SPECIAL EDUCATION ACCOMMODATION
Information on special education classroom and facility design, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments
Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana
(Wiley, Apr 2012)
The new standard text on the topic, this introduces architects, designers of interiors, products, landscapes, and communities the principles and practice of designing for all people. Includes best practices and many examples. 408pTO ORDER: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470399139.html
Hazelwood School, Glasgow Scotland
(American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Jan 2012)
Description of the design of the award-winning Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland that serves the needs of autistic students with sight, hearing, mobility or cognitive impairments. Discusses the choice of materials, the parkland setting, and the safe, stimulating environment for students and staff. 4p
Therapeutic Schoolyard: Design for Children with Autism
(Kansas State University, Jan 2012)
Needs of children with autism vary from child to child, but they all can benefit from environments that are designed with awareness of challenges and characteristics associated with autism. Schoolyards commonly contain asphalt, turf, and traditional play structures that do not take into consideration the needs of children with mental or physical disabilities. However, schoolyards can be designed to provide therapeutic benefits on these children without segregating them from the larger school community. In order to understand how a schoolyard might be designed as a therapeutic environment for children with autism the challenges, needs, and common therapies for children with autism must be understood. The characteristics of therapeutic landscapes for children must be considered in addition. After examining both therapeutic landscapes and the many facets of autism, the researcher applied lessons learned to the design of a schoolyard master plan for Amanda Arnold Elementary School in Manhattan, Kansas. [Author's abstract] 142p
Designing for Autism: The ‘Neuro-Typical’ Approach.
Henry, Christopher N.
(Arch Daily, Nov 03, 2011)
Contrasts designing schools for children with autism with ‘neuro-typical’ environments, versus the sensory sensitive approach. Case studies of USA Architects’ concept for the 167,000 square-foot Morris-Union Jointure Commission’s Developmental Learning Center and the Celebrate the Children, a school for children with autism. Includes photographs, drawings, and a list of resources.
DeafSpace Design Guidelines.
(HBHM Architecture, 2011)
Online catalogue of more than one hundred and fifty distinct DeafSpace architectural design elements that address five major intersections between deaf experience and the built environment: space and proximity, sensory reach, mobility and proximity, light and color, and, finally, acoustics.
Hazelwood School. Sketchbook.
(Alan Dunlop Architects, 2011)
Hazelwood is a school in Glasgow, Scotland, for children and young people, aged 2 to 18, who are blind and deaf – “dual sensory impaired”. Many of the school’s children are physically handicapped and all have a degree of cognitive impairment. Architecturally, it is a new type of project, and a real success. The children and young people respond well to their new environment and appear to be thriving. The building has received multiple national and international awards. For photographs of the school, see http://www.alandunloparchitects.com/work/hazelwood-school 18p.
Setting Up Classroom Spaces That Support Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Kabot, Susan; Reeve, Christine
(Autism Asberger Publishing Company, Shawnee Mission, KS, Sep 2010)
Illustrates with brief text and photos how to determine what type of furniture and materials to choose for various types of classrooms and how to arrange them in a way that creates an effective learning environment while reducing anxiety and preventing problem behaviors. It uses evidence-based practices of structure and visual supports to enhance the well-being and success of students. Examples are given for students across the age span with lists and resources. 88TO ORDER: http://www.autismbookstore.com/
Creating Classrooms for Everyone: How Interactive Whiteboards Support Universal Design for Learning.
(SMART Technologies ULC, 2009)
This paper examines Universal Design for Learning (UDL) standards and how they can help guide the evaluation and use of interactive whiteboards in classrooms. The opportunity to present information in multiple ways, allow flexible means of expression, and engage learners of the digital age makes it a natural fit with UDL and a vital part of inclusive classrooms. 14p.
Designing for Disabled Children and Children with Special Educational Needs.
(Department for Children, Schools, and Families; London; United Kingdom , 2009)
Provides building design guidance for accommodation of special needs pupils in British schools. The individual parts of the document describe main categories of special educational needs and how to plan for them, inclusive design principles for schools, initial design strategies, design of specific spaces, technical guidance, and case studies. 200p.
References to Journal Articles
John Dickinson, AIA: Design for the Deaf and Blind.
AIArchitect; Jun 2012
A hearing-impaired architect designs education facilities for people who experience the world as he does. Discusses designs for the Ohio School for the Deaf, Cave Springs Rehabilitation Center, and Ohio State School for the Blind.
Special Needs Sensory Learning from Philly to Kuwait
Hill, Franklin; Shiavi, Damaris
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p13-16 ; Jun 2012
Describes the Overbrook School for the Blind Kappen Aquatic Center in Philadelphia. The activity pool provides fountains, bubbles, currents, color identification, pool side and bottom textures that bring a unique educational experience to students with visual impairments.
Complying With New Mandatory ADA Standards
School Construction News; Apr 25, 2012
All state and government construction projects will soon have to bring their projects up to compliance to meet the 2010 Standards of the Americans with Disabilities Act — a requirement that includes school exteriors like playgrounds, pools and outdoor signage. For projects that start on or after March 25, 2012 the 2010 ADA standards will apply automatically.
Designing to Fit the Needs of ED Students
School Construction News; Apr 10, 2012
Description of the challenges in designing Columbus, Ohio's first public middle/high school for emotionally disturbed students. Building includes sensory rooms, sensory gardens, a P.E. room where students can go to burn off some steam if they need to and extended-learning areas where students and teachers can have one-on-one instruction. Green building features will help the school save energy and reduce costs, while providing a cleaner and more technological environment for the students.
Architecture For Autism: Exterior Views
Arch Daily; Apr 04, 2012
A comparative analysis of designing classrooms that have good views, bad views, and limited views, using the design of the Kentish Town School Autistic Resource Base. The architect scaled back the amount of exterior views by employing opaque walls that allow light in but limit views out. There are still a few large views to the outside, and the opaque walls are punctuated every so often with small clear glass windows, mostly above eye-level.
Blind Photographers: A Quest into the Spatial Experiences of Blind Children
Jasmien Herssens and Ann Heylighen
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p99-124 ; Spring 2012
In the context of inclusive design, this paper reports on a photo-ethnographic study that is part of a wider inquiry into the haptic qualities of the built environment. To stimulate conversation with children born blind about their haptic spatial experiences, we invited them to take pictures of their daily living environment—a school for children with visual or hearing impairments or autism. The pictures taken by the blind children offer a unique perspective on how they experience the school environment. Non-visual triggers for taking pictures were both tangible (tactile, olfactory, auditory) and intangible (memories and knowledge) in nature. Besides offering insights into non-visual stimuli in the school, this study suggests that photo-ethnography may be a useful approach for communicating about sensory experience with children born blind and for overcoming a lack of vocabulary to articulate these experiences. Moreover, using the camera provoked sensory experiences and memories in general and revealed details on haptic perception in particular. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
How to Design an Autistic Classroom
eHow; Apr 2012
Describes how to make changes to the traditional environment to help foster a learning environment for autistic children.
Building Behaviors. School Design for Autism Spectrum Students.
Weisz, Claire and Yoes, Mark
School Planning and Management; , p90-93 ; Apr 2012
Describes the design of REED Academy in New Jersey that serves a small, inter district community of students with highly specialized needs.
St. Coletta School / Michael Graves
Arch Daily; Mar 2012
St. Coletta in Washington, D.C., founded in 1959, is a special education charter which services and educates children with severe or multiple disabilities. The bright colors and simple forms make it very fitting for the people that the building serves, as it is fun, playful and inviting.
Monarch School Design Helps Students Grow
School Construction News; Feb 16, 2012
The Monarch School in Houston aims to provide a safe, nurturing atmosphere and development program for 100 children and young adults with neurological differences. This describes a new facility on the campus that was designed with careful attention to absolute light, sound and color control and that earned LEED Gold certification.
Learning Spring School / Platt Byard Dovell White Architects
Arch Daily; Jan 08, 2012
Case study of the LearningSpring School, a 108-student K through 8th grade private day school for children diagnosed on the autism spectrum. The eight-story LEED Gold building contains a full range of academic, athletic, and special needs spaces arranged internally as a vertical campus, designed to support the special social, physical, and educational needs of its students. Includes photos and floorplans.
Architecture for Autism: Architects Moving in the Right Direction
Arch Daily; Jan 2012
Explores the research on architectural interventions that are beneficial for individuals with autism, such as changing a classroom’s spatial characteristics and acoustics. Concludes that architects are still a long way off from discovering which design decisions are most effective, but it is heartening to see architects moving in the right direction.
Emergency Plan Inclusion
O'Meara, Shamus P. and Mullin, M. Annie
American School Board Journal; , p32-33 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that when school emergency plans are created or revamped, the needs of special education students are considered. Discusses the four phases of school emergency management planning, and legal implications.
Building Blueprints: Early Childhood Spaces.
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p48,49 ; May 2011
Profiles the United Cerebral Palsy Bailes Campus in Orlando. Principles of universal design enable students of every ability to share the same spaces. Calming colors, indoor and outdoor wheelchair accessibility, daylighting, and acoustical enhancement are described.
Last but Not Least.
School Planning and Management; v50 n2 , p20-24 ; Feb 2011
Describes how an early learning center with a large special needs enrollment carefully selected furniture for ergonomics and a warm palette. Before purchasing, various furnishings were tested in place, with teachers and therapists evaluating the results.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p124-142 ; Nov 2010
Profiles 15 specialized educational facilities honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. These include dining, performing arts, chapel, special education, and student union spaces. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.
Imperial Valley Center for Exceptional Children.
CASH Register; v31 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2010
Profiles this California school serving exceptional students from birth through 22 years of age. Particular features for addressing sensory, behavioral, and safety issues are described.
Special Needs Interiors.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p121,122 ; Aug 2010
Profiles special needs interiors in Richmond, Virginia, and Millersville, Maryland. Gentle design and soft colors are featured in these winning projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.
The Perspective of Children and Youth: How Different Stakeholders Identify Architectural Barriers for Inclusion in Schools.
Pivik, Jayne Renee
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v30 , 8p. ; Feb 2010
Recent inclusive policies are promoting the involvement of individuals with disabilities in identifying barriers that limit their full participation and inclusion in public spaces. The present two studies explored the contributions provided by different stakeholder groups in the identification of architectural barriers in elementary and secondary schools. In each school, the principal, special education resource teacher and a student independently identified architectural barriers using an observational walkthrough method. The first study consisted of 29 schools where the student evaluator had a physical disability and the second study consisted of 22 schools where the student evaluator did not have a disability. The results of both studies showed that students identified the greatest number of barriers and principals the least. The type and location of identified barriers are explored and the conclusions are examined in relation to person-environment congruence. The results highlight the efficacy of youth involvement and provide support for collaborative assessments that equitably involve all stakeholders in inclusive environmental assessments. [Author's abstract]
Special Education Classroom Infrastructure: Teacher's Views.
Ysin, Mohd, Toran, Hasnah , Tahar, Mokhtar; Bari, Safani
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences; v7 , p601-604 ; 2010
Assesses the suitability of the physical infrastructure of schools and integration of special education programs across the country of Malaysia. 37.7 percent of respondents are not sure about the classroom space needed. The majority of respondents (53.6%) are satisfied with the location (ground floor) of the special education program. However, 41.9 percent of respondents did not approve of their space because it does not match the capacity of students and teachers.
Planning for Special Needs.
School Construction News; v15 n7 , p17 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Profiles Richfield, Minnesota's South Education Center, designed to accommodate students 5-21 years old with intense social, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health needs. Through the planning and design exercise, the school was designed with a variety of sensory environments, calming areas, daylighting, a simulated apartment, and vocational training facilities.
Alternative Learning Spaces.
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p36-38 ; Aug 2009
Explains the history, method, and application of music therapy in schools, and describes the design and furnishing differences between a music therapy room and a conventional music instruction room. Particular considerations for the accommodation of special needs students are emphasized, including more sound attenuation, soft services, private areas, and optional use of mirrors.
The Gateway Schools.
Architectural Record; Jul 2009
Profiles this New York private school addition. The architects converted the upper two stories of a former parking space into a school designed to engage students with special needs. Hallway alcoves and multipurpose gathering areas enable teachers to interact with students outside of the traditional classroom setting. Project information, plans, and photographs are included.
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p52,54,56-58 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the incorporation of "green" design into facilities for special needs students. Daylighting has been shown to be affective against seasonal affective disorder (SAD), good acoustics are particularly important to students with auditory issues, and good indoor air quality is particularly important to children whose health can be easily compromised.
Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs in Schools in Ireland.
CELE Exchange; v2009/1 , p1-3 ; Feb 2009
Previews Ireland's upcoming guidelines for the inclusion of special needs pupils within schools. Spaces, policies, and design solutions that will increase inclusion and socialization of these pupils within the mainstream student body are highlighted.
School Addition to Benefit Deaf-Blind and Autistic Students.
AIArchitect; Jan 23, 2009
Profiles a Keneyville, Illinois, elementary school and its accommodations for special students. The school features a variety of patterns and textures to assist wayfinding, sound- dampening vestibules to classrooms, soft daylighting, and an ultra-quiet HVAC system.
Building Blueprints: Eight Key Issues for Special Needs Environmental Design.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p82,83 ; Jan 2009
Reviews considerations for personal and social space, distraction inhibitors, material durability, time-out rooms, acoustics, colors, patterns, surfaces, outdoor spaces, security, and technology when designing for special needs students.
Designing the Least Restrictive School Environment.
Hutchings, Lynn; Olsen, Richard
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p14-16 ; 2009
Reports on university research regarding the creation of the most inclusive environment possible for students with disabilities. Conclusions include 1)Designs should foster social interaction and eliminate stigma and segregation. 2) Redundant cuing assists with wayfinding. 3) Create easily accessible storage for mobility equipment. 4) Organize hall traffic so that it runs smoothly, without crowding. 5) Include laboratory space where the developmentally challenged can practice functioning in public and private spaces. 6) Create flexible and versatile classrooms.
Extra Sensory Perception.
Architectural Record; Supplement , p22-25 ; Jan 2009
Profiles three new schools for the visually and aurally impaired, with particular attention to interior details that promote independence and mitigate distraction for those with heightened senses that compensate for their disability.
Pavilion in a Park.
Architectural Record; , p56-59 ; Jan 2009
Profiles the Hazelwood School in Glasgow, Scotland, a school for students with dual-sensory impairment. All are deaf, blind, and have learning difficulties. Some are in wheelchairs and some have behavioral issues. Ample access to the outdoors, interior sensory detailing, and a domestic atmosphere are featured. Plans, photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants are included.
New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired-NMSBVI.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p5-13 ; 2009
Profiles this special education school, its funding, the collaborative process through which it was designed, the organization of the school, the design, the site and exterior challenges, and the positive reception it received.