STATE AND LOCAL SCHOOL EMERGENCY PLANNING GUIDES
Plans, guidelines, manuals, and checklists developed by school districts and state education offices to assist schools in preparing for and responding to emergency and disaster situations.
References to Books and Other Media
School District Emergency Operations Plan for ShowMe School District. [Missouri]
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , 2009)
Provides an example of an emergency operations plan, written for a fictitious Missouri school district. The plan is intended to prevent avoidable disasters and reduce the vulnerability of students, faculty, and administration to any disaster that may strike; establish capabilities for protecting students, faculty and administration from the effects of disasters; respond effectively to the actual occurrence of disasters; and provide for recovery in the aftermath of any emergency involving extensive damage within the school. It consists of a basic plan that serves as an overview of the schools approach to emergency management, annexes that address specific duties and activities critical to emergency response and recovery, and appendices which support each annex and contain technical information, details, and methods for use in emergency operations. The annexes and appendices are found at http://education.umkc.edu/Safe-School/documents/District%20Emergency%20Operations%20Pl an%20-%20Annexes.pdf
Emergency Management Resource Guide.
(Eastern Kentucky University, Kentucky Center for School Safety, Richmond , 2008)
Provides a template with which a school or school district can build a customized emergency response plan. The document offers sections with checklists for mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. These are followed by advice and resources for incident command, communication, a district plan, a school plan, emergency management for specific events, recovery, and a list of references and resources. 149p.
Vermont School Crisis Guide.
(Vermont School Crisis Planning Team, Crittenden East Supervisory Union, Richmond , 2008)
Presents general information on school crisis management that individual schools or districts can tailor to fit local needs and capabilities. The Guide is a framework to implement local school policy and administrative procedures, which are based on a comprehensive school emergency operations plan and policies. Sections of the guide cover the crisis planning team, various committees, accidents, terrorism and criminal acts, natural disasters, medical emergencies, and additional policies and procedures. 83p.
New Jersey K-12 School Security Task Force Report.
(New Jersey Office for Homeland Security and Preparedness, Newark , Sep 2007)
Presents the discussion items and final recommendations of this task force, which include: 1. Distribution of model emergency policies to the States law enforcement agencies with the direction that they are to begin implementing these policies with current operations plans and training. 2. Distribution of "companion" model policies for school administrators & teachers. 3. Joint training for the 21 county prosecutors and county schools superintendents to review school security strategies and programs together. 4. a uniform state memorandum of agreement between education and law enforcement to include annual review of the model policies issued by the school task force. 5. Enhanced training for school resource officers to include training on the aforementioned model procedures. 6. Teacher training for school crises. 7. Local school security councils/working groups, consisting of parents, educators, and state, county, and local law enforcement, fire, and emergency management personnel to address issues of school security. 8. Regular drills & amendments to the New Jersey fire code that require that monthly fire drills should be amended to incorporate drills and exercises for bomb threats, emergency evacuation/reverse evacuation, active shooters, lockdowns, and shelter-in-place. 26p.
Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance.
(United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC , Jun 2007)
Assesses the roles of federal and state governments and school districts in establishing requirements and providing resources for emergency management planning, what school districts have done to plan and prepare for emergencies, and the challenges school districts have experienced in planning for emergencies. Surveys, interviews, and document reviews were conducted at the federal, state, and district level. Most states and school districts reported having requirements for emergency planning, and federal and state governments and school districts provide financial and other resources. Thirty-two states reported having laws or other policies requiring school districts to have emergency management plans. Most school districts have developed emergency management plans, but many plans do not include federally recommended practices. The GAO estimates that over one-quarter of school districts have never trained with any first responders and over two-thirds of school districts do not regularly train with community partners on how to implement their school district emergency management plans. 74p.Report NO: GAO-07-609
Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety. Report on Findings and Recommendations. [Florida]
(Florida Department of Children and Families , May 24, 2007)
Report from a task force asked to investigate methods of notification during emergency situations on Florida's school campuses, strategies for improving cross-agency communications, and necessary improvements for training law enforcement officials and first responders to crisis situations. Includes executive summary, overall recommendations, best practices, future actions, and numerous appendices. 167p.
Emergency Management: Status of School Districts' Planning and Preparedness.
(U.S. General Accountability Office, Washington, DC , May 17, 2007)
Reports on the current state of emergency preparedness in U.S. school districts, illustrating percentages of districts that have plans for intruders, bomb threats, natural disasters, terrorism, radiation, anthrax, and pandemic influenza. Some plans and school districts have taken steps to plan for a range of emergencies, as most have developed multi-hazard emergency management plans. However some plans and activities do not address federally recommended practices. In an estimated 62 percent of districts, officials cited a lack of equipment and expertise as impediments to emergency planning. Absence of door locks necessary for implementing a lockdown and a lack of two-way radios are two examples of facility and equipment deficiencies. Also noted was a shortage of expertise in both planning for and managing emergencies, as well as an inability to incorporate special needs students in emergency management planning. An estimated 39 percent of districts with emergency plans experience challenges in communicating and coordinating with local first responders, lacking partnerships with all or specific first responders, limited time or funding to collaborate with first responders on plans for emergencies, or a lack of interoperability between the equipment used by the school district and equipment used by first responders. 25p.Report NO: GAO-07-821T
Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida]
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.
Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide for Utah Schools.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2007)
Assists Utah schools in compliance with state regulations mandating emergency preparedness plans for schools. The guide outlines responsibilities for school officials and staff; criteria, components, and organization of an emergency preparedness plan; hazard analysis; communications and evacuation plans; and specific advice for itemized threats. Appendices include the text of the state rule, additional advice for specific age groups, sample forms, and a list of recommended first aid equipment and supplies. 93p.
Pandemic Influenza Preparedness for Schools [School Facilities Issues]
(California Department of Education, 2007)
When developing the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan, California districts are encouraged to consider how such an emergency might affect the school facilities. Issues such as school closings, accommodation of students with special needs, schools designated as contingency hospitals, establishing policies for transporting ill students, modified maintenance practices during an emergency epidemic or pandemic to reduce or slow the spread of the disease, storage of adequate supplies (food, water, cleaning supplies, soap, hand towels, etc.), and removal of trash during a break-out, etc. This links to resources to assist schools in developing these emergency plans.
The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.
Hazard Identification And Risk Assessment For Schools.
(State of Maine, Augusta , Nov 2006)
Offers a workbook to identify and assess hazards to school property and occupants in order to develop a more thorough emergency response plan. 22p.
Crisis Response Box: A Guide to Help Every School Assemble the Tools and Resources Needed for a Critical Incident Response. [California]
Lockyer, Bill; Eastin, Delaine
(California Attorney General's Crime and Violence Prevention Center; California Department of Education's Safe Schools and Violence Prevention Office, 2006)
This is a guide to assist schools in preparing for a school emergency. The box contains crucial information needed to respond to a critical incident. The guide states that these elements should be part of a crisis response box: an aerial photo of the school campus; a map that identifies streets, intersections and vacant lots near a school and includes planned emergency routes; an up-to-date layout of classrooms and other campus facilities; architectural blueprints of school buildings; a list of teachers and other employees; master keys for all the rooms in a facility; turn-off procedures for fire alarms, sprinklers, utilities and cable television service; photos of all students; phone numbers for all key staff members, including those involved in coordinating with local emergency responders; identification of three separate staging areas for law enforcement and emergency personnel, for the news media, and for parents; an emergency resource list of people or groups that can assist in an emergency; identification of evacuation routes; student disposition forms so administrators can keep track of which students have been released and to whom; a list of which students are present at school that day; a list of students with special needs; and first-aid supplies, as well as a listing of where additional first-aid supplies can be found. 18p.
In Their Own Words: 9/11 Parents Help Other Parents and Schools with Lessons Learned. 2005 Edition.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc. Albany, NY, Sep 2005)
Through the constructive advice of experienced parents, this discusses emergency planning for schools. The events of September 11 and its aftermath have challenged health, environment, and education agencies to understand how children are different from adults in relation to environmental hazards, and how schools are different from offices in terms of their responsibilities for the occupants and the demands on the facilites. 8p.
School Safety Review Checklist.
(Vermont Dept. of Education, Montpelier , Jul 2005)
Offers a school safety checklist that addresses, in 512 questions, 24 types of school spaces and systems, the grounds, athletic facilities, and athletic equipment. 20p.
Regulations and Procedures To Comply with the Standards and Criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program.[Georgia]
(Georgia State Dept. of Education, Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta, 2003)
The state of Georgia provides the legislative rules for complying with the National Flood Insurance Program and applicable to the construction of state facilities and recipients of state grants or loans in flood plain areas. Sections present findings of fact relative to Georgia's flood plains, and the general provisions of the regulation and the provision of flood plain management and administrative services. A Floodplain Determination Request form is attached. 7
Statewide Policy for Strengthening Domestic Security in Florida's Public Schools
(Florida Department of Education, Sep 10, 2003)
This provides policy guidance to Florida school districts in terms of terrorism protection procedures and training focused on deterrance, and explores infrastructure enhancements and policy guidance for infrastructure. A list of policy requirements is provided for access control, emergency equipment, training, communication and notification procedures, coordination with partners, and vulnerability assessment. A list of resources and a glossary is included. 6p.
Model Safe School Plan. A Template for Ensuring a Safe, Healthy, and Productive Learning Environment. Volume 2--Emergency Procedures. [California]
(Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of Environmental Health and Safety, CA , Jun 05, 2003)
This volume covers emergency preparedness and response and is based on the California Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS). SEMS which is designed to centralize and coordinate emergency response actions among various Los Angeles district organizations and public agencies and provides an effective framework for managing emergencies ranging from minor incidents to major earthquakes. 120p.
New York State Homeland Security System for Schools.
(University of the State of New York, State Education Department, and New York State Police, Apr 2003)
The purpose of this guidance document is to provide a uniform system for notifying school districts of possible threats and appropriate response actions. It is meant to provide guidelines for school officials to make informed decisions in consultation with local law enforcement and emergency personel in the context of district and building School Safety Plans. Includes a color coded risk level system and recommended actions for schools flowchart; definitions; school safety plan review; response actions; school safety audit checklist; resources; bomb threat response instruction card; and legal citations. 29p.
Disaster Preparedness Planning Guide for Facilities. [Pennsylvania]
(Bureau of Plans, Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, Harrisburg, PA , Mar 2003)
This preparedness planning guide is directed to facility managers and administrators and is intended to provide assistance in meeting the planning requirements necessary to protect facility occupants. It is intentionally generic in nature, so that it may apply to a variety of public buildings and large facilities where populations may be at risk as a result of natural or man-caused disasters. 22p.
Emergency Preparedness Guidelines: Chemical, Biological, and/or Radiological Incidents [Maryland]
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Department of School Safety and Security, in conjunction with Montgomery County Fire and Rescue Services., Feb 2003)
This provides concise definitions and response/action guidelines to assist school system administrators in responding to a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. Includes an emergency/crisis checklist. 5p.
Terrorism Supplement to the Indiana Department of Education's Checklist for a Safe and Secure School Environment. [Indiana]
(Indiana Department of Education, Feb 2003)
This checklist supplement covers three types of terrorist activities: radiological, biological, and chemical. The supplement is divided into two sections: first, an overview of terrorism and the types of attacks that might result from terrorist activity; second, some suggestions to help schools prepare for terrorism. 20p.
Emergency Preparedness Plan for Utah Schools.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City, UT , 2003)
This plan includes purpose, policy, and planning guidelines for specific hazards such as utility failure, severe weather, civil disturbance, bomb threats, etc. 42p.
Florida Safe School Design Guidelines.
(Florida Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , 2003)
These guidelines begin with the assumption that proper design and management of the physical environment can help prevent criminal behavior on campuses. The manual considers design and maintenance issues beginning with the largest level of concern, the site, and proceeding toward the most specific, systems and equipment. In between these two, each area of building design and interior spaces is covered. Bullet points summarize the most significant elements and direct the user to the corresponding design principle in the Florida Building Code. Results of surveys, field investigations, and interviews concerning security design and practices, incidence of crimes, and attitudes are included. Recommendations drawn from these results are linked to the guidelines. (Includes 100 references and a listing of 40 organizations for additional resources.) 202p.
Guide and Checklist for Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards in California Schools.
(California Department of Education, Sacramento , Jan 2003)
Advises on the reduction of seismic hazards associated with the non-structural components of schools buildings, including mechanical systems, ceiling systems, partitions, light fixtures, furnishings, and other building contents. The Guide identifies potential earthquake hazards and provides recommendations for mitigating those hazards. The non-structural components and building contents identified in this publication are listed in one of the following three sections: ceiling and overhead, walls and wall-mounted, and furniture and equipment. Within each section, an information sheet is provided for each non-structural component or building content item. Each information sheet provides a description of the item, a description of the potentially hazardous condition, and recommendations to reduce the hazard. An "earthquake hazards checklist" is also provided at the back of the publication to assist district staff in conducting a non-structural hazards survey. 50p.
Model Marin County School Emergency Disaster Preparedness and Incident Plan. [California]
(Marin County Office of Education, CA. , 2003)
This document is designed to provide a framework for protecting students, staff and school facilities, as well as to describe the responsibilities of staff members, for a wide range of emergency and disaster situations that may occur. 109p.
School Safety and Security. [California]
(California Department of Education, School Safety and Violence Prevention Office, Sacramento, CA , 2002)
This document offers guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled access to campuses; windows; visibility; traffic patterns and parking areas; play and sports areas; landscaping; fencing and gates; exterior lighting; lavatories; environmental design features; visitor control and access; and specialized sites. An extensive list of related resources is also provided. Regarding lighting standards, the document offers research-based design recommendations and suggestions concerning reflectances, fixture brightness, ceiling height, excess wall luminance (windows), nonuniformity of illumination (general lighting), and energy conservation. This section also includes a glossary. The section on clean school standards offers questions to consider when establishing policies for a maintenance and operations program. Finally, the section on technology resources includes Web sites on comprehensive technology planning, integration of technology into the curriculum, and staff development. 32p.
Voices from the Field: Working Together for Safe and Secure Schools. Summary of Findings from Florida Education Commissioner Charlie Crist's School Safety and Security Summits.
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee, FL , 2002)
During summer and fall 2001, the Florida Commissioner of Education conducted eight regional meetings, open to the public, on school safety and security. The purpose of the meetings was to explore safety issues faced by districts and schools, share best safety practices, and generate local discussion on matters of school safety and security. This booklet is a report on those meetings. It includes findings from a survey of students; a list of resources; and an inventory of proven and promising programs. Additionally, the report contains the following recommendations identified by meeting participants as key to maintaining safe schools: (1) Include all appropriate partners in developing operative crisis plans that specify a schedule for plan revision, training updates, and regular drills; (2) establish and maintain effective internal and external communication to ensure emergency procedures are efficiently and effectively followed; (3) ensure that accurate facility site plans for every school are provided to local law-enforcement and emergency-response agencies; (4) employ strategies and techniques to break the "code of silence" among students; (5) listen to and implement students' ideas and perceptions on school-safety issues; and (6) provide additional school resource officers at all levels: elementary, middle, and high school. 50p.
Resource Guide for Crisis Management in Virginia Schools. [Virginia]
(Virginia Department of Education, Office of Compensatory Programs, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program., 2002)
This resource guide includes a compilation of examples of policies, procedures, guidelines, checklists, forms, and background information. The guide is organized into sections on policy and leadership; establishing the crisis team; developing an effective crisis management plan; critical incident management; training for preparedness; communications; quick guide to crisis management; and resources. 249p.
Crisis Response Plan Checklist. [Pennsylvania]
(Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Community and Student Services, Crisis Response Committee., Nov 2001)
This checklist is for use when developing a school's crisis response procedures or plan. The checklist is divided into four planning stages: pre-planning, prevention, intervention, and postvention. 11p.
School Safety and Security Best Practices Approved by the Commissioner of Education. Information Brief. [Florida]
(Florida State Legislature, Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability, Tallahassee. , Nov 2001)
The 2001 Florida Legislature passed Ch. 2001-125, Laws of Florida, Section 40, which is often referred to as the Safe Passage Act. It requires all school districts to conduct a self-assessment of their school safety and security using best practices developed by the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA). It also requires that OPPAGA and the Partnership for School Safety and Security make annual recommendations for adding, deleting, or revising those practices. The practices cover six school-safety goals requiring that each school district: (1) ensures that its safety and security program has clear direction, and is effective at meeting its intended purpose in a cost-efficient manner; (2) has comprehensive plans and procedures to ensure student and employee safety and security; (3) has developed a clearly written code of student conduct and communicated with students and parents; (4) identifies, minimizes, and protects others from disruptive and/or violent student behavior; (5) ensures that educational facilities and equipment are safe and in good working condition; and (6) takes steps to ensure student and staff safety and security during transportation. 12Report NO: OPPAGA-R-01-57
School Occupational Safety and Crisis Response Plan. [Mississippi]
(Mississippi Department of Education, Oct 2001)
This comprehensive school safety plan includes: 1.Policies and procedures that afford a safe school environment; 2.The Crisis Response Plan; and 3.Programs that promote a safe school environment. 104p.
District of Columbia Public Schools Safety Manual.
(District of Columbia Public Schools , Jun 04, 2001)
Describes the District of Columbia Public Schools' Safety and Health Program, as applicable to the employees of both DCPS Facilities and its contractors, performing construction, renovation, assessment, facility operation, and maintenance work. It also covers issues relevant to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for school personnel, students, and visitors. The manual documents appropriate requirements for workplace safety and health on DCPS capital projects and in DCPS facilities operation and maintenance activities; provides guidelines for achieving a safe and healthy environment for the students, staff and visitors of the DCPS school facilities during construction, renovation, maintenance and operations; delineates the organizational and procedural elements of the safety and health program for its effective implementation; and provides guidelines to designers on how to incorporate safety and health into facility and project design. 401p.
Guidance Document for School Safety Plans. [New York]
(The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, Albany, NY, Apr 2001)
The District-wide School Safety Plan provides the framework for a school district to identify and implement appropriate strategies for creating and maintaining a safe and secure learning environment for all its students. This publication includes guidelines for developing safety plans, provides sample outlines and a building-level emergency response plan, includes state agency contacts, selected web-based resources, and print references. 79p
School Violence: Physical Security. [Utah]
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2001)
This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial list of possible security measures to address various security issues such as outsiders on campus, fights on campus, vandalism, theft, parking problems, bomb threats, and teacher safety. A second section addresses how schools can prepare to deal with bomb threats and the illegal use of explosives, including responding to bomb threats, evacuation, search techniques and teams, and handling the news media. 26p.
School Facilities Manual: Nonstructural Protection Guide. Safer Schools, Earthquake Hazards, Nonstructural. Second Edition. [Washington]
Noson, Linda Lawrance; Perbix, Todd W.
(Washington Office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Seattle Public Schools , May 2000)
Addresses the strengthening of nonstructural elements of a school building to resist earthquake-induced damage and improve school building safety. Nonstructural elements include the decorative details and those functional building parts and contents which support the activities in, and the performance of, the building such as mechanical and electrical systems, furnishings and equipment, and necessary hazardous materials. The first section discusses earthquake activity in Washington, earthquake-induced damage to Washington schools, the causes of earthquake damage, the school district nonstructural protection program, and the use of school site teams. The second section presents inventory forms and inventory process for nonstructural elements. A revision of this section is included at the end of the guide. The third section provides the details for protecting nonstructural elements from earthquake-induced damage. 155p.
Sacramento City Unified School District Emergency Preparedness Guidelines. [California]
(Sacramento City Unified School District, CA, 2000)
The purpose of these guidelines is to aid the school district and its employees during an emergency. The guidelines include specific actions to take in response to a number of emergencies, such as bomb threats, chemical accidents, explosions, floods, etc. There are several "What to do" checklists, and emergency telephone numbers. A section details site planning before the emergency. Includes sample letters to parents. 73p.
Emergency/Disaster Preparedness. A Planning Guide for Schools. [Minnesota]
(Minnesota Department of Public Safety, Division of Emergency Management, St. Paul, Nov 1999)
This is a procedures guide that is meant to be localized and tailored to each school facility in Minnesota and distributed to all staff within each building. Staff responsibilities are delineated in case of fire, severe weather, bomb threats, demonstrations, hazardous materials, shootings, suicide, terrorism, etc. Procedures are described for a lock-down situation, sheltering, evacuation, handling the media, and creating a crisis team. 27p
Checklist for a Safe and Secure School Environment.
(Indiana Dept. of Education, Indianapolis , May 1999)
Offers a checklist with explanations for school safety policies and procedures, emergency preparedness plans, building and grounds assessment, and safety transportation needs. A list of 59 references, additional resources, and websites is included. 31p.
Illinois School Emergency Planning Guide. [Illinois]
(Illinois Emergency Management Agency, Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield, IL, Mar 1999)
This guide provides school administrators and their staffs with information they can use to develop or revise school preparedness plans that minimize problems and confusion during emergency situations. Guidelines cover natural disasters (tornado, winter storm, earthquake, etc.), technological disasters (fire, hazardous material incident, etc.), and civil disturbance (terrorism, bomb threat, demonstrations, etc.). 35p
Safe Schools: Unified Emergency Contingency Plan for Schools. [Illinois]
( Illinois State Police, Springfield , 1999)
This contingency plan is intended to stimulate emergency planning and provide an organizational tool for Illinois schools to use in the development of individual emergency plans. It may accommodate and complement a school's current contingency plan and will allow for the inclusion of additional material concerning school safety. It is intended as a basis upon which a school can build a complete and comprehensive plan to address a myriad of emergency/crisis/disaster situations. The guide opens with a list of points of contact and contingency-plan goals. It offers information on establishing contingency-plan goals, a school-safety tip line, crisis-management plans, crisis warning codes, and emergency communications. The second section provides information on emergencies and is grouped by topics: abduction, after-hours emergency, bomb threat, civil disturbance/student uprising/gangs, fire/explosion, hostage/barricaded subject, intruder in the building, natural disasters, threat of violence, and weapons possession/armed offender. Numerous suggestions for security issues are also offered, including school facility security, a school security assessment checklist, a security measures implementation survey, a school facility security assessment checklist, overview of school crime, high risk behavior, identifying high risk students, and predicting violent juvenile behavior. 53p.
School Earthquake Preparedness Guidebook.[Arkansas]
(University of Arkansas Little Rock, Graduate Institute of Technology, Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer , 1999)
This guidebook was created to help school personnel create, supplement, and revise their earthquake emergency procedures. Includes information on legal requirements, how to start a preparedness process, earthquake response procedures, nonstructural hazard identification and reduction, stocking supplies, conducting drills, and completing a post-earthquake damage evaluation process. 88p.
Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools. [California]
Boren, Ann; Bulman, Robert E.; Bustillos, Terry; Godlstein, Jeff; Halgren, Fern; Morrison, Richard; Rodreguez, Arnold; Zwirn, Valerie
(Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project, Los Angeles, CA , 1999)
Provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation planning, nonstructural hazards to be addressed, communication system needs, and vital records protection. Also listed are emergency response actions to remember. The brochure also contains a legislative checklist of what public school administration need to do to in their schools earthquake preparedness to make sure they comply with all the provisions of state legislation. 6p.
School Emergency Response: Using SEMS at Districts and Sites. [California]
(California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, CA, Jun 03, 1998)
These guidelines are intended to be used for planning and training school personnel in order to comply with California's Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS). Included is a demonstration of how SEMS is intended to work, a template of a school emergency plan, a training module, and a series of job descriptions for each response role in SEMS, which are adapted specifically to the school situation and to school personnel. 101p
Earthquake Education and Preparedness for Schools. [Arkansas]
(Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer, College of Science and Engineering Technology, Little Rock, AR , 1998)
The Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer has compiled educational, curriculum, and preparedness resources for teachers and administrators for preschools and kindergartens through senior high.
Missouri Public Schools Safe Facilities Guide.
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Springfield , 1998)
Presents guidelines for developing a safe school environment. Responsibilities for instructors, nurses, students, and parents are covered. Safety checklists for internal and external building and grounds inspections are provided with emergency checklists, sample forms, and signs included. Twelve references and numerous additional resources are cited. 57p.
Designing Safer Schools for Virginia: A Guide to Keeping Students Safe from Violence. [Virginia]
Cornell, Dewey G.
(Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottsville, VA , 1998)
In 1997, the Virginia General Assembly passed legislation requiring local school boards to conduct school safety audits for each school under their jurisdiction. Guidelines for helping educators conduct these audits are presented here. The text offers detailed assessments of school safety needs. It also lists standards for safety and security personnel. The last section provides some effective violence prevention strategies. (Contains 90 references and lists sample items for a school safety survey.) 53p.
Violence Prevention and School Safety: Issues, Problems, Approaches, and Recommended Solutions. [Oregon]
Walker, Hill M.; Irvin, Larry K.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.
(Oregon School Study Council Bulletin, v41, n1 , Fall 1997)
Violence from the larger society has spilled over into schools in ways that can make them unsafe, and school safety has emerged as a pressing concern. This report addresses the key issues, problems, approaches and recommended solutions to these challenges to the schooling process. Additional resources are recommended to establish and maintain a safe school environment and teach all students how to resolve conflicts peacefully, express empathy, develop friendships and positive relationships with others, regulate one's behavior, and accept the consequences of one's actions. It is essential that schools take steps to address two key goals in making the school safe: (1) to insure that the facility is designed appropriately and that the school environment is supervised carefully and (2) to establish a safe, positive, inclusive and academically effective school environment. Achievement of these two goals will make it possible for schools to again become safe havens in which to teach and socialize children. 23p.
Checklist For the Safety and Security of Buildings and Grounds. [Virginia]
(Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond , 1997)
An evaluation checklist is provided for assessing a school's strengths and weaknesses relative to the safety and security of buildings and grounds, as well as assessing development and enforcement of policies, the presence of intervention and prevention plans, staff development, parent and community involvement, opportunities for student involvement, development of a crisis management plan, and the standards for security personnel. Advice on audit protocol and procedure is included along with guidelines on conducting school safety audits. 14p.
Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites. [California]
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento,CA , 1995)
This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal responsibilities to their students and communities before, during, and after a disaster. Guidelines for coordinating interagency sheltering plans and making pre-disaster agreements are offered in the third chapter. The fourth chapter describes procedures for inspecting buildings and making assessments as to their safety. Standardized Emergency Management System (SEM) regulations for sheltering are provided in chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses considerations in arranging for the resumption of school. Chapters 7 through 9 discuss plans for conducting shelter training and drills, financial considerations, and application of the law to private schools and special programs. 144p.TO ORDER: Governor's Office of Emergency Services
Recommendations for Emergency Management Planning for School Facilities. [Texas]
(Texas Education Agency, Austin, TX , 1994)
This document contains emergency-management planning guidelines, developed by the Texas Education Agency. Chapter 1 outlines the roles and responsibilities of various school personnel and community members in emergency-management planning. Chapter 2 describes the steps involved in preparing the plan. Guidelines for specific hazards are provided in the third chapter, including injury and illness, various natural disasters, utility failure, bomb threats, and nuclear incidents. Suggestions for developing an emergency-preparedness education program are offered in the fourth chapter. Chapter 5 outlines crisis-intervention strategies for handling children's and personnel's emotional responses to disaster. 131p.
Florida Safe School Design Guidelines. [Florida]
Moore, James A.; Powers, Daniel S.
(University of South Florida, Florida Center for Community Design and Research, Tampa, FL , Jul 28, 1993)
This document provides guidelines Florida schools can use in designing schools that enhance school safety and security. It examines the literature available on school safety and security and the principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), and presents a survey of Florida's 67 school districts examining incidences of safety and security problems and steps taken to prevent such incidents. Concluding sections include a set of design guidelines in which CPTED principles are developed specifically for schools, and evaluates Chapter 6A-2 of the state's Uniform Building Code with recommended changes and commentary. Survey data show the CPTED principles do have broad-based application to the design and/or re- design of Florida's schools, but these principles must be carefully assessed, particularly those involving life-safety, educational policy or intent, costs, and overall educational environment. 383p.
Post-Earthquake Damage Evaluation and Reporting Procedures: A Guidebook for California Schools. [California]
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, Office of the State Architect, Sacramento, CA, 1993)
The California Office of the State Architect, Structural Safety Division (OSA/SSS) is responsible for evaluating public school structures after an earthquake. However, final authority on whether a building should be reoccupied after damage lies with the school district. This guidebook is designed to help school officials assess earthquake damage before a qualified engineer arrives at the site and report building conditions to OAS/SSS to assist in establishing a priority list for site visits by structural engineers. 19p.
State of Maryland Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide for Maryland Schools.
(Maryland Emergency Management Agency, Pikesville, MD; Maryland State Dept. of Education, Office of Communications and Special Projects, Baltimore, MD , 1991)
Guidelines to help local school systems in Maryland develop a comprehensive emergency plan and to increase student awareness are offered in this handbook. Chapter 1 outlines the roles of all participants in emergency planning and response. Chapter 2 describes the process for preparing an emergency plan, including recommendations for criteria, format, and planning elements. Guidelines for dealing with specific hazards are outlined in chapter 3. The fourth chapter describes emergency preparedness education for different grades and how to coordinate a practice disaster day. 66p.
References to Journal Articles
Developing a Critical Mass Communication Plan.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Offers 11 suggestions for developing a mass communication plan, including integrating multiple forms of communication, researching and selecting the best systems, communication with first responders, staff and student awareness and training, a clear communications.
When Seconds Count.
American School and University; v81 n1 , pSS48,SS50,SS52 ; Sep 2008
Discusses elements of an effective campus emergency plan, including widespread participation of and coordination between the occupants and local officials, practicing drills, and mass-notification systems.
Experiences with and Preparedness for Emergencies and Disasters among Public Schools in California.
Kano, Megumi; Bourque, Linda B.
NASSP Bulletin; v91 n3 , p201-218 ; Sep 2007
This study assesses schools' experiences with, and preparedness for, emergencies and disasters. Data are collected by mail survey from 157 public schools in California. The majority of schools have experienced emergencies in recent years. Although respondents generally feel their school is well prepared for future emergencies, limitations are identified in their disaster plans, availability of emergency supplies, training, and interagency coordination, with some differences between primary and secondary schools.