
Desrosiers, Bill
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p47-48 ; May-Jun 2000
Discusses several points to consider when deciding on an actual infrastructure design and location when cabling a building to accommodate information technology. Four basic categories of wiring and cabling management systems are highlighted.

The Effect of Computers on School Air-Conditioning.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p46,48,50 ; May 2000
Discusses the issue of increased air-conditioning demand when schools equip their classrooms with computers that require enhanced and costlier air-conditioning systems. Air-conditioning costs are analyzed in two elementary schools and a middle school.

Engaged Learning.
McDonough, James
American School and University; v72 n9 , p60,63-64 ; May 2000
Notes that research on how students learn and retain knowledge is changing not only how teachers teach, but also how facilities planners and architects design a classroom’s shape, size, organization, and furnishings. Suggests that classrooms need to be flexible and dynamic, must integrate new technologies, must be large enough to accommodate transformation, and must include furnishings that move easily and convert from one use to another.

Wired for the 21st Century: Profile of a Large-Scale Networking Project
Rowe, Harold
School Business Affairs; v66 n5 , p50-54 ; May 2000
Describes the networking project of the Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District (CFISD) in Houston, Texas which included over 8,000 network drops and over 3,000 video drops on 49 campuses, several network services and hundreds of electronic devices.

Establishing Standards.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v72 n8 , p44-45 ; Apr 2000
Explains how standardizing computer system hardware and software throughout the school campus can increase efficiency; reduce costs and acquisition lead time; and make training, technical support, and hardware replacement and repair easier. Questions to ask when choosing among different hardware and software systems are highlighted.

A School Connectivity Primer
O'Donovan, Eamonn
Technology & Learning; v20 n9 , p20-26, 28 ; Apr 2000
Overview of Internet connectivity describing various networking options. Technologies discussed include the Ethernet, the most widely used technology to connect computers in school buildings; wireless technology, which has become popular ways for schools to establish or expand their local area networks; T1 and T3 lines, which are fast phone lines for connecting to the Internet; Internet access via satellite connections; Internet via cable modems; digital subscriber lines; and broadband technology.

Finding the Perfect Technology Consultant.
Willard, Eric
School Planning and Management; v39 i4 , p7-9 ; Apr 2000
This recommends planning ahead for what you want the consultant to do; establishing clear goals for what you want the consultant to accomplish; review collective needs to determine gaps and duplications; find consultants to interview; evaluate the consultants; check references; and time the hiring.

Renovations: Take the Time To Do It Right.
De Haan, Alan B.
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p26,28-32 ; Mar 2000
Explains how working with architects, involving the community, and developing a comprehensive program can eliminate many of the problems encountered when planning a school renovation. Steps in program development are highlighted, including discussions on each of the factors in building programs, such as enrollment trends, space needs, technology requirements, and teaching trends.

Wired vs. Wireless
Fielding, Randall
School Construction News; v3 n2 , p25-26 ; Mar-Apr 2000
Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed.

Is Your School's Infrastructure Technology-Ready?
Steinke, Ned
Media & Methods (School Executive Magazine); v36 n4 , p5 ; Mar-Apr 2000
Technology infrastructure is a school building design that allows for the integration of a variety of technology, from networking to audio visual equipment. The key to success is to design an infrastructure that is within the budget.
TO ORDER: Media & Methods Magazine, 1429 Walnut Street, Piladelphia, PA 19102; Tel: 215-563-6005, Fax: 215-587-9706, E-mail: info@media-methods.com
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The Total Cost of Ownership.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v72 n6 , p48-49 ; Feb 2000
Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided.

The Future Connection.
DeStefano, James R.; Van Hook, Mary Ann; Draht, Sally
American School and University; v72 n5 , p24-25 ; Jan 2000
Explores how educational environments are changing for the new millennium and its impact on school design. The influences of educational technology, specialized programs, and resource sharing with the surrounding community are discussed.

Is Technology Running the Campus?
Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v2 n12 , p16-17 ; Dec 1999
Discusses survey results from 269 colleges, including 96 two- year, 85 four-year, and 88 universities about their use of technology in running and operating their facilities. Results show that colleges get high marks for thinking about automating various facility functions, but low marks on implementation. Technology use in security, building plans, communication, energy monitoring, and inventory control are examined.

Making Demands.
Kirby, Charles
American School and University; v72 n4 , p34a-34b, 34d ; Dec 1999
How technology and changes in instructional techniques has altered the classrooms are examined. Issues concerning classroom space, interior lighting, ventilation, computers in the classroom are discussed. Concluding comments address outfitting a classroom to accommodate audiovisual presentations.

Schools Team Up for Technology.
Pocorobba, John S.
American School and University; v72 n3 , p309-11 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how the emergence of technology is allowing educational consortiums to pool resources and successfully attain facilities and programs once considered unattainable. How consortiums can work to keep facilities current and competitive are examined.

What's Coach Doing with That Computer?
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p44-46 ; Nov 1999
Explains how computers can play a role in school gymnasiums to enhance teacher efficiency, provide telecommunications for teacher networking, offer instructional technology students can use, and assess student physical fitness. Three examples are provided of how K- 5, intermediate, and high schools are using computers in physical education.

Bits, Bytes, and Backaches.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p40-43 ; Nov 1999
Examines the potential problems facing educational institutions from the impact of computer use, ergonomics, and physical injuries. Paying attention to ergonomics and solutions through proper furniture buying are discussed. Tips to help institutions reduce the possibility of children suffering painful and possibly disabling injuries are highlighted.

Wiring for the Future.
Yan, Alice L.
American School and University; v72 n3 , p331-33 ; Nov 1999
Explores the steps schools and colleges can do to implement the types of technology needed to provide the best programs that attract students. Surveying underground utility structures for routing telecommunications, building connectivity between campus buildings, and using a system with widespread telecommunications options are discussed.

Join the Wireless Revolution.
Coburn, Janet
School Planning and Management; Oct 1999
Information to help make the decision on whether or not wireless computer networks are the right solution when retrofitting older buildings. Defines wireless, provides reasons for choosing wireless networks, describes different methods of data transmission including infrared and satellite, and describes two case studies.

Bridging the Digital Divide.
Kennedy, Mike; Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n2 , p16-18,20,22 ; Oct 1999
Examines the difficulties schools face in providing equal educational opportunities for all students particularly in implementing technology into the classrooms of poor school districts. Obstacles in getting schools wired for the Internet are discussed, particularly in areas of funding. Examples of how some poorer schools are getting connected and their funding efforts are highlighted, including available funding sources.

Calling All Classrooms.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n10 , p44, 46-47 ; Oct 1999
Presents examples of innovative public/private partnerships that have successfully provided affordable telephone access to school classrooms. Contact information for each of the programs is provided.

Planning for Flexibility, Not Obsolescence
Ehrenkrantz, Ezra
Design Share; , 9p ; Sep 1999
This keynote speech discusses computer lab/classrooms and the issue of properly combining space, pedagogy, and technology when facility planning to better enhance student learning and support the teaching process. Several case studies illustrate classroom computer workstation configurations and how these may help or impede student learning and instructional methodology. Also addressed is the rapidly changing tools of education and the ways for achieving the flexibility today's schools will need to adequately embrace these changes. It is suggested that enough space must be allocated to allow for a variety of learning environments to be adopted, both large and small, that fit with the curriculum and teaching needs, and be appropriate to the requirements of the students. It is argued that without enough space in the school design to help schools be flexible enough to accommodate changes in learning and teaching over time, the useful life of new schools will be shorter than their predecessors of 20 years earlier.

A Learning Curve.
Keown, Cheryl
American School and University; v71 n12 , p116-19 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the importance of establishing a learning-technology plan when bringing electronic technology into classrooms. Conducting the classroom audit and synthesis phases of the plan are described as are the need to understand the modes of teaching and learning, classroom type, and types of equipment. Tips are offered on properly assessing teaching needs and requirements.

Reaching Out.
Porter, Randall C.
American School and University; v71 n12 , p120-21 ; Aug 1999
Discusses technology and equipment requirements for developing an effective distance-learning classroom. Areas covered include cabling, the control booth, microphones, acoustics, lighting, heating and air conditioning, cameras, video monitors, staffing, and power requirements.

Smart Networking Decisions: A Kase Study.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 ; Aug 1999
Describes one decision-making approach for quickly implementing a communications network into a school district. The use of volunteer labor for wiring installation, computer selection focusing on standardization to aid in troubleshooting, and an intranet system to achieve efficiency and learning opportunities for teachers and administrative personnel alike are discussed.

Three for the Price of One.
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 ; Jul 1999
Describes how one school district installed a high-speed data network infrastructure that included a free telephone system and video. The asynchronous transfer mode system chosen by the school district is described, along with its telephone and video components.

Computing the Real Costs of School Technology
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p34-40,42 ; Jul 1999
Computers and other new technologies are changing how school buildings must be designed. Introduces the full range of building designs that high-tech learning necessitates. Tables present unit costs for many infrastructural and network electronics components of the advanced telecommunication systems now being installed in schools. A hypothetical case study of the cost of a typical new elementary school shows some of the ways in which increased space needs and other factors raise costs.

It's In the Plan.
Bracci, Richard L.
American School and University; v71 n11 , p36,38,40 ; Jul 1999
Examines how master planning and participatory process combines to successfully integrate technology into a school's educational system. Discussions on budget setting and environmental design are included.

Cabling Pathway Solutions for Information Technology
Desrosiers, Bill
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p41-42 ; Jul 1999
When planning a school-technology upgrade, a primary concern is flexibility. A building's cabling pathways must be able to be easily upgraded, reconfigured, and relocated. While a flexible wire and cable-management system may be more expensive to install than other solutions, an accessible design will offer labor savings over the life of the cabling infrastructure.

Its Report Card Time for School Technology.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p18-19 ; Jul 1999
Assesses the current state of educational technology integration across the country and examines whether the technology, networks, electronic resources, and support exist to meet the education system's learning goals. While schools are viewed as doing well in attempting to integrate technology, maintenance and operational support are problems needing solutions.

Doing More With Lease.
Burdick, Barry
American School and University; v71 n10 , p50,52,54 ; Jun 1999
In an attempt to acquire electronic equipment and make it more affordable, schools are investigating leasing programs. This discusses the use of leasing programs as an equipment-acquisition tool. Why leasing is a viable option and the different types of leasing plans are discussed.

Need Tech Help? Call on the Kids.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n6 , p35-38 ; Jun 1999
Describes how one school district resolved problems and saved money with its classroom computers with the help of a formal technology plan and its students. It describes how students were organized to troubleshoot for computer-related problems, the mutual benefits derived from the effort, and several best practice tips to use on such an approach.

Planning Today for Tomorrow's Technology
Butterfield, Eric
School Construction News; v2 n3 , p16-17 ; May-Jun 1999
Examines how with thorough planning, school districts can save considerable money on technology investments. Planning issues discussed include comparing computer network installation costs for new construction vs. renovation, buying the appropriate number of file servers, dealing with maintenance costs, maximizing purchasing power.

Planning for Power.
Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.
American School and University; v71 n6 , p26,28 ; Feb 1999
Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design are examined.

National Science Foundation Wireless Field Test for Education Project
(Old Colorado City Communications, National Science Foundation, Colorado Springs, CO, 1999)
This project systematically field tests the technical characteristics of a selected variety of wireless devices and digital radio nets which can be integrated into types of telecommunications networks, including the Internet, which link computers, sensing devices, control systems, servers, LANS and WANS operated by individuals, classrooms, schools and colleges. Includes project plans, progress reports, regulatory issues, demos.

A Futurist Looks at Technology and Change.
Canton, James
Facilities Manager; v15 n1 , p15-21 ; Jan-Feb 1999
Discusses how advancing technology is creating a new business model that is having a major impact on facilities planners. Also provides a model to help planners dissect their organization, better understand the people they work with, and gain control of their future within this new technological era.

Children, Computers, and School Furniture
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n2 , p5-7 ; 1999
Discusses the rise of posture related discomfort and injury in children using computers in their classrooms and explores the research in the area. It recommends greater effort in encouraging school furniture manufacturers to create ergonomically appropriate computer workstations. Advice on what children can do to lessen musculoskeletal discomfort concludes the article.

Technology and Action Research: How Effective Are Classroom Computer Minilabs?
Stellwagen, Joel B.
American Secondary Education; v28 n2 , p3-9 ; Winter 1999
An action-research project conducted at an Illinois high school found that a computer minilab program effectively encouraged 10 teachers to use computer technology in their normal classroom setting and fostered a cooperative learning environment. Teachers without minilabs disliked the arrangement. Minilab portability should be considered.

Programs with Promise.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v37 n12 , p20-24 ; Dec 1998
Provides two examples of school districts combining the elements of technologically-savvy students with faculty and a supportive taxpayer base to provide paths for installing and using technology in the district's schools. Both examples provide each district's goals, planning process, decision-making issues, and the conclusions.

Wire Wise.
Swanquist, Barry
American School and University; v71 n4 , p32, 34 ; Dec 1998
Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics are explored.

Dragnet? No, Internet! Campus Security on the Web.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v1 n6 , p35-36,38-39 ; Nov 1998
Examines college campus security's use of an Internet Web page to better inform its students and enhance campus law enforcement. The University of Richmond's security Web site is provided as an example of how an interactive security system works. This system is available free to campus law enforcement agencies able to satisfy certain criteria.

Smart Schools.
Beaudin, James A.; And Others
American School and University; v71 n2 , p24,26,27 ; Oct 1998
Discusses the trend in using intelligent building technologies to achieve operating efficiencies and cost savings. It explains what an intelligent building is, defines some of the terms, and discusses how the user-friendly aspects of these systems are helping schools convert to them.

Cyber Space - with Elbow Room.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; V37 n10 , p25-27 ; Oct 1998
Describes how the Hammond School District (Indiana) solved the problem of fitting the correct amount of space needed for students, teachers, and technology. It examines the district's solutions for furniture needs through the use of full-scale mockups of classroom arrangements, and the wiring, power needs, and lighting.

A New School of Thought
Patterson, Maureen
Buildings; v92 n9 , p74-78 ; Sep 1998
Discusses the changes in today's schools resulting from the growth of information technology and community needs. How some school districts are responding to the technological retrofit issue and the challenges they face in placing technology in the classroom, allocating space, and building flexibility into the school are examined. Highlighted issues concern technology and school safety and financing.

Protecting Against Failure.
Hammond, Edward; Hall, John
American School and University; v70 n12 , p126-128 ; Aug 1998
Examines the need for power reliability when educational facilities incorporate communications infrastructures. Telecommunications equipment placement and environmental conditions are addressed as are the integrating of cable trays and conduit systems, developing surge-suppression, and building grounding systems.

Power Play.
Aho, Timothy A.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p56-58 ; Jul 1998
Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades.

Buying Advanced Telecommunications Systems.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n7 , p48-49 ; Jul 1998
Examines the integration of basic school communications needs into single systems that allow for a growth path into the Internet and sophisticated media retrieval. Descriptions and benefits of these systems for two school districts are discussed.

Wiring Your School From an Engineer's Perspective
Danello, Lawrence
T.H.E. Journal; v25 n11 , p18A-19A ; Jun 1998
An engineer recommends that the communication infrastructure should accommodate basic communication requirements. The communications cabling system should be designed in accordance with current accepted industry standards. The backbone and horizontal communications distribution system should be configured as a structured cabling system of standard design that provides universal communication ports to the workstation. Discusses the special problems posed by portable classrooms, and the need for adequate and convenient 120 volt AC power receptacles at each workstation.

Accessing the Internet Via Satellite.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n6 , p32-34,36 ; Jun 1998
Discusses the use of satellite technology as an option for public schools to access the Internet. Costs and available technology are examined. Two examples of school satellite usage are presented, including its use by the Navajo Nation to provide Internet access for its students who are spread out across 26,000 square miles.

Making Technology Pay for Itself.
Sparks, Cindy; Schnitzer, Denise
School Planning and Management; v37 n5 , p46-48 ; May 1998
Discusses fund raising for school technology projects using the Internet. Web sites where federal government funding sources can be found are listed as are sites with more than 130 federal bulletin boards including the Department of Education's Grants Database and private sector grant funding in technologies.

Who Is the Technology Director?
Bete, Tim
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p28-30,32,34-36 ; Apr 1998
Presents survey results that identify the occupation of school-district-level technology director: their salaries and educational levels, length of service, budgetary demands, and job responsibilities. Results show the following: average technology director budgets are between $200,000 and $399,000; their average salaries are between $50,000 and $59,999; and they average 4 years of experience in their position.

Resources for Designing Library Electronic Classrooms
Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke
MC Journal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship; v6 n1 ; Spring-Summer 1998
This annotated bibliography identifies resources for librarians who are designing instructional classrooms. These spaces are complex environments and the needs of library instructors, students, computer technology, computer technicians and the electronic resources themselves must all be taken into account as the spaces are planned and built.

The Mod Pod.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p49-53 ; Apr 1998
Explains how Project Oriented Development Stations (PODS) provide a flexible facilities solution that can fit within any elementary school, and that combines custom furnishing with technology, curriculum, and hands-on learning. An explanation of the POD approach and an example of its development, usefulness, and funding is provided.

STAC-ed in Their Favor.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v37 n3 , p29-30,34-35,37 ; Mar 1998
When the San Diego County school district created the Superintendent's Technology Advisory Committee (STAC) they shared the wealth and gained some clout along the way.

Planning for Technology: An Administrator's Guide to the Next Century.
Day, William C.
American School and University; v70 n6 , p31-37,39-43 ; Feb 1998
Discusses ways for preparing schools for integrating technology, including designing the wiring infrastructure, equipment purchases, furniture needs, and ergonomic considerations. Four levels of Internet connectivity access are described and a list of contact names, phone numbers, and web sites for technology fund information from each state is provided.

Furniture for a Technology-Infused School.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n2 , p26-28 ; Feb 1998
Discusses how one New Mexico school district weighed the choices in selecting and purchasing computer furniture for its classrooms. The purchasing process is described, as well as the types of, and reasons for, the furniture bought.

How to Get Some Fiber in Your System.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning & Management; v37 n2 , p48,50 ; Feb 1998
A fiber backbone seemed to be the best way for the Blue Valley district to connect all its schools and learning resources.

Buildings for Learning: New Schools on the Horizon
Inform; v9 n4 ; Jan 1998
Explores several new school buildings in Virginia that attempt to address today's trends in technology, population shifts, and teaching methods. School designs discussed include a technology-rich library for an independent Norfolk school, a high school that is a model of energy efficiency and environmental responsibility, and a context-driven solution for a religious study center in Charlottesville.

Technology.
Bete, Tim, Ed.
School Planning and Management; v37 n1 , p58-61 ; Jan 1998
Presents the predictions of nine technology experts regarding the future of technology in U.S. schools. Predictions include technology's hold on classroom instruction, its power to eliminate the gap between students with and without disabilities, electronic media replacing physical school libraries, the replacement of textbooks by digital media, and the advent of the virtual school replacing the physical location.

Finding a Place To Stand: Negotiating the Spatial Configuration of the Networked Computer Classroom
Kent-Drury, Roxanne
Computers and Composition; v15 n3 , 387-407 ; 1998
Theorizes the spatial dynamics of both traditional and Internet-networked classrooms to reveal that both exhibit indeterminate spatial characteristics, but that network connectivity renders this indeterminacy visible. Argues that networked classrooms need not be disorienting, if students recreate a center by designing a class Web site, creating personal Web sites, and collaboratively analyzing the Internet and its demographics.

Solitaire Confinement: The Impact of the Physical Environment on Computer Training.
McDermott, Irene E.
Computers in Libraries; v18 n1 , p22,24-27 ; Jan 1998
Institutions spend millions of dollars on computer training rooms yet give little thought to lighting, temperature, ambient noise, furniture arrangement, and other physical factors that affect learning. This article examines some problems and suggests remedies: changing furniture, controlling monitors, and redesigning rooms. Lists selected computer-training hardware and software suppliers and products.

Cutting Edge Cable Management.
Peach, Roger
School Planning & Management; v36 n12 , p30-32 ; Dec 1997
Running fragile telecommunications cabling throughout a school isn’t always an easy task. Here’s how one district avoided common wiring problems and saved $15,000 in the process.

Universal Service Fund Provides Impetus for Both Telecommunications and Technology Planning.
Wright, Pat
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p10 ; Nov 1997
Describes how the Carrollton School District (Georgia) mapped out a strategy to ensure it would be able to acquire new classroom technology and successfully integrate it into the curriculum. It explains how proper planning for technology in the classroom reduced dropout rates and increased academic success among all its students, particularly economically disadvantaged students.

Planning High-Tech High.
Hymon, Steve
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p16-22 ; Oct 1997
Examines the planning process for developing a high-tech high school using the example of one such school in Florida's Collier County school district. Addresses budget figures, planning objectives, organizational considerations, pilot program creation, and planning tips.

Z-Shaped Classroom Supports Technology, Enhances Learning.
Nies, Jim; Hougsted, Steve
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p34-36 ; Oct 1997
Examines the benefits of the Z-shaped science lab classroom configuration as a means of learning enhancement. Each section of the classroom is illustrated and described. Also discusses construction and cost considerations.

Paying for Electronic Classrooms.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v36 n8 , p25-27 ; Aug 1997
Discusses the costs of introducing technology into the classroom and where money might be found to pay for it.

Seven PC Purchasing Pitfalls.
Wodarz, Nan
School Planning and Management; v36 n8 , p20,24 ; Aug 1997
Explores how to avoid common pitfalls when schools purchase computer equipment. Purchasing tips are provided in the areas of choosing multiple platforms, buying the cheapest model available, choosing a proprietary design, falling for untested technology, purchasing systems that are not upgradable, ignoring extended warranties, and failing to plan for future maintenance costs.

Entering the Digital Age.
Hopkins, Charles
American School and University; v69 n11 , p46,48-49 ; Jul 1997
Discusses the proper planning and upgrading of telecommunications infrastructure in schools that can support state-of-the-art data, voice, and video applications. An example of one school's efforts at installing an integrated telecommunications system for its 17,500 students is highlighted.

The Computer Delusion
Oppenheimer, Todd
The Atlantic Monthly; Jul 1997
There is no good evidence that most uses of computers significantly improve teaching and learning, yet school districts are cutting programs -- music, art, physical education -- that enrich children's lives to make room for technology integration.

Taking Control.
Arnold, David
School Planning and Management; v36 n6 , p20-24 ; Jun 1997
The Lowell, Massachusetts, district technology administrator and team have assumed responsibility for determining the requirements for technology and establishing the specifications and selection of equipment. Joint discussions with the architect are held to develop appropriate infrastructure and educational spaces.

Magic Links--Changing the Focus of Technology Planning
November, Alan
Learning and Leading with Technology; v24 n8 , p54-56 ; May 1997
Examines schools' current methods of technology planning and suggests that rather than making shopping lists of equipment, they should focus on long-range developing plans for using technology. Highlights include moving away from computer labs and embedding technology into the curriculum, and focusing on information and communication rather than technology.

Designing for the Future
Cincoski, Daniel T.
Learning By Design; n6 , p21,23-26 ; Mar 1997
Discusses the ways in which schools can design for the changes in teaching and learning that new technology will bring. Examines the purpose and content of the district master plan in designing schools for the inclusion of technology as well as design considerations in each of the major technological areas of data and voice, video, and cabling systems including infrastructure concerns and standards.

Four Keys to Putting Tomorrow's Technology in Yesterday's Buildings.
Biehle, James T.
School Planning and Management; v36 n2 , p27-28 ; Feb 1997
Insertion of computer technology in existing school buildings requires leadership at the district level, careful planning to provide properly located and sized support space, and a media backbone that will serve for a long time. The architect must design in flexibility for connection of hardware applications that are still being developed.

Schools Built for Technology: The Effects of Technology on Educational Facilities
Glass, Thomas E.
School Business Affairs; v63 n2 , p11-17 ; Feb 1997
Discusses the impact that new technologies are already having on programs and facilities, as well as predictions for the future. Discusses selected educational and facility technologies and the ways in which buildings and different kinds of classrooms can be made user-friendly. (Seven references)

Environment Tied to Successful Learning.
Cash, Carol S.; et al.
School Planning and Management; v36 n1 , p12-14 ; Jan 1997
Technology available to schools includes a broad spectrum of voice, data and video equipment. Planners need to consider the following subsystems individually and collectively: (1) technology-based products; (2) communications and power distribution to support the equipment; and (3) ergonomics, lighting, acoustics, environmental controls, and fire-safety.

Designing Classrooms of Tomorrow.
Czarnomski, Kenneth F.; Granitz, Philip H.
American School and University; v68 n12 , p78-80 ; Aug 1996
Describes how educational facilities can be renovated to meet future changes. Examines the different ways that technology is used in teaching and what administrators should consider when planning infrastructure for communications technology. Discusses the importance of advisory committees and of collecting data regarding school staffs' levels of technical expertise

Fitting New Technologies into Traditional Classrooms: Two Case Studies in the Design of Improved Learning Facilities
Green, Edward E.; et al.
Educational Technology; v36 n4 , p27-38 ; Jul-Aug 1996
Examines research on the influence of classroom design on student learning attitudes and behavior and presents two case studies on the remodeling of five classrooms in two high schools to accommodate new instructional technology for teaching algebra. Highlights include lighting, color, surface materials, noise, climate control, and seating.

What's in the Walls: Copper, Fiber, or Coaxial Wiring?
Weiss, Andrew M.
MultiMedia Schools; v2 n4 , p34-36,38-39 ; Sep-Oct 1995
Presents planning guidelines for wiring specifications for K-12 schools by reviewing advantages and disadvantages of using copper, fiber-optic, and coaxial wire. Addresses the future of network wiring and educational technology, and makes recommendations. A sidebar describes the physical appearance of different types of wire and a table compares wire types.

Redesigning Schools for 21st Century Technologies: A Middle School with the Power to Improve
Van Dam, Janet M.
Technology and Learning; v14 n4 , p54-58,60-61 ; Jan 1994
Describes the processes involved in redesigning and renovating Power Middle School (Michigan) for current and future educational technology, particularly for the media center. Topics discussed include planning; time management; wiring infrastructure; voice and video networks; teacher and student multimedia production rooms; and communications skills between architects, contractors, and consultants


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Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

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