NCEF Resource List: Space Requirements for School Facilities
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Information on the space requirements of school and university buildings and grounds, including square footage requirements, and selected state standards and guidelines.

References to Books and Other Media

School Utilization [Portland Public Schools] Adobe PDF
(Long Range Plan, Portland Public Schools. Issue Paper 5.3, Mar 20, 2012)
This paper focuses on student assignment and building capacity components of school utilization. School utilization planning requires an understanding of space needs for the range of academic programs offered in a school, as well as classroom and common spaces available for student use and the number of students anticipated in the future. Paper examines: student assignment policies and practices that influence school enrollment; current school size target enrollment ranges to meet program goals; a new model for assessing building capacity based on instructional use, and; trends in school utilization expected in the next decade. 14p

Efficient Use of School Space [Portland Public Schools] Adobe PDF
(Long Range Facilities Planning, Portland Public Schools, Issue Paper 5.1, Mar 20, 2012)
Discusses a variety of ways in which the Portland District makes efficient use of its school sites including use of modular classrooms, building multi-story schools, sharing use of school sites for both District and other public/community agencies, locating schools on smaller sites, alternative parking arrangements and use of swing sites. 6p

Kings of Infinite Space: How to Make Space Planning for Colleges and Universities Useful Given Constrained Resources
Janks, Gregory
(Society for College and University Planning, Jan 2012)
Instead of focusing on the application of formulae to strictly categorized space types, this describes an evolved comprehensive space planning practice for colleges and universities that emphasizes utilization, economic value, quality, and accountability both to the institutional mission and to stakeholders.

Utlization of PS 15. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Apr 13, 2010)
Summarizes an analysis of space utilization of Brooklyn's PS-15 elementary school, a facility that houses a traditional and a charter school, as well as community services. The report reveals that the traditional classrooms are typically undersized and crowded, while the charter school classrooms are somewhat better. The report also addresses space for special education, impending issues for shared spaces (cafeteria, gymn, auditorium), and the inadequacy of the school library. 6p.

Enrollment, Capacity and Utilization Report, 2008-2009 School Year. Adobe PDF
(New York City Dept. of Education, Sep 2009)
Presents an annual report published by the New York City Department of Education. The report includes the physical capacity of all Department of Education buildings to serve students, compared to the actual enrollment of the building, which together allow for a standard framework with which to assess the utilization of the buildings. The report provides information on buildings operating with insufficient capacity, allowing planning for major capital projects (including new school buildings, school annexes and additions, and other upgrades that expand a buildings capacity); understanding the conditions under which multiple schools share a single building; and making informed decisions about enrollment growth or placement of new schools or programs in under-utilized buildings.

Space Planning Guidelines, Edition 3. Adobe PDF
(Tertiary Education Facilities Management Association, Inc., Hobart, Tasmania, Australia , Jan 2009)
Presents higher education space planning advice from The Australasian Tertiary Education Facilities Management Association. Sections of the document address management, types, allocations, standards, benchmarks, utilization, and modeling of space. The Guidelines offer formulas for calculating square meterage for academic, support, library, parking, and cafeteria use, along with a detailed chart suggesting space guidelines by department and discipline. 60p.

Enrollment, Capacity and Utilization Report 2007-2008. Adobe PDF
(New York City Dept. of Education, Fall 2008)
Presents an annual report published by the New York City Department of Education. The report includes the physical capacity of all Department of Education buildings to serve students, compared to the actual enrollment of the building, which together allow for a standard framework with which to assess the utilization of the buildings. The report provides information on buildings operating with insufficient capacity, allowing planning for major capital projects (including new school buildings, school annexes and additions, and other upgrades that expand a buildings capacity); understanding the conditions under which multiple schools share a single building; and making informed decisions about enrollment growth or placement of new schools or programs in under-utilized buildings. 399p

RIDE School Construction Regulations.
(Rhode Island Dept of Education, Providence , May 24, 2007)
Covers requirements for school construction, with sections detailing the state's authority, purpose, scope, definitions, product categories and priorities, followed by standards for construction, site, space, cost. Procedures and processes for application, approval design, review, regulation enforcement, asset protection, maintenance, housing aid reimbursement, program integrity, closing of schools, and waivers complete the document. 27p.

Jefferson County Educational Specification Space Program. [Colorado]
(Jefferson County Public Schools, Lakewood, CO, 2007)
Provides the Jefferson County, Colorado, educational specifications for elementary, middle, and high schools. Also provided are 16 space programs for the three types of schools, according to how many students they accommodate.

Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven; Collins, David; Juroszek, Steven; Ching, Francis
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2007)
Analyzes and illustrates the intent and potential interpretations of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) as it applies to educational facilities. The book discusses how the Code was developed and how it is organized, and should be used along with the Code. The chapters of the book correspond to those of the code, and cover building dimensions, types of construction, finishes, safety, accessibility, interior environment, energy efficiency, exteriors, roofs, foundations and structural considerations, and soils. 412p.
TO ORDER: 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030; Tel: 201-748-6011

Calculating School Capacity: Local, State and National. [Presentation] Adobe PDF
Yurko, Amy; Brown, Peter; Cary, Mary
(BrainSpaces, 2007)
Includes variables and definitions of capacity; addressing constraints; calculation strategies; and lessons learned. 60p.

Educational Program Space Standards and Guidelines.
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , May 2006)
This 2006 draft specifies the state's standards for square feet per student in elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as square footage for various program areas within the school. Prototype elementary, middle, and high school programs are included. 18p.

Postsecondary Education Facilities Inventory and Classification Manual (FICM); 2006 Edition.
Cyros, Kreon L.; Korb, Roslyn
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , May 2006)
Describes standard practices for initiating, conducting, reporting, and maintaining a postsecondary institutional facilities inventory. Updated definitions for building area measurements, space and room use codes, and other data elements that are useful for including in a facilities inventory are provided, along with the basic principles for developing a facilities database, guidance on required and optional data elements for inclusion in a facilities inventory, and suggestions for analytic, administrative and comparative uses for facilities data. Issues that are emerging in the collection, maintenance and reporting of facilities data are presented. 198p.

2006 Middle School Prototype Space Requirements and Special Conditions. Adobe PDF
(Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV , Mar 2006)
Presents space requirements and special considerations for a 1750-student prototype middle school, including administrative, resource material, student activity, physical education,grade-specific learning center, fine arts, theatre, technology, and maintenance and operations areas. 145p.

Elementary School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for elementary school buildings, organized according to program area. 8p.

High School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for high school buildings, organized according to program area. 15p.

Middle School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for middle school buildings, organized according to program area. 12p.

Utah State Office of Education Per Student Space Criteria.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2006)
Presents the state's space per student criteria for elementary, middle, and high school levels. 1p.

Space Planning for Institutions of Higher Education.
Abramson, Paul; Burnap, Edward
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jan 2006)
Provides a general framework for planning of higher education facilities, with statewide to individual department perspectives. The document begins with overviews of facilities master planning and programming, followed by space planning guidelines that reflect changes in the higher education environment since 1985. Programming guidelines for specific higher education spaces conclude the document. 64p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.

Community Concept 2005 Prototype Elementary School: Space Requirements and Special Conditions. Adobe PDF
(Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV , Nov 2005)
Presents space requirements and special considerations for a 720-student prototype elementary school, including administrative, resource material, student activity, kindergarten, learning center, special programs and outside areas. 77p.

New York State Family and Consumer Sciences. Facilities Guide.
(New York State Education Department, Family and Consumer Sciences, 2005)
Describes the family and consumer sciences learning environment, the space, general planning guidelines, location, and space allocation in square footage requirements in New York State. In the Middle School/Junior High School, flexibility and adaptability are the key words in redesigning the facility. The family and consumer sciences high school level clusters must be taught in facilities that allow for classrooms to be supplemented with laboratory settings. 21p.

UK Higher Education Space Management Project: Drivers of the Size of the HE Estate. Adobe PDF
(Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol , Jan 2005)
Presents a review of research undertaken to benchmark the size of any higher education institution's property in the UK. The key findings were: 1) Using central timetabling to allocate teaching space is associated with having a smaller campus. 2) There is support for the view that space charging reduces space. 3) Institutions in more urban areas have smaller campuses, all else being equal. 18p.

Beyond Net-To-Gross: Analog Tools for Thinking with Non-Architects about the Design of Circulation and Other Shared Spaces. Adobe PDF
Horwitz, Jamie
(American institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 2005)
Uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Koch Biology building to demonstrate design solutions linked to substantive issues about the client's activities, strategies and goals. The research into the existing building, the way the visually porous vertical core unites the structure, and several specific examples of how aspects of research were translated into design strategies are included. 13p.

Space Utilization and Comparison Report.
(State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, Richmond , May 2004)
Provides information on how public institutions of higher education in Virginia utilize their educational and general space as well as comparing the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia's space utilization guidelines with those used in other State Higher Education Executive Offices. The report concludes that Virginia institutions that reported data have made modest to impressive improvements in their utilization rates, that Virginia's classroom and class lab utilization guidelines are slightly less stringent than the average of all the states, that several states have been unable to collect information on utilization or apply their utilization guidelines in the past few years due to budgetary considerations, and that the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia?s space utilization guidelines are reasonable and should remain unadjusted. 22p.

Charter School Facilities: A Resource Guide for Planning School Space and Understanding Building Codes. Adobe PDF
Weeks, William; Hollins, Susan
Jan 2004)
Assists with space and facility planning for charter schools, with particular attention to New Hampshire's charter school laws. The document outlines the work of the facility committee or team, offers succinct space planning considerations for the various instructional and non- instructional spaces, and advises on air and water quality, asbestos, fire safety, hazardous materials, security, playgrounds, and transportation. Additional space cost considerations for new construction or existing spaces, as well as re-use of civic, organization, commercial, retail, or industrial spaces are also included. 106p.

Square Footage Requirements for Use in Developing the Local Facilities Plans and State Capital Outlay Applications for Funding. [Georgia]
(GA Dept. of Education; Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta, Dec 08, 2003)
This document presents the space requirements for Georgia's elementary, middle, and high schools. All square footage requirements are computed by using inside dimensions of a room; the square footage of support spaces in suites may be included when computing the square footage of the suite. Examples of support spaces include storage rooms, offices, kilns, and others. The space requirements are classified by building section: classrooms, including access to work counters; corridors, which must be at least eight feet wide; art rooms; music rooms; science rooms; vocational needs such as agriculture, technology, and various clusters including metals, auto body, and electronics; the media center; the reserve officers training corp; the theater; physical education area; food service area; and toilets, including the number of fixtures for student toilet rooms and the separate toilet fixtures and facilities for each sex. 16p.

Space Planning Guidelines. Second Edition. Adobe PDF
(Australasian Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers , 2003)
Presents higher education space planning advice from the Australian Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers. The Guidelines define types of space and offer formulas for calculating square meterage for academic, support, library, parking, and cafeteria use. Standards and benchmarks are offered, and advice on conducting and analyzing space utilization is included, along with a detailed chart suggesting space guidelines by department and discipline. 28p.

Standards for School Design.
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Briefly discusses space standards, functional standards, and design standards for schools, within the context of equity, better learning environments, and cost-effective facilities. 2p.

The Great 35 Square Foot Myth.
White, Randy; Stoeklin, Vicki
(White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group, Kansas City, MO , 2003)
There is a large body of research that shows that the amount of classroom space per child is the single most important environmental factor affecting the quality of child care programs and the welfare of children and staff. This paper debunks the standard of 35 square foot of classroom space per child for the design of child care classrooms. 3p.

Programming Circulation Factors in K-12 Facilities. Adobe PDF
Hall, Michael E; Fanning, Ronald H.
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , Oct 21, 2002)
This paper provides architects and educational planners with data on the necessary space requirements for restrooms, mechanical rooms, custodial spaces, food service, construction enclosure space, and circulation and corridor space, as well as an ongoing indication of necessary building area per student. It offers itemized data to illustrate variations and similarities in elementary schools, junior high/middle schools, K-12 schools, and high schools. Data were extracted from the final construction drawings of 158 educational facilities designed and constructed over the last 12 years. The paper presents general facility data and itemization of facility research data. Results show that programming percentages for the various categories can vary dramatically, depending on building systems utilized, type of building enclosure, and efficiency of the design. Based on the facilities examined, 32-38 percent should be added to net programmed areas for construction and circulation, depending on the type of building being developed. Net programmed areas should include the necessary restroom, custodial, mechanical/electrical, and food service requirements. 29p.

Myth and Reality: A Study of Excess Space in the District of Columbia Public High Schools. A Case Study of Cardozo and McKinley Technology Senior High Schools.
(21st Century School Fund; Senior High Alliance of Parents, Principals, & Educators, Washington, D.C. , May 2002)
This study involved an in-depth floor space analysis of Cardozo Senior High School, and a review of design plans for a modernized McKinley Tech High School (both in Washington, DC), in order to prompt District of Columbia public schools to develop accurate measurements of useable (i.e., net) floor space, thereby allowing design standards flexible enough to accommodate old and historic schools. Detailed findings from the floor space analyses led to the following recommendations: (1) revise the standard specs to allow greater flexibility so that existing high schools will not face a complete demolition of their interiors at extremely high cost; (2) change the floor space design standard value or eliminate its use altogether; (3) calculate the quantity of net floor space by measuring instructional and administrative space, thereby helping with the determination of enrollment capacities; (4) reexamine the quantity of total existing gross floor space, which is critical to the determination of excess space; and (5) undertake site studies to determine whether structured parking or other improvements are possible to alleviate site constraint problems. (Contains several tables of floor space analysis. Appendices contain floor plans, a list of rooms measured at Cardozo, and a comparison between Cardozo and standard specs of net floor spaces and student capacities.) 43p.

Title 7. Education Chapter 6. School Facilities Board Rules. [Arizona] Adobe PDF
(Arizona State School Facilities Board, Phoenix , Feb 01, 2002)
Presents rules and policies governing and detailing facility design, construction, and funding for Arizona public schools. The document’s six articles cover definitions, regulations on minimum school facility guidelines, square footage calculations, the process for deficiency corrections, new school and land funding, and allocation and use of contingency funds. Specific areas of a school facility discussed include the school site; classroom; libraries and media centers; cafeterias, auditoriums and multipurpose rooms; spaces for science, arts, vocational and physical education; parent work space; and administrative space. The report also places some emphasis on fixtures and equipment, technology integration, communications, and materials and finishes. 48p.
TO ORDER: Arizona School Facilities Board, 1700 W. Washington St. Suite 602, Phoenix, Arizona; Tel: 602-542-6501

Arizona State School Facilities Board Minimum School Space Requirements. Adobe PDF
(Arizona State School Facilities Board, Phoenix. , Sep 11, 2000)
This document presents methods for determining minimum school space requirements for Arizona public school classrooms; libraries and media centers; cafeterias; auditoriums and other multiuse space; science, art, vocational education, and physical education space; and non-educational areas. The space requirements are based on the following documents adopted in 1999 by Arizona's School Facilities Board: the Building Adequacy Guidelines; the Further Delineation and Explanation of the Building Adequacy Guidelines; and Exhibit A (Equipment List). 11p.

Projections of Education Statistics to 2010 Adobe PDF
Gerald, Debra E. and Hussar, William J.
(National Center for Education Statistics, Aug 2000)
This publication provides projections for key education statistics. It includes statistics on enrollment, graduates, teachers, and expenditures in elementary and secondary schools, and institutions of higher education. For the Nation, the tables, figures, and text contain data on enrollment, teachers, graduates, and expenditures for the past 14 years and projections to the year 2010. For the 50 States and the District of Columbia, the tables, figures, and text contain data on projections of public elementary and secondary enrollment and public high school graduates to the year 2010. In addition, the report includes a methodology section describing models and assumptions used to develop national and state-level projections. [Authors' Abstract]

Application Guidelines: School Space Accommodation Standards. Adobe PDF
(Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Gatineau, Quebec , Jul 06, 2000)
Presents Canada's space guidelines for schools managed by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The document recommends types of spaces to be created and defines net and gross floor areas for each, as well as ceiling heights, circulation areas, and service areas. Explanatory notes, tables, and forms assist the user in projecting enrollment and determining occupancy. 35p.

Minimum Classroom Size and Number of Students Per Classroom
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(University of Georgia,School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA, Apr 2000)
Research points to classroom density as a major problem, not necessarily classroom size. Discusses the concept of social distance. Provides a solution for classroom density. Includes a table of minimum standards for classroom size.

Planning Guides and Forms. North Carolina Public Schools
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh, 2000)
Includes the following forms: School Capacity Worksheet, School Capacity Summary, PK-5 Typical Space Profiles, K-5 Typical Space Profiles, PK-8 Typical Space Profiles, Middle School Typical Space Profiles, and High School Typical Space Profiles.

Space Profiles and Capacity Worksheets for Schools. Elementary Schools, Middle Schools, High Schools.
(North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. , 2000)
This collection of worksheets includes typical space profiles for North Carolina's preK-12 schools, offering: number of students, core capacity, special education, media center, food service, physical education, academic and arts education classrooms, resource rooms, other teaching stations, administration, auditorium/theater, service/marketing education, vocational education laboratories, and miscellaneous. There are also elementary, middle, and high school capacity worksheets and a school capacity summary sheet. 15p.

Guide to School Site Analysis and Development, 2000 Edition. Adobe PDF
Brooks, Duwayne; Williams, Robert; Pendleton, Sue
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento , 2000)
This document updates California's 1996 guidelines for school district determination of land size needs to support their education programs. The guide reflects the changes in educational programs that have affected school site usage and size requirements and includes recommended changes in site acreage for very large schools; equal access for female athletes; classroom size and class size reductions; the need for a master plan of the site and functional link between educational specifications and site size; and site requirements for county community schools, community day schools, and continuation high schools. Also provided are numerous dimensional figures for athletic fields and courts. The document's final section presents procedures for developing a site plan. Appendices contain a comparison of school site sizes for 1996 and 2000; and lists site requirements for small schools and elementary through high school facilities, county community schools, community day schools, and continuation high schools. 48p.

Music/Computer Labs: Arranging Teaching and Learning Space for Success
Peters, G. David
(Lentines Music, Akron, OH, 2000)
This article outlines a checklist for planning new or redesigned music lab space. Includes space requirements and illustrations of several common setups such as aisles, islands, rows, or perimeter.

Design Standards for Children's Environments.
Ruth, Linda Cain
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2000)
This 3-part book addresses the design or maintenance of spaces where children are the primary users covering both commercial and residential designs and products. Part I chapters provide anthropometric data of children from birth to age 18, offers dimensions for typical objects within the child's built environment; synthesizes the Consumer Product Safety Commission's safety guidelines for play areas; and provides dimensions of typical, and sometimes untypical, products that are often found in children's environments. Part II features a source list developed for designers that lists products appropriate for use in children's environments. Part III chapters outline the development of children's abilities and perceptions in the first stages of life from birth to age 10, and offers a bibliography of the most effective and highly regarded resources in the area of children's design. 306p.

School Facilities Report: The Results of a Statewide Survey To Determine the Physical Condition and Capacity of Wisconsin's Public Schools
Soldner, Bob
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI , Jan 2000)
Offers survey results corresponding to three basic aspects of Wisconsin public schools: data on the physical structure and mechanical features of the school building, data on school safety issues, and information on the educational appropriateness and suitability of the school buildings. Notes that nearly 27 percent of survey respondents believed their school building to be overcrowded. Appendices provide the school facility survey questionnaire and listings of the 373 school districts and 1589 buildings represented in the survey results. 26p.

Effects of Student Population Density on Academic Achievement in Georgia Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Swift, Diane O'Rourke
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , 2000)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between school density and achievement test scores. Based on comparing test scores and student population density, it was concluded that elementary schools having an architectural square footage of less than 100 square feet per student tend to have significantly lower science, social studies, and composite ITBS scores than schools having more than 100 architectural square feet per student. Schools ranging from 100.27 to 134.1 architectural square feet per student had significantly higher ITBS science, social studies, and composite scores at the third-grade level. 71p.
Report NO: UMI AAI9994129

Modern Foreign Languages Accommodation: A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 92. Adobe PDF
Williamson, Beech; Watson, Lucy
(Dept. for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London , 2000)
This document offers school design guidance for accommodating the needs for teaching modern foreign languages (MFLs) in secondary education. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces in a typical MFL suite and describes how to calculate the number of timetabled spaces required. It includes guidance on planning the suite and what to consider if there is to be community use. Section 2 describes the teaching and non-teaching spaces that might be found in the MFL suite. It gives guidance on the size and shape of spaces and shows typical furniture layouts. Section 3 describes typical MFL equipment and how it can be used most effectively. It also provides guidance on choosing and using furniture. Section 4 outlines the process of setting up and implementing a building project, from briefing to on-site construction. Section 5 presents case studies showing the issues covered in the rest of the document applied to real school projects. 50p.

The Newark Public Schools Five-Year Facilities Management Plan. Summary Report. Adobe PDF
(The Hillier Group Architects; Newark Public Schools, Newark, NJ , Dec 15, 1999)
This report summarizes the Newark Public Schools Facilities Management Plan that describes the process by which the district assesses projected enrollments and program space needs to support the Core Curriculum Content standards; determines space deficiencies; and analyzes corrective options. The document presents district and plan overviews as well as data collected from the five School Leadership Teams (SLT) that examined school space issues within different geographical regions in the district. Each SLT report includes a summary of existing conditions, physical space analyses and deficiencies, facility operations costs, and deficiency and correction budgets for each school on an item-by-item basis. 190p.

Ohio School Facilities Commission 1998 Annual Report: Building Our Future.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus, OH , 1999)
This manual seeks to ensure uniform, energy efficient, cost effective, easily maintainable, and technologically advanced educational facilities for Ohio’s public schools. The manual provides a critical analysis of individual spaces and components necessary for elementary and secondary schools and combination facilities. The manual presents choices contained within specific guidelines of the State’s Classroom Assistance Programs. It stipulates the cost per square foot for three grade configurations in nine regions in the State as well as the square footage allowed per child according to grade level. Each of the following programs are detailed: Building Assistance/Classroom Facilities Assistance Program; Emergency School Building Repair Program; Big Eight Renovations and Repairs; Energy Conservation; and Disability Access Program. Also includes information on summarized program appropriations. 21p.
TO ORDER: Ohio School Facilities Commission, 88 East Broad St., Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215; Tel: 614-466-6290

Ohio School Facilities Commission 1999 Annual Report.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 1999)
This report assesses the funding, management oversight, and technical assistance provided by the Ohio School Facilities Commission (OSFC) to meet the construction and renovation needs of Ohio school districts for fiscal year 1999. Also included are the OSFC's technology and website improvements to disseminate information about, and administer, school construction projects. Comparative school district cost data are included for the Classroom Facilities Assistance Project passed in 1997 and 1998, the 1990 Building Assistance Project, and the Exceptional Facilities Needs Pilot Projects. The report concludes with a financial summary of Ohio capital appropriations for school facilities by fiscal year and program. 13p.
TO ORDER: Ohio School Facilities Commission, 88 East Broad St., Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215; Tel: 614-466-6290

Room Sizes for Special Education Classrooms.
(New York State Department of Education, School Executive's Bulletin, 1999)
Square footage requirements for newly constructed classrooms and ancillary spaces for special education for four categories of pupils.

School Facility Recommendations for Class Size Reduction. [California]
Evans, Ann M.
(California State Department of Education, Sacramento, CA , May 1998)
The California Department of Education encourages its school districts to make every effort to reduce classroom size and maintain the physical size of 960 square feet for elementary schools and 1,350 square feet for kindergartens. This report examines the Code of Regulations relative to classroom size in elementary, kindergarten, and special education classrooms. It also addresses class reduction and its affects support facilities such as toilets, ventilation, lighting, and fire exits. Concluding comments examine law pertaining to classroom size for self-contained classrooms and the site size issues involved as classroom size necessitates ever larger school sites. 4p.

Planning for Education: Space Guidelines for Planning Educational Facilities. [Oklahoma] Adobe PDF
(Oklahoma State Dept of Education,Common School Capital Improvement Needs Assessment Committee, Oklahoma City, OK , 1998)
The Oklahoma Department of Education has published this booklet providing guidelines for school planners and designers on the State requirements for space allocation in its K-12 public schools. Recommendations are included for various specialized facilities to assure that proper spaces can be provided beyond the typical classroom space. Guidelines are arranged under the categories of instructional, auxiliary, and service and structure spaces. Also included are guidelines for site development and planning and a table of working heights and toilet fixture guidelines for educational occupancies. 31p.

Early Implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative. [California] Adobe PDF
Illig, David C.
(California Research Bureau, Sacramento , Apr 1997)
A survey of school districts was conducted to determine the initial progress and problems associated with the 1997 Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. Data reveal that most school districts had enough space for smaller classes for at least two grade levels; and small school districts were much less likely to report space constraints. Several policy issues are examined that could impede CSR's future progress, including the ability of smaller classes to actually improve student performance, fading interest from parents and teachers, CSR funding eroding available funding for other programs, space constraints preventing equal implementation within school districts, and teacher supply increasing rapidly enough to prevent bottlenecks. 25p.
Report NO: CRB-97-008

Building Bulletin 82: Area Guidelines for Schools. Adobe PDF
Williamson, Beech, Ed.; Thompson, Andy, Ed.; Bishop, Robin; Watson, Lucy; Brooke, John
(Department for Education and Employment,Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Sep 06, 1996)
This bulletin provides non-statutory guidance on the provision of teaching and non-teaching accommodation for nursery, primary, and secondary pupils, as well as school grounds. It is directed at the early stages of school projects when strategic decisions must be made about the buildings and site. It follows the steps that designers and school planners can take to identify the appropriate areas for all mainstream schools. Section 1 identifies the approximate overall areas for the school buildings with the idea of helping to reduce the economic drain on school budgets. Section 2 helps to establish the number and types of teaching spaces needed to support particular curriculum or staffing models. Sections 3 and 4 provide more detailed information on the individual spaces required. Section 5 deals with the site area and layout, and provides help in choosing a site, in locating a new building or extension, and in planning a layout of the main eternal features. 85p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 82

Gross Square Feet Per Student. Adobe PDF
Wohlers, Art
(Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Nov 1995)
The Council of Educational Facility Planners International regularly provides the recommended number of gross square feet (gsf) per student figures. This report provides revised numbers based on responses from its Design Portfolio winners over the past 5 years. Average national averages of square footage space per student for Canada and the continental United States reveal the following ranges: 70.1 to 111.5 gsf for elementary schools buildings; 81.2 to 154.4 gsf for middle schools buildings; and 101.9 to 160.7 gsf for high schools buildings. It also discusses issues about the importance of class size and the implications for educational facility planners; and the factors influencing the area per student, including program characteristics, number of students, and student characteristics. 4p.

Questions on Program Characteristics. Adobe PDF
Wohlers, Art
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Nov 1995)
Poses 84 questions intended to help facilities planners determine just how a proposed school facility should be designed to best meet the objectives of the education program and the needs of the students and teachers who will use the school. Topics include how much space students need, technology, computers, large-group activities, and specialized spaces. 3p.

Facility Programming and Construction Criteria.
(Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Div. of Facilities Management, Frankfort. , Mar 02, 1995)
This facility construction planning guide presents the minimum instructional space standards for Kentucky's public school system. It provides definitions of terms found in the regulations; presents space requirements for every type of instructional space within a public school, including circulation areas, storage, and mechanical/electrical areas; details general construction requirements; and lists minimum standards for emergency classrooms and temporary instructional units. Also included are site planning regulations involving the efficient use of school property, vehicular and pedestrian circulation, and student safety. 58p.

Overcrowding in Urban Schools.
Burnett, Gary
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY , 1995)
The New York City Citizens' Commission on Planning for Enrollment Growth submitted a report on overcrowding in New York City schools that may serve as a guide to other cities striving to provide an effective education for ever-increasing numbers of students. Research on the impact of school overcrowding has been inconclusive, but there is some evidence that, especially in schools with a high proportion of students living in poverty, overcrowding can have adverse impacts on learning. It is unquestionable that it has a direct, and often severe, impact on the logistics of the school day. In cases where increases in school enrollment are expected to continue, the only guaranteed long-term means of relieving overcrowding is the expensive and time-consuming process of building new schools or of renovating and adding to existing schools. In cases where increases in enrollment may be temporary or where stop-gap measures are needed while new schools are being built, there are a number of short-term solutions. These strategies, in general, fall into two categories: (1) finding new space, whether through leasing, collaborative arrangements, relocating administrative space, or the district-wide redistribution of space, and (2) using time to use existing space more fully; extended-day and year-round programs are central to this effort. Adequate space for learning must be recognized as a fundamental educational necessity.

Purpose Designed Facilities. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No. 4. Adobe PDF
Odell, John H.
(Association of Independent Schools of New South Wales, Ltd., Sydney, Australia , 1995)
A school construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects with guidance on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides guidance for the planning team on issues involving school space design and the kinds of spaces required in schools, including lecture spaces and seminar rooms, classrooms, special purpose areas where students have significant involvement in practical activities, and student recreational areas. Sample layout drawings are provided for each of the spaces discussed. Additionally examined are staff study and recreational area design; service areas such as canteens, stores, and toilets; general assembly areas; school administration; and access ways and student storage areas.

School Design Handbook [Texas]. Adobe PDF
(Dallas Independent School District, TX , Apr 12, 1994)
The Dallas Independent School District provides this handbook presenting administrative, planning, design, and technical guidelines for those involved in the design and construction process of new school facilities, and expansions or renovations of existing schools. It focuses on the design specifications and administrative guidelines for the construction of a new elementary school. Included is a listing of technical master specifications sections developed by the school district to convey specific detailed recommendations for several construction elements. All of the requirements included can be categorized as one of the following types: (1) general considerations that guide the architect in setting the overall design concepts of the school; (2) space requirements that describe the number of spaces and their size requirements (minimum width, height, and length); and detailed information about each individual space. 240p.

Elementary Education Specifications Format, Montgomery County Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Vance, Paul
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD , Dec 1993)
The Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) system has created a procedure for guiding the architectural design and construction of elementary school buildings that includes a document staff representatives can use when reviewing drawings and specifications for the facility. The document is divided into three sections: the first lists the type of spaces and square footage required; the second describes the general design, location, and specific requirements for each type of instructional space in accordance with MCPS standards; and the third identifies the unique program needs of the school's students and staff where the planning advisory committee has recommended modifications or additions to the basic program requirements. 43p.

Recommendation of Standards for Educational Space for Public School Facilities. [Texas] Adobe PDF
Seals, Jack Reece, Jr.
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. , May 1991)
This study provides space standards for selected academic areas in order to guide Texas officials in their funding allocations during school construction. The data indicate an absence of statistical differences between practitioners' perceptions of space adequacy regardless of school district wealth. Analysis further suggests that enrollment is not a major factor in the concept of educational space adequacy. Based on the findings, a recommendation of standards to guide the construction of educational facilities is provided. 313p.

Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District: Educational Specifications: Dry Creek Middle School. Adopted April 4, 1991. Adobe PDF
(Dry Creek Joint Elementary School District, Roseville, CA , Apr 1991)
An Educational Specification Committee was convened to determine the design specifications required for a new middle school in the Roseville, California's Dry Creek District. This report presents revisions to an earlier document that examined school room specifications for each grade level and administrative area. Specification considerations are detailed (where applicable) for each school area including assessment of the curriculum to be taught, outcomes expected, any discernible educational trends, the teaching and learning activities under the different curriculum areas, orientation and relationships, internal traffic, furniture and equipment needs, utilities required, any special requirements to become part of the classroom facilities, storage, and enrollment levels for that grade level. Staff rooms, restrooms, security and custodial areas, outdoor education, and conference rooms are also detailed. Concluding information lists items that have been noted through past building experiences that should be reviewed and considered in the planning phase of the new school. 225p.

Surplus Space in Schools: an Opportunity.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 1985)
Surplus school spaces, highlighted by falling enrollments, will significantly affect educational building policies in the eighties. Accordingly, this document consists of a comprehensive analysis of the causes of surplus, the problems and opportunities that follow, and the implications for policy and planning. Part 1 analyzes the six major causes of surplus school accommodation in highly industrialized countries: declining birth rates, planning faults, population movements, the aging cycle of the population, educational reorganization, and municipal reforms. Part 2 concerns assessment of surplus and needs, while part 3 is an indepth consideration of ways to make use of surplus space. Part 4 covers management of surplus, including participants and modes of cooperation along with obstacles and constraints. Part 5 addresses consequences for the future, in both planning and design. Finally, part 6 is a summary of conclusions pertaining to the following areas: school population change; capacity and potential of building stock; actual, potential, and future needs of the community; participation in decision-making and incentives; financial procedures, norms, and regulations; and roles and attitudes. Six case studies are appended that provide examples and ideas for the reuse of surplus space in schools. 133p.

Factors Affecting Perception of and Responses to Crowded Classroom Environments. Adobe PDF
Winer, Janice I.
Aug 1977
The effects of density and other situational factors on perceptions of and responses to crowding in classroom learning environments were examined in three separate and concurrent investigations. The first experiment examined the effects of various demographic variables, learning environments and room design variables on crowding. In the second experiment, the effect of two levels of density on classroom achievement was examined in the laboratory. The third experiment examined achievement as a function of class size over a 24-year period in two community school districts. It was concluded from the three experiments that: (1) density is primarily a moderator of arousal; (2) high density can therefore have either positive or negative effects on performance, depending on whether the task contains learned or unlearned components, or both; (3) the same interpretation applies to psychological reactions (affect) to the situation; (4) if perceived violations of personal space accompany high density, the outcome is uniformly negative; and (5) the effects of high density (positive or negative) can be eliminated by diverting a person's attention away from the other people in the room, or by increasing the degree of cooperation between people. 56p.

Career Education Facilities: A Planning Guide for Space and Station Requirements. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Apr 1973)
Provides the educational planner and the architect with some suggestions concerning models by which they may plan new flexible-use, shared-space occupational education facilities. Guidelines for these educational programs include a discussion of program and space relationships, an identification of the individual stations and areas within each of the cluster laboratories and of the relationships between these stations and the shared services of the laboratory and the cluster as a whole, and a table of space requirements for most of the individual stations required in each laboratory. 51p.

References to Journal Articles

Budgeting Academic Space.
Harris, Watson
Planning for Higher Education; , p29-41 ; Nov-Dec 2011
Discusses effective space budgeting and allocation practices and processes needed by higher education administrators. Includes a case study of Middle Tennessee State University.

Academic Science Planning: Linking Curriculum to Space
Spitz, Barbara and Miller, David
Laboratory Design; , p3,8,10-11 ; Sep 2011
Discusses at length the challenges of designing complex STEM buildings. Strategic thinking is required.

Fulfilling the Needs.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p62 ; Jun 2011
Observes that, while fewer new schools are being built, there may be less need for new schools because of less movement of population. In renovations, an architect's plans for expansion might not be releveant, since schools typically need not just additional space, but different use of space. In some instances, removal of classrooms can open up spaces for larger corridors and can provide gathering space.

Aces of Space.
Demski, Jennifer
Campus Technology; v24 n10 , p32-34,36,38,39 ; Jun 2011
Profiles four schools that use technology, new design concepts, and flexible furnishings to reinvent their teaching spaces. Curved rooms, interconnected and networked electronic wall displays, modular furnishings on wheels, and classrooms with no front are described.

A Truly Bookless Library.
Kolowich, Steve
Education Digest; v76 n5 , p35-36 ; Jan 2011
This article discusses the fact that more and more libraries are devoting less space to printed books, and are thus reimagining the physical space of the library. Profiles the University of Texas at San Antonio’s Applied Engineering and Technology Library.

Space and School Design.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p18-21 ; Jul 2010
Discusses historical trends in space per student provisions, noting an increased demand for smaller class size and space to accommodate technology, even while the amount of land available for schools has diminished.

The Space Race.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 ; Jul 2010
Advises on calculation and utilization of classroom space use and utilization, space inventory, maximizing available space through density, updating and reuse of older space, and student activity space needs.

Making Space: School Planning Expert Provides Tips for Facility Utilization. Adobe PDF
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v15 n6 , p21,22 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Presents an interview with Amy Yurko, an efficiency programmer and planner for schools. She discusses capacity, scheduling, removing clutter, sharing spaces, adaptability of buildings from different eras, and current trends in school facility management.

Campus Officials Seek Building Efficiencies, One Square Foot at a Time.
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v55 n32 , pA1,A18-A21 ; Apr 17, 2009
Discusses higher education space management, focusing on college space planning professionals who concentrate their efforts in ensuring that all space is properly outfitted and used as much as possible. Growing space needs, departmental hoarding of space, the cost of building and maintaining space, and new types of spaces that are in demand are addressed.

Providing the Tools for a 21st Century Education.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p110 ; Jan 2008
Analyzes recent statistics on cost and size of new high school construction in the U.S., with many costing close to $100 million. Size, space per student, and construction costs in particular states are cited as reasons.

A Classroom's Size Determines Its Capacity.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p54 ; Dec 2007
Reviews the evolution in classroom capacity as educational programming has changed and offers a contemporary formula for determining a classroom's capacity based on its size and the furnishings, technology, and storage that accompany a proper learning environment.

School Building Utilization: Effective Space Management.
Volkman, David; Malinowksi, Matthew
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p8-10 ; Dec 2007
Addresses maximizing school space use by examining current usage and demographic trends. A diverse task force should be created to focus on creative uses of facilities and potential for flexibility within existing space. A recommended make up and operation of the task force is illustrated with an example from the Susquehanna Township School District

Where to Start when Previous Facilities Data are Questionable.
Watt, Catherine; Higerd, Thomas; Valcik, Nicolas
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p11-27 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the increasing awareness of the importance and difficulty in managing educational facilities as finite resources. The article discusses the clash of the value of research space with a lack of capital funds; the need to update, merge, and access data elements from multiple sources, including sponsored programs, finance, and personnel; and the theory of implementing change, the fitting of a new process into an existing institutional culture, and examples of actual experiences in implementing space systems. (Includes 4 references).

Recommendations to Improve Space Projection Models and University Space Usage.
Stigall, Sam
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p29-36 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the current space projection model for the State of Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) and compares this methodology to other select states. The article considers stewardship of public buildings and funds, improvement of space usage, and provision of the facilities necessary to enhance learning, particularly in an era when existing space must be used effectively to justify the need for additional space, increasing construction costs, and decreasing legislative appropriations.

Giving Students Some Space.
Abramson, Paul
School Business Affairs; v73 n2 , p34,35 ; Feb 2007
Discusses the evolution toward more square feet per student due to technology, accessibility accommodation, class size reduction, and expansion of programs.

It's Time to Redo.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n8 , p8 ; Aug 2006
Discusses the impact of recent educational reforms and initiatives on space and capacity, including technology integration and proliferation, full-day kindergarten, and class size reduction.

Penny-wise Decisions.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p70 ; Jul 2006
Details statistics indicating a sharp rise in school laboratory accidents when less than 60 square feet per student is provided, indicating that attempts to save money by cutting space in laboratories is not only unwise, but unsafe.

Improving Assessment of Space Utilization in a Transdisciplinary Research Environment.
Huey, Ben; Valdenegro, JoAnne
Planning for Higher Education; v34 n4 , p24-34 ; Jul 2006
Proposes linking research expenditures directly to the space in which the research is occurring rather than to an investigator's designated space, in order to more accurately asses space utilization and to take interdisciplinary research into account. The administrative benefits of this approach include not allocating space to projects that will end and then having to reallocate, providing an objective method to measure the effectiveness of the space use, predicting future space needs, and allocating space more equitably. Usefullness to existing space management approaches, caveats, and a detailed discussion of the methodology are included, along with 17 references.

Giving Students Some Space.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p58 ; May 2006
Discusses increases in space-per-pupil since 1970, and advocates determining space provision according to the educational program, rather than arbitrary space goals and figures reflecting national or regional averages.

Providing Space for the Future.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p67 ; Jun 2005
Advises against designing new schools with per-pupil space allowances that mirror older schools within the same district, simply out of a desire for parity or to meet minimum state standards.

Shared Dimensions: European Influences on Setting Standards.
Children in Europe; n8 , p4-7 ; Apr 2005
Describes the wide variations in per student space standards among European Union countries, with only Italy having actual requirements and a few other countries having recommendations. Decentralization of school authority is cited as the main reason. A chart representing the recommendations and standards for nine countries is included.

Smart Partnerships Construct Smart Schools.
Broberg, Brad
On Common Ground; , p22-27 ; Winter 2005
Describes, with examples, public-private partnerships to build new schools in rapidly developing areas, particularly where the developer spends impact fees to build the school themselves. This also describes the lease/purchase approach taken by the The Houston Independent School District.

Are You Providing Enough Space?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , p42 ; Dec 2004
Reviews the increase of square footage per student from 1970 to today due to accommodation of technology, special needs students, and on-site service providers.

Home and School Density Effects on Elementary School Children: The Role of Spatial Density.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Environment and Behavior; v35 n4 , p566-578 ; Jul 2003
Reports findings of an investigation into classroom spatial density effects on elementary school children. The research indicates that amount of space per child in the classroom may be as important as the number of children in a classroom.

Classroom Space: Right for Adults but Wrong for Kids.
Duncanson, Edward
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p24-28 ; 2003
Describes the inadequacy of traditional classroom arrangements for children. More square footage with flexible furnishings are required so that open learning areas can be created. (Includes 12 references.)

Resource Allocation Through Space Guidelines in Alaska.
Mearig, Tim
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p16-19 ; 2003
Describes the history and implementation of Alaska's allowable space guidelines, used by the state to allocate school construction funds. Space per pupil formulas are used rather than dollars per pupil because construction costs vary so widely in Alaska's diverse climatological and geographical situations.

Classroom Use and Utilization.
Fink, Ira
Facilities Manager; v18 n3 , p13-24 ; May-Jun 2002
Discusses how college and university classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations.

By Design.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p16-22 ; Jan 2002
Examines some key areas that school administrators need to consider when creating new, or updating old, school spaces for students and staff. Design considerations encompass space management, building flexibility, technology integration, school accessibility to the disabled, sensitivity to the environment, and cost effectiveness.

So, Where Are We With Class Size?
Johnson, Donald R.
School Business Affairs; v67 n4 , p12-13,18 ; Apr 2001
The conventional assumption from lay and professional people alike is that small class sizes produce better student performance. However, educational research on class size has been inconclusive. Successful class size reduction programs share key characteristics: class size reduction should be concentrated in the primary schooling years; classes should be reduced to fewer than 20 students; urban students, particularly minority students, benefit more than their peers do from smaller classes; class size reduction works best when coupled with teacher professional development.

Wirth Middle School.
Design Cost Data; v45 n2 , p46-47 ; Mar-Apr 2001
Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Wirth Middle School, Cahokia, Illinois. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project.

Classroom Size and Number of Students Per Classroom.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n2 , p11-12 ; 2001
Discusses what size classrooms should be and what research is revealing on the concept of social distance and its influence on classroom size considerations. A standard classroom size chart is provided.

Exceptional Kids Need More Than Feet: Designing Barrier-Free Schools for Special-Education Students
Merritt, Edwin T.; Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p24-29 ; Dec 2000
A prime mover behind larger space requirements is expansion of legal entitlements for children with disabilities, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The list of architectural interventions has lengthened, and is matched by burgeoning effects on space and budgets. Nonphysical barriers must also be addressed.

The Classroom: Size versus Density.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p21-23 ; Dec 2000
Classroom density may be a more important planning consideration than size. The lower middle range for human social distance is 7 feet--not met in most classrooms containing 20 to 25 students. Students need ample space, since crowding causes behavior problems and increased maintenance costs. (Contains 10 references.)

How Large Should a School Be? Researching the Relationship Between Circulation Space and Program Space.
Fielding, Randall
School Construction News; v2 n7 , p10-11 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Offers research and opinion on the amount of space an average K-12 school should devote to programmed space versus circulation space. Includes detailed space utilization data from several schools located in Michigan.

Is College Construction Keeping Up With Enrollment Increases?
Zeisler, Al; Abramson, Paul
College Planning and Management; v3 n10 , p52-55 ; Oct 2000
Assesses whether college administrators are planning and building adequately to meet the the educational demand for space over the next 20 years. Trends in construction dollars expenditures over the past two decades are presented.

Defining Capacity
DeJong, William S.; Craig, Joyce
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n3 , p18-22 ; 2000
Discusses school capacity determination for K-12 public elementary and middle schools and special education. Capacity determination is illustrated based on 25 students per class.

Planning for Flexibility, Not Obsolescence
Ehrenkrantz, Ezra
Design Share; , 9p ; Sep 1999
This keynote speech discusses computer lab/classrooms and the issue of properly combining space, pedagogy, and technology when facility planning to better enhance student learning and support the teaching process. Several case studies illustrate classroom computer workstation configurations and how these may help or impede student learning and instructional methodology. Also addressed is the rapidly changing tools of education and the ways for achieving the flexibility today's schools will need to adequately embrace these changes. It is suggested that enough space must be allocated to allow for a variety of learning environments to be adopted, both large and small, that fit with the curriculum and teaching needs, and be appropriate to the requirements of the students. It is argued that without enough space in the school design to help schools be flexible enough to accommodate changes in learning and teaching over time, the useful life of new schools will be shorter than their predecessors of 20 years earlier.

Computing the Real Costs of School Technology
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p34-40,42 ; Jul 1999
Computers and other new technologies are changing how school buildings must be designed. Introduces the full range of building designs that high-tech learning necessitates. Tables present unit costs for many infrastructural and network electronics components of the advanced telecommunication systems now being installed in schools. A hypothetical case study of the cost of a typical new elementary school shows some of the ways in which increased space needs and other factors raise costs.

School of Thought
Betsky, Aaron
Architecture; v88 n7 , p98-105 ; Jul 1999
Examines the "spacesaver" architectural design of the International Elementary School (Long Beach, California) that was built with concern for security, saving money, and not being too complicated. The design uses one-third less space than conventional Los Angeles-area elementary schools. Photos and floor plans are provided.

Benchmarking: A New Approach to Space Planning
Fink, Ira
Planning for Higher Education; v27 n3 , p9-18 ; Spring 1999
Questions some fundamental assumptions of historical methods of space guidelines in college facility planning, and offers an alternative approach to space projections based on a new benchmarking method. The method, currently in use at several institutions, uses space per faculty member as the basis for prediction of need and space allocation.

Throwing Space Standards Out the Window (Part 2): Using Benchmarking To Predict Space Needs
Fink, Ira
Facilities Manager; v 15 n1 , p22-27 ; Jan-Feb 1999
Examines traditional numerical methods of future space needs projections and allocations and presents an approach based on space per faculty member projections. Also presented are results of a unique national space benchmarking study covering data on space per faculty member projections in nine Research I universities.

Variables Confounding School Enrollment Predictions
Stewart, G. Kent
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n2 , p11-17 ; 1999
Examines 19 troublesome variables in the cohort survival method of calculating future grade-by-grade school enrollment. Each variable is viewed as capable of confounding the accuracy of the most carefully calculated forecast of future school enrollment, but once found and corrected, enhances forecasting accuracy.

Throwing Space Standards Out the Window, Part 1.
Fink, Ira
Facilities Manager; v 14 n6 , p41-42, 43-44, 46-48 ; Nov-Dec 1998
Explores space management on college campuses for creating an equitable system of projecting future space needs and allocation. It examines traditional numerical methods of space projections, questions some of the fundamental assumptions about space projections, and presents an alternative approach based on a new, benchmarking methodology. The history of space standards is detailed from the 1920's to 1989.

Space Standards: Some Recent Lessons.
Kaiser, Harvey H.; Klein, Eva
Facilities Manager; v 14 n6 , p11-16 ; Nov-Dec 1998
Incorporates data, findings, and conclusions developed by a University of North Carolina study concerning school space planning and utilization standards along with some recent experiences in higher education. It discusses the common aspects of space standards and presents a summary of assignable square feet ranges and means for selected Higher Education General Information Survey room codes.

MUs Early Space-Planning Computerization.
Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony
Facilities Manager; v 14 n6 , p49-54 ; Nov-Dec 1998
Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management Office (SPAM)and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. SPAM's software selection for standardization is discussed as are its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the web, and its space modeling surveys and reports.

K-12 Enrollment Forecasting: Merging Methods and Judgment
Swanson, David A.; Hough, George C., Jr.; Rodriguez, Joseph A.; Clemans, Chuck
ERS Spectrum; v16 n4 p24-31 Fall 1998 ; v16 n4 , p24-31 ; Fall 1998
Describes an enrollment-forecasting process in which technical experts and local community stakeholders worked together to produce cost-effective, yet fairly accurate data. The large Oregon district employing the process gained insights to guide its attendance-zone and facilities-planning decisions and to garner community support.

Determining Realistic School Capacity.
Chan, T. C.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n3 , p17-19 ; 1997
Describes the methodology used in school building capacity determination and reasons that it is necessary to conduct periodic reevaluations. Discusses determinants of capacity, which include analysis of classroom function and size requirements as mandated by educational departments and building codes. Presents reasons why reevaluations are necessary, for example, because of changes in educational programs, expansion of services, and improvements in class scheduling.

School Capacity Assessment Worksheets.
Chan, T. C.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n3 , p20-21 ; 1997
Presents examples of school capacity assessment worksheets. Worksheets provide areas for listing classroom numbers, size, and capacity figures for all grades. The high school worksheet, unlike the one for other grades, breaks out classroom figures by specific room function.

Reclaim Unused Space for Education.
Gisolfi, Peter
School Planning and Management; v35 n2 , p31-34 ; Feb 1996
A three-step plan identifies unused space and puts it to work to handle growing enrollments in static facilities by: (1) comparing with other schools; (2) analyzing space needs; and (3) finding usable space. Photographs illustrate space reclaimed at three schools.

Elementary School Student Capacity: What Size Is the Right Size?
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n4 , p10-14 ; 1996
Discusses and analyzes the relationship between school size and student achievement in South Carolina elementary schools. Schools with high student achievement were determined by the winners of the South Carolina Department of Education cash incentive award -- an award based upon student gains and standardized test scores. Contrary to popular opinion, results show smaller is not necessarily better when it comes to learning. The bigger schools were more likely than the smaller schools to show higher student achievement. Similarly, smaller schools were more likely to be "dysfunctional" than the bigger schools. However, while a positive relationship between size and achievement did exist, the relationship was not strong. Socioeconomic status seemed to be an intervening variable.

Lost in Space: Assessing the Adequacy of School Facilities
Glass, Thomas E.
School Business Affairs; v60 n1 , p13-20 ; Jan 1994
Notes that evaluating educational facilities requires utilizing an effective assessment process. Identifies key components of space adequacy, which include scheduling efficiency, design efficiency, technical capacity, practical capacity, site capacity, and suitability. Suggests what areas of a school building should be explored to determine physical adequacy when making a proper capacity assessment. These areas include environmental, structural, electrical, mechanical, thermal, acoustical, and visual. Provides calculation formulas.

Space Utilization Efficiencies in Secondary Schools
Williams, L.D.
Educational Facility Planner; v28 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1990
Public expectation of excellence from our schools with minimal financial support seems to be saying that the educational system must re-allocate its resources and somehow improve the quality of its product. One way to do this is the efficient use of school buildings. The two primary causes of inefficient space utilization are: (1) the use of instructional space for non-instructional purposes; and (2) the use of over-sized spaces for low enrollment courses. It is suggested that these inefficiencies can be reduced by scheduling changes and by manipulating a closer fit between class size enrollment and room size. It is important, however, to weigh space utilization efficiency improvements against any effects the changes may have on delivery of the educational program.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).