SCHOOL SAFETY AND SECURITY--PK-12 FACILITIES ISSUES
Information on designing safer school facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2011
Robers, Simone; Zhang, Jijun; Truman, Jennifer
(National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Feb 2012)
This report provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime at school. It also presents data on crime away from school to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. The report covers topics such as victimization, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. 203p
How to Modernize Your Schools Bells, Overhead Pagings, and Mass Notification in Times of Austerity.
(Singlewire Software, Oct 2011)
Whitepaper on ways to modernize and consolidate overhead paging, emergency communications, and school bell system to save time and money. Includes information on converting current systems into a “future-proof” system that can grow with you in the future without a forklift upgrade.
School Safety Audit Questions and Answers.
(Virginia Department of Education, 2011)
Provides twelve questions and answers that should be considered in a school safety audit. These cover the exterior, interior, visibility, and alarms.
Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010.
(U.S. Dept. of Education and U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, DC , Nov 2010)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report provides current statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. It presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources. The report covers topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available.Report NO: NCES 2011-02
School Security Technologies.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Provides current information on school security technologies, including access control systems, surveillance equipment, weapons detectors, communications and alarm systems, and emergency notification systems (ENS). Explains the shift underway from individual system controls to an IP (Internet protocol) model where everything feeds into the same network. Updates and replaces two landmark publications on school security technologies. 20p.
Library Security Guidelines.
(Library Administration and Management Association, Security Guidelines Subcommittee of the Buildings and Equipment Section, Safety & Security of Library Buildings Committee, Chicago, IL , Jun 27, 2010)
These guidelines include an introduction and definitions, and sections covering the following topics: 1. Duty to Protect; 2.Foreseeability of Loss; 3. Adequacy of Protection; 4.Fire and Emergency Protection; 5.Physical Barrier and Lock and Key Security; 6. Security Duties and Security Staff; 7. Personal Access and Parcel Control; 8. Security Alarms and Electronics and 9. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. 29p.
CPTED 101: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design - The Fundamentals for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2010)
Discusses the concepts of natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality as a means to improve school security. Each concept is defined and presented along with basic principles of how to achieve it within an uncomplicated framework of design, furnishing, and staffing. Includes five references. 2p.
Indicators of School Crime and Safety. 2009.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Dec 2009)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources. Topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons,availability and student use of drugs and alcohol,and student perceptions of personal safety at school are addressed. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available, and 42 references are included. 176p.Report NO: NCES 2010-012
Children's Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey.
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DC , Oct 2009)
Presents statistics and analysis of student exposure to violence, including violence at school. Types of violence associated with successive age groups are discussed, as are implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners. Includes 37 references. 12p.
Keeping Tennessee Schools Safe.
(Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury, Offices of Research and Education Accountability, Nashville , Sep 2009)
Reviews state laws, policies, and requirements, and compares them with accepted best practices for school safety. State law requires districts to report building security strategies and procedures in place, but does not require assessment of the appropriateness or effectiveness. Many school administrators have directed substantial funds toward ensuring the security of their schools over preventive measures (e.g. staff training on violence prevention and counseling services). Although it is intuitive that such efforts enhance building security, the analysts found little research evaluating security measures as a means to deter or prevent violent incidents. 48p.
Safety with Dignity: Alternatives to the Over-Policing of Schools.
(New York Civil Liberties Union, New York, NY , Jul 2009)
Examines six New York City public high schools that serve large numbers of at-risk children and make use of alternative ways of enforcing school safety. The report found that the six schools showed high graduation rates, low crime and positive reviews from students, teachers and administrators. The report does not definitively link the alternative school safety measures to high academic achievement, but does recommend fewer detectors, restoring discipline responsibilities to educators, fewer school safety agents, alternatives to harsh discipline, student input into roles, transparency and accountability in safety practices, and support for students? non-academic needs. 56p.
The Impact of School Fencing on Public Health and the Community.
(docstoc.com , Jun 12, 2009)
Reoports on the impact that placing fences around schools has on safety and public habits. While many people feel that installing fences around schools can greatly enhance safety, this concept has not been thoroughly examined. In fact, school fences may be detrimental to overall health when all elements are taken into account. The report recommends examining the effects of fencing on protecting students from outside danger, preventing truancy, traffic around the schools, and interaction with the community. Includes seven references. 6p.TO ORDER: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/22972919/The-Impact-of-School-Fences-on-Public-Health
CDW-G School Safety Index 2009.
(CDW, Vernon Hills, IL , May 18, 2009)
Provides a nationwide view of school safety issues from the perspective of more than 400 school district IT and security directors. The report reveals that while the number of security breaches increased in the last year, schools also made some important gains and are addressing critical areas of school safety: 1) 79 percent of districts report using surveillance cameras, compared to 70 percent in 2008. 2) 70 percent of school districts are using a mass notification system, compared to 45 percent in 2008. 3) 92% of districts are using some type of encryption to protect their network and critical data. Still, only three-quarters of survey respondents rated their current physical and cyber security as adequate. The report also finds that while K-12 districts are taking steps to improve network and building security, increased breaches caused an overall decline in schools' physical and cyber security scores. In the last 12 months, 55 percent of districts report experiencing an IT breach, and 67 percent experienced a physical breach such as break-ins, unauthorized persons in school buildings or vandalism. 30p.
Columbine 10th Anniversary: Lessons Learned and Glaring Gaps Remain, The Legacy of Columbine Ten Years Later.
Discusses changes in school security after the April, 1999 shooting at Columbine High School. Topics include: 1)What has improved? 2)What gaps remain? 3)How have budgets for school safety changed? 4)What key elements are missing from many school safety plans? 5)What should administrators and parents do to improve and sustain school safety? Videos of news interviews with the author accompany the text.
Door Locking Options for Schools.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.
Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008.
(U.S. Dept of Education, U.S. Dept of Justice, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report provides current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. It presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an variety of sources, and in categories including victimization, fights, bullying, classroom disorder, weapons, student perceptions of school safety, teacher injury, and availability and student use of drugs and alcohol. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur outside of school grounds are offered as a point of comparison where available. 169p.Report NO: NCES 2009-022
Practical Health and Safety Guidelines for School Theater Operations. Assessing the Risks in Middle, Junior and Senior High School Theater Buildings and Programs.
(Risk International Publishing, Littleton, CO , 2009)
Encourages re-thinking and changes regarding health and safety practices in the performing arts at all educational levels. Units of the text address the administrator and the performing arts program; the purchase, replacement, and preventive maintenance of equipment; fire prevention and suppression; emergency preparedness; safety during performances; stage housing, rigging, and the audience; shops and storage; environmental concerns; special effects; skill sets for the performing arts instructor, and stage equipment. The book identifies areas that performing arts personnel and administrators might not think of as dangerous or hazardous, such as aging or outdated equipment or facilities, providing readers with pertinent health and safety information, pointing out hazardous conditions and recommended practices. 434p.TO ORDER: http://www.theatresafetybook.com/index.cfm?
Preventing Violence and Crime in America's Schools: From Put Downs to Lock Downs.
Lassiter, William; Perry, Danya
(Greenwood/Praeger Press, Santa Barbara, CA , 2009)
Provides educators, parents, law enforcement officials, and other youth-serving professionals with a perspective on the topic of school violence, offering solutions to the problems facing all schools when it comes to violence and safety. The authors examine specifics relating to school violence, opportunities to prevent and intervene, and the importance of planning for a crisis. The book highlights both research and practitioner viewpoints, balancing insights gained through real-world experiences with research on best practices. 256p.TO ORDER: http://www.greenwood.com/
Security Design for Sustainable Buildings and Campuses.
O'Neil, Dan; Rueda, Roger; Savage, Jenna
(Applied Risk Management, Stoneham, MA , 2009)
Begins by discussing the importance of sustainability, and how security is often mistakenly omitted from green initiatives, followed by a discussion of the importance of making security a high priority in the design process and how costly inadequate security can be for a company. The third section discusses the risk assessment process and the importance of carrying out such an assessment early on in the design process. Subsequent sections discuss the challenges of balancing security and sustainability, and introduce various solutions that can be achieved through new technologies and systems integration, with respect to specific building elements such as outdoor and indoor lighting, HVAC systems, the exterior envelope, and landscaping. The document concludes with a discussion of additional benefits that can be reaped from systems integration, details about how systems integration can be implemented, and how pre- fabrication of security components can generate LEED credits. 31p.
Safe, Healthy and Positive Environmental Design (SHAPED) Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED).
(Linn Benton Lincoln Education Service District, Albany, Or , 2009)
Begins by quoting statistics on violence in schools, and then explains Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, citing its history, basic concepts, and benefits. Typical risks on campuses and adjacent properties are cited, along with suggested solutions for these and specific school spaces. Other concepts discussed natural surveillance, natural access control, territoriality, the challenge of large schools, school safety audits, and school climate. 19 additional resources and 25 references are cited. 21p.
Selecting Security Technology Providers.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Describes a process for selecting security technology consultants and systems integrators. Includes two appendices, "Identifying Desired System Attributes" and "Identifying Desired System Components." 4p.
Providing Safe Facilities: Conducting a Facility Risk Review.
Seidler, Todd; Miller, John
(Athletic Business Publication, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Outlines steps of an athletic facility safety audit and offers a sample format of a safety inspection checklist and action report. Includes 12 references. 10p.
References to Journal Articles
Eyes Wide Open. Safeguarding Schools Takes Smart, Practical and Proactive Approach
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Provides examples of school districts where safety is made easier and more affordable by extending the utility of the district’s network with IP surveillance cameras, storage and switches.
Building A Virtual Fence
Salvi, Del V.
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Network cameras secure 25 Arizona schools and district offices.
Security in Schools
School Construction News; , p13 ; Jun 20, 2012
Explores passive vs. active security in K-12 schools and postsecondary institutions. Passive security measures include access control systems, video monitoring and other means that use technologies. Active security measures involve posting an officer at a site or traffic control measures.
School Planning and Management; Jun 2012
In today's raw, aggressive world, it seems important to bar a parent with that idea from entering. That's just one of many reasons that schools, today, typically lock all exterior doors and have a hall monitor to greet and question anyone trying to enter once school has begun. Discusses a video management system that enables a principal or security officer to call up cameras on a computer or to send video from cameras to other devices connected to the network — like classroom television monitors.
Glazing Design Beyond the Minimum. Considerations for Glass, Hurricanes, and Tornadoes
Construction Specifier; , p50-62 ; May 2012
In order to offer true protection against hurricanes and tornadoes, a building's glazing design should include a risk assessment of options that go beyond the minimum codes and standards.
Staying Secure for School Safety
American School and University; , p26-29 ; May 2012
Proper planning and preventive maintenance can increase school security and return on investment. Provides a list of things schools may want to review when updating security technology.
Today's School Security
American School and University; Apr 01, 2012
Improved technology and more effective prevention programs help schools and universities provide safer learning environments. Discusses controlled access, video surveillance, mass notification, and prevention programs.
School Security Technologies
School Planning and Management; , p86-89 ; Apr 2012
Discusses how to take a sensible, balanced approach to creating a safe learning environment, drawing on behavioral and structural strategies as well as technological ones.
How the School Built Environment Exacerbates Bullying and Peer Harassment
Sheila M. Fram and Ellyn M. Dickmann
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p227-249 ; Spring 2012
This qualitative analysis examined the built environment of an elementary school and its problem with bullying and peer harassment. We concluded that if the tendency for bullying and peer harassment is present, then specific elements within defined spaces in the school built environment can exacerbate such tendencies. Data collection included staff and teacher surveys, examination of policy documents, and photographs of the external and internal built environment. A constant comparison of incidents in the data included competing comments made on surveys and meaning derived from photographs of the built environment. This paper offers evidence that shows that researchers examining ways of solving the bullying problem need to look at the built environment as a contributing factor. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/index_issues.htm
All You Need to Do Is Ask. Invite Safety to the Table to Prevent Design Flaws
School Planning and Management; , p10 ; Mar 2012
To avoid problematic design features that can been easily avoided, advises asking for assistance in design process from school security, law enforcement, fire service, and emergency management officials.
The Integration Step
School Planning and Management; v51 n1 , p67-69 ; Jan 2012
Discusses networking and integrating security technologies including electronic access control, video surveillance, and intrusion systems.
American School and University; Jan 2012
Education institutions must keep a tight rein on spending in 2012 as they search for signs that the national economy is back on its feet. A slow, uncertain economic recovery has improved finances in some parts of the country, but for others, the absence of recovery may require further cuts. Describes the outlook in the following specific areas: funding; charter schools; construction; equity; closings; growth; maintenance & operations; No Child Left Behind; nutrition; security; technology; and sustainability.
Outside Light: Use Best, Not Brightest
Building Operating Management; , p30-33 ; Dec 2011
It is possible to have a safe, secure outdoor lighting strategy while also being a good environmental steward.
A Safe Environment
School Planning and Management; Dec 2011
Discusses the EPA's first-ever federal guidelines for locating school facilities that encourage high-performance schools, stress the importance of locating schools near populations and infrastructure and promote schools as diverse centers of communities. They urge communities to consider children's ability to walk to school, access to public transportation and how to locate schools away from potential environmental hazards.
Close It Up & Lock It Down?!?
School Planning and Management; , p42-44 ; Dec 2011
Discusses the most effective ways of controlling access to facilities, including perimeter access, exterior doors, and visitor management.
Safe-Room Designs for School Safety (with Related Video)
Lynn Jr., Freddie and Percival-Young, Carla
American School and University; Oct 2011
Recent tornadoes and other natural disasters are prompting schools to incorporate storm shelters into their designs. Includes general guidelines and questions that may help designers and education administrators set up storm shelters. Discusses Alabama's legislation to make safe rooms mandatory in public schools, using the International Code Council/National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters (ICC 500-2008) as the minimum building code for safe spaces.
Designing Safe Facilities
District Administration; v47 n9 ; Sep 2011
Presents the observations of Judy Marks, Kenneth Trump, Larry Borland, and Tod Schneider regarding school security, with particular regard to heightened concerns since the 1999 Columbine and 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. The article addresses entry control, video intercoms, smart card access, elimination of dead space, natural surveillance, and cameras. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is frequently cited, as are examples of security enhancements from recently built schools.
Selecting a Security Technology Provider.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p46,48 ; Aug 2011
Addresses selection criteria for a school security technology provider. The provider should have experience in educational environments, certifications and warranties according to national standards, insurance, and bonding.
Boone County Schools Move up the Security Pyramid.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n8 , p16-18 ; Aug 2011
Describes upgrades to access control in this Kentucky school system. Multiple key systems existed across the district, and even within some schools. Conversion of existing schools to battery-operated electronic locks, as well as wiring of new buildings for electronic access is described, as is networking of the locks, manual overrides, and a highly-restricted key system.
Buildings, Not Drills, Hold Key to Disaster-Proof Schools.
Baily, Nancy; Welliver, Barry; Wolf, Edward
Education Week; Jul 2011
In the Mid-South, the Wasatch Front, and the Pacific Northwest, hundreds of thousands of children attend classes in buildings not designed to protect them on the day that local faults decide to slip. Describes actions taken by Utah and Oregon to gauge the risk.
Does It Look Safe to You?
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p36,38,40,42 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for higher education campuses. Natural access control, surveillance, fencing, territorial reinforcement, landscaping, and linking CPTED with security and facility management are discussed.
Designing Out Crime in Schools.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p56-58 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Natural access control and surveillance, territorial reinforcement, implementation of CPTED in schools, and linking CPTED and management are discussed.
Rating Your Program: Turning School Emergency Plans Inside Out.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p36,37 ; Jul 2011
Advises the inclusion of potential hazards outside the school in emergency plans. Proximity to manufacturing and transportation hubs should be considered, as should nearby natural hazards. Also to be considered are the advantages of beneficial resources in proximity to the school.
School Security: Design Strategies for Common Problems.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p26,28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Discusses design strategies for improved school security, with particular attention to remedies for existing buildings. Access control, lighting, electronic and human surveillance, landscaping, and elimination of hiding places are emphasized.
Industry Trends in K-12 Schools.
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul 2011
Discusses funding trends in public school services and programs in light of the current recession. According to the survey, security staff has been reduced, sustainable building enhancements have increased, value engineering has increased, lower quality products are being specified, and collection time on payments has increased.
Designing School Safe Rooms.
Orr, Brian M.; Davis, Brent M.
Ascent Magazine; , p38-42 ; Summer 2011
Creating safe havens in schools to protect against tornadoes can greatly aid communities while not blowing the budget if they are designed efficiently and early in the process. Discusses design requirements, design challenges, secondary uses, safe room costs, and availability of Federal grants.
R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p36-39 ; Jun 2011
Discusses steps for maintaining school security. Facilities managers and security staff have several news tasks to perform: read audit reports for the system; check interior and exterior lights for existence of dark spots; inspect notification systems and those who monitor them; test mass notification systems frequently; evaluate effectiveness of system for monitoring video surveillance; and confirm condition of defibrillators, flashlights, and battery-operated radios.
Door Hardware: Code Considerations.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p19,20 ; Jun 2011
Reviews highlights of major codes regarding door hardware, with particular attention to maintaining both fire safety and security, as well as compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act.
Practical Documents for Campus Security: NFPA 730 and 731.
Anthoyn, Michael; Davis, Richard
ASHRAE Journal; v27 n3 , p46,47 ; May 2011
Compares content of two National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents regarding campus security. In principle, they complement each other. NFPA 730 is a standard. NFPA 731 is a guide to implementing the standard.
Disaster Preparedness for Existing School Structures.
School Construction News; v17 n4 , p14,15,23 ; May-Jun 2011
Discusses exceptions in California's seismic codes that allow existing schools to evade thorough seismic retrofitting and the controversy around the situation. Also discussed is a similar vulnerability of schools to storms in areas where weather is the major threat.
Seven Tips for Vetting an Outside Contractor.
Buildings; v105 n5 , p40-42,44,46,48 ; May 2011
Advises on minimizing downtime and maintaining safety when engaging outside facilities contractors. Planning, checking credentials, safety, contingency plans, communication, and long-term commitment are addressed.
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p46-49 ; Mar 2011
Advocates for district-wide video applications that apply not only to safety but to operational processes, such as efficient carpool lanes, cafeteria lines, and crowd management at special events. Video further allows district administrators to verify whether procedures are implemented and followed, e.g., the number and type of emergency drills.
Researching Children's Understanding of Safety: An Auto-Driven Visual Approach
Agbenyega, Joseph S.
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood,; v12 n2 , p163-174 ; 2011
Safe learning spaces allow children to explore their environment in an open and inquiring way, whereas unsafe spaces constrain, frustrate and disengage children from experiencing the fullness of their learning spaces. This study explores how children make sense of safe and unsafe learning spaces, and how this understanding affects the ways they engage with their learning spaces. Using a qualitative research method that employed auto-driven visual and observation approaches, this research conducted at one centre in the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, examined children's movement and interaction within their learning spaces. The results suggest that the children felt safe in spaces that offered them the best opportunities for play. These are the spaces where they behaved well, laughed freely, reacted positively, and played without too much restriction and intimidation, keeping in mind the restrictions imposed on them by their teachers at other spaces. The implications for constructing and managing safe learning spaces for children are discussed.
Brew, Scott; Dorn, Michael; Edelstein, Frederick; Ramsey, John; Schoff, Larry
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p13-16 ; Jan 2011
Various authors share their predictions on education issues. Educational politics, energy, sustainability, and safety are addressed.
Safer School Office Designs.
Dorn, Michael S.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p.9 ; Jan 2011
Suggestions for design features that can make a difference in addressing an aggressive person in the main office area.
Review Course on Video Surveillance.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p74-76 ; Jan 2011
Describes advances in video surveillance technology, including Internet protocol (IP) installations that network with computers, along with improved megapixel and video analytic capabilities.
Getting Serious about Access Control.
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p44,45 ; Dec 2010
Acknowledges the potential for prohibitively expensive access control systems and the possibility for ineffectiveness if people do not learn to use the systems. The author describes the essential components in order to stay within a budget, as well as training measures for faculty and administration.
Keys to Success.
American School and University; v83 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Dec 2010
Describes 10 ways that schools can overcome and move beyond impediments to providing safe, healthful, and high-quality education. The 10 areas include finances, sustainable design, operating efficiency, educational technology, distance learning, security, indoor air quality, maintenance / cleaning, managing space, and community connection.
Access Control Needs to be Comprehensive.
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p46 ; Dec 2010
Addresses the need for comprehensive school access control. The article is framed in the context of the "four D's" (deter, detect, delay, and detain).
Granite School District Security System Grows with Needs.
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p14-16,18 ; Dec 2010
Describes the evolution of this Utah county school district's security program from simple burglar alarms, to sophisticated access control. Specifications of the systems are described, with an emphasis on how older buildings were retrofitted and how efficiency was obtained to enable a small staff to control the systems.
Ready, Fire, Aim: Why Security Measures May Miss the Target.
Building Operating Management; v57 n11 , p14,16,-18 ; Nov 2010
Advises on areas of building security that are often overlooked. A security assessment should always be the first step, followed by selection of technology, staffing, policies, and procedures. Typical areas that are overlooked include unsupervised or improperly installed technology, lobbies, stairwells, roofs, windows, and employee participation.
Safe Passage Out: Lessons in Life Safety Equipment.
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p70,72,73,74 ; Oct 2010
Emphasizes meeting and exceeding codes where egress from schools is concerned. Working with fire and police professionals and equipment selection is also addressed.
American School and University; v83 n1 , p34-36 ; Sep 2010
Discusses school security planning beyond video surveillance and access control. Security assessment, project planning, design and engineering, and construction administration are detailed as the four significant phases for security enhancement in new construction.
Video Surveillance Keeps School Users Safe.
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p62.64,65 ; Aug 2010
Lists different types of surveillance equipment available and describes advantages of fixed and PTZ (Pan/Tilt/Zoom). Surveillance includes interior and exterior, as well as monitoring athletic fields.
State of Safety.
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p42-44 ; Jul 2010
Reviews school safety endeavors in Hawaii, citing them as an example of an effective statewide effort, funded by state and federal grants.
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p40, 41 ; Jul 2010
Discusses perimeter lighting of a building, addressing code requirements, color quality, glare, light trespass and pollution, and energy efficiency.
Staying Safe on Site.
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p36,38,40 ; Jul 2010
Discusses safety on occupied school construction sites. Clear communication, background checks and photo identification of construction workers, and OSHA requirements are addressed, as is the safety of visitors, students, and other building occupants. Fire plans, along environmental quality and isolation are also discussed.
Gone to the Dogs?
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p48-50 ; Jul 2010
Discusses canine sweeps of schools, highlighting court decisions that have upheld their legality. Need, authority, notice, and procedures for the sweeps are also addressed.
Safe and Secure.
American School and University; v82 n11 , p16-18,20,22,23 ; Jun 2010
Discusses maintaining campus security under current budget strains. Low-cost measures that do not tap resources needed elsewhere are featured, including improved communication, sirens, door security, and involving the student body in vigilance and mentoring. A list of low-cost steps from the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is included.
Making the Most of What You Have.
Caster, Richard; Floreno, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v49 n3 , p47-50 ; Mar 2010
Advises on school access control and visitor management, using readily available or already in place low-tech systems, technology, and personnel.
Designing for Security.
American School and University; v82 n6 , pSS26,SS28,SS29 ; Feb 2010
Discusses crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Creating clear but controllable entrances, interior space and furnishing design, interior and exterior visibility, and active technological surveillance are discussed, as is the importance of main maintaining a welcoming appearance.
Convergence: The New Security Priority.
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p29-31,34 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the importance of physical security in defending IT security. Door and access control is emphasized as the front line against intruding hackers.
Site Surveys: A Closer Look at Security.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p12,13 ; Jan 2010
Advises on conducting a security assessment of an existing site, addressing the multiple components of facility security and the typical results that a site survey will produce.
School Playground Surfacing and Arm Fractures in Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Sand to Wood Chip Surfaces.
Howard, Andrew; Macarthur, Colin; Rothman, Linda; Willan Andrew; Macpherson, Alison
PLoS Medicine; Dec 15, 2009
Reports on the difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fiber surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. The research determined that granitic sand playground surfaces reduce the risk of arm fractures from playground falls when compared with engineered wood fiber surfaces.
Integrating School Security Systems.
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p32-34 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the benefits of converging surveillance technology with IT infrastructure, with an emphasis on converting existing analog equipment to digital and networking the technology for staff-wide and public safety personnel access.
Security vs. Sustainability.
Building Operating Management; v56 n12 , p34,35 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the potential competition between building sustainability and security issues. Preferences for lighting, landscaping, and opening control by one interest may inhibit success in the other. Collaboration between the multiple disciplines involved is recommended in order to find intelligent solutions.
Safer Science: Chemical Storage.
The Science Teacher; , p12,13 ; Oct 2009
Reflects on the danger of an "It's always been done this way" attitude towards chemical storage in school science laboratories. References are provided to national standards for the storage of chemicals, and a list of 17 safe storage guidelines from the Centers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are offered. Links to five references are provided. Registration is required for free download.
Effectively Managing Visitors.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p48-50 ; Oct 2009
Advises on managing school visitors with mandatory identification check, sign-in by a staff member, sign-out, and use of visitor badges. Features of visitor management software are highlighted, as well as training of staff to be polite, but vigilant.
Case Study: Piedmont California Schools Lock Down Classroom Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Oct 2009
Describes this district's replacement of 50 classroom door locks that can be locked from inside with a key, new panic bars for exit doors that can be found in the dark, and standardization of the key system.
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS36,SS37 ; Sep 2009
Advises on securing school transportation by parking all vehicles in a central, secured facility and enforcing control of who has access to those facilities. Advice on securing and supervising the parking facility is included.
School Security Breaches on the Rise.
eSchoolNews; v73 n9 ; Sep 2009
Describes a 28% increase in school physical security breaches from 2007 to 2008 and increased use of real-time viewing of security cameras by emergency response personnel. The statistics are drawn from the following survey: http://webobjects.cdw.com/webobjects/media/pdf/newsroom/CDWG-School-Safety-Index-2009
Putting a Lock on Security.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n9 , p12,14 ; Sep 2009
Discusses affordable retrofits of door locks that do not require switching to a fully automated system. Electronic lock cylinders are emphasized, with their programmability and scalability detailed, as well as their independence from hard wiring.
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p31-33 ; Aug 2009
Discusses convergence of networked security technologies that connects cameras, video analytics, and mass notification systems. These systems are typically Internet-based and can identify potential physical threats while they are still in their formative stage.
Cutting Budgets in the Recession? Dont Cut Security. [Four Building Security Hotspots.]
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p14,16 ; Aug 2009
Advises against cutting security budgets during a recession. Re-evaluating systems for effectiveness and economical updates are suggested, while opening up the organization to liability should security be reduced and an occupant harmed is strongly discouraged.
Selecting a Security Systems Integrator.
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS12-S14 ; Jul 2009
Outlines a due-diligence process for selecting a security systems that addresses security assessment steps, envisioning security challenges, implementing the process, and persistence in asking questions.
Locker Options: Thinking outside the Box.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS12-S14 ; Jul 2009
Addresses the aesthetics, acoustics, and contraband of school locker installations. Typical dysfunctions of design, construction, and placement are noted, as are solutions such as incorporating lockers into human-scale gathering places, noise abatement techniques, natural surveillance opportunities.
From a Student's Perspective.
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Presents the observations of a 17-year-old on school security, citing the building vulnerabilities that attract predators, various types of risk, the importance of involving all occupants in the security program, and the advantages of deterrence, detection, delay, and response in thwarting security breaches.
Greenwood Community Schools Prioritize Building Security.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n6 , p28-30,32,33 ; Jun 2009
Profiles recent security measures taken in Indiana's Greenwood Community School Corporation. After assessment by security consultants, video surveillance, electronic door access, and visitor identification were employed. Architectural adjustments to buildings, staff training, information and warnings delivered by the software, and accommodation of special events are covered.
Design Considerations Balance Sustainability, Safety Needs.
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p12,13 ; May 2009
Briefly addresses several issues where building security and sustainability meet in the areas of outdoor and indoor lighting, the exterior building envelope, and landscaping.
Protecting the Security Budget.
Building Operating Management; v56 n5 , p31,32,33 ; May 2009
Advises on justifying security expenditures by demonstrating how security technology can reduce demands on security staff, and how to prioritize cuts when necessary. Excessive access control, architectural changes that impact security, and using add/alternates to specifications to evaluate the costs of various security technologies are addressed.
Test Emergency Lighting Systems: It's a Requirement.
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p32,34,36,37 ; May 2009
Discusses the codes that require regular testing of emergency lighting, the frequent neglect of these requirements in school facilities. Methods of testing are cited, noting their respective staffing and budgetary requirements.
Who Is Your Thin Blue Line?
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p86,88,89 ; Apr 2009
Explores the history and current use of security personnel in schools, citing the various agencies or businesses from which they are drawn and blended approaches to school security personnel. Cautions for background checks, personnel caliber, salaries, training, and political issues are included.
Columbine's 10th Anniversary Finds Lessons Learned.
District Administration; v45 n4 , p26-30 ; Apr 2009
Reflects on changes in school security since the April 20, 1999 attack at Colorado's Columbine High School. These include reduced school access, visitor management systems, surveillance cameras, communications enhancements, improved school design, and improved preparedness. Typical gaps that remain in preparedness are also discussed.
Ensuring Our Schools Are Safe.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p44-47 ; Mar 2009
Illustrates how many sophisticated school security systems can be breached, suggests elements of a school safety assessment and components of the assessment team, and describes necessary qualifications of an outside security assessment firm.
Seeing Eye Cameras.
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p60-63 ; Mar 2009
Discusses video surveillance equipment that can be programmed to use analytics to discern, highlight, and alert to unwanted activities in school areas. This relieves security personnel of constant video monitoring.
Your Attention, Please.
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p46,48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews technological enhancements to school public address systems that coordinate class bells, two-way communication to classrooms, emergency communication, and wireless clocks.
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p41,42,44,46 ; Feb 2009
Advises on how to justify expenditures for building security, including security assessments of the surrounding neighborhoods, willingness of the institution to assume risk, upgrading security technology to keep up with other upgraded technology in use, forming partnerships within the institutional community, and creating a long-term security plan.
Trial and Error: How to Achieve Maximum Benefit from Campus Security Technology.
American School and University; v81 n6 , pSS42,SS44,SS45 ; Feb 2009
Details five common mistakes made in school security deployment: 1) believing all product claims, 2) thinking technology will solve all the security problems, 3) insufficient lanning, 4) excluding critical personnel, and 5) deploying more technology than necessary.
Keeping it Safe.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p29,30,32 ; Feb 2009
Discusses an array of fire warning devices for schools, including addressable control panels, area-specific detection and suppression equipment, and training of personnel.
An Application of "Broken-Windows" and Related Theories to the Study of Disorder, Fear, and Collective Efficacy in Schools.
Plank, Stephen B.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Young, Hollie
American Journal of Education; v115 n2 , p227-247 ; Feb 2009
This article considers school climate and perceptions of social disorder. When a school is characterized by disorder or physical risk, basic educational goals and processes are jeopardized. We use survey data from 33 public schools serving grades 6-8 in a large mid-Atlantic city to examine relationships among physical disorder (e.g., broken windows and poor building conditions), fear, collective efficacy, and social disorder. Path analyses reveal a direct association between physical disorder and social disorder even when prior levels of collective efficacy are controlled--a finding consistent with traditional broken-windows theories. Further, there is evidence that the effects of physical disorder may be operating through increased fear and decreased collective efficacy to affect perceptions of threatening or violent interactions among people. [Authors' abstract]
American School and University; v81 n6 , pSS46,SS48,SS49 ; Feb 2009
Advises on contract security personnel for widespread campus locations. Problems finding for diverse settings, and then supervising them when they do not necessarily report for a roll call are discussed, as is the use of students as guards, and commitment to training and campus safety awareness.
Campus Fire Facts.
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p20,22 ; Jan-Feb 2009
According to a December 2008 survey by this magazine, half of college and K-12 school fire safety professionals say systems maintenance is one of their top four fire protection challenges. More than 48 percent also indicated false alarms are a significant problem. Integration with other non-fire systems, such as mass notification, is another challenge that was most often checked by participants. Of the 447 campus officials who took the survey, 141 (32 percent) marked this option as one of their top four concerns. The study also points out that one in five schools say their systems do not comply with National Fire Protection Association code.
Safety Balance: Achieving a Secure but Friendly Access Control.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p77-79 ; Jan 2009
Discusses school access control, emphasizing a welcoming environment that is nonetheless carefully controlled. Careful evaluation of how the building is used by students, staff, and the community begins the process. Design and staffing of entrances, visitor identification, and internal space controls are addressed.
Complying with the Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act.
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p24,26,28 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews particulars of the 2008 Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act, which requires higher education institutions to annually report considerable fire safety information to the U.S. Department of Education. Advice on achieving a balanced approach to fire safety, cost-effective fire prevention measures, standpipe fire hose stations, and special fire suppression systems for kitchens and laboratories is included.
Emerging Trends: Technology Can Address Evolving Security Needs on Campus.
American School and University; v81 n5 , p39-41 ; Jan 2009
Discusses emerging educational security technology, including advances in intelligent video analytics, mass notification systems, and building perimeter control.
Campus Safety Grant Strategies: Your First Steps.
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p30,32,33 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Offers strategies for obtaining grants to enhance campus safety, discussing what grants typically do and do not cover, and the steps that institutions need to take before even seeking grant funds.
Prevent Campus Assaults with Proven Methods.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n1 , p34-38 ; Jan 2009
Discusses prevention of assaults with weapons, including banning of high risk individuals, aggressive traffic enforcement, staff training, visual screening for weapons on persons, room searches, metal detection and X-ray equipment, trained detection animals, and plain view vehicle checks.
Stoughton School Vandals Beware!
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p46,48,49 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Details the video surveillance system installed in Wisconsin's Stoughton Area School District. The combination of software, cameras, motion detectors, and publicity is described.
Homeschooling and Safety.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p11 ; Jan 2009
Reflects on the rise in homeschooling, and suggests that poor school facilities and concerns about safety at school might be two of the reasons.
School Security Post-Columbine: The More We Learn, the More Challenges Remain.
Design Cost Data; v53 n1 , p9,10 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews the current state of two-way communication between classrooms and the administration area, electronic security control, perimeter security, and funding for school security.
Transparency Builds community.
Learning By Design; n18 , p168 ; 2009
Explores the advantages of transparency in educational facilities. Admitting daylight, supervision, and visual communication between groups is discussed.
Equating School and Safety.
Learning By Design; n18 , p14-17 ; 2009
Briefly reviews recent facility design approaches to improve school safety, organizing them as "soft" or "hard," depending on the degree of prominence of the feature within the fabric of the structure. Three school facilities are offered as examples.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: email@example.com