NCEF Resource List: School Science Facilities Design--K-12
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Information on planning and design of school science laboratories, including lab configuration, standards for ventilation, treatment of hazardous materials, and environmental concerns.

References to Books and Other Media

Bertschi School Living Science Building
(Whole Building Design Guide, Aug 2012)
Case study of the Bertschi School Living Science building, located in Seattle, the first project in the world built to the Living Building Challenge (LBC) v2.0 criteria and in an urban setting. This elementary school wing, collaboratively designed with the students and completed in February 2011, follows LBC requirements that include 20 Imperatives. These Imperatives, which include net zero water, net zero energy and adherence to a materials Red List, must be proven over a one year period of occupancy.

Planning a STEM Classroom Adobe PDF
(Interior Concepts, Apr 2012)
Discusses furniture design and room layout that will help to facilitate STEM curriculum and programs to maximize learning. 4p

When the Building is the Teacher
Stone, Michael K.; Dale, John; and Sly, Carolie
(Center for Ecoliteracy, Apr 2012)
Essay explores how campus, teaching, and learning complement each other. Discussion is based on the Lodi Unified School District, in California's Central Valley, design of a new STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics] Academy for the district. The campus's sustainable features will include maximizing natural daylighting and indoor environmental quality, incorporating bioswales for management of surface water, and a goal of achieving grid-neutral status through energy conservation and production of electricity through photovoltaics and wind power. The campus is intended to enhance learning, to be a teacher itself, and to support a unique curriculum organized around major themes of green technology.

School Science Facilities Planner. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Apr 2010)
Advises on the design of public school science facilities. Some aspects of all science programs and facilities which are similar in nature are described in the introductory portions of this guide. Subsequent sections focus on the peculiar requirements of individual courses or program areas. Sample floor plans supplement and clarify printed descriptions. This planner covers facilities design classrooms, laboratories, teacher work stations, storage areas, outdoor spaces, shared spaces, and safety. Program facilities include elementary science, middle level science, biology, chemistry, earth sciences, physical science, and physics. Appendices provide a checklist for safety requirements and National Science Teachers Association checklists for various grade level programs. Nine references are included. 51p.

Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria, Version 3.0 Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Labs for the 21st Century, Washington , 2010)
Provides a rating system for use with laboratory building projects to assess environmental performance. It builds on the LEED Green Building Rating System that was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. As with the LEED system for commercial and institutional facilities, this publication proposes a point system that quantifies sustainable building features and practices, with the goal of obtaining silver, gold, and or platinum ratings. 25p.

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments.
Fenichel, Marilyn and Schweingruber, Heidi A.
(National Academies Press, 2010)
Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures, have a positive learning experience. This book is a tool that provides case studies, illustrative examples, and probing questions for practitioners. In short, this book makes valuable research accessible to those working in informal science: educators, museum professionals, university faculty, youth leaders, media specialists, publishers, broadcast journalists, and many others. [Authors' abstract] 240p

Science Facilities. Adobe PDF
Butin, Dan; Biehle, James; Motz, LaMoine; West, Sandra
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises on the design of elementary and secondary school science facilities. The integration of science with other disciplines within the curriculum, project-based learning, and technology integration are first discussed, followed by elements of curriculum-based design, physical flexibility, outdoor learning, safety, technology, budgeting, and fostering creativity. The varying requirements for elementary, middle, and high school facilities are detailed in turn, and 15 references are included. 6p.

SMART Board on the Discovery Channel.
(Discovery Channel's Dream Science Classroom, 2008)
Describes the installation of an interactive whiteboard in a renovated high school science laboratory, as well as how in works with accompanying computer and video technology.

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Recommendations from an Evaluation of Selected Schools Chemical Management Programs.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2007)
Describes the problem caused by unneeded, excessive, or dangerously mismanaged chemicals in K-12 schools, recommends ways to address the problem, and provides "lessons learned" from state and local chemical management programs to address chemical mismanagement in schools. 32p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-005

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Summaries of State, Tribal, and Local School Chemical Cleanout Programs
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Jan 2007)
Summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s "Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) program partners, funding sources, and components of the programs. Categories in the "program elements" described include: 1) Regulations/Guidelines - state or local regulations or guidelines that are relevant to hazardous chemicals in schools. 2) Chemical Inventory - a program that has a specific chemical inventory component. 3) Waste disposal a program that includes chemical removal and disposal of unwanted, excess, dangerous, or inappropriate chemicals. 4) Training a program that includes a training component for relevant school staff on aspects of conducting a chemical inventory, cleanout, and responsible chemical management. 5) Responsible Chemical Management a program that includes development and implementation of practices to sustain long-term chemical management such as purchasing policies or chemical hygiene plans. 6) Compliance/Technical Assistance - a program that offers resources to schools to assist in implementation of program components during the life of the SC3 program and beyond. 7) Additional Tools/Resources a program that provides a variety of resources to assist with program implementation such as Web sites, templates, manuals, or experts to call for assistance. 34p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-004

NSTA Guide to Planning School Science Facilities.
Motz, LaMoine; Biehle, James; West, Sandra
(National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA , 2007)
Offers practical information on school laboratory and general room design, budget priorities, space considerations, and furnishings. Chapters of the book address the advocacy and planning process; current trends and future directions in science education; safety guidelines; and respective designs for grade levels K-5, 6-9, and 9-12. Also covered are "green" design and construction principles, incorporation of the building into the science program, and accessibility. 158p.
TO ORDER: National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington VA, 22201; Tel: 703-243-7100 Telephone: 703.243.7100 • Fax: 703.243.7177

Chemical Management Resource Guide for School Administrators.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Helps identify sources, sometimes obscure, of dangerous chemicals in schools and advises on steps to oversee chemical management activities including establishing a leadership team, implementing pollution prevention and "green" chemistry, establishing a chemical management policy and chemical hygiene, conducting periodic inventories, establishing environmentally friendly purchasing, implementing appropriate storage, handling, and training programs, and developing communication plans for chemical awareness and emergency response. 34p.
Report NO: EPA 747-R-06-002

Environmental Compliance and Best Management Practices: Guidance Manual for K- 12 Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides an environmental compliance model for a typical K-12 school or school. The manual is divided into organizational units that have common regulatory compliance requirements or would likely be managed as separate operational units of the school or school district. Next, the target audience for each organizational unit is defined. The manual then defines numerous activities that would likely occur within each organizational unit, and for each activity it discusses what is required to comply with the appropriate federal environmental regulations and/or which best management practices apply to one s area of responsibility. 224p.

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide.
(U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission; U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Oct 2006)
Provides practical safety information in a checklist format to help reduce chemical injuries in a high school laboratory environment. It presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. It also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as material safety data sheets and chemical hygiene plans, to help create a safe environment for learning. In addition, checklists are provided for both teachers and students that highlight important information for working in the laboratory and identify hazards and safe work procedures. 77p.

Pollution Prevention Measures for Safer School Laboratories. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Feb 2006)
Advises on maintaining the chemical inventory, chemical purchasing, storage, labeling, waste minimization, laboratory ventilation, protective equipment, and spill prevention and cleanup. Includes 16 references. 9p.

Science Center School [Los Angeles, CA].
Describes this special school featuring an integrated curriculum emphasizing science, mathematics and the use of technology, but remaining a neighborhood school for underserved groups of children and their parents. The school is sited part of the California Science Center complex and includes a new classroom building attached to a renovated armory that houses eight classrooms, administrative offices, a multi-purpose room, and the school library. Also housed in the former armory is the Science Center’s education division, the Amgen Center for Science Learning. This places the Science Center School adjacent to facilities that will house many of the Science Center’s community programs, summer science camp, camp-ins, and a teacher professional development program.

America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science.
Singer, Susan; Hilton, Margaret; Schweingruber, Heidi
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2006)
Investigates factors that influence a high school laboratory experience, examining what currently takes place and what the goals of those experiences are and should be. The chapter on facilities calls for flexible space and furnishings that combine features of traditional laboratories and classrooms, proper budgeting for the ongoing costs of equipment and supplies, and equitable distribution of facilities, equipment, and supplies. While maintaining student safety is a critical concern, little systematic information is available about safety problems and solutions. 235p.
TO ORDER: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth St. NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; Tel: 800-624-6242

Laboratory Design for Health and Safety.
(The Association for Science Education, Hatfield, United Kingdom , 2004)
Highlights key health and safety issues to be considered when designing science facilities. Compact, radial design for laboratories and preparation rooms, extra ventilation, adjustable lighting, and storage that keeps traffic areas clear are advised. 4p.

Labs21 Design Process Manual.
(U.S. Department of Energy; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004)
Provides guidance on the design process for high performance laboratories, leveraging the Labs21 tools. It includes the following: 1) The Design Process Checklist specifically lists process-related action items for each stage of the building design and delivery process, with links to relevant Labs21 tools for each action item. 2) The Sustainable Strategies Checklist is a “quick-reference” list of sustainable design strategies, categorized by area of environmental impact (i.e., energy, water, materials, etc), with links to detailed information for each strategy.

Science Accommmodation in Secondary Schools.
(Dept for Educational and Skills, Schools Building and Design Unit, London, United Kingdom , 2004)
Offers design and furnishing guidance for new and renovated high school science instruction spaces. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces usually required and examines planning options in new and adapted departments. Section 2 describes the planning of an individual laboratory covering services distribution, servicing systems, and room layouts. Section 3 provides guidance on the teaching and support spaces connected to the laboratories. Section 4 covers furnishings, equipment and finishes. Section 5 gives general guidance on services in the science department. (Includes 47 references.) 54p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 80

Investigating Safely.
Texley, Juliana; Kwan, Terry; Summers, John
(NSTA Press, Arlington, VA , 2004)
Provides guidance on science teaching safety in a high school environment, using a teacher's guide format. Facilities topics covered include equipment, cleaning, and safe storage design and practice. Appendix A is a list of chemicals that should not be kept unless required by the program and accompanied by appropriate expertise and equipment. Includes 21 references. 213p.
TO ORDER: NSTA Press, 1840 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22201-3000

Design Standards for a High School Museum Resource Center. Adobe PDF
Wallace, Rex
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Dec 2003)
Presents an investigative post-occupancy evaluation of five school museums using a facilities assessment instrument entitled "Appraisal Guide for a Museum Resource Center Building Program." This appraisal guide represented a model for a school museum. The appraisal guide and site interview questions were used as the framework for the gathering of data in this study. Two of the museums in this study were described as separate facilities within a high school and three were defined as separate facilities within a school system. One of the three facilities within a school system received the highest percentage score on the appraisal guide for being closest to the model. None of the facilities in this study had a dark ride, a separate conservation laboratory, an open storage area, or a shop section. All five of the museums in this study had in common the need for more space. The post-occupancy evaluations of the five school museums in this study described, judged, and explained the performance of each facility. The development of the appraisal guide and its use in the post-occupancy evaluations of the five museums provided examples on an item-per-item basis of design patterns that were adaptable to high schools. 299p.

Teaching, Learning and Laboratory Design.
(The Association for Science Education, Hatfield, United Kingdom , Nov 2003)
Discusses aspects of science laboratory design that directly affect student behavior, participation, and learning. It advises on class size, floor area, and room arrangement for teaching, demonstration, and student work. Acoustics, lighting, audiovisual, and HVAC issues are also addressed. 11p.

(National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, 2003)
This interactive publication, the result of a planning study sponsored by the National Science Foundation, provides tools, guidelines, and data necessary to plan and design high school science, math, and technology education laboratories and support spaces. Includes information on forming a planning committee, assumptions, curriculum needs and guidelines, facility programs, architect selection, and design.

Inquiring Safely.
Kwan, Terry; Texley, Juliana
(NSTA Press, Arlington, VA , 2003)
Provides guidance on science teaching safety in a middle school environment, using a teacher's guide format. Facilities topics covered include equipment, cleaning, and safe storage design and practice. Appendix A is a list of chemicals that should not be kept unless required by the program and accompanied by appropriate expertise and equipment. Includes 26 references. 183p.
TO ORDER: NSTA Press, 1840 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22201-3000

Toward High School Stockroom Safety.
Banks, Alton J.
(Paper presented at the American Chemical Society's Division of Chemical Education conference. , Fall 2002)
This paper will attempt to address both practical and legal issues that confront science educators, in general, and chemistry teachers, in particular. Liabilities of teaching science, collection of material safety data sheets, preparation and maintenance of chemical inventories, suggestions for stockroom organization, and some practical hints for proper disposal of unwanted or unneeded chemicals will be addressed. [Author's abstract]

Learning Conditions for High School Science
Tweed, Ann; Nelson, Beverly
(National Science Teachers Association Position Statement, Feb 2002)
Recommended standards by the National Science Teachers Association for creating and maintaining safe, effective science learning conditions, including adequate space, safety equipment, and sufficient storage.

School Laboratories for the 21st Century.
(The Association for Science Eduction, Hatfield, United Kingdom , 2002)
Presents a concise question-and-answer format discussion of school laboratory arrangements, support spaces, size, shape, layout, systems, servicing, and flexibility. (Includes five references.) 4p.

School Science Facilities Planner. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , 2002)
Describes science programs and facilities and is intended as a reference document for designers of public school facilities. Some aspects of all science programs and facilities are similar and are described in the introductory portions of this guide. Subsequent sections focus on the peculiar requirements of individual courses or program areas. Sample floor plans supplement and clarify printed descriptions. This planner covers facilities design of the following: classrooms, laboratories, teacher work stations, storage areas, outdoor spaces, and shared spaces. Program facilities include elementary science, middle level science, biology, chemistry, earth sciences, physical science, and physics. 44p.

Science Facilities Standards K-12 (Texas Version)
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2002)
This provides Texas educators with state guidelines for the planning, construction, and maintenance of indoor science facilities and outdoor learning areas for Texas schools. It includes examples of floor plans for classrooms, laboratories, and storage rooms. Chapters include: 1) Laws, Rules, and Regulations; 2) Safety Equipment; 3) Furniture, Fixtures, and Accessories; 4) Room Design Standards; and 5) Outdoor Learning Environments. 232p.
TO ORDER: The University of Texas at Austin

Texas Safety Standards: Kindergarten through Grade 12.
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2002)
This guide provides kindergarten through grade 12 Texas science educators with rules, regulations, and safety procedures for classroom, laboratory, and field investigations. The manual is a reference for science teachers and administrators interested in providing a safe learning environment for their students. Guidelines are detailed in chapters addressing: (1) laws, rules, and regulations; (2) laboratory investigations and activities; (3) field investigations and activities; (4) facilities; (5) safety equipment and supplies; (6) chemical safety; (7) health concerns; and (8) safety training. (Appendices offer laws, rules, and regulations; professional organization position statements; agencies and associations; safety forms; checklists and guides; hazardous chemicals lists; safety symbols; and materials and safety equipment.) 189p
Report NO: ESR-9712001

TO ORDER: Charles A. Dana Center, 2901 N IH-35, Ste 2.200, Austin, TX,78722, UT Mail Code: A2650; Tel: 512-471-6190, Fax: 512-232-1855

Exploring Safely.
Kwan, Terry; Texley, Juliana
(NSTA Press, Arlington, VA , 2002)
Provides guidance on science teaching safety in a teacher's guide format, addressing self-contained elementary classrooms. Facility information covered includes recommended space per student, safety procedures, observability, what to watch for during renovations, and cleaning. Appendix A is a list of chemicals that should not be kept unless required by the program and accompanied by appropriate expertise and equipment. 125p.
TO ORDER: NSTA Press, 1840 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22201-3000

Safety in the Elementary (K-6) Science Classroom.
(American Chemical Society, Committee on Chemical Safety, Washington, DC , Apr 2001)
Assists elementary science teachers with creating a safe classroom by enumerating potential hazards surrounding heat, chemicals, plants, and animals. Precautions to be taken with these elements are listed, as are suggestions for how to instill safety awareness in children at the earliest ages. 8p.

Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Labs for the 21st Century, Washington, DC , Aug 2000)
Describes energy-efficient strategies for designing and equipping laboratories. Basic issues of laboratory energy consumption are discussed, along with key opportunities to improve energy performance during each phase of the design and acquisition process. Standard and advanced technologies and practices are included. 12p.

Designing and Planning Laboratories.
(Brunel University, CLEAPSS School Science Service, Uxbridge, United Kingdom , 2000)
Provides extensive planning and design advice for school laboratories. Beginning with a formula to calculate the number of laboratories needed, the guide discusses details of departmental and laboratory design, personnel to be involved, layouts, systems, furnishings, finishes, costs, utilities, acoustics, lighting, fenestration, HVAC, project scheduling, and maintenance. A model science laboratory specification is provided. 58p.
Report NO: Guide L14

Designing Science Facilities for the New Science Standards. Adobe PDF
(Inside/Out Architecture, Clayton, MO , 2000)
Offers guidance for creating K-12 science facilities that accommodate the 1996 National Science Education Standards. The document details science teacher input throughout the project, project stages, safety, accessibility, age-specific planning considerations, and hands-on and inquiry-based science. 26p.

Science & Safety: Making the Connection. Adobe PDF
(Council of State Science Supervisors, VA. , 2000)
This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a chemical hygiene checklist, general guidelines in case of student accidents, precautions for animal or plant use in the laboratory, a list of protective equipment for teacher and student use in the laboratory, general information on federal safety mandates, and a checklist describing the physical layout of a science lab. 33p.

Texas Safety Standards for K-12. A Guide to Rules, Regulations, and Safety Procedures for Classroom, Laboratory, and Field Investigations.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas at Austin; Texas Education Agency, 2000)
The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for developing a safety program both at the campus and district levels. Chapters include: 1) Laws, Rules, Regulations; 2) Laboratory Investigations and Activities; 3) Field Investigations and Activities; 4) Facilities; 5) Safety Equipment and Supplies; 6) Chemical Safety; and 7) Safety Training. 190p.

Texas Safety Standards for K-12. Chapter IV Facilities. Second Edition. Adobe PDF
(University of Texas at Austin, The Charles A. Dana Center for Educational Innovation, 2000)
Science facilities that are designed and built correctly for safety and effective science instruction provide a first line of defense to problems. This provides an introduction to minimum requirements and recommendations for science facilities in Texas. Includes an example of a combination laboratory/classroom, discusses a preparation room and equipment storage, and covers renovating existing science facilities. 8p.

Science Safety Standards: A Guide to Laws, Rules, Regulations, and Safety Procedures for Classroom, Laboratory, and Field Investigations.
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2000)
This guide provides kindergarten through grade 12 science educators with rules, regulations, and safety procedures for classroom, laboratory, and field investigations. The manual is a reference for science teachers and administrators interested in providing a safe learning environment for their students. Guidelines are detailed in chapters addressing: (1) laboratory investigations and activities; (2) field investigations and activities; (3) facilities; (4) safety equipment and supplies; (5) chemical safety; (6) health concerns; and (7) safety training. (Appendices offer laws, rules, and regulations; professional organization position statements; agencies and associations; safety forms; checklists and guides; hazardous chemicals lists; safety symbols; and materials and safety equipment.) 204p.
Report NO: ESR-9712001

TO ORDER: Charles A. Dana Center, 2901 N IH-35, Ste 2.200, Austin, TX,78722, UT Mail Code: A2650; Tel: 512-471-6190, Fax: 512-232-1855

Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories. Adobe PDF
Hays, Steve M.
(Gobbell Hays Partners, Inc., Architects, Engineers, Environmental Consultants, Nashville, TN , Mar 10, 1999)
This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. The paper reviews design considerations for good indoor air quality in new laboratories using two recently designed projects as examples. The program document, used by architects and engineers to design a building according to the requirements of the facility's users, is explained as it relates to indoor air quality. There is also a discussion of how the program information is translated into design strategies and equipment selection for good indoor air quality. The paper concludes with a summary of conditions that often contribute to poor air quality in laboratories, and it offers suggestions for addressing these situations. 7p.

STAO Science Laboratory Facilities Design Guide. [Canada]
(Science Teachers' Association of Ontario, Canada , 1999)
This design guide offers guidance to science educators, architects, and others concerned with the provision of science accommodations in Ontario, Canada, either through new construction or the adaptation of existing buildings. Guidelines include general design considerations; services; ventilation and the thermal environment; lighting and acoustics; safety; equipment, furnishings and finishes; allowance for computer technology; laboratory design; the preparation room; and chemical storage provisions. 46p.

NSTA Guide to School Science Facilities.
Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.
(National Science Teachers Association; Arlington, VA , 1999)
The National Science Teachers Association, in response to the emergence of new science curricula and the need for updated science facilities in the nation's public schools, convened a task force to develop guidelines for K-12 science facility design and use. This guide, a result of NSTA Task Force on Science Facilities and Equipment, includes information about planning facilities design; budget priorities; space considerations; general room and laboratory design; and furnishings for the laboratory/classroom specifically targeting K-5, middle, and high schools. It is designed to familiarize educators, administrators, and citizens with the stages of the planning process for new and renovated science facilities and provides specific, detailed information on many aspects of the planning and design phases. Additionally, chapters address current trends and future directions in science education and safety, accessibility, and legal guidelines. Appendices include discussions on solar energy for school facilities, equipment needs planning, checklists, a glossary of construction terms, and classroom dimensional considerations. 100p.
Report NO: NSTA-PBI-49x1

TO ORDER: NSTA, P.O. Box 90214, Washington, DC 20090-0214; Tel: 301-638-0200, Toll free: 800-277-5300

School Science Laboratories: Planning for Sustainability. Adobe PDF
Gorey, Ann
(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 1999)
School science laboratory planning and building are being required to address long-term educational and structural implications, e.g. the linking of school instruction concerning testing of chemicals and substances with commercial applications in the workplace. This report examines how school science laboratories can be planned for the future by paying attention to the educational, environment, and physical sustainability of their designs. Specific questions are proposed to help in the planning process and examples are provided of schools that have addressed sustainability issue from low cost/no cost to high cost options. 5p.

Science Accommodation in Secondary Schools: A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 80. Revised, 1999. Adobe PDF
Holt, Diane; Watson, Lucy; Wadsworth, Alison
(Dept. for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London , 1999)
This document offers guidance in the accommodation needs for teaching the sciences in secondary education, either through new construction or the adaptation of existing buildings. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces usually required and examines planning options in new and adapted departments. Section 2 describes the planning of an individual laboratory covering services distribution, servicing systems, and room layouts. A number of furnished plans are illustrated. Section 3 provides guidance on the teaching and non- teaching spaces supporting the laboratories. Section 4 covers items used in the laboratory and preparation room. Section 5 gives general guidance on services in the science department. Information on appropriate flooring is also included. Section 6 describes adaptation studies in three existing schools, based on the guidance in other sections. Section 7 provides general building cost guidance as well as more detailed information on the cost of servicing systems and fume cupboards. A cost analysis of two adaptation studies are included. 61p.

Fume Cupboards in Schools. (Revision of Design Note 29). Building Bulletin 88. Adobe PDF
Tawney, David
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Apr 16, 1998)
Regulations require hazardous gases in school science classrooms be controlled, i.e., their levels in the air kept below the exposure limits, with fume cupboards being the most usual method. This document reviews the requirements for fume cupboards used in schools and colleges for teaching the sciences, mainly chemistry and biology, up to A-level GCE. It covers the level of provision that is desirable to meet curriculum needs and makes recommendations for good practice in the design, specification, and installation of fume cupboards and their related extraction systems. Other chapters address the commissioning and monitoring of fume cupboard systems and the repairing and upgrading of existing fume cupboards. Appendices include a description of how a fume cupboards works, the monitoring and commissioning tests and report forms, commissioning schedules, and the exposure limits and calculation of gas levels in laboratories. 63p.

Guidebook for Science Safety in Illinois. A Safety Manual for Illinois Elementary and Secondary Schools.
(Illinois State Board of Education, Department of School Improvement Planning and Assistance , 1995)
This manual provides technical assistance to help districts develop policies regarding secondary science laboratories. Chapters include: 1)Physical Layout of the Laboratory; 2)Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials; 3)Waste Minimization Strategies and Chemical Waste Disposal; 4)Model Chemical Hygiene Plan; 5)The Biology Classroom; and 6)Outdoor Safety Standards.

Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are explored, and an overview of exposure standards for air contaminant levels are discussed. Recommended control methods to avoid IAQ problems include eliminating or reducing the use of potentially harmful chemicals such as ether and mercury; ensuring that room ventilation meets government standards; and using hoods in labs to vent harmful vapors. Various laboratory hood exhaust systems are described and recommendations for hood placement are provided. It is emphasized that maintenance and sound operation policies are needed to ensure proper ventilation and that labs should use negative pressure whenever production of contaminants may occur. An overview of laboratory hood performance is provided. Others control methods include the proper storage of chemicals, careful disposal of laboratory waste, and implementation of a chemical hygiene plan. 10p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Science Facilities Design Guidelines.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore. , 1994)
These guidelines, presented in five chapters, propose a framework to support the planning, designing, constructing, and renovating of school science facilities. Some program issues to be considered in the articulation of a science program include environmental concerns, interdisciplinary approaches, space flexibility, and electronic communications. The translation of this educational concept into the three-dimensional space is accomplished by a planning committee in phases that include planning, designing, constructing, and occupying the space. Appropriate science facilities need to be designed around experiences that reflect relevancy within the community. Resources to this end may include: regional and global; career and technology education facilities; commercial, research, and industrial facilities; natural and institutional resources; and electronic resources. The organizational requirements based on the type of school (elementary, middle, or secondary) and its educational philosophy are presented. Once the science education framework within a school has been articulated, the design development and materials specifications for programming space should be considered. At the elementary school level, the majority of science education takes place in the general classroom. At the secondary level, most science education takes place in the laboratory. Other dedicated spaces used for science education at this level are the lecture area, the preparation area, the storage area, the student project area, the seminar room, the greenhouse, and the science studio. Detailed guidelines for laying out these program spaces and overlaying the supporting systems are presented. The design considerations are made from an architectural standpoint as well as within a technical framework. 66p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools.
(California Department of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1993)
This publication was designed to provide assistance to California school personnel and architects in the design of new science facilities. Following the introduction, chapter 1 discusses the enhancement of science programs through architectural design. Chapter 2 describes architectural requirements and regulations for science-instruction facilities in California, and the third chapter outlines steps in the planning process. The next three chapters offer guidelines for elementary-, middle-, and high-school science facilities. Planning the science complex from site development to occupancy is described in chapter 7, and requirements for furnishings and appliances are delineated in chapter 8. Cost estimates are provided in the final chapter. Forty-nine figures are included. 74p.
Report NO: 001038

TO ORDER: California Department of Education, CDE Press, Sales Unit, 1430 N Street, Suite 3207, Sacramento, CA 95814; Toll free: 800-995-4099

The Wave of the Future: Prototype Classrooms/Laboratories for the Hunterdon Central Regional High School District, Route 31, Flemington, New Jersey.
Farley, Raymond
(Paper presented at the 124th Annual Meeting of the American Association of School Administrators, San Diego, CA , Feb 1992)
Outlines plans for completion of two prototype classrooms, one for science and one for general technology. Curricular and instructional trends in mathematics, science, and educational technology are highlighted. The second section offers guidelines for the general design of various environments within the educational plant, with a focus on factors that impact facilities planning and on the characteristics of educational environments. The third section offers a description of Project Scope--which seeks to create two prototype classrooms--provides inventories, guidelines, and architectural designs for technology and biochemical laboratories. 56p.

Planning a Safe and Effective Science Learning Environment
(Texas Education Agency, Austin TX , 1989)
An environment appropriate for activity-oriented science is one that contains sufficient work space, equipment, and materials for students to practice and master the essential elements. This publication was developed to aid Texas school administrators, teachers, and architects to upgrade existing science facilities or plan new ones for kindergarten to grade 12. Chapter titles are as follows: (1) Overview of the Science Program; (2) Elementary School Science Facilities; (3) Middle Junior High School Facilities; (4) High School Science Facilities; (5) Computers in the Science Laboratory; and (6) Sample Floor Plans for Science Facilities. The chapters give details on science equipment needed, safety features that are necessary, and characteristics of science instruction. Appendix A, "Conditions of Instruction," is a National Science Teachers Association document pertaining to recommended work conditions for science teachers. Appendix B outlines state laws and regulations that apply to safety in science education and lists addresses of organizations that can help improve the safety of the classroom. The last appendix contains a laboratory safety checklist for science teachers. 83p.
TO ORDER: Publications Distribution Office, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, TX 78701-1494

The Chemical Laboratory: Its Design and Operation, a Practical Guide for Planners of Industrial, Medical, or Educational Facilities.
Rosenlund, Sigurd
(Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ , 1987)
Advises on the design of chemical laboratories. Chapters include preliminary planning, covering space, equipment, storage, and location considerations; laboratory layout; utility requirements; safety systems; pollution and waste disposal; floor, wall, and ceiling components; work bench and fume hood composition and configuration; utility outlets; construction; obtaining equipment and supplies; laboratory operation; maintenance; and a case history including most of these elements. 158p.

School Science Laboratories. A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances. A Supplement to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Safety and Health Hazards in the School Science Laboratory. Adobe PDF
(Council of State Science Supervisors, Washington, DC , 1984)
The purpose of this document is to identify potentially hazardous substances that may be in use in many school laboratories and to provide an inventory of these substances so that science teachers may take the initiative in providing for the proper storage, handling, use, and if warranted, removal of hazardous materials. 52p.

School Facilities for Science Instruction.
Richardson, John, ed.
(National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC , Jan 1954)
Details basic principles and aspects of science facilities, followed by specific design and equipment recommendations for elementary. Separate recommendations for multipurpose, general, biological, chemistry, physics, developmental, applied, and specialized high school science facilities follow, as well as advice on the design of college facilities for the education of science teachers. Includes 13 references. 274p.

References to Journal Articles

A Genius Idea
EDC Magazine; May 24, 2012
Description and photos of the outdoor play and learn area at All Saints School in Norwalk, Connecticut that promotes play and an understanding of the physical sciences and energy conservation. The environmental activities within the playground are dovetailing with a school STEM curriculum being taught in the classroom.

Sustainable Urban Science Center Adobe PDF
Ade, David
High Performing Buildings; , p30-40 ; Winter 2012
Case study of the Sustainable Urban Science Center, a classroom/lab building that is part of a Quaker school in Philadelphia, that is designed with the goal of capturing students’ interest with visible reminders of the building’s sustainable strategies. The building and grounds include photovoltaic panels, prominent cisterns collect rainwater for toilet flushing, and markings on the pavement indicate the ground source heat pump geoexchange field below.

Place-based Learning: Interactive Learning and Net-Zero Design
Holser, Alec and Becker, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p52-54 ; Dec 2011
Case study of the Music and Science Building for Oregon’s Hood River Middle School where Food and conservation science curriculum, net-zero design and student-based building performance monitoring have come together. It offers a tangible demonstration of how decentralized energy and water systems, aquaculture, biological energy systems, year-round food production and performance monitoring can be incorporated in K-12 design and woven into school curriculum.

STEM for All Adobe PDF
Hutton, Paul and VandenBurg, Todd
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p19-23 ; Dec 2011
The authors share their insights into the proper role of and implementation for STEM within the K-12 sector. Discusses the following: lab function and layout; sustainable STEM buildings; buildings as sustainable teaching tools; buildings teaching math and science; thoughtful planning of technology.

Lighting Up Students with Technology and Progressive 21st Century Learning Strategies Adobe PDF
Ronda Frueauff, Tony Wall, Ron Essley and Michael Hall
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1 , p24-26 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that schooling become more flexible and therefore more engaging and interesting, use less prescriptive technology, and improve STEM education if we are to maintain our place of prominence in the global economy. Describes the planning for the Colonel Smith Middle School Complex in the Fort Huachuca School District, a net-zero energy STEM school.

Designing Schools for Tomorrow’s Scientists and Engineers
Carter, Brian
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
New STEM programs use flexible spaces and decentralized learning to give students room to experiment and collaborate.

Hawaii Preparatory Energy Lab.
Design Cost Data; v55 n3 , p30,31 ; May 2011
Profiles this net-zero energy use high school science lab. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Stellar Student: Energy Lab at Hawaii Preparatory Academy.
Gonchar, Joann
GreenSource; v6 n3 , p58-63 ; May-Jun 2011
Takes advantage of near-perfect conditions to create a net-zero, fully climate-responsive building. The article describes successful planning and implementation of a wide array of opportunities.

Building Blueprints: STEM Labs.
Lembke, Jason
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 ; Mar 2011
Explains the principles of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) inquiry-based teaching and the steps for planning a unified lab space that promotes an interconnectivity learning model.

Blueprint for Safety.
Roy, Ken
Science Scope; v34 n3 , p80-81 ; Nov 2010
Overview of the construction/renovation process from planning to construction, and a guide to how and when the science instructor should be involved.

Lab of the Year Embodies Client's Ecological Mission.
Laboratory Design; v15 n5 , p1-4 ; May 2010
Details considerations that were addressed when designing and constructing labs and instruction spaces, as well as public spaces, for Chicago's Daniel F. And Ada L. Rice Plant Conservation Science Center.

Building Blueprints: Science Facilities.
Biehle, James
School Planning and Management; v49 n5 , p42,43 ; May 2010
Addresses the need for safe science teaching spaces, made safe and cost-effective by being placed at the center of a space shared by adjacent teaching pods for math and liberal arts.

Optimizing Laboratory Ventilation Rates: Challenges and Implementation.
Bell, Geoffrey
Laboratory Design; v15 n4 , p8,10 ; Apr 2010
Presents case studies of optimizing two laboratory ventilation systems, as determined by commissioning.

Mod Genius.
Grayson, Jennifer
T.H.E. Journal; v37 n4 , p28-30, 32-34 ; Apr 2010
Discusses how innovative building manufacturers are designing new modular classrooms that offer a range of eco-friendly features, an inspiring learning environment, and the right price. Examines the idea of the building as a teaching tool. The energy-neutral modular building by Project Frog is outfitted with 60 solar panels that generate enough electricity to power the structure, with perhaps a surplus.

Understanding Laboratory Waste and Vent Systems.
Gilbert, Brett
Laboratory Design; v15 n3 , p1,2 ; Mar 2010
Discusses laboratory drain systems, with emphasis on the special materials required to accommodate corrosive or reactive particular to laboratories.

Optimizing Laboratory Ventilation Rates: Challenges and Implementation.
Bell, Geoffrey
Laboratory Design; v15 n2 , p6-9 ; Feb 2010
Advises on how to optimize laboratory ventilation airflow and reduces associated energy use while maintaining or improving safety. Existing codes are reviewed and the steps of reviewing design intent, identifying the authority with jurisdiction, prioritizing resources, and implementing a design strategy are addressed.

Outside the Box.
Glitsch, Val
Texas Architect; v60 n1 , p44-47 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Profiles a new science wing at a Dallas private school, describing the design, LEED features, and funding. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants are included.

Building Blueprints: Science Facilities.
Coleman, Roland; McAlonie, Kelly
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p30,31 ; Dec 2009
Discusses design of PK-12 science teaching facilities. Components of planning and design are outlined, emphasizing relevance, flexibility, and accommodation of student creativity and project-based learning.

Teaching Moment.
McGuire, Virginia
The Architect's Newspaper; v7 n19 , p18 ; Nov 18, 2009
Profiles the Germantown Friends School's new science center, a highly sustainable building employing photovoltaics, fresh air ventilation, geothermal heating and cooling, a vegetative roof, sustainable building materials throughout, and exposed building systems.

The Great Fume Hood Debate: Basic Issues in Safety and Efficiency.
Livingstone, Paul
Laboratory Design; v14 n11 , p6,8 ; Nov 2009
Compares the traditional constant-air volume fume hood that uses a great deal of energy, versus newer variable and low air-volume hoods. Higher initial costs for the newer designs may be quickly recouped in energy savings.

Safer Science: Chemical Storage.
Roy, Ken
The Science Teacher; , p12,13 ; Oct 2009
Reflects on the danger of an "It's always been done this way" attitude towards chemical storage in school science laboratories. References are provided to national standards for the storage of chemicals, and a list of 17 safe storage guidelines from the Centers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are offered. Links to five references are provided. Registration is required for free download.

Out of This World Learning.
Walker, Alissa
Edutopia; , p48-51 ; Oct-Nov 2009
Profiles California's Lewis Center for Educational Research Academy for Academic Excellence. The K-12 charter school features a radio telescope, greenhouses, fish ponds, and a "mission control" room modeled after NASA.

American School and University; v81 n13 , p99,100 ; Aug 2009
Profiles one high school and one higher education laboratory selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

The Brooks School, New Science Center.
Architectural Record; Jul 2009
Profiles this Massachusetts private school's new science center. The L-shaped building connects via a glazed entryway to an existing academic building to create a learning center that exemplifies sustainability. Project information, plans, and photographs are included.

Science and Band Addition, Kimmons Junior High School.
Design Cost Data; v53 n1 , p18,19 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Profiles this Fort Smith, Arkansas, facility that created a spacious entrance and new administrative areas, as well as updated band, choir, and science facilities. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

School Science Labs.
Schachter, Ron
District Administration; v44 n12 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov 2008
Discusses the inadequacy of many high school science facilities, where standards of instruction have increased, but facilities have not been updated or even have deteriorated to the point that some schools are placed on probation by accrediting agencies. The price of building a new or renovating a science facility is discussed in the light of National Science Teachers Association standards. Features and costs of new and renovated laboratories from three school districts are included.

American School and University; v80 n13 , p110,112-115 ; Aug 2008
Profiles one high school and two higher education laboratories that were recognized in the American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their sustainability, character, long-term appropriateness of materials and colors, innovation, adaptability, collaborative spaces, and safety. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

St. Agnes Academy Center for the Sciences and Student Services.
Design Cost Data; v52 n4 , p29,29 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Profiles this college preparatory school facility that houses student services, conference facilities, and science instruction laboratory/lecture rooms. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, floor plans, and photographs are included.

Commissioning Labs for Safety.
Click, Michael
Laboratory Design; v13 n6 , p2,6,8,9,12 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the responsibilities of laboratory commissioning professionals, emphasizing confirmation of emergency power for vital systems, coordination of building and laboratory systems, and testing criteria for exhaust fans.

Select an Automatic Glassware Washer that Makes Sense.
Sprung, Jenny
Laboratory Design; v13 n6 , p14,15 ; Jun 2008
Advises on selection of laboratory glassware washers that clean better and use less water than hand washing. Assessing energy savings and standards of cleanliness are addressed.

What You Don't See Can Hurt You.
Biehle, James
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , p41,42,44,46,47 ; May 2008
Advises on the design and furnishing of the preparation and storage spaces that support school science facilities. Differing storage considerations for chemical, physical, and biological science instruction are considered, along with strategies for maximizing the facility to serve multiple laboratories.

The Furniture of Science.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p30,32,34,36,38 ; Feb 2008
Reviews current furniture and workstation options for middle and high school science laboratories.

Tech Tips: Piping Options.
Maasel, Tina; Frazier, Patrick
Laboratory Design; v13 n2 , p10 ; Feb 2008
Reviews the advantages of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and borosilicate glass piping for laborary waste systems, citing their respective chemical and thermal resistance, joint reliability, installation, fire safety, and durability.

The Importance of Planning School Science Facilities.
Biehle, James
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n1 , p27-30 ; 2008
Discusses the way science is currently taught, recent mistakes in school science facility design, and advises on designing science teaching facilities that accommodates "hands-on" study, collaboration, proper storage and preparation areas, and energy savings.

2007 Architectural Portfolio: Specialized Facilities.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p194-236 ; Nov 2007
Profiles 33 outstanding new specialized school facilities selected for their innovation, sustainability, security, aesthetics, and life-cycle costs. These include art, performing arts, athletic, student health, service, K-12, science, and other facilities. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Room to Learn: Mystery Science Theatre.
Edutopia; v3 n4 , p48,49 ; Jun 2007
Profiles the high school physics laboratory of Dave Lapp at Tamalpais High School in Mill Valley, California. The teacher invited his students to help transform his room into a "parallel universe of physics worship." The walls present an information mural, and the room is heavily accessorized with everyday objects that are used in demonstrations.

Building Blueprints: School Science Labs.
Ducharme, Doug
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p82,83 ; Jun 2007
Illustrates principles of school science laboratory design, citing the experience of the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Community School District. The District recently built or renovated over 50 laboratories, and principles of combining classrooms and laboratories, student learning patterns, occupant health, safety, proper location, flexibility, and value are discussed.

Science Labs: Beyond Isolationism.
Cavanagh, Sean
Education Week; v26 n18 , p24-26 ; Jan 2007
A national study released in 2005 concluded that most high school students are not exposed to high quality science labs because of these reasons: (a) poor school facilities and organizations; (b) weak teacher preparation; (c) poor design; (d) cluttered state standards; (e) little representation on state tests; and (f) scarce evidence of what works. Because of these, science labs have been considered a failure, but Boston is trying to put them back together.

American School and University; v78 n13 , p112-117 ; Aug 2006
Presents one high school and four higher education laboratories selected for the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their creative renovations and use of existing conditions, engaging and delightful spaces, use of natural light and sustainable materials, technology integration, functionality, and flexibility. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

Penny-wise Decisions.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p70 ; Jul 2006
Details statistics indicating a sharp rise in school laboratory accidents when less than 60 square feet per student is provided, indicating that attempts to save money by cutting space in laboratories is not only unwise, but unsafe.

Spaces for Teaching Science. Adobe PDF
Gisolfi, Peter
American School Board Journal; v193 n4 , p60-62 ; Apr 2006
Proposes eight questions to be answered when designing high school science laboratories. These questions address different configurations for experiment, lecture and preparation areas. Flexibility, collaborative work, and the type of science being taught are also factored into these considerations.

Texas Safety Standards for Kindergarten Grade 12: Third Edition.
(University of Texas, Dana Center, Austin, 2006)
Provides guidelines for developing a safety program both at the campus and district levels, with updated references to Texas school safety laws, science organization position statements on safety, Chapters cover laws, rules, regulations; laboratory investigations and activities; field investigations and activities; facilities; safety equipment and supplies; chemical safety; and safety training. 300p.

Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety.
Texley, Juliana
Science Teacher; v72 n6 , p39 ; Sep 2005
Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom safety, and teacher liability. When science teachers and administrators plan and design classroom environments, they should consider four factors that play a major role in classroom efficiency and safety: student-teacher ratio, student-space ratio, facility layout, and storage space. This article presents a review of these topics and provides suggestions for how teachers can make use of their existing classroom space. Note:The following two links are not-applicable for text-based browsers or screen-reading software.

Small Wonders.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n11 , p16-18,20,22 ; Jun 2005
Discusses the virtues of small schools, ways small school communities have been created within large schools, and the particular problem of creating adequate science facilities in "school within school" settings.

Building Blueprints: Science Classroom/Laboratory
Ferguson, David
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p32,33 ; Apr 2005
Suggests six areas of design considerations for science classrooms and laboratories: educational program delivery, technology incorporation, placement within the building, safety, instructor preparation and storage, and proper use of the floor.

Three Keys for Selecting K-12 Science Furniture and Equipment.
Biehle, James T.
School Construction News; v8 n1 , p28 ; Jan-Feb 2005
Emphasizes selecting science laboratory furnishings for flexibility, sturdiness, and usefulness. Savings can be realized by eliminating central gas systems, fixed casework, and rarely used fume hoods.

Norfolk County Agricultural High School, Chemistry Classroom.
Design Cost Data
Describes this renovation of a 1960's chemistry classroom into a modern facility with integrated scientific and telecommunications technology. Lists design and construction participants, suppliers, costs, and specifications, with a floor plan and photographs included.

Science and Technology Facilities. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2004/2 n52 , p13-19 ; Jun 2004
Presents four articles on secondary and higher education science facilities. The first presents a view on approaches to teaching science in school and illustrates ideal science facilities for secondary education. The second reports on improvements to the Science Complex at the Universite du Quebec a Montreal. The third describes a secondary level vocational training center devoted to new technologies in Quebec. The fourth describes an Australian science and mathematics magnet school.

Abbe Science Center, Solebury School.
Kolleeny, Jane F.
Architectural Record; v192 n3 , p140-142 ; Mar 2004
Describes this Pennsylvania high school science center that conforms to the land-use plan and rustic style of the campus. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Museum, School District Collaborate To Build An Unusual Hybrid.
Gonchar, Joann
ENR: Engineering News-Record; Feb 02, 2004
In South Central Los Angeles, a partnership between the district and a state-owned science museum will result in a neighborhood elementary school with a math- and science-focused curriculum and as a resource center for educators and the local community. The Science Center School project combines an early 20th-century armory with a two-story addition. The $48-million project draws on FEMA funds, several state financing sources, and QZABs (qualified zone academy bonds), a U.S. Dept. of Education program that allows disadvantaged school districts to issue interest-free bonds. The project has no land acquisition costs, since the district will lease the school from the state.

Accessibility: Maximum Mobility and Function.
Smyser, Michael
American School and University; v75 n11 , p24,26-28 ; Jul 2003
Describes how to design school and university labs to comply with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards, focusing on counter height for students in wheelchairs; appropriate knee space and sink height in sink areas; ADA-compliant fume hoods; accessible laboratory doors and entryways; and safety concerns (e.g., emergency eyewash stations and emergency showers for people with disabilities).

Science-Lab Safety Upgraded After Mishaps.
Hoff, David J.
Education Week ; v22 n3 , p1,20,21 ; Apr 30, 2003
According to this article, science classrooms might be the most dangerous places in American schools. Most safety experts agree that teachers and administrators aren't doing enough to protect their students from injury. This outlines steps that can be taken to curtail accidents. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Hidden Renovation Costs.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p50-51 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Written in response to the frequent budget overruns experienced by higher education facilities when renovating and expanding laboratories, provides an overview of possible problems and presents a series of procedures and checklists to manage activities associated with such a move or renovation.

Safety in Science Classrooms: What Research and Best Practice Say.
West, Sandra S.; Westerlund, Julie F.; Stephenson, Amanda L.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Nyland, Cynthia K.
Educational Forum; v67 n2 , p174-83 ; Winter 2003
Reviews the National Science Education Standards for science classrooms and gives examples of practice in the following areas: overcrowding, class size, individual workspaces and workstations, teacher preparation, discipline, hiring practices, scheduling, safety audits, and facilities and equipment. Contains 44 references.

American School and University; v74 n12 , p121-23 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable school laboratories, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

What Goes Around Comes Around.
Biehle, James T.
School Planning and Management; v41 n8 , p34-35 ; Aug 2002
Describes how schools in Carroll County, Maryland; Toronto, Ontario; Durham, North Carolina; Englewood, Colorado; and Troy, New York, are renovating their vocational areas for inquiry- based, hands-on science learning. Includes sample floor plans and photographs.

Staying Green.
Davis, Lee; Siegel, Gary
American School and University; v74 n3 , p324-27 ; Nov 2001
Shows how schools are establishing environmental-management systems to help them comply with stricter federal regulations. Topics addressed include hazardous waste management and use of third-party audits to prepare for Environmental Protection Agency inspections. Environmental guidelines for laboratories and special concerns confronting science buildings are highlighted.

Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.
Friedan, Jonathan
ASHRAE Journal; v43 n11 , p38-39,41 ; Nov 2001
Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined.

Old Buildings, New Life.
Smith, Charles R.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p150-53 ; Aug 2001
Explains how schools can cost-effectively upgrade their existing science facilities and offer technologies normally found only in new buildings. Explores the decision-making process leading to a decision to build or renovate. Includes a case study on meeting the challenges poised by a building's infrastructure.

High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.
Design Cost Data; v46 n4 , p41-42 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan s Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers used for the project.

Creating Learning Environments That Work.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v40 n5 , p48-53 ; May 2001
Examines how Walnut Hills High School s (Cincinnati, OH) new Arts and Science Center was designed to students' and teachers' specifications. Facility assessment and planning are discussed, concluding with comments on the new facility's impact on education.

The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.
Tetley, Paul A.
Facilities Manager; v17 n3 , p33-38 ; May-Jun 2001
Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications.

The Furniture of Science.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n1 , p71-73 ; Jan 2001
Examines how the introduction of new technology has spawned the emergence of new types of furniture, furnishings, and classroom design to support high school science instruction. The challenges imposed by the Americans with Disabilities Act on school science labs are highlighted.

Not an Exact Science.
Fraser, Mike
American School and University; v73 n3 , p432-36 ; Nov 2000
Explains why schools and universities should seek wide-ranging input to create labs specifically designed for their science curriculum. Specific issues requiring attention are examined, such as equipping the lab, classroom communication needs, lab benches, and exhaust.

The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School. Adobe PDF
Biehle, James T.
PEB Exchange; n41 , p23-25 ; Oct 2000
Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas.

Common Covert Chemical and Physical Hazards in School Science Laboratories. Part 2.
Roy, Ken
Science Education International; v11 n1 , p22-23 ; Mar 2000
Explains that mercury is a dangerous substance to use in school science laboratories and gives several examples of mercury poisoning. Lists some precautions that should be taken in case of mercury spillage in the lab. Advocates using non-mercury laboratory equipment and limiting student access to mercury to prevent dangerous situations.

Laboratory Renovation: The Hidden Cost.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v16 n2 , p45-47 ; Mar-Apr 2000
Provides an overview of the variety of problems that may be incurred, and the series of procedures that can be used, to manage science laboratory renovation activities. Examines the various project phases, including planning, decontamination and moving, construction and renovation, and moving in stages.

Planning the Middle School Science Classroom.
Biehle, James T.
School Planning and Management; v39 n1 , p60-61 ; Jan 2000
Examines the planning requirements for designing a middle school's science classroom, including the areas of casework and sinks, surfaces, furniture, gas, storage, power, ventilation, and safety issues.

A Fish Tale: Cabrillo High School's Aquarium Gets a New Facility.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p22-24 ; Dec 1999
Examines how community cooperation helped to create a state-of-the-art aquarium for its high school. Discussed are building challenges and solutions, sponsorship from the state of California, and the aquarium program's community outreach.

Experimenting with Science Facility Design.
Butterfield, Eric
School Construction News; v2 n7 , p13-14 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Discusses the modern school science facility and how computers and teaching methods are changing their design. Issues include power, lighting, and space requirements; funding for planning; architect assessment; materials requirements for work surfaces; and classroom flexibility.

School Science Laboratories: Todays Trends and Guidelines. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n36 , p11-13 ; Feb 1999
Reports on how OECD Member countries are rethinking their school labs by moving toward more flexible approaches new technology, design, safety, and classroom flexibility. Switzerland, France, Ireland, South Australia, and the state of Maryland are covered.

Building a Planetarium.
Page, Scott M.
Hoosier Science Teacher; v24 n3 , p90-93 ; Feb 1999
School budgets dictate what can and cannot be done in science. Article offers an inexpensive, modified design to build a planetarium. The planetarium provides hands-on experience in plotting and mapping constellations.

The High School Science Classroom of the Future.
Baird; Bill
Horizon Online; 1999
This article addresses curriculum, technology, and equipment for the science classroom in the year 2005.

Green Laboratory Schools.
Pope, Jonathan
Clearing; n101 , p24-25 ; Apr-May 1998
Presents schools as the perfect microcosms of the world of the 1990s: most work is done indoors, many resources are consumed, and schools sit surrounded by large chunks of land mostly devoted to grass and parking. Suggests that a school can serve as two perfect environmental education laboratories, one indoor and one outdoor. Describes how to design environmental education in these laboratories.

Z-Shaped Classroom Supports Technology, Enhances Learning.
Nies, Jim; Hougsted, Steve
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p34-36 ; Oct 1997
Examines the benefits of the Z-shaped science lab classroom configuration as a means of learning enhancement. Each section of the classroom is illustrated and described. Also discusses construction and cost considerations.

New Discoveries.
Schaeffner, Bob
American School and University; v68 n12 , p71-73 ; Aug 1996
Renovating existing space is often a feasible solution when science facilities need to be upgraded. To develop the best approach to a renovation project and to ensure the ideal solution, a commitment to proper planning with creative thinking, an open mind, and an understanding of the institution's goals are required. Starting the process, considering key issues, and determining the cost are discussed.

Complying with Science.
Biehle, James T.
American School and University; v67 n9 , p54-62 ; May 1995
Using the regulations and guidelines set by the Americans with Disabilities Act, this article describes how to make the science classroom accessible to all, so that every student can have the opportunity to experiment with science firsthand.

Stuyvesant High School of Science
Slatin, Peter
Oculus; v55, n3 , p6-9 ; Nov 1992

Can Space Motivate(or Demotivate) Science Teachers?
Englehardt, David F.
CEFPI Journal; v26 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1988
Englehardt presents research showing a correlation between spacial attributes and teaching methods in science teachers. He discusses findings related to laboratory design, access to specialized spaces and equipment. His conclusions have important implications to the design on school facilies and science classrooms.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).