NCEF Resource List: School Safety and Security--PK-12 Facilities Issues
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Information on designing safer school facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings, 2nd Edition Adobe PDF
(FEMA, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Apr 2012)
This manual is a revised and expanded version of FEMA 428. It provides the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to design a school that is safe from potential physical attacks and, at the same time, offers an aesthetically pleasing design that is functional and meets the needs of the students, staff, administration, and general public. This second edition of FEMA 428 focuses on the threats posed by physical attacks on a school by terrorists or targeted shootings. The manual is intended for use by schools who feel they are at risk to attack and is designed to meet the needs of all schools, including those with serious security concerns. 317p

Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2011
Robers, Simone; Zhang, Jijun; Truman, Jennifer
(National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics, Feb 2012)
This report provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime at school. It also presents data on crime away from school to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. The report covers topics such as victimization, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. 203p

How to Modernize Your Schools Bells, Overhead Pagings, and Mass Notification in Times of Austerity.
(Singlewire Software, Oct 2011)
Whitepaper on ways to modernize and consolidate overhead paging, emergency communications, and school bell system to save time and money. Includes information on converting current systems into a “future-proof” system that can grow with you in the future without a forklift upgrade.

School Safety Audit Questions and Answers.
(Virginia Department of Education, 2011)
Provides twelve questions and answers that should be considered in a school safety audit. These cover the exterior, interior, visibility, and alarms.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education and U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, DC , Nov 2010)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report provides current statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. It presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources. The report covers topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available.

Report NO: NCES 2011-02

School Security Technologies. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Provides current information on school security technologies, including access control systems, surveillance equipment, weapons detectors, communications and alarm systems, and emergency notification systems (ENS). Explains the shift underway from individual system controls to an IP (Internet protocol) model where everything feeds into the same network. Updates and replaces two landmark publications on school security technologies. 20p.

Library Security Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(Library Administration and Management Association, Security Guidelines Subcommittee of the Buildings and Equipment Section, Safety & Security of Library Buildings Committee, Chicago, IL , Jun 27, 2010)
These guidelines include an introduction and definitions, and sections covering the following topics: 1. Duty to Protect; 2.Foreseeability of Loss; 3. Adequacy of Protection; 4.Fire and Emergency Protection; 5.Physical Barrier and Lock and Key Security; 6. Security Duties and Security Staff; 7. Personal Access and Parcel Control; 8. Security Alarms and Electronics and 9. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. 29p.

CPTED 101: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design - The Fundamentals for Schools. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2010)
Discusses the concepts of natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality as a means to improve school security. Each concept is defined and presented along with basic principles of how to achieve it within an uncomplicated framework of design, furnishing, and staffing. Includes five references. 2p.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety. 2009. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Dec 2009)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources. Topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons,availability and student use of drugs and alcohol,and student perceptions of personal safety at school are addressed. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available, and 42 references are included. 176p.
Report NO: NCES 2010-012

Children's Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DC , Oct 2009)
Presents statistics and analysis of student exposure to violence, including violence at school. Types of violence associated with successive age groups are discussed, as are implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners. Includes 37 references. 12p.

Keeping Tennessee Schools Safe. Adobe PDF
(Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury, Offices of Research and Education Accountability, Nashville , Sep 2009)
Reviews state laws, policies, and requirements, and compares them with accepted best practices for school safety. State law requires districts to report building security strategies and procedures in place, but does not require assessment of the appropriateness or effectiveness. Many school administrators have directed substantial funds toward ensuring the security of their schools over preventive measures (e.g. staff training on violence prevention and counseling services). Although it is intuitive that such efforts enhance building security, the analysts found little research evaluating security measures as a means to deter or prevent violent incidents. 48p.

Safety with Dignity: Alternatives to the Over-Policing of Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York Civil Liberties Union, New York, NY , Jul 2009)
Examines six New York City public high schools that serve large numbers of at-risk children and make use of alternative ways of enforcing school safety. The report found that the six schools showed high graduation rates, low crime and positive reviews from students, teachers and administrators. The report does not definitively link the alternative school safety measures to high academic achievement, but does recommend fewer detectors, restoring discipline responsibilities to educators, fewer school safety agents, alternatives to harsh discipline, student input into roles, transparency and accountability in safety practices, and support for students? non-academic needs. 56p.

The Impact of School Fencing on Public Health and the Community.
Berry, Rory
( , Jun 12, 2009)
Reoports on the impact that placing fences around schools has on safety and public habits. While many people feel that installing fences around schools can greatly enhance safety, this concept has not been thoroughly examined. In fact, school fences may be detrimental to overall health when all elements are taken into account. The report recommends examining the effects of fencing on protecting students from outside danger, preventing truancy, traffic around the schools, and interaction with the community. Includes seven references. 6p.

CDW-G School Safety Index 2009. Adobe PDF
(CDW, Vernon Hills, IL , May 18, 2009)
Provides a nationwide view of school safety issues from the perspective of more than 400 school district IT and security directors. The report reveals that while the number of security breaches increased in the last year, schools also made some important gains and are addressing critical areas of school safety: 1) 79 percent of districts report using surveillance cameras, compared to 70 percent in 2008. 2) 70 percent of school districts are using a mass notification system, compared to 45 percent in 2008. 3) 92% of districts are using some type of encryption to protect their network and critical data. Still, only three-quarters of survey respondents rated their current physical and cyber security as adequate. The report also finds that while K-12 districts are taking steps to improve network and building security, increased breaches caused an overall decline in schools' physical and cyber security scores. In the last 12 months, 55 percent of districts report experiencing an IT breach, and 67 percent experienced a physical breach such as break-ins, unauthorized persons in school buildings or vandalism. 30p.

Columbine 10th Anniversary: Lessons Learned and Glaring Gaps Remain, The Legacy of Columbine Ten Years Later.
Trump, Ken
Apr 2009
Discusses changes in school security after the April, 1999 shooting at Columbine High School. Topics include: 1)What has improved? 2)What gaps remain? 3)How have budgets for school safety changed? 4)What key elements are missing from many school safety plans? 5)What should administrators and parents do to improve and sustain school safety? Videos of news interviews with the author accompany the text.

Door Locking Options for Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008.
(U.S. Dept of Education, U.S. Dept of Justice, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report provides current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. It presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an variety of sources, and in categories including victimization, fights, bullying, classroom disorder, weapons, student perceptions of school safety, teacher injury, and availability and student use of drugs and alcohol. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur outside of school grounds are offered as a point of comparison where available. 169p.
Report NO: NCES 2009-022

Practical Health and Safety Guidelines for School Theater Operations. Assessing the Risks in Middle, Junior and Senior High School Theater Buildings and Programs.
Davidson, Randall
(Risk International Publishing, Littleton, CO , 2009)
Encourages re-thinking and changes regarding health and safety practices in the performing arts at all educational levels. Units of the text address the administrator and the performing arts program; the purchase, replacement, and preventive maintenance of equipment; fire prevention and suppression; emergency preparedness; safety during performances; stage housing, rigging, and the audience; shops and storage; environmental concerns; special effects; skill sets for the performing arts instructor, and stage equipment. The book identifies areas that performing arts personnel and administrators might not think of as dangerous or hazardous, such as aging or outdated equipment or facilities, providing readers with pertinent health and safety information, pointing out hazardous conditions and recommended practices. 434p.

Preventing Violence and Crime in America's Schools: From Put Downs to Lock Downs.
Lassiter, William; Perry, Danya
(Greenwood/Praeger Press, Santa Barbara, CA , 2009)
Provides educators, parents, law enforcement officials, and other youth-serving professionals with a perspective on the topic of school violence, offering solutions to the problems facing all schools when it comes to violence and safety. The authors examine specifics relating to school violence, opportunities to prevent and intervene, and the importance of planning for a crisis. The book highlights both research and practitioner viewpoints, balancing insights gained through real-world experiences with research on best practices. 256p.

Security Design for Sustainable Buildings and Campuses. Adobe PDF
O'Neil, Dan; Rueda, Roger; Savage, Jenna
(Applied Risk Management, Stoneham, MA , 2009)
Begins by discussing the importance of sustainability, and how security is often mistakenly omitted from green initiatives, followed by a discussion of the importance of making security a high priority in the design process and how costly inadequate security can be for a company. The third section discusses the risk assessment process and the importance of carrying out such an assessment early on in the design process. Subsequent sections discuss the challenges of balancing security and sustainability, and introduce various solutions that can be achieved through new technologies and systems integration, with respect to specific building elements such as outdoor and indoor lighting, HVAC systems, the exterior envelope, and landscaping. The document concludes with a discussion of additional benefits that can be reaped from systems integration, details about how systems integration can be implemented, and how pre- fabrication of security components can generate LEED credits. 31p.

Safe, Healthy and Positive Environmental Design (SHAPED) Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(Linn Benton Lincoln Education Service District, Albany, Or , 2009)
Begins by quoting statistics on violence in schools, and then explains Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, citing its history, basic concepts, and benefits. Typical risks on campuses and adjacent properties are cited, along with suggested solutions for these and specific school spaces. Other concepts discussed natural surveillance, natural access control, territoriality, the challenge of large schools, school safety audits, and school climate. 19 additional resources and 25 references are cited. 21p.

Selecting Security Technology Providers. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Describes a process for selecting security technology consultants and systems integrators. Includes two appendices, "Identifying Desired System Attributes" and "Identifying Desired System Components." 4p.

Providing Safe Facilities: Conducting a Facility Risk Review.
Seidler, Todd; Miller, John
(Athletic Business Publication, Inc., Madison, WI , 2009)
Outlines steps of an athletic facility safety audit and offers a sample format of a safety inspection checklist and action report. Includes 12 references. 10p.

Locker Options Thinking outside the Box.
Schneider, Tod
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , Dec 2008)
Addresses the aesthetics, acoustics, and contraband of school locker installations. Typical dysfunctions of design, construction, and placement are noted, as are solutions such as incorporating lockers into human-scale gathering places, noise abatement techniques, natural surveillance opportunities. 4p.

An Investigation of Best Practices for Evacuating and Sheltering Individuals with Special Needs and Disabilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Prepared in response to the June 2007 General Accountability Office report, "Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance" (GAO-07-609), this NCEF report reviews current practices in school building design for accommodating the evacuation and sheltering needs for the disabled. The report provides two recommendations: (1) School emergency management plans should include procedures and training for evacuating special needs and disabled students in a variety of emergencies and building conditions and by a variety of routes; (2) Schools should continue to work with emergency planners and building designers to ensure that facilities are equipped to shelter a range of individuals with special needs. 4p.

Earthquakes and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses earthquake basics, preparing a school for an earthquake, reducing nonstructural hazards, and seismic upgrading. A mitigation checklist is provided, as well as appendices on nonstructural hazards, past earthquake damage to U.S. schools, and a discussion of schools as earthquake shelters. 27 additional resources are cited. 8p.

Wildfires and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses conditions that feed wildfires, how a building catches fire, determining your school's risk, creating a survivable space for the school, the importance of maintenance, the fire-resistant school, meeting code requirements, related flood and mudslide risks, and an appendix on wildfire response. 22 additional resources are cited. 6p.

Wren School Security Survey: Access Control.
(Wren Solutions, Jefferson City, MO , Sep 25, 2008)
Presents the results of a survey of of school administrators and resource, revealing that almost three-fourths of respondents are not extremely confident in their ability to lock down their school in case of an emergency, citing limited budgets to fund electronic access control technologies as the primary obstacle. The survey also found that electronic access control systems are not being used in the majority of schools that participated, that only 28 percent of responding schools felt "extremely confident" in their ability to ensure perimeter doors would securely lock in case of an emergency lock down, and that funding remains a key obstacle for schools wanting to implement additional security technologies such as access control. 7p.

Safe School Initiatives. Adobe PDF
(Office of the Missouri State Auditor, Jefferson City , Aug 2008)
Reports on an audit that evaluated education officials and school districts based on compliance with state laws and recommendations from the Missouri Center for Safe Schools. The review found that school districts had not always provided parents and students with complete disciplinary policies that spells out specific punishments, needed to do a better job of educating students about potential Internet dangers and could do more to prepare for emergencies. The audit s findings, which were highly critical of the state education department, found examples of school districts that had not taken proper safety precautions because of ignorance of state guidelines. 71p.
Report NO: 2008-52

School Safety & Physical Design. Adobe PDF
Harris, Steve; McElroy, Steven
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2008)
This presentation examines how physical design affects school safety, reviews elements of strong safety-related school design, discusses school vulnerability assessments, highlights solutions that address physical design weaknesses, and outlines the four elements of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). 51p.

Natural Disasters and School Construction. [Podcast]
(United Nations Radio, New York, NY, Jun 25, 2008)
Presents an audio inteview that reviews loss of children's lives within schools that were damaged by recent natural disasters. The design and seismolological professionals interviewed advocate for better design and construction of schools worldwide, along with better and quicker restoration of school housing after natural disasters. Improvements in school construction undertaken after lessons learned from the disasters are noted. Also urged are improved preparation and acceptance of the inevitability of natural disasters, improved training for the building profession in developing countries, recognition of the disproportionate affect of disasters on vulnerable populations.

CDW-G School Safety Index 2008 Adobe PDF
(CDW, Vernon Hills, IL , May 19, 2008)
Benchmarks the current status of public school district safety. The survey of 400 school district IT and security directors evaluates and assesses cyber and physical security, examines the impact of cyber and physical security education and communication, and investigates the proliferation of security breaches. 27p.

Low-Cost Security Measures for School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Presents 50 school safety and security measures that may be implemented at little or no cost and without the use of complex technology. These measures are selected from the assessment guides that supplement the NCEF publication Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities. 4p.

Building in Safety. Adobe PDF
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , Jan 2008)
Discusses incorporation of safety and security in schools through building design. Major points of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are outlined. 2p.

Facility Inspection Tool Guidebook. Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , 2008)
Assists with school facility inspections, with particular attention to the California Office of Public School Construction's Facility Inspection Tool(FIT). After an overview of health and safety impacts of facility systems and structures, the document provides practical tips on how to conduct a FIT-based inspection, identify and address health and safety problems required by the FIT, recommendations for maintenance and operations best practices, and extensive additional resources and information. 86p.

Improving School Access Control. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
Discusses a wide range of access control measures for school buildings and grounds. For school grounds, the topics of surveillance, territoriality and maintenance, landscaping, exterior lighting, traffic circulation, dumpster enclosures, site utilities, storm water retention areas, and high risk sites are addressed. Natural surveillance, boundaries, setbacks, and joint use are considered for outdoor athletic facilities and playgrounds. Within the school building, exterior doors, exterior walls, windows, roofs, canopies, awnings, breezeways, covered walkways, courtyards and high-value targets are considered. Building security and surveillance systems are discussed, as are specific areas within the school, such as entries, corridors, stairs, classrooms, performing arts areas, food service, music rooms, restrooms, labs, shops, computer rooms, athletic facilities, and custodial areas. Includes ten references. 11p.

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
This NCEF publication describes a process for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds, making a hazard mitigation plan, and implementing the plan. Steps include: select an assessment tool; assemble an assessment team; look at the record; perform the assessment; write up the results; create a standing committee on hazard mitigation; prepare a hazard mitigation plan; understand risk; weigh passive vs. active safety; select security technology with care; improve school climate; calculate costs, locate funding; seek input; coordinate hazard mitigation with crisis planning; start small, think big; justify thoroughly; meet regularly, advocate continually; and benefit mutually. 4p.

NCEF School Safety Assessment Guides.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
The 25 guides found on the lower portion of this web page assist in the school safety assessment process. Each downloadable guide addresses a specific area or space within the school, presenting a series of "yes-no" questions that assess the safety and security of physical features typical for that area. 67p.

One More Broken Window.
(NASUWT, Birmingham, United Kingdom , 2008)
Discusses how British schools are not being given enough support from government authorities in meeting their duty to provide a safe and secure environment for pupils and staff. School staff felt that living in run-down areas encourages pupils to carry out minor crimes, such as vandalism and graffiti; that substandard housing, a lack of play areas, and insecure school sites were all felt to have a negative impact on pupil behavior and achievement; that areas with low quality housing tend to have highly transient populations, which has a negative impact on schools' ability to meet education standards and promote positive pupil behavior. 74p.

Security for Education with IP Surveillance Systems. Adobe PDF
(D-Link, Fountain Valley, CA , Jan 2008)
Describes the advantages of Internet Protocol (IP) surveillance systems in educational settings. It explains technology concepts, provides an overview of benefits, describes advantages for specific education-industry security applications, and details the necessary requirements and considerations for implementation of the technology. Comparisons to other technologies like cigital video recorder (DVR) and traditional analog systems are also explored. 5p.

21st Century Security and CPTED.
Atlas, Randall
(CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL , 2008)
Presents a collection of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) writings by CPTED practitioners. These essays outline contemporary national building security codes, best practices, and standards of care in private and public buildings. The book includes sample security and real-world applications of CPTED theory and practice, examines architectural surety from the perspective of risk analysis and liability, and explores next generation CPTED practices based on emerging security and safety concerns. There is a chapter devoted to CPTED for schools, as well as 400 photos, diagrams, tables, and checklists that accompany the text. 559p.

Ensuring Quality School Facilities and Security Technologies: Effective Strategies for Creating Safer Schools and Communities.
Schneider, Tod
(Hamilton Fish Insitute on School and Community Violence, Washington, DC; Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR , 2008)
Advises educators community members on the relationship between school safety and school facilities. The guide offers a definition and history of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), a series of questions and answers to assist in planning CPTED, an overview of current security technolgy, and a safety audit and security survey that can be used as is or adapted for the location. 22 references are included. 69p.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington , Dec 2007)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. The report provides current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. It presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an variety of sources, and in categories including victimization, fights, bullying, classroom disorder, weapons, student perceptions of school safety, teacher injury, and availability and student use of drugs and alcohol. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur outside of school grounds are offered as a point of comparison where available. 227p.
Report NO: NCES 2008021

2007 Security and Vulnerability Assessment Project. Adobe PDF
(Madison Public Schools, Connecticut , Nov 2007)
Reports on the positive and negative security aspects of the seven facilities in Connecticut's Madison Public Schools. Security assessment results for each school are provided, as are the scope and methodology of the assessment. In the interest of security, the summary of findings, observations and recommendations, and school administrator checklists are not available in this report. Eleven references are included. 22p.

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , Oct 2007)
Advises on student privacy rights, including images of students captured on security videotapes that are maintained by the school's law enforcement unit. These images are not considered education records and may be shared with parents of students whose images are on the video and with outside law enforcement authorities, as appropriate. Schools that do not have a designated law enforcement unit might consider designating an employee to serve as the "law enforcement unit" in order to maintain the security camera and determine the appropriate circumstances in which the school would disclose recorded images. 2p.

Public School Practices for Violence Prevention and Reduction: 2003-2004. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Sep 2007)
Briefly reviews statistics on K-12 school security measures in place during the survey year. The research revealed that 60 percent of high schools, 42 percent of middle schools, and 28 percent of elementary schools used security surveillance. Also found was that 13, 10, and 3 percent of high, middle, and elementary schools, respectively, perform random metal detector tests on students. Includes four references. 3p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-10

CDW-G K-12: School Safety Index. Adobe PDF
(CDW, Vernon Hills, IL , Jun 2007)
Benchmarks the current status of public school district safety. Based on 14 elements of physical and cyber safety, the survey of 381 school district IT and security directors illustrates the indicators of strong district safety programs, as well as the barriers to school safety. 30p.

Safe Campus Checklist. Adobe PDF
(Allied Barton Security Services, King of Prussia, PA , Jun 2007)
Outlines points to consider when purchasing secrutiy services and equipment. These include checking company background, their experience within the educational community, their personnel qualifications, their attention to recruiting and training, warranties, actual reliability and durability of products, and total cost of ownership. 2p.

School and Campus Safety Programs and Requirements in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Higher Education Act. Adobe PDF
Skinner, Rebecca; McCallion, Gail
(Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC , Apr 27, 2007)
Discusses provisions of federal programs as they apply to campus safety in K-12 schools and institutions of higher education. It begins with a description of programs and requirements included in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), followed by a discussion of relevant requirements included in the Higher Education Act (HEA). Both the 1965 ESEA, as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and the 1965 HEA contain requirements regarding crime and student safety. The ESEA also includes specific programs that support efforts to prevent school violence. While the HEA does not authorize specific programs to address campus crime and security issues, it does contain statutory requirements related to campus crime and security, known collectively as the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. Institutions must comply with these requirements to participate in the federal student aid programs and other programs authorized by Title IV. Unlike K-12 education, there are limited federal funds available to support institutions of higher education in addressing campus crime and security issues. 19p.

The Field Act and Public School Construction: A 2007 Perspective. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Feb 2007)
Post-earthquake studies conducted by engineers and researchers over the past 20 years have conclusively proven that public schools constructed under the Field Act, when subjected to destructive earthquakes, save lives, reduce property damage, and lower reconstruction costs. A significant ancillary benefit of Field Act-constructed buildings is that public school facilities can also serve as temporary emergency shelters and as places to assist the community in recovery. Complications pursuant to approval of school facility design under the Field act are discussed, as are improvements underway or underway to address the problems. 16p.

Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.

Arizona Safe Schools: Recommendations of the Arizona School Facilities Board. Adobe PDF
(Arizona School Facilities Board, Phoenix , 2007)
Makes recommendations for school buildings and grounds to create safer schools. Topics covered include exterior lighting, administrative office locations, classroom door hardware, restrooms, vestibule entry, sidelights, perimeter fencing, security alarms, surveillance cameras, and in-classroom telephones. 6p.

Property Manager's Child Care Resource Book 2007. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Services Administration, PBS Office of Childcare, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 78p.

Protecting School Perimeters. Adobe PDF
(Ingersoll Rand, Hamilton, Bermuda , 2007)
Briefly addresses school access control through improved electronic access over key control, as well as biometrics. Examples from a high school and two school systems are cited. 5p.

Safe School Facilities Checklist.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
A checklist that combines the nation's best school facility assessment measures into one online source for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds. It includes over 400 measures covering school surroundings, school grounds, buildings and facilities, communications systems, building access control and surveillance, utility systems, mechanical systems, and emergency power. The checklist is updated frequently and may be used for planning and designing new facilities or assessing existing ones.

Safety Program and Procedures Manual. Adobe PDF
(New York City School Construction Authority , 2007)
Assists management, staff, and contractors working on all New York City school buildings in compliance with the policies and procedures set forth within the school construction program. Sections of the document detail contractor responsibilities, and general safety and health provisions, followed by requirements for concrete and masonry construction, confined space entry, cranes, derricks, elevators, hoists, demolition, electrical work, excavations, soil classification, sloping and benching, timber and aluminum hydraulic shoring, protective systems, fall protection, fire protection, hand and power tools, materials handling, personal protective equipment, public protection, scaffolding, rigging, stairways, ladders, steel erection, slip- resistance, training, perimeter columns, guardrails, drawings, welding, and cutting. Appropriate forms accompany each section. 365p.

Statewide Seismic Needs Assessment: Implementation of Oregon 2005 Senate Bill 2 Relating to Public Safety, Earthquakes, and Seismic Rehabilitation of Public Buildings Report to the Seventy-fourth Oregon Legislative Assembly.
(Oregon Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland , 2007)
Provides an inventory and estimated replacement cost of 3,352 Oregon public buildings, of which public schools represent 97 percent of the total enrollment for the 2005-06 academic year. Excluding hospitals, the estimated replacement value of this building stock totals approximately $11.5 billion, led by the K-12 schools at 85 percent, community colleges 8 percent, fire 5 percent, and police 2 percent. The 274 K-12 school buildings at very high risk for collapse in an earthquake represent portions of 193 schools that contain 14.5 percent of the statewide enrolled student population. The reporting agency recommends that school districts with buildings labeled as having high and very high relative seismic risk of collapse during a seismic event to consider hiring a structural engineering consultant to more thoroughly evaluate the seismic issues with their buildings. 342p.

Texas School Safety Center: Campus Safety and Security Audit Toolkit.
(Texas State University, San Marcos , 2007)
Assists safety audit teams with their work, being a toolkit written for personnel who will be conducting the audit, and including a campus safety and security audit tool. A variety of survey, interview, and assessment instruments are included at the site. The school safety audit checklist addresses safety and security of the site and building exterior, access control, the safety and security of the building interior, the type and extent of monitoring and surveillance, communication and information security, development of emergency operations plans, and school climate and culture (including development and enforcement of policies). 32p.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven; Collins, David; Juroszek, Steven; Ching, Francis
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2007)
Analyzes and illustrates the intent and potential interpretations of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) as it applies to educational facilities. The book discusses how the Code was developed and how it is organized, and should be used along with the Code. The chapters of the book correspond to those of the code, and cover building dimensions, types of construction, finishes, safety, accessibility, interior environment, energy efficiency, exteriors, roofs, foundations and structural considerations, and soils. 412p.
TO ORDER: 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030; Tel: 201-748-6011

Making K-12 School Sites Safer and More Secure by Design.
(Arizona School Facilities Board, Phoenix , Dec 07, 2006)
Presents the results of the Board's review of what security documents the state's department of education currently has, what they feel the most comprehensive sources on school security are, key findings regarding physical security systems, and best practice school security recommendations drawn from their literature review. Findings from these sources briefly describe entry-control techniques, building alarms, duress alarms, and camera systems. Best practices for site and building design that cover fencing, lighting, traffic and parking, exterior features, entry points, sight lines, classroom design, stairwell design, and restrooms are included. 24p.

NFPA 730 Guide for Premises Security
(National Fire Protection Association, Jan 2006)
This guide for exterior and interior security features describes construction, protection, and occupancy features, and practices, intended to reduce security vulnerabilities to life and of property in all occupancies. It includes a chapter that addresses measures to control security vulnerabilities in educational facilities. Topics in that chapter include: security vulnerability assessment; vandalism prevention; elements of a campus security program; record keeping systems; communication system; training; law enforcement; access control systems, and security equipment. 88p.

School Access and Visitor Control
(National School Safety and Security Services , 2006)
Access control to school campuses and buildings is a top concern for most school officials. School administrators struggle with maintaining a balance between having a user-friendly, welcoming school climate and a facility which is secure from unwanted intruders. This is a list of some practical steps for improving school access control to reduce the risks of unauthorized access. 2p.

Security Design Considerations for Instructional Facilities.
(Texas State University, San Marcos , 2006)
This extensive school security design guide discusses types of threats to school security in its first chapter, and then proceeds in 43 subsequent chapters to address security considerations according school site, building, interior space, and system considerations. Appendices provide a building vulnerability assessment checklist and a bibliography of 46 references.

Safe and Healthy School Environments.
Frumkin, Howard; Geller, Robert; Rubin, I.; Nodvin, Janice
(Oxford University Press, New York , 2006)
Explores the school environment using the methods and perspectives of environmental health science. Each section of the book addresses a different concern facing schools today. In the first six sections, the various aspects of the school environment are examined. Chapters include the physical environment of the school, air quality issues, pest control, cleaning methods, food safety, safe designs of playgrounds and sports fields, crime and violence prevention, and transportation. In the last two sections, recommendations are made for school administrators on how to maximize the health of their schools. Appropriately evaluating the school environment, implementing strategies to address children and adults with disabilities, emphasizing health services, infectious disease prevention and recognition, and occupational health for faculty and staff are all addressed. 462p.
TO ORDER: Oxford University Press

Solar Secure Schools: Stategies and Guidelines. Adobe PDF
Graun, G. W.; Varadi, P.F.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO , Jan 2006)
Explores possibilities for schools to have more stable energy costs because they derive a portion of their electricity from solar panels. Large numbers of solar power systems are already being deployed at U.S. schools. Solar secure schools are not only technically feasible but also economically justified when grid electricity prices are high and volatile or schools are shut down by grid power outages more than once every 10 years. Solar power prices and grid electricity prices are trending strongly in opposite directions, so solar secure schools soon will be an attractive cost control and public safety strategy in most states. This document presents a simple step-by-step process that school officials can use to assess energy security options. 30p.
Report NO: NREL/SR-520-38435

School Safety: Lessons Learned. Adobe PDF
Heffelfinger, Thomas; Cooney, Jeanne
(United States Attorney's Office, District of Minnesota, Minneapolis , 2006)
Advises on school safety and security, covering threat assessment, school climate, violence prevention programs, building safety assessment, crisis response plans, law enforcement response, security technology, communication during an emergency, trends in student violence, and lessons learned from incidents at schools in Minnesota 54p.

Handbook of School Violence and School Safety: From Research to Practice.
Jimerson, Shane, ed; Furlong, Michael, ed.
(Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ , Jan 2006)
Covers a wide range of school violence issues, from harassment and bullying to serious physical assault. It also examines existing school safety programs and the research and theories that guide them. Examinations of current issues and projections of future research and practice are embedded within the discussions. The 41 chapters by various authors are organized into four sections: 1) Foundations of School Violence and Safety, 2) Assessment and Measurement, 3) Research-based Prevention an Intervention, and 4) Implementing Comprehensive Safe School Plans. 688p.

Crisis Response Box: A Guide to Help Every School Assemble the Tools and Resources Needed for a Critical Incident Response. [California] Adobe PDF
Lockyer, Bill; Eastin, Delaine
(California Attorney General's Crime and Violence Prevention Center; California Department of Education's Safe Schools and Violence Prevention Office, 2006)
This is a guide to assist schools in preparing for a school emergency. The box contains crucial information needed to respond to a critical incident. The guide states that these elements should be part of a crisis response box: an aerial photo of the school campus; a map that identifies streets, intersections and vacant lots near a school and includes planned emergency routes; an up-to-date layout of classrooms and other campus facilities; architectural blueprints of school buildings; a list of teachers and other employees; master keys for all the rooms in a facility; turn-off procedures for fire alarms, sprinklers, utilities and cable television service; photos of all students; phone numbers for all key staff members, including those involved in coordinating with local emergency responders; identification of three separate staging areas for law enforcement and emergency personnel, for the news media, and for parents; an emergency resource list of people or groups that can assist in an emergency; identification of evacuation routes; student disposition forms so administrators can keep track of which students have been released and to whom; a list of which students are present at school that day; a list of students with special needs; and first-aid supplies, as well as a listing of where additional first-aid supplies can be found. 18p.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005. Adobe PDF
DeVoe, Jill; Peter, Katharin; Noonan, Margaret; Snyder, Thomas; Baum, Katrina
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics; U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs , Nov 2005)
Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. Data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population is presented, as gathered from an array of sources including the National Crime Victimization Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the School Survey on Crime and Safety, and the School and Staffing Survey. Data on crime away from school are also presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. Major findings include: Improvements have occurred in student safety. The violent crime victimization rate at school declined from 48 violent victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 28 such victimizations in 2003. In 2003, students ages 12-18 were victims of about 740,000 violent crimes and 1.2 million crimes of theft at school. Seven percent of students ages 12-18 reported that they had been bullied, 29 percent of students in grades 9-12 reported that drugs were made available to them on school property, and 9 percent of students were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. In 2003, 5 percent of students ages 12-18 reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months: 4 percent reported theft, and 1 percent reported violent victimization. Less than 1 percent of students reported serious violent victimization (such as rape, sexual assault, robbery, or aggravated assault). 182p.
Report NO: NCES 2006-001

School Vandalism and Break-Ins. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services [COPS], Aug 08, 2005)
The term school vandalism refers to willful or malicious damage to school grounds and buildings or furnishings and equipment. This guide describes the problem and reviews the risk factors of school vandalism and break-ins. It also reviews the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. The guide then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice. Includes recommendations for making changes to the physical environment. 80p.

Elements of Campus Security Design Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(Aegis Security Design, Louisville, KY , Jul 25, 2005)
Presents a summary of principle security-related issues that should be addressed in a campus design manual. The document details each category of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) that should be covered, including in each category the particular design features that must be considered. A 16-division design directive corresponding to the MasterFormat divisions is also provided. 8p.

Secure/Safe [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Safe Committee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2005)
Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates—and then protects—the building occupants, resources, structure, and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide discusses four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: Plan for Fire Protection; Ensure Occupant Safety and Health; Resist Natural Hazards; and Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets.

Safe Schools Guide: Selected Strategies and Resources. Adobe PDF
(Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City , Jun 2005)
Advises on preventive strategies for school security. Facilities issues covered include assessment of buildings and grounds, safe storage and handling of hazardous materials, disaster management. Numerous checklists, forms, and additional resources are provided. 88p.

Education and Expansion: Model School District Policies for Protection of Staff and Students During School Construction.
(New Jersey Work Environment Council, Trenton , May 30, 2005)
This contains recommendations for school districts on maintenance of good indoor air quality and a safe learning environment during school construction. Lists elements to be included in a safety policy in chronological order, under headings that correspond to the stages of building construction: pre-construction planning, establishment of communication procedures, safety items to include in the bid specifications, and project completion. 11p.

Safer Schools and Hospitals Toolkit
(Intelligent Space Partnership and Home Office, London, UK, Apr 2005)
This British toolkit is an easy-to-use template for security risk assessment in schools. The practical guide helps one understand the reasons that crimes and incidents occur in a school site or building. It provides information on how to tackle these problems through design or management of the premises. The guide provides a step-by-step approach on how to: 1)Gather crime data; 2) Identify vulnerabilities by walking the site; 3) Model surveillance: identify areas that are overseen or well-used and areas that are hidden from view; 4) Assess which risks are most immediate; 5) Develop long and short term strategies to address the problems; 6) Implement the strategies. Includes case studies of a primary school and a secondary school.

Protecting Schools with Advanced Access Control Systems.
Vigue, Beverly
(, Kennesaw, GA , Mar 01, 2005)
Proposes a four-level "security pyramid" to organize campus security, with ascending levels representing more sophisticated, and probably less frequently needed, security technologies. Varieties of security technology and how they have been deployed in various school districts and higher education institutions are described. 4p.

Assisting Schools and Child Care Facilities in Addressing Lead in Drinking Water. Adobe PDF
(American Water Works Association, 2005)
Compares and contrasts EPA’s guidance to schools and child care facilities under the Lead Contamination Control Act (LCCA) and the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR). It also provides a brief overview of what is entailed in monitoring for lead in schools and child care facilities and the process for undertaking remediation. This report describes a range of assistance utilities can provide to schools and child care facilities based on local needs and resources. Most importantly, it identifies key points of coordination, and provides basic information that the utility can use in communicating about lead in drinking water. [Authors' abstract] 51p.

House Bill Number 203 (Ohio) [Jarod's Law] Adobe PDF
(Ohio State Legislature, Columbus , 2005)
In response to the death of a six year-old student from a falling cafeteria table, the Ohio Legislature passed this bill establishing the state's School Health and Safety Network; annual school inspections for unsafe health, safety, and sanitation conditions by the Ohio State Board of Health; publicly available published inspection reports for each school; mandatory written plans, including timeframes, for remediation of each item identified as not within compliance by the inspection; review of school's remediation plans, by the Boards of Health to ensure proper compliance; and auditing and review by State of Ohio Auditor's office to ensure overall integrity of School Health and Safety Network program. 9p.

OECD Recommendation Concerning Guidelines on Earthquake Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris , 2005)
Presents the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's position on school earthquake safety guidelines, outlines the principles of school seismic safety programs, and details recommended elements of such programs, which include policy, accountability, building codes and enforcement, training, preparedness, community awareness and participation, and risk reduction. 7p.

Safe Schools Design Guidelines: Recommendations For a Safe and Secure Environment in Florida's Public Schools. CPTED Design Guidelines.
(University of South Florida, for the Florida Department of Education, Tampa, FL, 2005)
Contains CPTED guidelines (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) for Florida. The section on environs includes detailed information on location,edge conditions, and connection with the neighborhood. The section on site design covers landscaping, exterior pedestrian routes, vehicular routes and parking areas, recreational areas, signage and stormwater. Building interior spaces are also addressed. 55 p.

School Environment Safety Guidelines: A Guide for the Improvement of Road Safety Near Schools. Adobe PDF
(Queensland Government, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia , Jan 2005)
Provides a reference for road safety near schools, with the intention of being a single source of information for transportation authorities, educators, parents, and police. The Australian SafeST program is described, along with the formation and roles of the program's committees. Designs, signals, markings, fencing, and curbing for roadways, crossings, parking, pedestrian tunnels, bridges, and bicycle accommodation are detailed. Numerous checklist, tables, and diagrams accompany the text. 110p.

School Safety and Security: Lessons in Danger.
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris , 2005)
Provides examples of how a variety of problems and solutions concerning school safety and security are addressed in 14 countries. Chapters by individual authors from the participating countries are organized under five themes related to school safety and security: risk assessment, crisis planning and management, infrastructural approaches, collaborative approaches, and education, training, and support approaches. 168p.
TO ORDER: OECD Publications, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

Security and Site Design. A Landscape Architectural Approach to Analysis, Assessment and Design Implementation.
(Wiley , 2005)
Hopper, Leonard; Droge, Martha; , 208p. ; 2005
Written for design professionals, this book provides detailed information on site security design elements and their relationship and integration into the overall design of a site. Guidelines for conducting security/risk assessments and for working with clients and security consultants are also included. Case studies offer a variety of site designs that successfully incorporate features.

SMART School Tool (School Multi-hazard Assessment Resource Tool).
(Center for Infrastructure Expertise, 2005)
SMART is a multi-hazard vulnerability assessment for schools to use in analyzing their current safety and security level of preparedness. Each assessment module focuses on one hazard with specific questions matched to resources that may help your school better understand and learn more about a particular safety or security concern. Free registration is required.

Controlling Construction Costs of Educational Facilities.
Husoe, Oystein; Dewar, Buddy
(National Fire Sprinkler Association, Patterson, NY , 2005)
Describes methods of reducing construction costs while still including fire protection design and systems. Exemptions to expensive building compartmentation requirements may be obtained if sprinkler systems are used, and the author advocates for these and other code alternatives. Stand-by water fees charged for sprinkler systems are opposed, with specific recommendations for legislative action in California. A review of construction costs using passive versus active fire suppression for eight proposed high school buildings follows. 27p.

Library Security. Adobe PDF
McComb, Mark
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services., 2005)
The goal of a library security system should be to provide a safe and secure facility for employees, resources, and patrons. At the same time, the system must perform these functions as seamlessly as possible, without interfering with the library's objective of easily and simply providing patron services. This discusses risk assessment; non-electronic physical security; electronic security includeing burglary protection, collection security, access control, and video surveillance; and security policies, procedures, and plans.

School Fires. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Emmitsburg, MD , Dec 2004)
Details the following 2002 findings concerning school fires: 1)37% of all school structure fires and 52% of middle and high school structure fires were incendiary or suspicious. 2)Fatalaties from school fires are rare, but inuries per fire were higher in schools than in other non-residential structures. 3)The leading area of fire origin was the lavoratory. 4)K-12 school fires increased at the beginning and end of the academic year. Other fire causes, places of origin, and times of occurrence are also illustrated. 4p.

Seismic Safety in California's Schools: Findings and Recommendations on Seismic Safety Policies and Requirements for Public, Private, and Charter Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seisemic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Dec 2004)
Considers situations in California where schools may fall short of typical seismic safety expectations. The report finds that private schools and charter schools, particularly those in older buildings, may not meet Field Act standards, both in structural and non-structural components. Six recommendations to reduce risk in these types of facilities are presented. 15p.

Safety Precautions for Staff at School Sites under Construction. Adobe PDF
(OFfice of Environmental Health and Safety, Los Angeles, CA , Sep 2004)
Lists the Los Angeles Unified School District's procedures for District staff access to school sites under construction. 2p.

Gangs and the Responsibilities of the Facilities Management Team.
Dunlap, Chris
(, Orange, CA , Sep 2004)
Describes the role of facilities and facilities personnel to gang intelligence in schools. Grafitti should be identified, photographed, removed, and reported to law enforcement. There should be only one access to the facility, and it should be closely monitored with strict visitor control. Lighting and landscaping should promote visibility. 2p.

Technology Impacts School Security.
Perez, Jennifer
(,Orange, CA , Sep 2004)
Reviews the function, appropriateness, popularity, and relative costs of current school security technology including access cards, biometrics, and digital CCTV. 3p.

Description of the Minimum Adequate Fire Alarm System as Required by the School Facilities Board.
(Arizona School Facilities Board, Phoenix , Jun 2004)
Outlines the components of a "minimum adequate" fire alarm system for Arizona schools, covering wiring, location of equipment, horns, strobes, smoke detectors, and special requirements for kitchens, mechanical and storage rooms, and janitor facilities. 1p.

Pre-Incident Site Planning: Site Hazards.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC , Apr 19, 2004)
Site hazard information must be easily accessible in the event of a school emergency. Storing information and resources, ranging from a master key to evacuation routes, in a locked box near the site provides critical site data to the first responder in the first few minutes on scene. 2p.

Secured by Design - Schools. Adobe PDF
(Secured By Design, London, United Kingdom , Apr 2004)
Provides guidance, from a British perspective, on how to establish and maintain a safe and secure environment in schools, describing design features, the role of the Architectural Liaison Officer and/or Crime Prevention Design Adviser during the design phase, principles and steps of a school facility assessment, and advice on management practices that enhance safety. 22p.

Health/Life Safety Handbook for Public Schools in Illinois, 2nd. ed.
(Illinois Asssociation of Regional Superintendents of Schools; Illinois State Board of Education , Mar 2004)
The provides technical assistance to Illinois public school districts, regional superintendents, architects, and engineers. It is a reference manual for understanding various requirements, processes, and forms used in administering the health/safety code for public schools. Chapters cover: School Construction Process; Annual Building Inspection; Ten-year Safety Survey Report; Health/Life Safety Amendment Process; Temporary Facilities; Condemnation/Demolition Process; Recommended Practices and Commonly Asked Questions. 123p.

School Safety in the 21st Century: Adapting to New Security Challenges Post-9/11. Adobe PDF
(National Strategy Forum, Chicago, IL , Mar 2004)
Presents the results of a conference intended to expand the school emergency preparedness to include an "all-hazard" approach. This is necessary so that catastrophic terrorism incidents (CTI's) can be accommodated. Difficulties peculiar to a CTI may be that the school might be required to feed and shelter students for an extended period of time without full access to emergency resources. Suggestions for emergency plans, crisis team formation, safety assessments, and additional resources are offered. 38p.

Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington , Jan 2004)
Provides design guidance for the protection of school buildings and their occupants against natural hazards, concentrating on K-12 facilities. The focus is on the design of new schools, but the repair, renovation and extension of existing schools, as well as the economic losses and social disruption caused by damage from these three hazards is also addressed. Two core concepts emphasized are multihazard design, where the characteristics of hazards and how they interract are considered together with all other design demands, and performance-based design, where the specific concerns of building owners and occupants a considered over and above what is covered in the building code. Chapters 1-3 present issues common to all hazards. Chapters 4-6 cover risk management for each of the three specific hazards of the title. 361p.
Report NO: FEMA 424

Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools: Physical Environment and Transportation.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL , 2004)
This chapter of the "Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools" covers accessibility, safety policies, building construction and renovation, maintenance, indoor air, universal precautions, emergency supplies, and student transportation. Includes 108 references. 27p.

Keeping Schools Safe in Earthquakes.
(Organisation for Co-Operation and Economic Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2004)
Reports on a 2004 conference of international seismic and educational facility experts. Part 1 discusses the recognition of obstacles to improving seismic safety of schools in various countries. Part II defines seismic safety principles for schools. Part III discusses assessing vulnerability and risks to schools and other public buildings. Part IV identifies strategies and programs for improving school seismic safety. Part V presents the group's recommendations for improving seismic safety in schools. 242p.

Safe Spaces: Designing for Security and Civic Values. Adobe PDF
(American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC , 2004)
Presents abstracts of papers from a 2004 conference that offer practical information and case studies demonstrating risk assessment, planning, construction methods and materials, and policy tools for determining appropriate landscape architectural responses to security. Much of the publication is devoted to reinforcing security in public spaces, such as federal buildings and parks, and includes an overview of FEMA's newly published Risk Management Series, which provides building design guidance for mitigating potential terrorist attacks. 66p.

Protection for Students in the Performing Arts. Adobe PDF
Davidson, Randall
(International Secondary Education Theater Safety Association, Pomona, CA , 2004)
Presents the author's views on dangerous conditions in the majority of educational performing arts facilities due to deferred maintenance, code violations, and hazardous outdated equipment. Reasons for the prevalence of these conditions are suggested. 3p.

Security Planning and Design: A Guide for Architects and Building Design Professionals.
Demkin, Joseph, ed.
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey , 2004)
Collects the contributions of several authors to provide architects and other design professionals with guidance in security planning for both new and existing facilities. Basic design concepts are emphasized and readers are provided with information to help conduct an assessment of client needs as well as work with consultants who specialize in implementing security measures. Included are chapters on defining security needs, understanding threats, blast mitigation, building systems, facility operations, and biochemical protection, along with guidelines for conducting client security assessments. A best practices section shows how security can be integrated into design solutions. Includes a list of organizations, 21 references, and a glossary. 240p.

Jane's Safe Schools Planning Guide for All Hazards.
Dorn, Mike; Thomas, Gregory; Wong, Marleen; Shepherd, Sonayia
(Jane's Information Group, Alexandria, VA. , 2004)
Takes the user through the planning, implementation, response, and recovery processes of a safe school. Section one describes how to organize personnel and materials around the development of an emergency plan. Section two describes mitigation and prevention procedures which involve both facilities and school climate issues. Section three details preparedness procedures for critical incidents. Section four presents strategies for recovery after a critical incident. 450p.

Building Security: Handbook for Architectural Planning and Design.
Nadel, Barbara, ed.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 2004)
This handbook covers over 20 building types and several disciplines in the name of designing and maintaining secure buildings. The book is organized in six parts: 1) Achieving Transparent Security, 2) Planning and Design, 3)Engineering, 4) Construction, 5) Technology and Materials, and 6) Codes and Liability. Learning from the past, integrating the approach, and planning carefully for each situation are three themes highlighted throughout the book. Chapter 20 specifically covers designing safe learning environments. 672p.

Earthquake Safety and Sidewalk Survey Scores in Clackamas County Schools, Clackamas County, Oregon.
Wang, Yumei; Hasenberg, Carol; Harguth, Vicki
(Oregon Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland , 2004)
Estimates through sidewalk surveys and walk-throughs that about half of the County's K-12 schools may be in need of further seismic study and potential upgrades. The surveys do not account for elements invisible from the street or interior corridors, and are intended solely as a prioritization tool for identifying structures in need of further evaluation. The data was obtained using FEMA methods. 25p.
TO ORDER: Nature of the Northwest Information Center, 800 NE Oregon St. #5, Portland, OR, 97232; Tel: 503-872-2750.

Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. , Dec 2003)
This primer provides guidance to protect students, faculty, staff, and their school buildings from terrorist attacks. It also provides guidance to the building science community of architects and engineers working for local institutions on school projects. This document is intended for use by schools who feel that they are at risk to terrorist attacks. It provides necessary guidance to those who desire to increase the performance of their school and related infrastructure. Not all schools are at risk of terrorist attacks. The decision-makers in each school district should use current and available threat information from the proper sources to make this determination. The use of experts to apply the methodologies contained in this document is encouraged. This primer references several sources for additional information, including publications completed by other government agencies. Chapters include: 1) Asset Value, Threat/Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk; 2) Site and Layout Design Guidance; 3) Building Design Guidance and Safety Plans; 4) Explosive Blast; 5) Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Measures; and 6) Safe Rooms Within Schools. 306p.
Report NO: FEMA 428

Uncovering Security Lapses with a Simple Hardware Review.
(Sargent Manufacturing; , Nov 04, 2003)
Recommends a two-step process for reviewing the efficacy of a school's security hardware. The first step is to review traffic patterns and determine how doors can be most effectively used to control access and egress. It may be that many doors should be converted to egress only use. The second step is to review the door hardware itself, ensuring that the doors and their locks work properly. Different types of locking and door operation hardware are discussed. 3p.

Safety and Security Administration in School Facilities: Forms, Checklists and Guidelines. 2nd Edition.
(Aspen Publishers, Inc. , Oct 2003)
This provides individuals responsible for school safety and security with a comprehensive resource tool containing forms, checklists, policies and procedures, guidelines, and state-of-the-art security methods addressing the demands of school safety and security. 528p.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12): Providing Protection to People and Buildings.
Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn
(Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg; U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 2003)
Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings. The manual consists of three parts. Part A, "Critical Decisions for Earthquake Safety in Schools," is for superintendents, board members, business managers, principals, and other policy makers who will decide on allocating resources for earthquake mitigation. Part B, "Managing the Process for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Existing School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, risk managers, and financial managers who will initiate and manage seismic mitigation measures. Part C, "Tools for Implementing Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation in School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, or those otherwise responsible for facility management, who will implement incremental seismic rehabilitation programs. (Appendices offer additional information on school facility management.) 73p.
Report NO: FEMA 395

TO ORDER: FEMA Publication Warehouse; Tel: 800-480-2520

Phoenix School Safety Program.
(School Safety Task Force, Phoenix Street Transportation Department, Phoenix, AZ, May 2003)
These are recommendations for improving safety conditions in front of schools and at school-related crosswalks. Includes a school crossing safety audit; information on the installation of school pavement stencils, fluorescent yellow-green school warning signs, and staggered crosswalks; procedures for student drop-off/pick-up procedures in school parking lots; and suggestions for safe walking plans, automated enforcement of speed limits at schools, and experimental traffic control.

Has Technology Created a Safer Learning Environment? Adobe PDF
Leung, Mark
(Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ , Apr 09, 2003)
Evaluates the effectiveness of technological advances on the maintenance operations of a school district's facilities. The research also determines and evaluate the types, amounts, and locations of technology equipment implementations in school districts and how these implementations have affected the school environment's overall safety. Results of the survey showed that 89% of the school districts in Burlington County, New Jersey, use video surveillance cameras, that 55% of the school districts in Burlington County have a full or part-time School Resource Officer, and that 100% of the districts have a crisis management plan. Only 22% of the districts reported experiencing mold or other indoor air quality problems in the last ten years. Lastly, results of the survey showed that over two-thirds of the school districts in Burlington County use preventative maintenance software. 81p.

Caregiver's Guide to School Safety and Security. Adobe PDF
(National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC , 2003)
Provides guidance to parents and caregivers for improving the school safety and security. Advice on listening to one's child, becoming educated about, and getting involved with security is accompanied by information on school facility features to look for, or to add, that enhance campus safety. 24p.

Florida Safe School Design Guidelines.
(Florida Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , 2003)
These guidelines begin with the assumption that proper design and management of the physical environment can help prevent criminal behavior on campuses. The manual considers design and maintenance issues beginning with the largest level of concern, the site, and proceeding toward the most specific, systems and equipment. In between these two, each area of building design and interior spaces is covered. Bullet points summarize the most significant elements and direct the user to the corresponding design principle in the Florida Building Code. Results of surveys, field investigations, and interviews concerning security design and practices, incidence of crimes, and attitudes are included. Recommendations drawn from these results are linked to the guidelines. (Includes 100 references and a listing of 40 organizations for additional resources.) 202p.

Security Cameras.
(Indiana University, Safe and Responsive Schools Project, Bloomington , 2003)
Reviews benefits of and approaches to video camera surveillance, their use in preventing or prosecuting a crime, and how to match equipment to the intended purpose. Includes four references. 2p.

Be Prepared With Lighting: An Online Reading Room.
Bullough, John D.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Lighting Research Center, Troy, NY , 2003)
Lighting is a tool that, used wisely, can increase security and safety. This is a compilation of articles, published in various trade magazines, that collectively emphasize that where, when and how lighting is used are just as important as how much lighting is used for effectively increasing security and for responding to emergencies. The articles contain guidance and principles for architects, engineers, and facility managers.

Health and Safety Guide for K-12 Schools in Washington. Adobe PDF
Kerns, James T.; Ellis, Richard E.
(Washington State Dept. of Health; Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia , Jan 2003)
This guide's primary focus is to recommend good health and safety practices to help ensure safer schools in Washington state. Some of the safety practices that are recommended affect school operation and maintenance, repairs and minor construction, as well as the school's administrative organization and lines of communication. The guide also focuses on practices that can be undertaken during the design, construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, or inspection of any school. The guide's sections address general procedures; building maintenance and operations; general safety; plumbing, water supply, and fixtures; sewage disposal; indoor air quality; HVAC preventative maintenance; sound control; lighting; food service; science classrooms and laboratories; career and technology education; blood borne pathogens and exposure control plans; playgrounds; animals in schools; emergency and disaster preparedness; pesticide use in school; visual and performing arts education; and athletics. (Contains appendices on inspection protocols, health district fee guidelines, agency roles and responsibilities, restricted chemicals in laboratories, inspection protocols and special considerations for visual and performing arts classrooms, references, Web sites, and related documents.) 91p.
TO ORDER: School Facilities and Organization, tel: 360-725-6000

Building Security: Strategies and Costs.
Owen, David D.
(R.S. Means Company , 2003)
Comprehensive resource for evaluating a facility’s security needs, with design solutions and cost data. Will assist in identifying threats, performing a detailed risk assessment of an existing facility, evaluating and pricing security systems and construction solutions, and putting effective crisis management and emergency response teams and plans in place. Includes a review of security devices. 390p.

Findings and Recommendations on the Use of Non-Field Act Compliant Buildings for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Dec 2002)
Presents findings of the California Seismic Safety Commission indicating that the Division of the State Architect (DSA) can develop a regulatory process that will allow the State Architect to determine whether a building not originally constructed in compliance with the Field Act and its implementing regulations, either meets, or can be retrofitted to meet, the same equivalent pupil safety performance standard as a building constructed according to the Field Act and its implementing regulations. 18p.

School Seismic Evaluations Phase 3 Report for Wyoming Department of Education. Adobe PDF
(Wyoming Dept. of Education, Laramie , Nov 2002)
Presents a summary of evaluations of selected Wyoming public school buildings for potential seismic deficiencies pertaining to earthquakes. The Standard used to evaluate the school structures was the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC). For each noted deficiency in each school building a recommendation is made to strengthen, replace or supplement each deficient element to bring the overall facility into conformance to the UBC. 50p.

2002 School Resource Officer Survey. Final Report on the 2nd Annual National Survey of School-Based Police Officers.
(National Association of School Resource Officers, Anthony, FL, Sep 25, 2002)
Findings from a survey conducted by the National Association of School Resource Officers show the vulnerability of schools. An overwhelming majority of school-based police officers feel that their schools are vulnerable to a terrorist attack, and that the schools are not adequately prepared to respond. Officers reported significant gaps in their school's security, and that school crisis plans are both inadequate and untested. School-based officers report receiving limited training and minimal support from outside agencies in preparing for a terrorist attack upon schools. This report includes detailed findings and graphic illustrations. 47p.

Ensuring Quality School Facilities and Security Technologies. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR. Guide 4 of the series Safe and Secure: Guides to Creating Safer Schools. , Sep 2002)
Helps educators and other members of the community understand the relationship between school safety and school facilities, including technology. The guide covers the following topics: 1) Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design; 2) Planning to Address CPTED: Key Questions to Ask; 3) Security Technology: An Overview; and 4) Safety Audits and Security Surveys. 46p.

Safe School Inspection Guidebook. Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, CA , Apr 15, 2002)
This guidebook covers 18 safety areas and defines the mandatory health and safety standards applicable to schools. The guidebook is used in conjunction with a safe school inspection conducted by a safety officer and the site administrator. The areas covered include: acoustical quality, air quality, asbestos management, campus security, chemical safety, electrical safety, facilities maintenance, fire/life safety, infectious disease control, lead management, pest management, sports and playground, and waste management. 56p.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. FEMA 154, Edition 2.
(United States Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , Mar 2002)
Presents a method to quickly identify, inventory, and rank buildings posing risk of death, injury, or severe curtailment in use following an earthquake. The procedure can be used by trained personnel to identify potentially hazardous buildings with a 15- to 30-minute exterior inspection, using a data collection form included in the handbook. A significant difference in this second edition is the need for a higher level of technical engineering expertise on the part of the users. The structural scoring system has been revised, based on new information, and the handbook has been shortened and focused to make it easier to use. 164p.
Report NO: FEMA 154, 2nd ed.

Comprehensive Safe Schools Planning Guide.
(Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA , 2002)
Advises Washington schools on the elements to be included in a comprehensive safe schools plan, covering curriculum and instruction, policies and procedures, physical plant assessment, staff development, student and parent involvement, community partnerships, and a supportive learning environment. Guidance is included for prevention, intervention, crisis response, and post-crisis recovery. 17p.

NetDay Cyber Security Kit for Schools.
(NetDay, Irvine, CA, 2002)
This kit features tools and resources to raise awareness among K-12 educators, students and families about online safety and computer security. It includes a guide for school administrators with practical suggestions and resources for ensuring that school computer networks are secure from cyber attacks, and a list of cyber security and online safety web sites.

School Safety and Security. [California]
(California Department of Education, School Safety and Violence Prevention Office, Sacramento, CA , 2002)
This document offers guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled access to campuses; windows; visibility; traffic patterns and parking areas; play and sports areas; landscaping; fencing and gates; exterior lighting; lavatories; environmental design features; visitor control and access; and specialized sites. An extensive list of related resources is also provided. Regarding lighting standards, the document offers research-based design recommendations and suggestions concerning reflectances, fixture brightness, ceiling height, excess wall luminance (windows), nonuniformity of illumination (general lighting), and energy conservation. This section also includes a glossary. The section on clean school standards offers questions to consider when establishing policies for a maintenance and operations program. Finally, the section on technology resources includes Web sites on comprehensive technology planning, integration of technology into the curriculum, and staff development. 32p.

Voices from the Field: Working Together for Safe and Secure Schools. Summary of Findings from Florida Education Commissioner Charlie Crist's School Safety and Security Summits. Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee, FL , 2002)
During summer and fall 2001, the Florida Commissioner of Education conducted eight regional meetings, open to the public, on school safety and security. The purpose of the meetings was to explore safety issues faced by districts and schools, share best safety practices, and generate local discussion on matters of school safety and security. This booklet is a report on those meetings. It includes findings from a survey of students; a list of resources; and an inventory of proven and promising programs. Additionally, the report contains the following recommendations identified by meeting participants as key to maintaining safe schools: (1) Include all appropriate partners in developing operative crisis plans that specify a schedule for plan revision, training updates, and regular drills; (2) establish and maintain effective internal and external communication to ensure emergency procedures are efficiently and effectively followed; (3) ensure that accurate facility site plans for every school are provided to local law-enforcement and emergency-response agencies; (4) employ strategies and techniques to break the "code of silence" among students; (5) listen to and implement students' ideas and perceptions on school-safety issues; and (6) provide additional school resource officers at all levels: elementary, middle, and high school. 50p.

Designing Safe Schools. Adobe PDF
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. , 2002)
Incorporating the principles and practices of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in the design and remodeling of schools can contribute to the safety of the school while reducing the target-hardening and fortressing effects of a bunker mentality. The basic CPTED premise is that through the effective use and design of the built environment, there can be a reduction in the opportunity and fear of crime and a resulting better quality of life. Architectural features, structural enhancements, and spatial definition can deter, detect, and delay potential violent offenders from entering school campuses and buildings. The paper offers details in key areas of safe school design that should include security layering and defensible space planning practices: site design, building design, interior spaces, and systems and equipment. It also contains a list of design and management tips for safer schools. 6p.

Creating Safe Schools for All Children.
Duke, Daniel L.
(Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA , 2002)
This book examines issues of school safety and how safety issues have developed in recent years; presents in-depth discussions of each of seven standards of school safety; and raises a variety of legal, policy, and specific safety questions that educators and citizens might ask. The book examines six perspectives on, or ways to think about, school safety, ranging from the educational and psychological to the organizational, political, cultural, and design-based. Also covered are issues involving costs and benefits of behavioral incentives, the disciplining of students in special education, the merits of zero-tolerance policies, and the proper locus of accountability regarding school safety. Chapter 8 discusses school facilities designed for safety, covering safer movements in and around school, better supervision through design, controlled access, safety on school grounds, designing special facilities, and environmental enhancement through design. 252p.
TO ORDER: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company, 75 Arlington St., Boston, MA 02116.

The Final Report and Findings of the "Safe School Initiative": Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. Adobe PDF
Vossekuil, Bryan; Fein, Robert A.; Reddy, Marisa; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington,D.C. , 2002)
This publication results from on ongoing collaboration between the U.S. Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education. Its goals are to determine whether it could have been known that incidents of targeted violence at schools were being planned and whether anything could have been done to prevent them from occurring. Results from the Secret Service's Exceptional Case Study Project (ECSP) are used to organize planning. This report describes the Safe School Initiative, defines "targeted" school violence, and discusses the prevalence of school violence in American schools. The methodology of this study, sources of information, and an analysis of survey responses are also discussed. Incidents of targeted school violence are characterized, including characteristics of the attacker, conceptualization of the attack, and signaling, advancing, and resolving the attack. Implications of study findings and the use of threat assessment as a strategy to prevent school violence are presented. 51p.
TO ORDER: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827.

Building Security through Design: A Primer for Architects, Design Professionals, and their Clients.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. , Nov 2001)
This booklet includes chapters on defining security needs, shaping security responses, and practice considerations. Specific issues addressed include: 1) rethinking the security equation; 2) asset, threat, vulnerability, and risk analysis; 3) layering concepts, biochemical protection and building hardening; 4) finding a security consultant; and 5) liability and legal issues. 25p.

District of Columbia Public Schools Safety Manual.
(District of Columbia Public Schools , Jun 04, 2001)
Describes the District of Columbia Public Schools' Safety and Health Program, as applicable to the employees of both DCPS Facilities and its contractors, performing construction, renovation, assessment, facility operation, and maintenance work. It also covers issues relevant to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for school personnel, students, and visitors. The manual documents appropriate requirements for workplace safety and health on DCPS capital projects and in DCPS facilities operation and maintenance activities; provides guidelines for achieving a safe and healthy environment for the students, staff and visitors of the DCPS school facilities during construction, renovation, maintenance and operations; delineates the organizational and procedural elements of the safety and health program for its effective implementation; and provides guidelines to designers on how to incorporate safety and health into facility and project design. 401p.

NSSC Review of School Safety Research.
(National School Safety Center, Westlake Village, CA, 2001)
This summarizes research that relates primarily to aspects of school safety and school climate. The research was conducted between 1978 and 2001. The findings of each study are included, as well as contact information for the source agency. 32p.

The Report of Governor Bill Owens' Colombine Review Commission. Adobe PDF
(Columbine Review Commission, Denver, CO , May 2001)
Presents a chronology of the April 20, 1999 Columbine High School tragedy, in which two students killed a teacher and twelve students before committing suicide. Along with recommendations covering first responders, crisis preparation, school violence prevention, and victim treatment, the report presents the Commission's caution concerning enhanced security technology and limiting access in the high school environment. 174p.

Newer Technologies for School Security. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR. , Feb 2001)
This digest describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for specific coding and specific access. Such cards can also be immediately canceled in the event of loss or theft and can be used to control entrances to parking lots and other school property. Another security device, metal detectors, can be helpful in ensuring the safety of a school but should be employed only in those schools where the risk is the highest. These detectors are expensive and require additional employees to operate the equipment. Another option is an alarm system that can be used to detect smoke or fire, intruders, and other threats to safety. Surveillance equipment is another possibility, and it too can vary widely in cost and in sophistication. However, even with digital technology, surveillance remains more useful as a means of reviewing incidents rather than in stopping behavior as it occurs. Before investing in any system, schools should identify the specific problems that need to be solved. 3p.

School Violence: Physical Security. [Utah] Adobe PDF
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2001)
This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial list of possible security measures to address various security issues such as outsiders on campus, fights on campus, vandalism, theft, parking problems, bomb threats, and teacher safety. A second section addresses how schools can prepare to deal with bomb threats and the illegal use of explosives, including responding to bomb threats, evacuation, search techniques and teams, and handling the news media. 26p.

The Complete School Safety and Security Manual.
(The American Crime Prevention Institute, Goshen, KY , 2001)
This publication is a comprehensive crime prevention manual and resource guide for school administrators and law enforcement officers. Chapter 11 covers the topic of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design and contains a series of lists of recommendations organized by function or space. Additional chapters cover electronic access control systems; electronic security alarm systems; door systems and locking devices; lighting systems; windows and glazing; key control and management; security communications; and the use of closed circuit television. Each of these chapters contains descriptions of the various systems available along with their advantages and disadvantages as they relate to school safety and security. 431p.
TO ORDER: American Crime Prevention Institute, 327 Townepark Circle, Louisville, KY 40243; Tel: 502-244-7306, Fax: 502-244-7308

Surrounded by Safety: A Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Handbook for Youth.
Carter, Sherry Plaster
(Youth Crime Watch of America, Miami, FL , 2001)
This handbook introduces students to essential elements of preventing crime at school by making sure the design, use, and upkeep of the facility do not provide opportunities for criminal behavior--crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It discusses how to identify problem areas and the steps to take to make sure these problems are corrected. The handbook provides: (1) instructions for conducting a physical assessment of the school; and (2) guidance for delivering the results to administrators, faculty, and parents. The focus is on commonly used strategies that fall within the realm of student influence. Ideas are given for improvement activities and projects that can be undertaken by students, given the proper authority and guidance. Following an introduction, the handbook's sections discuss CPTED, natural surveillance, access management, territorial reinforcement, physical maintenance, and order maintenance, and discuss resources for proceeding with projects. 39p.
Report NO: Y27

Measuring the Use of Safety Technology in American Schools: A National Survey of School Safety Administrators.
Garcia, Crystal
(Institute for Forensic Imaging, Indianapolis, IN , 2001)
Reports on current use of safety technology in American Schools. Administrators in charge of school security from 41 school districts in 15 states were interviewed. 90% of school districts sampled had cameras, 87% utilized recording systems, and 55% metal detectors. Less common were duress alarms (40%) and entry control devices (18%). Approximately two-thirds of the districts that had cameras and recording systems believed them to be either effective or very effective technologies, whereas far fewer responded that weapon detectors (44%), duress alarms (21%), and entry control devices (33%) were effective or very effective. There appeared to be a "disconnect" between the perceived effectiveness of certain technologies and the number of districts either wishing or planning to acquire the technology in the future. Specifically, only one-third of the districts with entry control devices found them to be effective, yet 14 additional districts plan on acquiring entry control systems in the future. Because there has been little communication between school districts about the efficacy of these systems, districts all over the country may be investing highly constrained resources into technologies found to be too costly or cumbersome by others. 84p.

Safer Schools through Environmental Design. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , Jan 2001)
Describes key elements of an approach to security called crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Core CPTED elements include: natural surveillance, in which the entire environment can be viewed; natural access control to determine who can and cannot enter a facility; and territoriality, in which an established control is exerted over the environment. A CPTED analysis of a school evaluates crime rates, office-referral data, school cohesiveness and stability, as well as shortcomings in school design. School grounds, parking lots, playgrounds and fields are considered prime areas for practicing CPTED. When considering a CPTED analysis, school officials should look to professionals for an assessment. These assessments include crime mapping; reports from local police and medical centers; surveys of parents, teachers, and students; inspection of the campus and its surroundings, and an analysis of the surrounding neighborhood. 3p.

Jane's School Safety Handbook.
Wong, Marleen; Kelly, James; Stephens, Ronald D.
(Jane's Information Group, Alexandria, VA , 2001)
This book advises schools in a concise, detailed format about crisis management. Its chapters address: (1) crisis planning; (2) early warning signs; (3) crisis response; (4) crisis recovery; (5) case studies of schools that have encountered crisis situations; and (6) sample letters to be distributed in case of crisis. Appendices discuss conducting a safety/security audit and organizing for crisis intervention and managing threats. Also contains a glossary. 275p.
TO ORDER: Jane's Information Group, 1340 Braddock Place, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-1651; Toll free: 800-824-0768

Digital Imaging for Safe Schools.
(International Association of Chiefs of Police, Alexandria, VA , 2000)
Offers step-by-step instructions that detail the process for creating a simple, cost effective method for capturing three-dimensional images on CD for use during a critical incident on school property. Parts of the document advise the police chief in advancing the goals and objectives of the project; advise the project manager in developing a strategic plan for design, development, funding, and implementation of the project's activities and resources; describe the five basic steps of digital photography and the process to follow for capturing images to be used during a critical incident; and detail the process for integrating the images and creating a data CD. A resource guide, glossary, product reference guide, sample image photo log and floor plan, and a case study are also provided. 28p.

Texas Safety Standards for K-12. A Guide to Rules, Regulations, and Safety Procedures for Classroom, Laboratory, and Field Investigations.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas at Austin; Texas Education Agency, 2000)
The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for developing a safety program both at the campus and district levels. Chapters include: 1) Laws, Rules, Regulations; 2) Laboratory Investigations and Activities; 3) Field Investigations and Activities; 4) Facilities; 5) Safety Equipment and Supplies; 6) Chemical Safety; and 7) Safety Training. 190p.

Vandalism Isn't Funny: Minimising Wilful and Accidental Damage to DOE Buildings. [Australia] Adobe PDF
(Tasmania Dept. of Education, Facilities Services Section, Hobart (Australia) , 2000)
This document presents guidance for protecting Tasmanian schools, buildings, and property from damage through vandalism, arson, and negligence; clarifies responsibilities; and provides advice to those who manage or use the schools. A building inspection checklist and a proforma action plan form are included. 26p.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design : Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts. 2nd Edition.
Crowe, Timothy D.
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000)
This book discusses modern theory and applications of CPTED including those involving public schools and recreational facilities, among other building types. The book provides a history of crime prevention and examples of modern day uses. The fundamental concept of the book is that physical design, properly applied, can have a positive effect on preventing criminal behavior. 352p

Safe School Design: A Handbook for Educational Leaders Applying the Principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod; Walker,Hill; Sprague, Jeffrey
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , 2000)
This document seeks to synthesize, integrate, and make available to school personnel solid information regarding Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). Chapter 1, "The Changed Landscape of School Safety and Security," examines characteristics of safe and unsafe schools, causes of vulnerability, and the role of design and technology in creating safer schools. Chapter 2, "The Relevance of CPTED as a Strategy for Improving Schools," explores the international use of this approach and environmental design issues in recent school tragedies. Chapter 3, "Key CPTED Concepts and Principles," surveys essential program components. Chapter 4, "Site Evaluation: The Foundation for Improving School Safety and Security," is the main part of the book and provides specific recommendations, information, and forms for conducting a CPTED site assessment. Chapter 5, "Case Study Applications of CPTED Principles," reviews successful program applications. Chapter 6, "The Role of Architects in School Design," considers the experience professionals bring to design safety in such areas as codes and designing blueprints. Chapter 7, "Policy Recommendations for School Districts," offers boards and administrators information about CPTED programs for improving school security. 123p.

Classroom Killers? Hallway Hostages? How Schools Can Prevent and Manage School Crises.
Trump, Kenneth S.
(Corwin Press, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, 2000)
This book attempts to dispel the myths and misconceptions surrounding the lessons learned from national school violence crises and shifting security threat trends. Its objective is to deliver balanced, practical, and cost-effective steps for preventing and managing school crises, including how to recognize "red flag" warnings of potential violence; how to avoid the pitfalls of "profiling"; how to coordinate with police, fire, and other public safety agencies; how to access, manage, and record threats of violence; how to form crisis teams; how to identify roles for key members; how to prepare guidelines for managing natural and man-made crises, conduct evacuation, lockdowns, and crisis exercises; and how to assess and enhance school communication capabilities. The book includes comprehensive resources: a detailed checklist for safe school planning, critical questions for selecting school security consultants, sample crisis scenarios, and an outline of minimum crisis guideline components. 174p.

Balancing Security and Openness.
(U.S. General Services Administration, Public Building Service, Washington, DC, Nov 30, 1999)
This is a thematic summary of a symposium on security and design of public buildings. Presenters include Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, and a panel of architects recognized for their expertise in designing for security. 24p

The Fundamentals of School Security. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Gaustad, Joan
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , Nov 1999)
This digest presents ways that school administrators can realistically assess their schools' security needs. Checklist surveys that involve parents, students, law-enforcement personnel, community representatives, and school staff are important measures, and a security assessment performed by an independent consultant holds several advantages. Discusses how facilities can be made to be more secure. 3p.

The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools. A Guide for Schools and Law Enforcement Agencies Adobe PDF
Green, Mary W.
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, DC , Sep 1999)
This guide provides basic guidelines to help schools, in collaboration with law enforcement agencies, analyze their vulnerability to violence, theft, and vandalism, and suggest possible technologies to effectively address these problems. It outlines ways architects can design new schools that incorporate CPTED principles. It describes existing commercially available technologies and urges thoughtful consideration of not only the potential safety benefits that may accrue from their use but also the costs that schools may incur for capital investments, site modifications, additional staffing, training, and equipment maintenance and repair. Topic areas include security concepts and operational issues, video surveillance, weapons detection devices (walk-through and handheld metal detectors and x-ray baggage scanners), entry controls, and duress alarms. Resource information including books, publications, web sites, and conferences conclude the guide. 282p.
Report NO: NCJ-1782265

TO ORDER: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 810 Seventh St., N.W., Washington, DC 20531; Tel: 800-851-3420

Keeping Schools and Students Safe. EdFact Resource Guide Adobe PDF
(EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA , Jun 1999)
This guide provides a partial list of the resources available to help educators, parents, and community leaders address questions about student safety. The document includes the names of publications about community support for teens, and information and program ideas that schools can use to effect student safety.

Effects of School Safety and School Characteristics on Grade 8 Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis. Adobe PDF
Gronna, Sara; Chin-Chance, Selvin
(U.S. Department of Education, ERIC Database , Apr 1999)
Reports on a statewide study that examined the extent to which a safe school influences individual student achievement. The study used a two-level hierarchical model that included student characteristics and school conditions used in prior research. The statewide analysis was based on 46 of the 50 schools with grade 8 classes in one western state. The study used scores from the Stanford Achievement Test, along with data obtained from state department of education data bases for the school years 1993 through 1996. The findings suggest that school safety has statistically significant effects on students grade 8 reading and mathematics achievement. Controlling for student background characteristics and differences in school conditions, students who are in safer schools have higher grade 8 achievement scores than students who are in less-safe schools. Additionally, there was a statistically significant negative effect on student achievement associated with increased school disciplinary infractions after controlling for student background characteristics and school conditions. Includes 39 references. 20p.

No Light at Night: Night Time Black Outs and Vandalism.
(California Energy Extension Service , 1999)
While saving energy, Battle Ground School District in Clark County has reduced vandalism to almost zero with a policy to darken campus after 10:30 p.m. Spokane School District and Riverside School District have been experiencing similar results for over six years. The article documents decreased vandalism and energy savings when school grounds are darkened after nighttime use, citing case studies in California, Texas, and Washington state.

Overview of Federal, New York State, and New York City Law Regarding Environmental Health and Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 1999)
This document presents many of the Federal, State, and New York City laws that apply to the health, safety, and environmental conditions of schools. The relevant portions of the law have been selected along with the mechanisms of legal enforcement that may exist and contact information where applicable. Legislative categories covered include air quality, toxic substances, and chemicals; asbestos; athletic equipment; washrooms; boarding; school buildings; buses, vehicles, traffic, and transportation; drugs and alcohol around educational facilities; fire safety; food and nutrition; student health; and lighting and radiation. Also included are laws governing plans for future educational facilities grants, recreational areas and playgrounds, pest control, sanitation, smoking, and ventilation. 36p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

Structural Design for Physical Security: State of the Practice.
(American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA , 1999)
Provides guidance to structural engineers in the design of civil structures to resist the effects of terrorist bombings. Eight chapters outline the steps commonly followed in this practice. These are the determination of the threat, methods by which structural loadings are derived for the determined threat, the behavior and selection of structural systems, the design of structural components, the design of security doors, the design of utility openings, and the retrofitting of existing structures. This Report is the first transfer of this technology from the military to the civil sector. 210p.

Designing Against Terror: Site Security Planning and Design Criteria
Atlas, Randall
(Atlas Safety & Security Design, Inc., Miami, FL. Published in Architectural Graphics Standards: 1999 Revision., 1999)
With the increasing threats to persons and property, from acts of terrorism, workplace violence, and street crime, the first and most important line of defense is securing the site perimeter and the careful placement of the building/s on the given site. This brief includes a statement of the problem; the assessment process; a discussion of security layering; GSA security standards on perimeter and exterior security, entry security, interior security, and security planning; application of security standards; and CPTED.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: School CPTED Basics. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(Eugene Police Department, Eugene, OR , 1999)
The Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) concept suggests that natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality can be effectively applied to schools and surrounding environments to provide safety for students and teachers. A CPTED principle suggests that a well designed office should serve as the guardian at the gate, with excellent surveillance outside and inside the school, especially up and down hallways, the entry area, parking lots, drop off areas, and playing fields. Progressively stronger levels of security design for the main entry and office areas are diagramed providing benefits and disadvantages of each. 8p.

Safe Schools Facilities Planner. Health and Life Safety, School Climate and Order Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Div. of School Support, Raleigh , Feb 1998)
This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through environmental control in the following areas: access control; surveillance; territoriality; defensible space; target hardening; and program interaction. Guidelines also address issues on school size, schools-within-schools, health and life safety, and school climate and order. (Contains 30 references.) 25p.
TO ORDER: Public Schools of North Carolina, Division of School Support, 301 North Wilmington St. Raleigh, NC 27601-2825

Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept.,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany , 1998)
The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5- year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction and remodeling of school district facilities, and building compliance regulations to conform with the public school safety program. Also addressed are statutes involving school construction safety and security, construction noise abatement, proper ventilation requirements, asbestos abatement, and educational facility report cards. 14p.

Safe Schools, Safe Students: A Guide to Violence Prevention Strategies, Programs, Policies and Environmental Changes.
(Drug Strategies, Washington, DC , 1998)
This assesses over 80 violence prevention programs created for classroom use; examines school policies to promote a peaceful and safe learning environment; reviews architectural and environmental changes that protect students; and provides practical help in developing school strategies to prevent violence and drug abuse. 121p.

Safety by Design.
Blue, Don
(International CPTED Association , 1998)
A safe school is an inviting school and whether occupants are consciously aware of the safety features, there is a comfort level people experience when safety is an integral part of the surroundings. This provides recommendations based on a school safety by design approach called Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). This approach blends effective design with the physical, social and psychological needs of the occupants. School design recommendations include: increase the territorial concern of occupants; provide natural surveillance features; design natural access control features.

Providing a Secure Environment for Learning.
Bousquet, Antonine
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 1998)
The themes in this seminar addressed the recognition and measurement of outside threats, preventive measures and degrees of protection, and the responsibility of education authorities and the development of partnership policies. The seminar demonstrates that schools should come out of their isolation and introduce partnerships that can ensure their own security; adapt to a changing society; and help their economic, social, and political partners to understand what makes the school special. Three case studies presented at the seminar are summarized in the Annex. 82p.
TO ORDER: OECD Washington Center, 2001 L St., NW #650, Washington, DC 20036-4922; Toll free: 800-456-6323

Practical School Security: Basic Guidelines for Safe and Secure Schools
Trump, Kenneth S.
(Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA , 1998)
This provides a practical approach to issues of school security. Chapters 1 through 3 establish a framework for dealing with the myths and realities of school violence that cloud effective handling of security issues. The first two chapters cover the real threats to school security and the impact of politics on responding to these issues, and chapter 3 offers practical suggestions for dealing with the threats and the politics. The major issues identified are aggressive and violent behavior, drugs, weapons, gangs, and stranger danger. Chapters 4 through 7 explain how to take action, beginning with the security assessment process in chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 6 focuses on popular strategies used to improve school security, including metal detectors, cameras, and security equipment. Chapter 7 looks at security issues as they reflect the community outside the school. It also provides tools to use in working with the media while dealing effectively and proactively with school security issues. (Contains 15 references.) 122p.

Dark Campus Programs Reduce Vandalism and Save Money.
(International Dark-Sky Association, Tucson, AZ, Dec 1997)
Article cites successful examples from Oregon, California, and Texas, of reductions in vandalism and increased energy savings when schools keep outdoor lights out at night after hours. So called 'Dark Campus' policies include hours for blackout, usually 11:00pm to 6:00am, notices to staff and students and local law enforcement that building is off-limits during those hours, signage, and blocked or reduced access to grounds at night. 2p.
Report NO: Information Sheet 54

Designing Safer Communities: A Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Handbook .
(National Crime Prevention Council, 1997)
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) involves police officers, residents, local planners, and members of other local agencies in designing a physical environment that reduces the opportunity for crime and makes residents feel safer. This explains the basics of CPTED and then demonstrates how the concept can be applied to specific sites using examples of successful efforts.. Its chapters explore how to engage community organizations, gather needed information, and initiate a discussion of the positive effects of CPTED on a neighborhood's quality of life. The book also provides sample survey forms, planning guidelines, and detailed resource lists of organizations, literature, and CPTED experts. 84p.

Injuries in the School Environment. A Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(Education Development Center; Children's Safety Network , 1997)
Almost 22 million children are injured in the United States each year, and an estimated 10 to 25% of these injuries occur in and around schools. However, the problem of injuries in the school environment is often unrecognized and preventive measures are often ignored. The Children's Safety Network has designed this packet to inform school personnel, other professionals, and parents about the extent of the problem of injury and to stimulate discussion of possible solutions. (Contains 66 references.) 46p.

Physical Environment and Student Safety in South Georgia Schools. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung; Morgan, P. Lena
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA , Nov 1996)
The preservation of school safety should be a primary commitment of all educators. This paper presents findings of a study that examined school facility safety in 27 Georgia schools. Data were gathered from a survey of 9 elementary, 11 middle, and 7 high schools in south Georgia. The surveys elicited information related to both school-site safety and school-building safety. Respondents assessed the condition of their school buildings with a school-building evaluation instrument. The data show a significant relationship at the .05 level between school safety and school-building age for the middle schools. The relationship between the school-building safety score and school-building age was found to be statistically significant for middle and elementary schools at the .10 level. The general rating for school-facility safety was above average, except in areas such as corridors, parking lots, and playgrounds. Four tables are included. (Contains 8 references.) 12p.

Improving Security in Schools. Managing School Facilities Guide 4. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education and Employment, Suffolk, England , 1996)
This booklet offers guidance on how to improve school security, including advice on the management of security and the roles of local education authorities, school governors, and headteachers. The guide describes how schools can carry out their own security surveys, assess themselves in terms of risk and then consider security measures appropriate to that level of risk. The selection of specific security measures are discussed including visitor access control, fire detection systems, cash handling, out of hours access, property marking, computer security, intruder alarms, secure storage, and car parking and vehicle security. 47p.

Safe Schools: A Security and Loss Prevention Plan.
Hylton, J. Barry
(Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996)
This book addresses a wide range of security programs and measures which have been proven to be effective. Essential topics discussed in this manual are: bomb threats and checklists; drug and alcohol testing; random inspection; metal detector and search guidelines; emergency and response plans; security assessment and survey tools; loss prevention and physical security; intrusion detection systems; employee and security education and training; and operating procedures. Includes sample security surveys, reports, and programs. 232p.

Florida Safe School Design Guidelines. [Florida]
Moore, James A.; Powers, Daniel S.
(University of South Florida, Florida Center for Community Design and Research, Tampa, FL , Jul 28, 1993)
This document provides guidelines Florida schools can use in designing schools that enhance school safety and security. It examines the literature available on school safety and security and the principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), and presents a survey of Florida's 67 school districts examining incidences of safety and security problems and steps taken to prevent such incidents. Concluding sections include a set of design guidelines in which CPTED principles are developed specifically for schools, and evaluates Chapter 6A-2 of the state's Uniform Building Code with recommended changes and commentary. Survey data show the CPTED principles do have broad-based application to the design and/or re- design of Florida's schools, but these principles must be carefully assessed, particularly those involving life-safety, educational policy or intent, costs, and overall educational environment. 383p.

Security Lighting: Crime Prevention in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education, London, England , Apr 21, 1993)
Recent years have shown a rise in crimes committed in English schools necessitating the need to formulate security policies. This document examines the use of security lighting and provides guidance and technical advice on policy to assist those responsible for design, specification, purchase, installation, maintenance, operation, and management of security lighting systems for educational buildings. Concluding sections list and categorize the types of lamps and luminaries that are available, highlight case studies showing types of lighting needs of educational facilities and their associated costs, and provide a glossary of lighting terms. 27p.

Crime Prevention in Schools: Closed Circuit TV Surveillance Systems in Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 75. Adobe PDF
Whitehouse, B.; Patel, M.; Gofton, K.
(Department of Education and Science, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1991)
This document provides technical advice and guidance on policy for the design, specification, installation, maintenance, operation, and management of closed circuit TV (CCTV) systems in all types of educational facilities. It also includes case studies and gives elemental costs which allow estimates to be made. 21p.

Crime Prevention in Schools: Specification, Installation, and Maintenance of Intruder Alarm Systems. Building Bulletin 69. Adobe PDF
Branton, A. J.; Patel, M. J.; Heard, R. M.; Haworth-Roberts, A.; Omar, H.
(Department of Education and Science, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1989)
Greater use of expensive equipment by schools has also increased the potential for break-ins and theft, giving an increased role to intruder alarm systems. This document provides guidance on the management and technical aspects of forming policies for installing and operating intruder alarm systems in educational buildings. 85p.

Student Control as a Planning and Design Factor in Educational Facilities
Lilley, H. Edward
Nov 1986
Appropriate school facility design promotes a balance between student freedom and control. This report evaluates research on architectural approaches affecting student control and offers design recommendations. Since 1960, school discipline and vandalism problems have exploded. Senator Birch Bayh's committee reported that certain crimes are influenced by the physical setting; a logical design provides both small and large groups to work with indirect supervision. Districts have obtained federal grants to reduce vandalism, following Oscar Newman's concept of "defensible space." Three areas of design concern should be addressed: (1) spatial relationship, (2) high visibility, and (3) comfort and information. A good spatial relationship requires a distribution of adult flowspace and workstations throughout student use areas. Since vandalism and discipline problems increase with school size, reversal of the trend toward large schools could ease problems. To ensure high visibility, staff offices should be in visual contact with common use areas. Visual control allows indirect supervision without increasing workload and permits students controlled freedom. Attention to comfort and information may reduce unacceptable student behavior. Such behavior, which often results from stress, signals that needs are not being met. Noise, harsh lighting, and improper color contribute to stress. Acoustic controls, full spectrum lighting, and comfortable color schemes promote relaxation. To reach full potential, a facility should incorporate visual student control into its design. Twenty-five references are appended. 14p.

References to Journal Articles

Eyes Wide Open. Safeguarding Schools Takes Smart, Practical and Proactive Approach
Kosik, Vance
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Provides examples of school districts where safety is made easier and more affordable by extending the utility of the district’s network with IP surveillance cameras, storage and switches.

Building A Virtual Fence
Salvi, Del V.
Campus Technology; Jul 2012
Network cameras secure 25 Arizona schools and district offices.

Security in Schools
Kopochinski, Lisa
School Construction News; , p13 ; Jun 20, 2012
Explores passive vs. active security in K-12 schools and postsecondary institutions. Passive security measures include access control systems, video monitoring and other means that use technologies. Active security measures involve posting an officer at a site or traffic control measures.

Alarming Ideas
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; Jun 2012
In today's raw, aggressive world, it seems important to bar a parent with that idea from entering. That's just one of many reasons that schools, today, typically lock all exterior doors and have a hall monitor to greet and question anyone trying to enter once school has begun. Discusses a video management system that enables a principal or security officer to call up cameras on a computer or to send video from cameras to other devices connected to the network — like classroom television monitors.

Glazing Design Beyond the Minimum. Considerations for Glass, Hurricanes, and Tornadoes
Condon, Patrick
Construction Specifier; , p50-62 ; May 2012
In order to offer true protection against hurricanes and tornadoes, a building's glazing design should include a risk assessment of options that go beyond the minimum codes and standards.

Staying Secure for School Safety
Youngkin, Minu
American School and University; , p26-29 ; May 2012
Proper planning and preventive maintenance can increase school security and return on investment. Provides a list of things schools may want to review when updating security technology.

Today's School Security
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Apr 01, 2012
Improved technology and more effective prevention programs help schools and universities provide safer learning environments. Discusses controlled access, video surveillance, mass notification, and prevention programs.

School Security Technologies
Schneider, Tod
School Planning and Management; , p86-89 ; Apr 2012
Discusses how to take a sensible, balanced approach to creating a safe learning environment, drawing on behavioral and structural strategies as well as technological ones.

How the School Built Environment Exacerbates Bullying and Peer Harassment
Sheila M. Fram and Ellyn M. Dickmann
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p227-249 ; Spring 2012
This qualitative analysis examined the built environment of an elementary school and its problem with bullying and peer harassment. We concluded that if the tendency for bullying and peer harassment is present, then specific elements within defined spaces in the school built environment can exacerbate such tendencies. Data collection included staff and teacher surveys, examination of policy documents, and photographs of the external and internal built environment. A constant comparison of incidents in the data included competing comments made on surveys and meaning derived from photographs of the built environment. This paper offers evidence that shows that researchers examining ways of solving the bullying problem need to look at the built environment as a contributing factor. [Authors' abstract]

All You Need to Do Is Ask. Invite Safety to the Table to Prevent Design Flaws
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; , p10 ; Mar 2012
To avoid problematic design features that can been easily avoided, advises asking for assistance in design process from school security, law enforcement, fire service, and emergency management officials.

The Integration Step
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v51 n1 , p67-69 ; Jan 2012
Discusses networking and integrating security technologies including electronic access control, video surveillance, and intrusion systems.

Outlook 2012
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jan 2012
Education institutions must keep a tight rein on spending in 2012 as they search for signs that the national economy is back on its feet. A slow, uncertain economic recovery has improved finances in some parts of the country, but for others, the absence of recovery may require further cuts. Describes the outlook in the following specific areas: funding; charter schools; construction; equity; closings; growth; maintenance & operations; No Child Left Behind; nutrition; security; technology; and sustainability.

Outside Light: Use Best, Not Brightest
Hanford, Desiree
Building Operating Management; , p30-33 ; Dec 2011
It is possible to have a safe, secure outdoor lighting strategy while also being a good environmental steward.

A Safe Environment
Pratachandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; Dec 2011
Discusses the EPA's first-ever federal guidelines for locating school facilities that encourage high-performance schools, stress the importance of locating schools near populations and infrastructure and promote schools as diverse centers of communities. They urge communities to consider children's ability to walk to school, access to public transportation and how to locate schools away from potential environmental hazards.

Close It Up & Lock It Down?!?
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; , p42-44 ; Dec 2011
Discusses the most effective ways of controlling access to facilities, including perimeter access, exterior doors, and visitor management.

Safe-Room Designs for School Safety (with Related Video)
Lynn Jr., Freddie and Percival-Young, Carla
American School and University; Oct 2011
Recent tornadoes and other natural disasters are prompting schools to incorporate storm shelters into their designs. Includes general guidelines and questions that may help designers and education administrators set up storm shelters. Discusses Alabama's legislation to make safe rooms mandatory in public schools, using the International Code Council/National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters (ICC 500-2008) as the minimum building code for safe spaces.

Designing Safe Facilities
McLester, Susan
District Administration; v47 n9 ; Sep 2011
Presents the observations of Judy Marks, Kenneth Trump, Larry Borland, and Tod Schneider regarding school security, with particular regard to heightened concerns since the 1999 Columbine and 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. The article addresses entry control, video intercoms, smart card access, elimination of dead space, natural surveillance, and cameras. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is frequently cited, as are examples of security enhancements from recently built schools.

Selecting a Security Technology Provider.
Przyborowski, Danielle
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p46,48 ; Aug 2011
Addresses selection criteria for a school security technology provider. The provider should have experience in educational environments, certifications and warranties according to national standards, insurance, and bonding.

Boone County Schools Move up the Security Pyramid.
Vigue, Beverly
Doors and Hardware; v75 n8 , p16-18 ; Aug 2011
Describes upgrades to access control in this Kentucky school system. Multiple key systems existed across the district, and even within some schools. Conversion of existing schools to battery-operated electronic locks, as well as wiring of new buildings for electronic access is described, as is networking of the locks, manual overrides, and a highly-restricted key system.

Buildings, Not Drills, Hold Key to Disaster-Proof Schools.
Baily, Nancy; Welliver, Barry; Wolf, Edward
Education Week; Jul 2011
In the Mid-South, the Wasatch Front, and the Pacific Northwest, hundreds of thousands of children attend classes in buildings not designed to protect them on the day that local faults decide to slip. Describes actions taken by Utah and Oregon to gauge the risk.

Does It Look Safe to You?
Berman, Scott
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p36,38,40,42 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for higher education campuses. Natural access control, surveillance, fencing, territorial reinforcement, landscaping, and linking CPTED with security and facility management are discussed.

Designing Out Crime in Schools.
Book, Ed
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p56-58 ; Jul 2011
Addresses key concepts of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Natural access control and surveillance, territorial reinforcement, implementation of CPTED in schools, and linking CPTED and management are discussed.

Rating Your Program: Turning School Emergency Plans Inside Out.
Floreno, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p36,37 ; Jul 2011
Advises the inclusion of potential hazards outside the school in emergency plans. Proximity to manufacturing and transportation hubs should be considered, as should nearby natural hazards. Also to be considered are the advantages of beneficial resources in proximity to the school.

School Security: Design Strategies for Common Problems.
Havens, Kevin
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p26,28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Discusses design strategies for improved school security, with particular attention to remedies for existing buildings. Access control, lighting, electronic and human surveillance, landscaping, and elimination of hiding places are emphasized.

Industry Trends in K-12 Schools.
Madden, Jess
Doors and Hardware; v75 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul 2011
Discusses funding trends in public school services and programs in light of the current recession. According to the survey, security staff has been reduced, sustainable building enhancements have increased, value engineering has increased, lower quality products are being specified, and collection time on payments has increased.

Designing School Safe Rooms. Adobe PDF
Orr, Brian M.; Davis, Brent M.
Ascent Magazine; , p38-42 ; Summer 2011
Creating safe havens in schools to protect against tornadoes can greatly aid communities while not blowing the budget if they are designed efficiently and early in the process. Discusses design requirements, design challenges, secondary uses, safe room costs, and availability of Federal grants.

R U Up 2 Speed? Security Trends in K-12. Security Trends in K-12.
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p21,22,24 ; Jul 2011
Discusses credential exchange for managing visitors, electronic access systems, and emergency notification systems for schools.

Maintaining Security.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p36-39 ; Jun 2011
Discusses steps for maintaining school security. Facilities managers and security staff have several news tasks to perform: read audit reports for the system; check interior and exterior lights for existence of dark spots; inspect notification systems and those who monitor them; test mass notification systems frequently; evaluate effectiveness of system for monitoring video surveillance; and confirm condition of defibrillators, flashlights, and battery-operated radios.

Door Hardware: Code Considerations.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p19,20 ; Jun 2011
Reviews highlights of major codes regarding door hardware, with particular attention to maintaining both fire safety and security, as well as compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act.

Practical Documents for Campus Security: NFPA 730 and 731.
Anthoyn, Michael; Davis, Richard
ASHRAE Journal; v27 n3 , p46,47 ; May 2011
Compares content of two National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents regarding campus security. In principle, they complement each other. NFPA 730 is a standard. NFPA 731 is a guide to implementing the standard.

Disaster Preparedness for Existing School Structures.
Kamal, Sameea
School Construction News; v17 n4 , p14,15,23 ; May-Jun 2011
Discusses exceptions in California's seismic codes that allow existing schools to evade thorough seismic retrofitting and the controversy around the situation. Also discussed is a similar vulnerability of schools to storms in areas where weather is the major threat.

Seven Tips for Vetting an Outside Contractor.
Rizzo, David
Buildings; v105 n5 , p40-42,44,46,48 ; May 2011
Advises on minimizing downtime and maintaining safety when engaging outside facilities contractors. Planning, checking credentials, safety, contingency plans, communication, and long-term commitment are addressed.

Streamlining Video.
Floreno, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p46-49 ; Mar 2011
Advocates for district-wide video applications that apply not only to safety but to operational processes, such as efficient carpool lanes, cafeteria lines, and crowd management at special events. Video further allows district administrators to verify whether procedures are implemented and followed, e.g., the number and type of emergency drills.

Researching Children's Understanding of Safety: An Auto-Driven Visual Approach
Agbenyega, Joseph S.
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood,; v12 n2 , p163-174 ; 2011
Safe learning spaces allow children to explore their environment in an open and inquiring way, whereas unsafe spaces constrain, frustrate and disengage children from experiencing the fullness of their learning spaces. This study explores how children make sense of safe and unsafe learning spaces, and how this understanding affects the ways they engage with their learning spaces. Using a qualitative research method that employed auto-driven visual and observation approaches, this research conducted at one centre in the Mornington Peninsula in Victoria, Australia, examined children's movement and interaction within their learning spaces. The results suggest that the children felt safe in spaces that offered them the best opportunities for play. These are the spaces where they behaved well, laughed freely, reacted positively, and played without too much restriction and intimidation, keeping in mind the restrictions imposed on them by their teachers at other spaces. The implications for constructing and managing safe learning spaces for children are discussed.

Looking Forward.
Brew, Scott; Dorn, Michael; Edelstein, Frederick; Ramsey, John; Schoff, Larry
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p13-16 ; Jan 2011
Various authors share their predictions on education issues. Educational politics, energy, sustainability, and safety are addressed.

Safer School Office Designs.
Dorn, Michael S.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p.9 ; Jan 2011
Suggestions for design features that can make a difference in addressing an aggressive person in the main office area.

Review Course on Video Surveillance.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p74-76 ; Jan 2011
Describes advances in video surveillance technology, including Internet protocol (IP) installations that network with computers, along with improved megapixel and video analytic capabilities.

Getting Serious about Access Control.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p44,45 ; Dec 2010
Acknowledges the potential for prohibitively expensive access control systems and the possibility for ineffectiveness if people do not learn to use the systems. The author describes the essential components in order to stay within a budget, as well as training measures for faculty and administration.

Keys to Success.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Dec 2010
Describes 10 ways that schools can overcome and move beyond impediments to providing safe, healthful, and high-quality education. The 10 areas include finances, sustainable design, operating efficiency, educational technology, distance learning, security, indoor air quality, maintenance / cleaning, managing space, and community connection.

Access Control Needs to be Comprehensive.
Kerr, Tonya
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p46 ; Dec 2010
Addresses the need for comprehensive school access control. The article is framed in the context of the "four D's" (deter, detect, delay, and detain).

Granite School District Security System Grows with Needs.
Vigue, Beverly
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p14-16,18 ; Dec 2010
Describes the evolution of this Utah county school district's security program from simple burglar alarms, to sophisticated access control. Specifications of the systems are described, with an emphasis on how older buildings were retrofitted and how efficiency was obtained to enable a small staff to control the systems.

Ready, Fire, Aim: Why Security Measures May Miss the Target.
Kroll, Karen
Building Operating Management; v57 n11 , p14,16,-18 ; Nov 2010
Advises on areas of building security that are often overlooked. A security assessment should always be the first step, followed by selection of technology, staffing, policies, and procedures. Typical areas that are overlooked include unsupervised or improperly installed technology, lobbies, stairwells, roofs, windows, and employee participation.

Safe Passage Out: Lessons in Life Safety Equipment.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p70,72,73,74 ; Oct 2010
Emphasizes meeting and exceeding codes where egress from schools is concerned. Working with fire and police professionals and equipment selection is also addressed.

Off Camera.
Benne, Paul
American School and University; v83 n1 , p34-36 ; Sep 2010
Discusses school security planning beyond video surveillance and access control. Security assessment, project planning, design and engineering, and construction administration are detailed as the four significant phases for security enhancement in new construction.

Video Surveillance Keeps School Users Safe.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p62.64,65 ; Aug 2010
Lists different types of surveillance equipment available and describes advantages of fixed and PTZ (Pan/Tilt/Zoom). Surveillance includes interior and exterior, as well as monitoring athletic fields.

State of Safety.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p42-44 ; Jul 2010
Reviews school safety endeavors in Hawaii, citing them as an example of an effective statewide effort, funded by state and federal grants.

Night Lights.
Hanford, Desiree
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p40, 41 ; Jul 2010
Discusses perimeter lighting of a building, addressing code requirements, color quality, glare, light trespass and pollution, and energy efficiency.

Staying Safe on Site.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p36,38,40 ; Jul 2010
Discusses safety on occupied school construction sites. Clear communication, background checks and photo identification of construction workers, and OSHA requirements are addressed, as is the safety of visitors, students, and other building occupants. Fire plans, along environmental quality and isolation are also discussed.

Gone to the Dogs?
Wernz, Jacqueline
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p48-50 ; Jul 2010
Discusses canine sweeps of schools, highlighting court decisions that have upheld their legality. Need, authority, notice, and procedures for the sweeps are also addressed.

Safe and Secure.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n11 , p16-18,20,22,23 ; Jun 2010
Discusses maintaining campus security under current budget strains. Low-cost measures that do not tap resources needed elsewhere are featured, including improved communication, sirens, door security, and involving the student body in vigilance and mentoring. A list of low-cost steps from the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is included.

Making the Most of What You Have.
Caster, Richard; Floreno, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v49 n3 , p47-50 ; Mar 2010
Advises on school access control and visitor management, using readily available or already in place low-tech systems, technology, and personnel.

Designing for Security.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v82 n6 , pSS26,SS28,SS29 ; Feb 2010
Discusses crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools. Creating clear but controllable entrances, interior space and furnishing design, interior and exterior visibility, and active technological surveillance are discussed, as is the importance of main maintaining a welcoming appearance.

Convergence: The New Security Priority.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p29-31,34 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the importance of physical security in defending IT security. Door and access control is emphasized as the front line against intruding hackers.

Site Surveys: A Closer Look at Security.
Nason, Randall
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p12,13 ; Jan 2010
Advises on conducting a security assessment of an existing site, addressing the multiple components of facility security and the typical results that a site survey will produce.

School Playground Surfacing and Arm Fractures in Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Sand to Wood Chip Surfaces.
Howard, Andrew; Macarthur, Colin; Rothman, Linda; Willan Andrew; Macpherson, Alison
PLoS Medicine; Dec 15, 2009
Reports on the difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fiber surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. The research determined that granitic sand playground surfaces reduce the risk of arm fractures from playground falls when compared with engineered wood fiber surfaces.

Integrating School Security Systems.
Floreno, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p32-34 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the benefits of converging surveillance technology with IT infrastructure, with an emphasis on converting existing analog equipment to digital and networking the technology for staff-wide and public safety personnel access.

Security vs. Sustainability.
O'Neill, Daniel
Building Operating Management; v56 n12 , p34,35 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the potential competition between building sustainability and security issues. Preferences for lighting, landscaping, and opening control by one interest may inhibit success in the other. Collaboration between the multiple disciplines involved is recommended in order to find intelligent solutions.

Safer Science: Chemical Storage.
Roy, Ken
The Science Teacher; , p12,13 ; Oct 2009
Reflects on the danger of an "It's always been done this way" attitude towards chemical storage in school science laboratories. References are provided to national standards for the storage of chemicals, and a list of 17 safe storage guidelines from the Centers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are offered. Links to five references are provided. Registration is required for free download.

Effectively Managing Visitors.
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p48-50 ; Oct 2009
Advises on managing school visitors with mandatory identification check, sign-in by a staff member, sign-out, and use of visitor badges. Features of visitor management software are highlighted, as well as training of staff to be polite, but vigilant.

Case Study: Piedmont California Schools Lock Down Classroom Security. Adobe PDF
Vigue, Beverly
Doors and Hardware; v73 n10 , p20,22 ; Oct 2009
Describes this district's replacement of 50 classroom door locks that can be locked from inside with a key, new panic bars for exit doors that can be found in the dark, and standardization of the key system.

Secure Rides.
Brooks, Bret
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS36,SS37 ; Sep 2009
Advises on securing school transportation by parking all vehicles in a central, secured facility and enforcing control of who has access to those facilities. Advice on securing and supervising the parking facility is included.

School Security Breaches on the Rise.
Devaney, Laura
eSchoolNews; v73 n9 ; Sep 2009
Describes a 28% increase in school physical security breaches from 2007 to 2008 and increased use of real-time viewing of security cameras by emergency response personnel. The statistics are drawn from the following survey:

Putting a Lock on Security.
Visbal, Mark
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n9 , p12,14 ; Sep 2009
Discusses affordable retrofits of door locks that do not require switching to a fully automated system. Electronic lock cylinders are emphasized, with their programmability and scalability detailed, as well as their independence from hard wiring.

Security Technologies.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p31-33 ; Aug 2009
Discusses convergence of networked security technologies that connects cameras, video analytics, and mass notification systems. These systems are typically Internet-based and can identify potential physical threats while they are still in their formative stage.

Cutting Budgets in the Recession? Don t Cut Security. [Four Building Security Hotspots.]
Muszynksi, Lacey
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p14,16 ; Aug 2009
Advises against cutting security budgets during a recession. Re-evaluating systems for effectiveness and economical updates are suggested, while opening up the organization to liability should security be reduced and an occupant harmed is strongly discouraged.

Selecting a Security Systems Integrator.
Giannini, Tom
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS12-S14 ; Jul 2009
Outlines a due-diligence process for selecting a security systems that addresses security assessment steps, envisioning security challenges, implementing the process, and persistence in asking questions.

Locker Options: Thinking outside the Box.
Schneider, Tod
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS12-S14 ; Jul 2009
Addresses the aesthetics, acoustics, and contraband of school locker installations. Typical dysfunctions of design, construction, and placement are noted, as are solutions such as incorporating lockers into human-scale gathering places, noise abatement techniques, natural surveillance opportunities.

From a Student's Perspective.
Timm, David
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Presents the observations of a 17-year-old on school security, citing the building vulnerabilities that attract predators, various types of risk, the importance of involving all occupants in the security program, and the advantages of deterrence, detection, delay, and response in thwarting security breaches.

Greenwood Community Schools Prioritize Building Security.
Vigue, Beverly
Doors and Hardware; v73 n6 , p28-30,32,33 ; Jun 2009
Profiles recent security measures taken in Indiana's Greenwood Community School Corporation. After assessment by security consultants, video surveillance, electronic door access, and visitor identification were employed. Architectural adjustments to buildings, staff training, information and warnings delivered by the software, and accommodation of special events are covered.

Design Considerations Balance Sustainability, Safety Needs. Adobe PDF
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p12,13 ; May 2009
Briefly addresses several issues where building security and sustainability meet in the areas of outdoor and indoor lighting, the exterior building envelope, and landscaping.

Protecting the Security Budget.
Ahrens, Sean
Building Operating Management; v56 n5 , p31,32,33 ; May 2009
Advises on justifying security expenditures by demonstrating how security technology can reduce demands on security staff, and how to prioritize cuts when necessary. Excessive access control, architectural changes that impact security, and using add/alternates to specifications to evaluate the costs of various security technologies are addressed.

Test Emergency Lighting Systems: It's a Requirement.
Martin, Robin
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p32,34,36,37 ; May 2009
Discusses the codes that require regular testing of emergency lighting, the frequent neglect of these requirements in school facilities. Methods of testing are cited, noting their respective staffing and budgetary requirements.

Who Is Your Thin Blue Line?
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p86,88,89 ; Apr 2009
Explores the history and current use of security personnel in schools, citing the various agencies or businesses from which they are drawn and blended approaches to school security personnel. Cautions for background checks, personnel caliber, salaries, training, and political issues are included.

Columbine's 10th Anniversary Finds Lessons Learned.
Trump, Kenneth
District Administration; v45 n4 , p26-30 ; Apr 2009
Reflects on changes in school security since the April 20, 1999 attack at Colorado's Columbine High School. These include reduced school access, visitor management systems, surveillance cameras, communications enhancements, improved school design, and improved preparedness. Typical gaps that remain in preparedness are also discussed.

Ensuring Our Schools Are Safe.
Bentley, Russell
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p44-47 ; Mar 2009
Illustrates how many sophisticated school security systems can be breached, suggests elements of a school safety assessment and components of the assessment team, and describes necessary qualifications of an outside security assessment firm.

Seeing Eye Cameras.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p60-63 ; Mar 2009
Discusses video surveillance equipment that can be programmed to use analytics to discern, highlight, and alert to unwanted activities in school areas. This relieves security personnel of constant video monitoring.

Your Attention, Please.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p46,48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews technological enhancements to school public address systems that coordinate class bells, two-way communication to classrooms, emergency communication, and wireless clocks.

Selling Security.
Acosta, John
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p41,42,44,46 ; Feb 2009
Advises on how to justify expenditures for building security, including security assessments of the surrounding neighborhoods, willingness of the institution to assume risk, upgrading security technology to keep up with other upgraded technology in use, forming partnerships within the institutional community, and creating a long-term security plan.

Trial and Error: How to Achieve Maximum Benefit from Campus Security Technology.
Balck, James
American School and University; v81 n6 , pSS42,SS44,SS45 ; Feb 2009
Details five common mistakes made in school security deployment: 1) believing all product claims, 2) thinking technology will solve all the security problems, 3) insufficient lanning, 4) excluding critical personnel, and 5) deploying more technology than necessary.

Keeping it Safe.
George, David
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p29,30,32 ; Feb 2009
Discusses an array of fire warning devices for schools, including addressable control panels, area-specific detection and suppression equipment, and training of personnel.

An Application of "Broken-Windows" and Related Theories to the Study of Disorder, Fear, and Collective Efficacy in Schools.
Plank, Stephen B.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Young, Hollie
American Journal of Education; v115 n2 , p227-247 ; Feb 2009
This article considers school climate and perceptions of social disorder. When a school is characterized by disorder or physical risk, basic educational goals and processes are jeopardized. We use survey data from 33 public schools serving grades 6-8 in a large mid-Atlantic city to examine relationships among physical disorder (e.g., broken windows and poor building conditions), fear, collective efficacy, and social disorder. Path analyses reveal a direct association between physical disorder and social disorder even when prior levels of collective efficacy are controlled--a finding consistent with traditional broken-windows theories. Further, there is evidence that the effects of physical disorder may be operating through increased fear and decreased collective efficacy to affect perceptions of threatening or violent interactions among people. [Authors' abstract]

Standing Tall.
Rosenburg, Glenn
American School and University; v81 n6 , pSS46,SS48,SS49 ; Feb 2009
Advises on contract security personnel for widespread campus locations. Problems finding for diverse settings, and then supervising them when they do not necessarily report for a roll call are discussed, as is the use of students as guards, and commitment to training and campus safety awareness.

Campus Fire Facts. Adobe PDF
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p20,22 ; Jan-Feb 2009
According to a December 2008 survey by this magazine, half of college and K-12 school fire safety professionals say systems maintenance is one of their top four fire protection challenges. More than 48 percent also indicated false alarms are a significant problem. Integration with other non-fire systems, such as mass notification, is another challenge that was most often checked by participants. Of the 447 campus officials who took the survey, 141 (32 percent) marked this option as one of their top four concerns. The study also points out that one in five schools say their systems do not comply with National Fire Protection Association code.

Safety Balance: Achieving a Secure but Friendly Access Control.
Bentley, Russell
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p77-79 ; Jan 2009
Discusses school access control, emphasizing a welcoming environment that is nonetheless carefully controlled. Careful evaluation of how the building is used by students, staff, and the community begins the process. Design and staffing of entrances, visitor identification, and internal space controls are addressed.

Complying with the Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act.
Beranek, Joe
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p24,26,28 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews particulars of the 2008 Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act, which requires higher education institutions to annually report considerable fire safety information to the U.S. Department of Education. Advice on achieving a balanced approach to fire safety, cost-effective fire prevention measures, standpipe fire hose stations, and special fire suppression systems for kitchens and laboratories is included.

Emerging Trends: Technology Can Address Evolving Security Needs on Campus.
Black, James
American School and University; v81 n5 , p39-41 ; Jan 2009
Discusses emerging educational security technology, including advances in intelligent video analytics, mass notification systems, and building perimeter control.

Campus Safety Grant Strategies: Your First Steps.
Bradley, Kurt
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p30,32,33 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Offers strategies for obtaining grants to enhance campus safety, discussing what grants typically do and do not cover, and the steps that institutions need to take before even seeking grant funds.

Prevent Campus Assaults with Proven Methods.
Dorn, Michael
Doors and Hardware; v73 n1 , p34-38 ; Jan 2009
Discusses prevention of assaults with weapons, including banning of high risk individuals, aggressive traffic enforcement, staff training, visual screening for weapons on persons, room searches, metal detection and X-ray equipment, trained detection animals, and plain view vehicle checks.

Stoughton School Vandals Beware!
Dubsky, Anna
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p46,48,49 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Details the video surveillance system installed in Wisconsin's Stoughton Area School District. The combination of software, cameras, motion detectors, and publicity is described.

Homeschooling and Safety.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p11 ; Jan 2009
Reflects on the rise in homeschooling, and suggests that poor school facilities and concerns about safety at school might be two of the reasons.

School Security Post-Columbine: The More We Learn, the More Challenges Remain.
Murray, Lynn
Design Cost Data; v53 n1 , p9,10 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews the current state of two-way communication between classrooms and the administration area, electronic security control, perimeter security, and funding for school security.

Transparency Builds community.
Stack, Gregory
Learning By Design; n18 , p168 ; 2009
Explores the advantages of transparency in educational facilities. Admitting daylight, supervision, and visual communication between groups is discussed.

Equating School and Safety.
Tittle, Jay
Learning By Design; n18 , p14-17 ; 2009
Briefly reviews recent facility design approaches to improve school safety, organizing them as "soft" or "hard," depending on the degree of prominence of the feature within the fabric of the structure. Three school facilities are offered as examples.
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A School Security Outlook for 2009.
Schaffhauser, Dian
T.H.E. Journal; Dec 2008
Presents an interview with a school security professional indicating that mass notification systems, computer network security, and connectivity to local law enforcement agencies are the current issues for school security.

Overcoming Common Barriers to Good Campus Safety.
Dorn, Michael
Doors and Hardware; v72 n11 , p40-42,44,46,47 ; Nov 2008
Explores common barriers to campus safety and approaches to addressing them. Apathy, misdirection of efforts due to notorious but rare events, lack of funding, contradictory advice, and political pressures are discussed. Sensible responses to these include safety assessments, open communication about actual safety risks, comprehensive safety planning, utilization of grants, focusing on inexpensive but powerful security measures, and advocacy for the benefit of campus safety to the institutional mission.

Special Considerations for Multiple Fire Alarm Systems in Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Anthony, Michael; Reiswig, Rodger
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p40,41 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses a particular problem with "add-on" fire alarm systems for new additions in educational buildings, when resetting after an alarm is difficult to coordinate.

Selecting a Mass-Notification Solution.
Brown, Edward
Buildings; v102 n11 , p62,64-66 ; Nov 2008
Advises on evaluating a mass notification system for ease of use, reliability, scalability, cost, and features. Techniques for testing a vendor's system are suggested, as are considerations of message quality and functionality of the system. A short history of the first three generations of mass notification system features and pricing are illustrated in a table.

Wandering Eyes and Security. Adobe PDF
Jahan, Youngmin; Verbitski, Christine
School Construction News; v11 n7 , p12,13 ; Nov 2008
Discusses library security in light of the expanding array of spaces and services that libraries provide. Glass interior walls improve supervision, and security tags on materials are recommended, especially in situations where there is more than one entrance to a library.

Caught on Camera.
Spitz, Robert
School Planning and Management; v47 n11 , p40,42-44 ; Nov 2008
Reviews the efforts at Taos Municipal Schools to implement video surveillance. Efforts to install as system district-wide were met with opposition, but eventually won acceptance when a small, trial system at the high school successfully recorded vandalism. The types of cameras and network implemented are described, as are the roles of school administrative and law enforcement staff in its operation.

Eye on You.
Benne, Paul
American School and University; v81 n2 , p25-28 ; Oct 2008
Advises on video surveillance for schools, discussing matching of equipment to the need, legal considerations of surveillance, resolution, frame rate, effective and immediate use of information that is recorded, and costs.

Where Does Access Control Fit in the K-12 Security Mix?
Schaffhauser, Dian
T.H.E. Journal; Oct 2008
Discusses the role of access control in school security. The elements of access control, proper evaluation of school access control, procedural fixes that require no equipment, typical costs, and coordination with video surveillance are addressed.

Alvord Schools Network Access Control to Improve Security.
Vigue, Beverly
Doors and Hardware; v72 n10 , p10-12,14,16 ; Oct 2008
Describes how this California school system used bond funding to place their 20 schools on a single access control network, replacing most keys with access cards and traditional locks with wireless card readers.

Planning Your Security Program.
Glavin, Tom
Buildings; v102 n9 , p90,92,94 ; Sep 2008
Outlines basic steps when planning and implementing a building security system. Determining needs, exploring options, obtaining professional feedback, implementation, and review are addressed.

Ideal Solutions for Campus Fire Alarm Networks.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n5 , p18,20,21 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Cites the advantages and disadvantages of proprietary versus non-proprietary fire alarm networks and the challenges of keeping an existing campus fire alarm system operational while a new one is being installed.

Balancing Convenience and Safety.
Dorn, Michael
Doors and Hardware; v72 n9 , p42-44 ; Sep 2008
Illustrates with examples a variety of situations where convenience of access to a school facility should be a lower priority than safety, in order to prevent violent incidents. The article emphasizes appropriate access control, visitor sign-in, identification badges, a dress code, consistent enforcement, and drills and exercises.

Choose Your Integrator Wisely.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p38,40 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Describes approaches to choosing a campus electronic security system integrator, either through single sourcing or a competitive bid. Assessing an integrator's credentials, choosing between a local or national provider, and subcontracting of work are addressed.

Core Components of Contract Security RFPs.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p50 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Lists sixteen items that should be present in every campus security provider request for proposal.

Five Tips for Writing Effective RFPs.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p46,47 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Advises on writing a request for proposal (RFP) for campus electronic security. Hiring a consultant, limiting the number of bidders by pre-qualifying, weighing input from manufacturers, and investigation of what other institutions have done, and inclusion of specifics are addressed.

Making the Leap to IP Video a Safer Bet.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p18,20,22-24 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Highlights improvements in internet protocol video surveillance that make it a more viable option for schools. These include the advent of open standards that allows more selection between components, improvements in megapixel coverage that allows the use of fewer cameras, and a general decline in the cost of analytics, network video storage, and other infrastructure.

Seven Secrets to Selecting a Contract Security Provider.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p42,44 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Advises on selecting a campus security contractor that has the appropriate specialized experience, local infrastructure, access to the most current information, the right training, special events experience, appropriate pay, and a record of quality performance throughout the length of the contract.

The Bids Are Back...Now What?
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p48 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Advises on how to compare bids for campus security integration, including rejecting or confirming with bidders displaying serious omissions, lack of specifics, or extremely high or low prices.

Five Critical Door Closer Solutions.
Reynolds, Bruce
Doors and Hardware; v72 n9 , p28-31,33 ; Sep 2008
Discusses five critical issues when considering door closers: durability, ADA accessibility, safety, security, and design.

Five Steps to Successful Security Upgrades.
Scherer, Matt
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p26-30 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Describes a coordinated approach to campus security upgrades, with a multi-disciplinary group in charge of changes, careful budgeting, thorough training of students and staff on new security technologies, response to parents who are concerned about security, and flexibility built into the system.

The Three "D"s of Integration.
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p42,44,47 ; Aug 2008
Defines concepts of school security technology integration, presents some difficulties that one might encounter in a security integration project, and discusses typical demands and expectations for an integrated school security system.

2008 School Security Survey.
American School and University; v80 n12 , pS1,S4,S5 ; Jul 2008
This survey of the school security professionals presents graphs indicated top security concerns, time spent reviewing security preparedness, security spending, security equipment installed or planned for, sources of security funding, frequency and nature of security breaches, and changes in security spending over the last five years and projected for the next year.

The Latest in Video Surveillance: Increasing School Security Campuswide.
School Business Affairs; v74 n7 , p25-27 ; Jul 2008
Discusses video cameras mounted on a hat or earpiece, to be worn by school security officers to record events. Also discussed are the same legal issues that apply for portable and stationery video cameras.

Bright Ideas for Picture Perfect Video.
Bard, Cheryl; Ryan, Willem
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p28,30,31 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses lighting and camera selection for successful campus surveillance applications, imaging that makes best use of bandwith and requires less storage, and proper placement that puts cameras out of the reach of vandals and reduces glare.

Keeping Them Out.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p35,36 ; Jul 2008
Reviews major points of access control for schools, including layered access control, off-campus access control, school grounds and building access, visitor screening, badges, staff and student identification, maintaining access control system integrity, and interior access control.

Achieving Metal Detection Optimization.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p42,43 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Reviews considerations for metal detectors in schools, including proper placement to avoid electronic interference, types of walk-through and handheld detectors, adjustment of metal detectors for proper sensitivity, expediting passage through the equipment, and deciding when and when not to use them.

What the Writing on the Wall Can Tell You.
Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p18,20-22 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the roles of graffiti "taggers," their potential affiliation to gangs, and the escalation that can occur when opposing taggers "cross out" another's graffiti. Interpretation of graffiti can help identify the perpetrator's affiliation and also help diffuse potential gang rivalries.

Eyes and Ears. Adobe PDF
School Construction News; v11 n4 ; May 2008
Discusses techniques for improving school security, including card access control, security assessments, and weapons control. Human observation is particularly emphasized.

Survey: Mixed Results for Physical, Cyber Safety. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v11 n4 , p24,25 ; May 2008
Briefly reviews a recent survey indicating that nearly 70 percent of surveyed districts use security cameras, and that 29 percent attest to their benefit. IT security, on the other hand, seems to have declined, and schools are increasingly converging physical and IT security functions.

Upgrade or Replace? It Depends.
Grossman, Robert
Campus Safety; v16 n3 , p42,44,46,47 ; May 2008
Advises on assessing the viability of existing campus security systems by considering whether or not they are functioning properly, as well as their age, serviceability, and expandability.

Pros and Cons of Security Outsourcing.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p20-24 ; Apr 2008
Lists reasons for assigning school security duties to school security professionals, rather than to facilities staff or local law enforcement. Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing these duties are described, including costs, personal investment in the school community, and access to technology.

Emergency Power: The ABCs of UPS.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p18 ; Apr 2008
Describes three types of passive standby uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and advises on selection, proper sizing, and maintenance of UPS units.

Getting Video to Play Nicely on the Network.
Banerjee, Bob
Campus Safety; v16 n2 , p54,56,58,59 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Discusses management techniques for digital security video to prevent overwhelming a network. Content analytics and convergence are emphasized as ways to reduce the bandwidth needed to collect and store surveillance video.

Federal Dollars, School Security.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n3 , p50,51,53 ; Mar 2008
Reviews the federal government's Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools (REMS) program, which makes grants to enhance safety and security in schools. Typical grant amounts, along with requirements and acceptable uses of the funds are described.

Technology Push.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n7 , p16-20,22 ; Mar 2008
Reviews the evolution of technology in schools from early Internet access to current pursuit of wireless technology for classroom and administrative functions. Particular attention is given to internet-based systems for school safety and security.

The Best Defense: Comprehensive School Security.
Aker, Jenna
Buildings; v102 n2 , p60,62,64 ; Feb 2008
Advises on funding school security, the components of a school safety assessment, emergency training for staff, and creation of a school emergency management plan.

Designing Safer Schools: Environmental Design Makes the Grade.
Atlas, Randall
The Construction Specifier; v61 n2 , p77-85 ; Feb 2008
Reviews elements of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) for schools, detailing considerations for site, building, and interior design, as well as security systems and equipment selection

Purchasing Security Products and Services.
Dyrli, Odvard
District Administration; v42 n2 , p47-50 ; Feb 2008
Profiles K-12 school security expenditures, based on a survey of this magazine's readers. Current use and planned purchases, security priorities, and personnel involved in security purchasing decisions are addressed.

An Eye on Safety.
Ecker, Jon
American School and University; v80 n6 , pSS42,SS45,SS46 ; Feb 2008
Reviews current video surveillance technology for schools, including small and sophisticated cameras, digital recording, and software considerations for recording and storage.

What Do Cameras Cure?
Winston, Ali
City Limits Weekly; 623 ; Jan 21, 2008
Discusses typical problems with school security video surveillance in New York City, such as students who are charged with misconduct being unable to obtain video of the alleged incident, system error, faulty equipment, and improper installation.

Outlook 2008: What's ahead for Educational Facilities and Business in the New Year and Beyond.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v80 n5 , p14-16,18-26 ; Jan 2008
Predicts 2008 trends in school enrollment, construction, sustainability, maintenance, indoor air quality, security, technology, business and finance, and energy use.

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design.
Otterstatter, Robert
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p28-30 ; Jan 2008
Discusses the use of S.A.R.A. (scanning, analysis, response, assessment) in solving problems, and continues with a discussion of four principles of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): natural access control, natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement, and maintenance.

Big Ideas.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p362-383 ; Nov 2007
Presents selected responses of 57 active school architects to five questions concerning trends in school design and school security.

Urban Security.
Copeland, E.J.; Barnett, Randy
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , pS3,S4 ; Nov 2007
Profiles security design and equipment features at the new Medrano Middle School in Dallas, Texas. These include site design, traffic control, alarms, motion and metal detectors, and surveillance systems.

Five Lessons Learned from the Platte Canyon School Schooting.
Dempsey, Kate; Hodges, Lori
Hospital, School, & University Campus Safety; v15 n6 , p34,37-39 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Summarizes five lessons learned, as identified by local authorities after this shooting, including principles of design for traffic control and crime prevention through environmental design.

Don't Drop the Ball When it Comes to Event Security.
Eakins, Lewis
Hospital, School, & University Campus Safety; v15 n6 , p40,42,44,45 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Advises on security for campus events, including identification of assets in need of protection, identification of threats, rating the impact that loss might have, and determination of cost-benefit of mitigation strategies. Lighting, access controls, security cameras, and perimeter barriers are considered, and risk assessment matrices for athletic events and commencement exercises are included.

Buyer Beware.
Trump, Kenneth
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , pS6,S8,S10 ; Nov 2007
Highlights some deceptive practices employed by product vendors wishing to penetrate the school security market. Haste in acquiring security equipment can lead to inappropriate selection of installation, overspending, and a failure to integrate the equipment with staff and student procedures. Questions to ask before deploying security equipment, and advice on selecting security consultants is included.

Surveillance Cameras in Schools: An Ethical Analysis.
Warnick, Bryan
Harvard Educational Review; v77 n3 , p317-343 ; Fall 2007
Responds to the increasing use of surveillance cameras in public schools by examining the ethical questions raised by their use. The article discusses the extent of a student's right to privacy in schools, stipulates how video surveillance is similar to and different from commonly accepted in-person surveillance practices, and the possible impact of surveillance technology on educational environments. In response to the ethical concerns he raises, the author offers five suggestions for how schools can use video surveillance technology in more ethically sensitive ways. Includes 41 references.

Working Together.
Duda, David; Neville, Julia
American School and University; v80 n1 , pSS48,SS50-SS52 ; Sep 2007
Describes landscape and lighting features that both conserve energy and offer increased security for a school facility.

Just Visiting.
Fiel, Patrick
American School and University; v80 n1 , pSS54-SS56 ; Sep 2007
Reviews building features and procedures for controlling school access. These include limited campus entries that are supervised, identification badges, visitor registration, staff training, and a written visitor management plan.

More Security in Smaller Schools?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p62 ; Jul 2007
Highlights the higher incidence of student apathy and absenteeism in larger schools, and the opportunity for increased safety in smaller learning environments, where anonymity is unlikely, and responsible team of adults can know and care for a manageable number of students with whom they have regular contact.

Safe Passage.
Razwick, Jeff
American School and University; v70 n12 , p38-42 ; Jul 2007
Discusses thre primary elements of fire safety: detection, suppression, and compartmentalization of the structure. Particular attention is given to the properties of fire-rated glass and ceramics which offer compartmentalization without inhibiting visibility.

Different TV Reality.
Wren, Andrew; Spicer, Brad
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , p37,38,40,42 ; May 2007
Discusses the proactive use of video surveillance made possible through digitization. Real-time sharing with law enforcement, camera placement, open communication about the surveillance policy, system selection, testing, and scenarios of how police and fire personnel can be assisted by the technology are covered.

Fortress Schools.
SchoolsforLife; n4 , p30-32 ; Mar 2007
Discusses security in United Kingdom schools, citing successful facility features such as fencing and CCTV surveillance.

Seeing it Through.
Wren, Andrew; Spicer, Brad
American School and University; v79 n7 , p38-41 ; Mar 2007
Reviews current digital surveillance technology, with emphasis on IP video. Advice on selecting, funding, prioritizing, and collaborating on systems is included.

Proactive Prevention.
Fraser, Don
American School and University; v79 n6 , pSS49-SS51 ; Feb 2007
Reviews preventive school safety measures, including features of advanced video surveillance that can be interactive or tied to the local police department.

School Security Assessment Programme in Australia. Adobe PDF
Marrapodi, John
PEB Exchange; n59 , p1-4 ; Feb 2007
Describes Western Australia's school security program, including assessment, types of facility mitigation, and the typical reduction in incidence and cost of crimes realized through the program.

What's Your Emergency?
Semer, Jeri; Ostrom, Dave; Peabody, Chris
American School and University; v79 n6 , pSS44,SS46,SS48 ; Feb 2007
Discusses the use of IP telephony to assist in location of emergency callers and enhance campus security. This enhanced 911 (E911) capability for multi-line phone systems is the law in a growing number of states. Issues of phone location identification and the necessity for meticulous maintenance of this information are also covered.

Be Prepared.
Watts, Marty
School Planning and Management; v46 n2 , p20,22,24,25 ; Feb 2007
Outlines essential features of disaster preparedness and recovery programs, as well as building design features and accessories that enhance safety and security. A list of related websites for additional information is included.

Putting a Lock on Students.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p98 ; Jan 2007
Laments situations where students are locked into classrooms and out of public libraries for safety reasons and proposes school design and use solutions that might help.

Assessing Your Security Needs.
Riddell, Russell
Learning By Design; n16 , p25,26 ; 2007
Advises on analyzing operations, evaluating facilities, staff training, and community outreach in the light of creating safer schools.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email:

School Security: A Requirement, Not an Option.
Apalla, Alexa
School Construction News; v9 n7 , p25 ; Nov-Dec 2006
Briefly compares active and passive school security techniques, outlining their respective appropriateness in new construction and retrofitting. Considerations for entrances, monitoring, interior door security, and student involvement are also covered.

Safety First.
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v9 n7 , p20,21 ; Nov-Dec 2006
Presents an interview with a school safety expert that reviews trends in higher education and K-12 school safety, and the challenges of securing older buildings in particular.

You Can Prevent Most School Shootings.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS3, S4,S6 ; Nov 2006
Discusses techniques to prevent school shootings, including policy changes, visual screenings, metal detection, trained dogs, and armed officers.

Passive Security in Facility Planning.
Locker, Frank; DeJong, William
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS10,S12,S13 ; Nov 2006
Emphasizes elimination of long corridors, distribution of teacher and staff workspaces throughout the building, and ample glass to improve observability and security within schools.

Florida School District Sharpens Focus on School Safety.
Vigue, Beverly
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS14-S17 ; Nov 2006
Describes school safety enhancement in Florida's Palm Beach County School District. Attendance is recorded by biometric hand sensors in classrooms, automatic door locks enable a complete lockdown from a single location, and digital CCTV cameras are in use in schools and busses.

Get Passive.
Vujovic, Vuk
School Construction News; v9 n7 , p12-13 ; Nov-Dec 2006
Advocates passive school security measures that are less expensive and less ominous than active surveillance technology. These include open floor plans, wide corridors, abundant glass, and strategically situated staff offices.

Tour of Duties.
Wolohan, John
Athletic Business; v30 n11 , p110-112,114-116 ; Nov 2006
Advises on risk management in recreation facilities, citing court cases involving private and school-based facilities. A room-by-room tour offers suggestions on locker room, shower, pool deck, weight room, cardiovascular area, climbing wall, and outdoor field inspections and fixes.

Crime Watch.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v30 n10 , p99-101 ; Oct 2006
Describes recent notable examples of vandalism at high school athletic facilities and steps being taken to prevent it, including rewards, more surveillance and lighting, anonymous hotlines, and stricter access control. The difficulty of securing fields versus indoor facilities is noted.

Vandalism: Preventing the Writing on the Wall.
Shroades, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p24,25 ; Oct 2006
Details vandalism-prevention techniques in restrooms, focusing on vandalism-thwarting fixtures. Installation of security cameras and quick response to graffiti and broken windows are also described.

Keeping Watch.
Fiel, Patrick
American School and University; v79 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2006
Presents a series of safety questions for school administrators to ask concerning school access points, visitor management, electronic surveillance, equipment security, IT security, environmental hazards, fire detection, and integration of systems.

Let 'em In?
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n1 , pSS7-SS9 ; Sep 2006
Discusses access control concepts, with an emphasis on retrofitting buildings and creating procedures for facilities that were built before security was a critical issue. Reconfiguring doors and lock, lighting, card access systems, and human surveillance are highlighted.

Shake, Rattle, and Roll.
White, Jeff
American School and University; v78 n13 , p158-161 ; Aug 2006
Describes the forces that earthquakes, tornadoes, and hurricanes exert on buildings and offers some school siting, design, and construction suggestions to mitigate damage from these disasters.

Penny-wise Decisions.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p70 ; Jul 2006
Details statistics indicating a sharp rise in school laboratory accidents when less than 60 square feet per student is provided, indicating that attempts to save money by cutting space in laboratories is not only unwise, but unsafe.

The Digital Security Advantage.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p40,42-44 ; Jul 2006
Describes the advantages of digital security surveillance systems over analog, cites the positive experiences of several schools using digital equipment, and advises on how to convert from analog to digital, even if a limited budget means doing it in phases.

Pathways to Safety.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n11 , p36,39,40 ; Jun 2006
Recommends crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), police presence, surveillance technology, educational programs, and crisis response plans to improve school security.

A Reality Check for Security Upgrades.
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n4 ; Apr 2006
Describes issues and opportunities encountered with new school security systems such as communication with first responders across different municipalities, retrofitting modern systems into older buildings, overdesign, and involvement of the building's users in planning the system.

Designing for Security: Controlling Access with Barriers and Plants.
Atlas, Randall
The Construction Specifier; v59 n4 , p83-92 ; Apr 2006
Examines the use of streetscape elements, barriers, and plantings for building access control. Types of barriers and their relative costs, strengths, weaknesses, and aesthetic properties are covered, as are useful flora along with planting advice.

Defensive Design.
Collins, Randolph
American School and University; v78 n9 , p41-43 ; Apr 2006
Advocates using an open physical environment to improve security. Three goals of this approach are to control individual and vehicular movement, maximize visual access to unsupervised areas, and increase occupant sense of ownership.

Biometrics Go Mainstream.
Gale, Doug
Campus Technology; v19 n8 , p26-28,33,34 ; Apr 2006
Describes retina, iris, fingerprint, voice, facial, and hand geometry recognition for security. The technologies are compared, and caveats concerning privacy, false acceptance, and false rejection are discussed.

Stepping Up Protection.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n7 , p51,52,54 ; Mar 2006
Describes increasing opportunities for closed-circuit television observation to improve security, as well as fingerprint and iris recognition technology.

Using Windows and Doors to Provide Safety and Security.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p26,28,30,32,33 ; Mar 2006
Describes safety considerations for school window and door installations, emphasizing use of operable windows to improve egress and ventilation options, with strategic arrangement of locked and unlocked doors to control access.

Safety and Security: Back to Basics.
Glass, Thomas
School Business Affairs; v72 n2 , p36-40 ; Feb 2006
Calls attention to internal risks to students, teachers, and staff, from typical safety hazards on school grounds, shops, laboratories, buses, cafeterias, and kitchens. Safety and first aid training is encouraged, as is coordination with local fire, medical, and law enforcement personal. A safety checklist for internal hazards is included.

On Your Guard.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n6 , pSS40-SS43 ; Feb 2006
Reviews an array of technology available to improve campus security and advises on how to increase campus law enforcement presence and effectiveness.

Security: A Blueprint for Reducing Risk.
Sutell, Robin
Buildings; v100 n2 , p34-39 ; Feb 2006
Discusses aspects of physical systems, operations, and education to address when assessing a building security program. Advice on understanding liability, everyday security breaches, security by design (CPTED), and access control is included.

High Standards for Security.
Cosiol, Jeffrey
Building Operating Management; v52 n12 ; Dec 2005
Although they are not mandatory, federal and private-sector security standards provide guidance for building owners addressing specific risks. This article discusses standards promulgated by the Department of Defense, the General Services Administration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and professional organizations.

Redevelopment Planning after Hurricane Katrina: Challenges Facing Education and School Facility Design.
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v 71 n11 , p22-25 ; Dec 2005
Outlines recovery goals and strategies for areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, emphasizing a multiregional plan that includes coordinated multicounty oversight of construction, creation of joint-use facilities and cross-curricular K-12 schools with flexible design for future conversion, modular buildings, continual communication with the public, re-usable design prototypes and systems construction, design improvements for stronger storm resistance, and use of available commercial facilities for educational purposes.

Video Surveillance in Public Schools: The Delicate Balance between Security and Privacy.
Brady, Kevin
School Business Affairs; v71 n10 , p24-26 ; Nov 2005
Examines some major legal issues and concerns associated with video camera surveillance in public schools and provides guidelines for surveillance compliance policies. Right to privacy issues are covered, and five guidelines are offered: 1) Determine the reasons, costs, and limitations of implementing video surveillance. 2) Be cautious about the locations of cameras. 3) Forgo audio with video to help preserve privacy. 4) Notify the general public of camera locations. 5) Comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). Includes nine references.

Security Starts with Access Control and Builds from There.
Grace, Guy
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , pS-4,S-6 ; Nov 2005
Discusses access control technology in Littleton Public Schools, featuring highly coordinated cameras and card access systems.

Door Hardware: Specifying for Security.
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2005
Advances in new-generation locks, handles, hinges, and operators help managers enhance the security and safety of occupants and operations. Among the key features managers must look for in specifying door hardware include: an aesthetically pleasing look; durability consistent with the level and severity of use; robust designs that require minimal maintenance; support for building safety and security; and ease of use. Besides these demands, door hardware must meet important regulations and standards. These include access guidelines set forth by Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), green-building guidelines, fire-safety codes, and state and local building codes and standards, which match doors and hardware for proper fit in various applications.

Border Patrol.
Hall, Julie
American School and University; v78 n2 , p40,42,44 ; Oct 2005
Describes surveillance, card access, and security in two public school systems and at Ohio State University.

Crash Course in Security.
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Sep 2005
Describes the accelerated installation of 32 surveillance cameras at Johns Hopkins University, in response to two murders. Issues of wiring, landscaping, ceiling construction, and installation crews working in occupied dormitories are discussed.

Priority Protection.
Lam, Mark
American School and University; v78 n1 , pss52,ss54-ss56 ; Sep 2005
Discusses better school security by design, including lighting, landscaping, building layout, restrooms, metal detectors, cameras, lockers, security rooms, alternative routes, physical barriers, and subtler psychological effects of good and bad design.

Intelligent Design.
Keller, Dan
Security Management; Aug 2005
Advocates for leadership from security directors in developing security standards for campus building projects and provides an overview of how the process should work. Whom to involve, what is involved, and the benefits of proper planning are outlined. Brief discussions of CPTED, system integration, liability, standardization of elements, and situational guides are followed by a summary of what a the final security standard should include.

Best Fit System.
Security; , p10,11 ; Jul 2005
Describes the components and installation of the Elgin, Texas, High School security system, which produced immediate results and contributed to the high school being named the safest in central Texas.

California's Safe Routes to School Program.
Boarnet, Marlon; Day, Kristen; Anderson, Craig; McMillan, Tracy; Alfonzo, Mariella
Journal of the American Planning Association; v71 n3 , p301-317 ; Summer 2005
Evaluates California's Safe Routes to School (SR2S) program, which funds traffic improvement projects designed to improve safety for walking and bicycling to school, and to increase the number of children who do so. The impacts of ten traffic improvement projects were measured through surveys of parents and observations of vehicle and pedestrian traffic before and after project construction. Also measured were changes in perceived safety and safety-related behaviors, the number of children walking and bicycling after the improvements. Five of the ten projects showed evidence of success. Includes 35 references.

Is Laminated Glass Right for Your Project?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p36,38,40,42 ; Jun 2005
Reviews the construction and performance properties of laminated glass, which is increasingly being used in schools situated where storm winds are likely and where schools also serve as community shelters during natural disasters. Laminated glass is also desirable where resistance to man-made disasters is sought.

Are Your Old Buildings Dangerous?
Hoye, William
Chronicle of Higher Education; v51 n38 ; May 27, 2005
Reviews a case where the state of Montana was held liable for a child's fall at the state university, even though the balustrade through which he fell was in compliance with a building code that had been grandfathered in. Advice follows on extra vigilance with an eye toward places where children might be present and quick attention to areas of potential or actual trouble.

Smart Safety.
Dorn, Michael
Today's School; May-Jun 2005
Describes incidents of overcharging by school safety consultants, often for work that could be done by properly trained school and local officials. Large sums of money are often spent on school security technology that does not work properly, and local or in-house expertise is frequently sufficient to avoid or resolve these problems without hiring an outside consultant.

Essential Questions to Raise During a Building Project.
Schneider, Tod
The School Administrator; v5 n62 , p39 ; May 2005
Presents twelve questions that should be answered during the school design process to enhance safety, health, and connectivity within the facility. The questions focus on the organization and observability of the physical spaces, protection from external and internal threats, a healthy environment, and interdisciplinary communication.

Safety Check.
Hurst, Marianne
Education Week; v24 n33 , p31-33 ; Apr 27, 2005
Reports on federal data that shows the rate of violent crimes against students at school declining from 48 per 1,000 in 1992, to 24 per 1,000 in 2002. However, perceptions of underreporting and data gathering problems cause many to question the findings. Statistics gathered by other organizations are offered.

School Health and Safety Standards for Dance Education and Dance in Physical Education
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance; v76 n4 p20 , p20-26 ; Apr 2005
Student safety is an important goal when teaching physically active skills, and school safety standards should be considered as important as the dance content standards for students. A recent survey identified many health and safety concerns in dance education, including inadequate facilities and other deficiencies. This looks at environmental health and safety standards for dance education and dance in physical education.

Filtration and Building Security.
Burroughs, H.E.
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n4 , p24-29 ; Apr 2005
Summarizes the use of a building's HVAC system as a barrier to protect the occupants from airborne environmental hazards. HEPA filtration, HEGA air cleaning, prefiltration, monitoring, air capture, positive pressurization, and safe havens are described. Six realities of what is possible at what costs and with what kinds of equipment are offered, as are suggestions for how to get the most of existing systems and new capital installations.

Access Denied.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p20,22,24,26 ; Apr 2005
Recommends creating a "culture of safety" in schools by conducting safety surveys of schools, their grounds, and their neighborhoods, by survey teams consisting of educators from the school assisted by area public safety officials. Interior access must be addressed as vigorously as exterior. Access control must be intgregated at the building phase and guided by properly-credential consultants trained in Crime Prevention though Environmental Design (CPTED). Careful matching of technology to the school and scrupulous vendor scrutiny are also recommended.

Making Connections.
Haynes, John
American School and University; v77 n9 , p58,60,61 ; Apr 2005
Discusses Internet connectivity to fire and safety systems, which can enhance response by eliminating human error and providing more detailed event reporting. Examples of the unique safety challenges presented by various educational environments, as well as configuration and security options for such systems are also offered.

The New Look of School Safety.
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v192 n3 , p10-13 ; Mar 2005
Reviews concepts in school safety that are "in" and "out." Creative intervention and school climate improvement strategies are emphasized, as are easy and inexpensive "low-tech" facility design features.

Modern Methods.
Sorrentino, Dominic
American School and University; v77 n7 , p40,42,44 ; Mar 2005
Describes desirable features of a proper access management system: an integrated access-control platform, ability to track use of doors, ability to produces badges or access cards on site, digital recording, flexibility, and single screen monitoring.

In Case of Emergency, Show Occupants the Door
Windle, Lynn Proctor
Building Operating Management; Mar 2005
When the electricity goes out and a building must be evacuated, photoluminescent technology could be the guiding light that leads tenants to safety.

A View to Safety.
Larkin, Jay
American School and University; v77 n4 , p35-37 ; Dec 2004
Describes glass films that improve impact resistance and can be retrofitted onto existing windows at significantly less cost than replacing the glass. Also described are solar films for use in reducing heating and cooling costs.

Designing Schools with Fire/Life Safety Needs in Mind.
Fitzgerald, John; Sistare, Paul
School Construction News; v7 n8 , p26 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Describes multi-criteria fire detectors, which use a combination of ionization, photoelectric, and thermal sensing to help ensure accurate fire detection.

Are Our Children Safe at School?
McKerns, Leslie
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , pS12,S-14 ; Nov 2004
Describes the three types of threats to schools: natural disasters, threats from within, and threats from without, along with the use of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) to mitigate these threats.

Kids and Cars.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p8 ; Nov 2004
Cites statistics on school travel hour road fatalities and describes methods of reducing risk to students through campus access and egress control, extended bus scheduling, and site design.

Districts Rethink Availability of Data on School Security.
Cavenaugh, Sean; Manzo, Kathleen
Education Week; v24 n8 , p1, 18 ; Oct 20, 2004
Reports on reactions to the detention of a man in Iraq who possessed computer disks containing information about crisis planning, emergency procedures, and possibly even floor plans of schools. The laws and issues surrounding restricted access to this information versus rights to publicly-funded information are discussed. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Adobe PDF
Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma
PEB Exchange; v2004/3 n53 , p9,10 ; Oct 2004
Discusses the three overlapping concepts of CPTED: access control, surveillance, and territorial reinforcement

Shedding Light on Emergency Exits.
Gottwalt, T.J.
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p50-52,54 ; Oct 2004
Discusses ways to improve emergency egress lighting through stricter codes and the installation of low-level fixtures, photoluminescent strips and paints, and EL lamps.

Election Day Voting and School Security Issues
National School Safety and Security Services ; Sep 2004
This describes reasonable safety and security measures that school and community officials can take to make their schools available for election day voting, while maintaining the safety and security of students and school staff, as well as the community members using the schools on election day.

Safety by Design.
Hensley, Don
American School and University; v77 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2004
Advocates a balanced approached to school security, describing unobtrusive facility design features combined with a social climate that emphasizes trust, conflict resolution, and tolerance.

Protecting Entrances.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n1 , p36,39,40 ; Sep 2004
Describes security considerations for school doors, door frames, and windows. Doors should be few in number and constructed of metal or solid-core hardwood. The hardware should be at least forty inches away from breakable glass, and exterior hardware should be on main doors only. Windows in inaccessible areas can be of regular glass, but safety glass is indicated in exposed areas. First floor windows require extra security, and window guards are recommended. Vigilant monitoring of window conditions is necessary for security.

Life/Fire Safety.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n8 , p25,26,28 ; Aug 2004
Discusses recent improvements in smoke detectors, fire alarms, and glass that address the some of the reliability and safety concerns about these technologies.

Update on the National Electric Code. Adobe PDF
Anthony, Michael A.
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p35-37 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes changes in the 2005 National Electric Code, which introduces a variety of safety and survivability enhancements brought about by the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the major power outage of August 14, 2003.

New Codes for Stairwell Lighting.
Hart, G. Kimball
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p43-45 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes a new standard for stairwell lighting, recently approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1), and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The standard increases the footcandle requirement ten-fold, but the use of motion sensors and timers has been allowed in order to reduce energy consumption.

CCTV Basics.
Lupinacci, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v76 n12 , p18,20 ; Jul 2004
Describes tasks that closed circuit television cameras can be expected to perform, and how they should be placed and monitored in order to accomplish those tasks.

Making Schools Safer from the Inside.
Bly, John
School Business Affairs; v70 n6 , p5,6 ; Jun 2004
Cites significant parental fears of school violence and suggests that school business officials might take the lead on school safety by promoting and financing programs that increase students' conflict resolution skills. (Includes four references.)

Building a Safe Outdoor Environment.
Olson, Heather; Huson, Susan; Thompson, Donna
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p67-73 ; Jun 2004
Defines elements of "SAFE" playground design: Supervisability, Appropriate developmental design, Falls, and Equipment Maintenance. Under each category, details of materials and design are discussed, along with data reflecting the situation in that category according to a 2003 national playground survey.

A Breakthrough Approach to Safety and Regulatory Compliance.
Rowan, James M.; Temming, Steve
School Business Affairs; v70 n6 , p8-12 ; Jun 2004
Describes Public-SchoolWORKS, an integrated safety and compliance management system developed by several southwestern Ohio school districts. The web-based system combines software to implement and sustain regulatory compliance, enabling a district to assign, schedule, and track tasks. Included forms and templates are linked to a statewide master, with email notification of personnel, online training, and hazard reporting also available.

Protecting the Perimeter.
Vigue, Beverly
American School and University; v76 n11 , p36,39-42 ; Jun 2004
Advises a four-level security scheme, with increasing protection as numbers ascend. Level one employs key and other mechanical locking systems, level two auditable electronic access control, level three biometrics, and level four all of these along with software management. Features of electronic and biometric systems are detailed.

The Show Must Go On...Safely.
Traas, Jodi L.
School Business Affairs; v70 n5 , p20-22 ; May 2004
Lists hazards particular to school theatre design and production and advises on ways to avoid accidents involving falls, equipment, and chemicals.

The ABC's of Safety: Latest Trends in Security and Life-Safety for Educational Facilities.
Babcock, Regina Raiford
Buildings; v98 n3 , p28-30 ; Mar 2004
Describes integrated fire safety and security practices, one way paging, and smart card technology being used to enhance campus safety and security.

Safeguarding Schools.
Bobeck, Brian
American School and University; v76 n7 , p42-43 ; Mar 2004
Describes the use of one-way messaging systems to notify appropriate personnel during emergencies, no matter what their location, and without causing alarm by broadcasting alerts over public address systems.

Internet Magic.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p36-40 ; Mar 2004
Discusses ways that the Internet can be used to manage school construction, post student grades, integrate security devices, and contact parents.

Access Control at the Construction Site.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p32,34,35 ; Mar 2004
Describes ten security procedures to protect students from assault or injury when construction is in progress during school hours.

Let's See Some ID.
Wright, Joe
American School and University; v76 n7 , p56,58 ; Mar 2004
Describes components of and possible applications for a photo identification system.

Safety First.
Simpers, Buck
American School and University; v76 n6 , pSS10,SS12-14 ; Feb 2004
Lists common school safety problems and environmental design elements which address them.

Best Practices.
Security; v41 n1 , p22-27 ; Jan 2004
Identifies three educational institutions with outstanding security practices, and five others that have made notable improvements. The results were obtained by surveying nearly 1,000 security executives.

Schools of Tomorrow.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n5 , p16-18,20-22,24-27 ; Jan 2004
Presents the opinions expressed at a roundtable of five education architects on school facilities and the issues of technology integration, community use, flexibility, sustainability, indoor environments, security, size, functionality, and adaptive reuse.

How Safety Conscious Should You Be?
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n1 , p68-71 ; Jan 2004
Describes developments in window and door materials that make them more impact and blast resistant. Impact resistance protects against storms and is more practical than blast resistance, which is of little use unless the entire building has been built to be blast resistant.

Code Advocacy for the Educational Facilities Profession. Adobe PDF
Jaeger, Thomas W.
Facilities Manager; v20 n1 , p56-60 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Explains the system for the development of codes and standards, the role and benefit implied by involvement in the development of codes and standards, the commitment that role would require, and proposals to the Life Safety Code and Uniform Fire Code that significantly impact higher education facilities, a the way various governmental agencies are involved in codes.

Providing Safe Schools.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n5 , p61-64 ; Jan 2004
Discusses ten means for enhancing campus security: environmental design, smaller schools, control of public use, crisis planning, lighting design, resource officers, access control, video observation, communications, and metal detector installation.

Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings in Japan. Adobe PDF
Nakano, Yoshiaki
Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering; v4 n3 , p218-229 ; 2004
Describes efforts directed toward upgrading seismic performance of vulnerable school buildings following the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu (Kobe) earthquake. Damage statistics of school buildings due to the Kobe earthquake, criteria to identify their vulnerability, the subsidy program for seismic rehabilitation, and their implementation examples, are described, together with recent efforts for further promotion of seismic rehabilitation on a nationwide basis.

School Security, Crisis Preparedness and Related School Safety Publications.
Trump, Ken
National School Safety and Security Services; 2004
Articles and other publications written from 1998 through 1994 by Ken Trump, president and CEO of National School Safety and Security Services, a training and consulting firm on school security, crisis preparedness, and associated school safety issues.

High Stakes
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; Dec 2003
Safety has been a pervasive focus in the Clark County [Nevada] School District, where enormous fiscal and human resources have been committed to reduce risk and prepare for emergencies. Like many districts, Clark County has faced significant fiscal challenges in recent years, but school officials have made it a priority to focus on maintaining safety while meeting these challenges.

Safe School Survey Lead to System Upgrades.
English, Cindy
School Planning and Management; v42 n11 , pS16,S18-S21 ; Nov 2003
Describes how a safe school survey of the Atlanta Public Schools resulted in the updating of surveillance equipment, doors, and access control.

Gimme Shelter.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v76 n3 , p295-97 ; Nov 2003
Describes the features of school buildings that help protect occupants during natural and man-made disasters. Masonry and concrete construction, proper roof and glass selection, and creation of safe rooms are highlighted.

The Changing Face of School Security.
May, Abigail
Building Operating Management; v50 n11 , p45-46,48,50 ; Nov 2003
Advocates an integrated school security plan that coordinates student behavior assessment, facility and technology design, and staff training. Participation by administrators, teachers, parents, police and students is encouraged to create comprehensive coverage.

School Security Systems: Handheld Scanners and Baggage Scanners
Wodarz, Nan
School Business Affairs; v69 n10 , p33-34 ; Nov 2003
This explores how handheld scanners and baggage scanners can be used to increase campus security, addressing installation and maintenance, space, and cost issues.

Paying for Protection.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n2 , p20-22,24,26 ; Oct 2003
Discusses ways that school districts and higher education institutions are coping with heightened security requirements in an time of budget cuts. Highlighted suggestions include technological improvements that provide more security for less money, bond issues and grants.

Growing Intelligence.
Steinman, Bob
American School and University; v76 n2 , p29-30,32 ; Oct 2003
Diuscusses advances in door systems, where doors are integrated with security and fire technology, providing access control and information on use. Biometric recognition is highlighted as the most thorough means of access control.

Balancing Safety and Security in the School Environment.
Szachnowicz, Alex
Fire Protection Engineering; , p17-20,22-24 ; Fall 2003
Reviews principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, school fire statistics and history, door features that offer property security without inhibiting emergency egress, features of combined fire/security alarms, and advice on preventing false alarms. Includes ten references.

Increase School Safety with Wireless Communications.
Guderian, Ben
School Business Affairs; v69 n8 , p26-27 ; Sep 2003
Describes how to increase school safety with the use of wireless local area networks and wireless telephones.

School Security: Planning and Costs
Hunter, Richard C.; Mozingo, Terri H.
School Business Affairs; v69 n8 , p20-23 ; Sep 2003
Describes efforts by two school districts to address the potential threats of shootings and other school disruptions: Baltimore City Public Schools in Maryland and Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools in North Carolina. Also describes the growing costs of providing safety and security in elementary and secondary schools. (Contains 13 references.)

Staying Vigilant.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n1 , pSS8-SS10 ; Sep 2003
Discusses the combined use of design, technology and intervention in the prevention of school violence.

Stay or Go?
Kroll, Karen
NFPA Journal; v97 n5 , p42-47 ; Sep-Oct 2003
Discusses whether U.S. schools equipped with fire sprinklers and fire detection and intercom systems should be able to use a delayed evacuation policy when it comes to fire drills or actual fires. A controversial project in Minnesota is examining that question. The paper discusses concerns about delayed evacuation, the impact of delayed evacuation on false alarms, issues related to school shootings, current school construction practices, and staff training needs.

Welcoming and Secure.
Kromkowski, Stephen
American School and University; v76 n1 , pSS4-SS6 ; Sep 2003
Discusses aspects of school building and site design that can reduce vandalism, control access, document activity, and facilitate emergency assistance. These aspects are more critical when there is heavy community use of the building.

The Evolution of Educational Safety.
Lindquist, James R.
School Construction News; v6 n7 , p29-30 ; Sep 2003
Reviews safety and security technology that has become useful since the National Institutes of Justice published "The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools" in 1999. Digitized video, alarmed doors with delayed egress, and emergency call boxes are featured.

School Safety After 9/11.
McGiboney, Garry W.
American School Board Journal; Sep 2003
In Georgia, the DeKalb School District's preparations for school safety include: fast-track evacuation procedures for schools near potentially dangerous sites; a plan that relocates students who are displaced from their schools; a capacity to provide shelter in case of emergency; and three means of internal communication.

School Security Systems: Spotlight on Video Surveillance.
Wodarz, Nan
School Business Affairs; v69 n8 , p41-44 ; Sep 2003
Describes the use of video surveillance for school security, includes when to use video cameras, the features of video cameras, reasons not to use video surveillance, and legal issues.

Security Evolution.
De Patta, Joe
School Construction News; v6 n5 , p16-17 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the system; how to train staff and students; costs of security upgrades; and harnessing network lines.

The Search for Security Technology Funding.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , p32-34 ; Jul 2003
Explains that although it is difficult to find money to pay for school security technology, there are places to look. For example, the Department of Education has a list serve that summarizes various funding opportunities. There is also a Federal Register list serve and a site put out by the Department of Justice. A sidebar presents three questions to ask before purchasing security technology.

Preventive Safety Measures: A Guide to Security Hardware.
Gottwalt, T. J.
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p26-30 ; Jun 2003
Emphasizes the importance of an annual security review of a school facility's door hardware and provides a description of the different types of locking devices typically used on schools and where they are best applied.

Behind the Scenes.
Sorrentino, Dominic
American School and University; v75 n10 , p50-53 ; Jun 2003
Describes the five components that should make up a school security total-systems-integration request for proposal: general terms and conditions, vendor information, description of requirements, specifications, and proposal submission and evaluation.

Planning Safe Routes to School.
Appleyard, Bruce S.
Planning; v69 n5 , p34-37 ; May 2003
Describes "Safe Routes to School" efforts in the United States and other countries to make walking and biking to school the transportation of choice. Offers a plan of action for formulating and carrying out such a program and information on funding sources.

Safety and Security by Design.
Carter, Sherry P.
School Planning and Management; v42 n5 , p46-47 ; May 2003
Describes a pilot exercise in teaching middle and high school students how to conduct an assessment of the physical conditions and policies of their schools. Students were taught to use Crime Prevention through Environmental Design principles and to apply them in their own schools.

Access Control for Building Systems?
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v42 n4 , p27-30 ; Apr 2003
Describes how automated building system technologies may soon make security technology, such as access control, more practical for K-12 schools.

Creating a Safe Haven.
Young, Dennis
American School and University; v75 n8 , hp12-hp16 ; Apr 2003
Examines security issues that planners must address at the programming and schematic design phase in key areas of the school building. They include the front door, safe halls and stairs, positive classrooms, and secure assembly.

School Safety Technology in America: Current Use and Perceived Effectiveness
Garcia, C.A.
Criminal Justice Policy Review; v14 n1 , p30-54 ; Mar 2003
School safety administrators (SSAs) are using technologies such as video cameras, weapon detectors, and entry control devices (ECD) in an attempt to deal with school violence. Although it is well known that cameras are useful for documenting events after the fact, further utility of the various school safety technologies is virtually unknown. To address the paucity of information in this area, a national telephone survey of SSAs was conducted. In addition to discussing technology utilization and effectiveness, several important policy considerations (e.g., cost, technology placement, the role that local law enforcement can play in safety plans, and the availability of alternatives that might bolster school safety by enhancing the school community) are discussed. [Author's abstract]

School Safety in France. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2003/1 n48 , p11-13 ; Feb 2003
Describes the "Observatoire national de la securite des etablissements scolaires et d'enseignement superieur," a national agency established by the French government in 1995 to ensure safety in schools and colleges. Its annual reports, drawn up in conjunction with experts, are sent out to government, public authorities, and any stakeholders with an interest in safety.

A Special Event.
Maurer, Richard D.
American School and University; v75 n6 , pSS10-SS13 ; Feb 2003
Discusses planning security for special events at schools, offering tips in the areas of natural security, organizational security, and mechanical security.

Designing on the Outside.
Young, Dennis M.
American School and University; v75 n6 , pSS6-SS10 ; Feb 2003
Describes the various influences on security planning for school buildings, including social, economic, building codes, and user perceptions. Site-specific influences include building site, perimeter and setback, vehicular and pedestrian circulation and access, front door, and grade of building related to site.

Safe From Harm.
American School Board Journal ; 2003
The American School Board Journal has created an online anthology on school security, featuring links to articles from the Journal from 1996 through 2003.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Trends in Education.
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p14-16 ; Jan 2003
Discusses trends noted by experts in education facilities management in the areas of construction, energy, security, and athletic facilities.

Designing for Students' Needs.
Carey, Kelley D.
Learning By Design; n12 , p8-11 ; 2003
Emphasizes the importance of security and educational opportunity in the design of educational facilities. Offers checklists for intruder and environmental security, and discusses sustainability, design fads, and smart budgeting in achieving good design for educational opportunities.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email:

Building Better Schools.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p30-35 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten ideas for schools and universities before embarking on a new construction project: defining a school, shared space, sustainability, outdoor landscape, geoexchange, a variety of spaces, student-oriented space, technology, community use, and security.

School Security Moves into the Digital Age.
Garza, Katie
T.H.E. Journal; v30 n5 , p44-45 ; Dec 2002
Discusses school security procedures following not only the September 11 terrorist attacks but also earlier school shootings. Highlights include zero tolerance policies; campus surveillance systems; digital systems that work on PCs; remote monitoring; and protecting central administration buildings and staff.

A Safe Haven.
Lupinacci, Jeff
American School and University; v75 n4 , p36-30 ; Dec 2002
Presents four key steps in planning for school security and creating a safe, secure environment for students: deterring the possibility of crime; detecting when something potentially troublesome has occurred; delaying criminals in order to give law enforcement officials the additional time needed to catch them; and recovering and continuing the mission of teaching students if a crime does occur.

How Safe Are Your Child Care Programs?
Shepherd, Sonayia
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , pS6-S10 ; Nov 2002
Discusses steps that child care facilities should take to develop a prevention strategy and emergency operations plan to keep their environments safe.

Setting Priorities.
Vigue, Beverly
American School and University; v75 n2 , p29-31 ; Oct 2002
Discusses how comprehensive site surveys can help schools identify security deficiencies and develop a security plan.

A Whole New Paradigm.
Sorrentino, Dominic
American School and University; v75 n1 , ps4-s6 ; Sep 2002
Describes improvements in closed circuit television systems which make the systems easier and more useful for school security. One such innovation is the movement to tapeless systems that digitally record on computer hard drives: digital video multiplexers/recorders (DVMRs).

The Security Continuum.
Thompson, Ian
American School and University; v75 n1 , pS8-S10 ; Sep 2002
Discusses the creation of a comprehensive security strategy for schools, including the importance of tailoring it to a specific school's mission and culture. Describes three classes of tactics (natural, organized, and technical) which can be chosen to implement the strategy. Discusses access control as an example of how strategies and tactics would need to differ between types of schools.

The Roots of Vandalism.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; v189 n7 , p30-32 ; Jul 2002
Describes acts of vandalism experienced by schools in Ohio, North Dakota, Kentucky, New Hampshire and other states. Lists five common categories of student vandals, and discusses actions school administrators and teachers can take to reduce the causes of vandalism. School design that discourages vandalism and promotes safety and a sense of ownership among students is described. Surveillance systems installed by schools are also credited with reductions in vandalism.

The Groundwork for Safety.
Nilsson, Fredrik
American School and University; v74 n11 , p26-29 ; Jul 2002
Discusses affordable and practical security solutions, such as networked video systems, that are available to meet schools' needs for highly functional, low-cost surveillance.

Proofing Schools Against Vandalism.
Pappalardo, William J.
The School Administrator; v59 n6 , p32 ; Jun 2002
Describes how school-building exteriors and interiors should be designed, built, and renovated to prevent vandalism.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

Closed-Circuit Television Trends and Tactics in America's Schools.
Sorrentino, Dominic
School Business Affairs; v68 n6 , p13-16 ; Jun 2002
Describes the how school districts use closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance to improve school safety. Discusses technological improvements in CCTV, including digital imagery. Provides examples of CCTV use in several school districts.

A Holistic Approach to School Security.
Timm, Paul
Facilities Design & Management; v21 n6 , p38-39 ; Jun 2002
Asserts that school security requires a variety of methods combined into a single, cohesive solution that addresses five areas: management, building security, violence prevention and intervention, staff training, and crisis management.

After the Fall.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v26 n5 , p55-60,62 ; May 2002
Describes Minnesota's landmark Bleacher Safety Act, enacted after a 6-year-old fell to his death from bleachers, and the efforts and recommendations of other states and organizations regarding bleacher safety.

Be Prepared, Not Scared.
Trump, Kenneth S.
Principal; v81 n5 , p10-12, 14 ; May 2002
Suggests steps principals should take to increase school security and crisis preparedness: Involve school community members in security needs-assessment process; reduce risk based on assessment by establishing partnerships with law-enforcement agencies, strengthening security, and establishing crises guidelines.

Safety Program Guidelines for Public School Facility Construction and Operations.
Usmen, Mumtaz; Baradan, Selim; Jayyousi, Kifah
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction; v7 n2 , p74-80 ; May 2002
Facilities management programs at public schools covering capital improvement projects and facility operations and maintenance functions need comprehensive safety programs to ensure that workers, school staff, and students are provided a safe and healthy environment during all related activities. This paper reviews the elements of a school safety program and discusses program implementation issues to make it successful. Program guidelines are provided for safe construction, operations, maintenance, and design in the context of school facilities. [Authors' abstract]

Security in Secondary Education Today.
Lang, James F.
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p29-36 ; Apr 2002
Reviews the options available to school officials to ensure a secure environment, including intrusion alarm systems, dual technology, motion sensors, card access systems, closed circuit television, and video surveillance systems. Discusses the design development phase and emphasizes the importance of a tailored approach and the hiring of an independent security consultant.

Life-Saving Lessons.
Joiner, Lottie L.
American School Board Journal; v189 n3 , p14-18 ; Mar 2002
Schools are taking many different steps to prevent violence, among them improving relationships with students and building on the relationship with local law enforcement. A comprehensive strategy should definitely include a good crisis plan. All school personnel should know what the plan says as well as their roles in implementation. One sidebar lists online resources; another discusses two visible safety measures-zero tolerance and student profiling.

School Security Solutions: Bringing Corporate Safety to Schools and Colleges
Pendzick, Richard E.; Downs, Robert L.
Journal of Science Education and Technology; v11 n1 , p5-8 ; Mar 2002
Describes software for electronic visitor management (EVM) called EasyLobbyTM, currently in use in thousands of federal and corporate installations throughout the world and its application for school and campus environments. Explains EasyLobbyTM's use to replace visitor logs, capture and store visitor data electronically, and provide badges that quickly allow anyone in the school to recognize authorized strangers.

Creating and Maintaining Security on Campus.
Polensky, David W.
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p14-16,18 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Describes the various components of an effective campus security program, including the master plan/needs assessment, law enforcement staffing, security technology, access control, closed circuit television systems, and emergency planning.

Eye Can See for Miles and Miles.
School Planning and Management; v41 n2 , p48,50-52 ; Feb 2002
Describes how a New Hampshire school system eliminated internal school vandalism and bomb threats, and reduced the number of false alarms, by using video security software (WebEyeAlert security solution) that is accessible via a variety of methods from remote locations.

Balancing Security and Learning. School Security Supplement.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n6 , pSS8,SS10-11 ; Feb 2002
Discusses ways to provide vital safety to schools without inhibiting the learning environment for students. Describes security efforts at Orange County, Florida schools, such as using video cameras, school police officers, and access-control systems.

Preparing Against Threats. School Security Supplement.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n6 , pSS4-SS6 ; Feb 2002
Discusses the September 11 terrorist attacks' implications for school safety. Explores various schools' security procedures and any changes that have been made in the aftermath. Includes a sidebar on dealing with suspicious packages.

Creating Ideal Facilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p30,32-33 ; Jan 2002
Reviews ways that schools can provide effective indoor learning environments by paying attention to the following areas: daylighting, acoustics, space allocation, technology implementation, ergonomics, maintenance, indoor air quality, safety, restrooms, and roofing.

Keys to a Safe, Secure School.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p24,26,28 ; Jan 2002
Outlines 10 steps that school administrators can take to make their schools safer and more secure for students and staff. These steps encompass crime prevention through environmental design, crisis planning, entrances, lighting, police presence, prevention programs, rapport with students, smaller schools, technology implementation, and staff training.

Is Your Child's School Really Safe?
Monk, James
Our Children; v27 n4 , p10-11 ; Jan-Feb 2002
Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers Internet resources.

School-Associated Violent Deaths in the United States, 1994-1999.
Anderson, Mark; Modzeleski, William; et al
Journal of the American Medical Association; v286 n21 , p2695-2702 ; Dec 05, 2001
This describes in detail the recent trends and features of school-associated violent deaths in the United States. Between 1994 and 1999, 220 events resulted in 253 deaths. Although school-associated violent deaths remain rare events, they have occurred often enough to allow for the detection of patterns and the identification of potential risk factors. This information may help schools respond to this problem.

Improving Student Safety.
Dorn, Michael; Trump, Kenneth S.; Nichols, R. Leslie
School Planning and Management; v40 n11 , suppl p19-35 passim ; Dec 2001
Presents the latest information on how schools can keep their students safe. Safety oriented actions discussed cover incident reporting and tracking, tactical site surveys, school safety and emergency operations planning, staff development efforts, and facility design. Explains the need to review and test specific prevention concepts and emergency operations plans.

Lighting. Deterrent to Crime.
Sowell, David
American School and University; v74 n4 , p46-47 ; Dec 2001
Explores security issues that schools should consider before deciding to reduce campus lighting in order to control energy costs. Highlights factors to consider before creating a lighting reduction action plan.

Applying the CPTED Concept: Creative, Cost-Effective Design Elements Make a Safer School.
SHW Concepts; Fall 2001
Presents basic design solutions to help improve school security, focusing on bathrooms, corridors, doors, lockers, and central control rooms.

The 4-1-1 on Telephones in the Classroom.
Jordan, Darla
School Planning and Management; v40 n10 , p51-52 ; Oct 2001
Discusses whether telephones in the classroom are a productive tool in an educational environment. Presents case studies of classroom telecommunications implementation.

Smile - You're on Camera.
Lupinacci, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v74 n2 , p44-47 ; Oct 2001
Assesses the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) security systems in schools. Examines why cameras are important in school security and what is involved in CCTV security.

The Colors of Crisis.
Hull, Bob
American School and University; v74 n1 , p44-45 ; Sep 2001
Presents tips on how to make school emergency communication procedures more efficient and effective. Highlights use of simple codes, and offers advice on staff training and emergency drills.

Security and Education: A Best-Case Scenario.
Jones, Morgan
School Construction News; v4 n6 , p18-20 ; Sep-Oct 2001
Describes the design of Indiana's 500,000 square-foot Chesterton High School, which incorporates many security features without creating a fortress atmosphere. Features include a controlled access floor plan, security cameras, and the ability of teachers to silently page security personnel and administrators in cases of health emergencies or physical threats.

Building It Safely.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n1 , p36,38,40 ; Sep 2001
Explores how schools and universities can make sure that construction sites do not pose a hazard to students or a temptation to thieves and vandals. Highlights safety recommendations for mounting construction projects while schools are in session.

No Blanket Security Measures.
Leisner, Hava
School Construction News; v4 n6 , p31-33 ; Sep-Oct 2001
Presents a discussion with Jefferson County, Colorado, Architect Jack Swanzy, who explains how security is implemented in his 148- school district in the aftermath of the Columbine tragedy. Discusses the use of key management, videotapes, on-site police, and staff emergency communications.

Planning Safer Schools.
Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p168-70 ; Aug 2001
Shows how an environmental school building design can reduce the threat of crime. Principles proposed by the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design are highlighted and explained.

Designing Safe Schools.
Prager, Gary C.
American School and University; v73 n11 , p40,42-43 ; Jul 2001
Explores facility design techniques that schools can use to enhance security in the absence of built-in security systems. Highlights security design concepts, including those involving site accessibility, facility access, circulation management, and territorial definition. Report indicates that schools and the people hired to design school facilities can take steps to head off potential trouble. The report distinguished between two "place-based" crime mitigation strategies: passive and active. The latter includes mechanical and organized surveillance strategies: CCTV and security. The former encompasses natural design elements: site accessibility, facility access, circulation management, and territorial definition.

Under Control.
McLawhorn, Kerry
School Planning and Management; v40 n6 , p37-40 ; Jun 2001
Explains how the Scotland County School District in Laurinburg, North Carolina, tackled the problem of controlling building and room keys for fifteen K-12 schools and 7,000 students by marrying a computerized records management system for key tracking with a patented hardware system that produces keys that can't be duplicated.

Fighting Crime by Design.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n9 , p46,48,50 ; May 2001
Shows how schools can include features and equipment in their facilities that deter vandalism and unauthorized entry. Pros and cons for lighting vacant campuses after dark are highlighted.

Are You Prepared for the Next Crisis?
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n4 , p35-36,38 ; Apr 2001
Offers steps to making school security equipment and emergency plans more effective through proper planning and staff training. Key components of effective communication for controlling and responding to crisis are highlighted.

Effective Police Communication.
Swan, Ronald D.
College Planning and Management; v4 n3 , p32,34 ; Mar 2001
Discusses the importance of effective communication of campus police and the perception it creates among students, faculty, staff, and others.

Bomb Threat Basics.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p57-59 ; Feb 2001
Discusses the increasing concern of bomb threats and explosive devices in today's public schools. The scope of the problem is explored as are planning tips for decreasing these threats.

Lighten Up!
Fleming, Colette
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p48-51 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how schools can reduce the occurances of physical injury, vandalism, and break-ins by properly lighting school areas. Several examples of lighting strategies are highlighted, including determining proper illumination levels for specific areas.

Making Contact.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p40-42 ; Feb 2001
Discusses the use of handheld, two-way radios to extend a school's communication and security to its remote areas.

On Call.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p42b,d,f ; Feb 2001
Discusses the usefulness of using emergency call boxes for establishing a safe campus environment allowing for more immediate response to emergencies. Technology's influence on the future of campus call boxes is highlighted.

Teachers with a Badge.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p36,38 ; Feb 2001
Explores the use of the school resource officer (SRO) as the fastest growing area for preventing school violence and improving the educational environment. The SRO's importance to students is also highlighted as is the combining of the SRO with more technologically centered crime prevention efforts.

The Revolution in I.D. Cards.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p53-55 ; Feb 2001
Examines how school identification cards can help improve security, assist in recordkeeping, pay for lunches, and much more. Several examples of the efficient use of smart cards are highlighted.

Houses of Cards.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v24 n12 , p121-22,124,126,128,130 ; Dec 2000
Explores how plastic identification cards are key to building security in athletic facilities. Card and identification system technology are addressed as are their benefits and complications. Final comments address security issues that still need consideration even if a card system is used.

Open House...With Restrictions.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n4 , p26-28 ; Dec 2000
Explains how planning and design can allow schools to welcome the community into parts of their facilities without risking the security of the entire building.

Maintaining Security in an Insecure World. New Strategies are Emerging to Help Architects Design Without a Bunker Mentality.
Nason, Randy
Architectural Record; Dec 2000
Discusses security issues of buildings in the public and private sector, including schools, that may be vulnerable to malevolent actions. Describes the fundamentals of a design model known as crime prevention through environmental design. Includes a case study of Chesterton High School in Chesterton, Indiana, a new school incorporating 125 surveillance cameras that is considered state of the art in creating a safe place for learning.

Building a Safe Environment.
Reid, David L.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p386-90 ; Nov 2000
Explains how proper site and facility assessments can create a school atmosphere that discourages violence. Issues involving access, general appearance, surveillance, comfort and convenience, security systems and equipment are addressed.

Police and Emergency Accessibility: Early Involvement is Crucial to Crisis Resolution.
SHW Concepts; Fall 2000
Presents 12 school design considerations that will improve police, fire, and EMS accessibility during natural or man-made emergencies.

School Security Roundtable 2000.
Agron, Joe; Anderson, Larry
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Oct 2000)
American School and University; v73 n2 , 23 ; Oct 2000
A roundtable discussion is presented revealing what experts say about school security problems and how they are being addressed. Also included are trend data from the School Security 2000 survey revealing top security concerns, strategies, and security equipment preferences; how site surveys can be used to keep schools safe; and how creating a partnership between schools and the community can provide substantial benefits in preventing school violence. The final section provides Internet web sites devoted to school security issues.

School Premises and Violence. Adobe PDF
Born, Michel
PEB Exchange; n41 , p8-10 ; Oct 2000
Examines the phenomenon of violence against people within the school environment and explores preventive options. The nature of violence, its scale as experienced in the United States, and an explanation of violence in terms of changes in western society are explored. Possible solutions stemming from educational facility design are addressed.

What's the Key to Your Security?
Carver, Lee A.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , ps8,s10,s12,s14 ; Oct 2000
Shows how school officials can simplify the decision-making process when providing a fully integrated locking system that meets each security objective for each sector of the school with an appropriate locking segment. Topics cover establishing security, selecting the appropriate locking segments, determining access through master keying, and controlling the security system.

School Security: Where Does Technology Fit In?
Coburn, Janet
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , p35-38 ; Oct 2000
Discusses ways that technology is being applied to provide safe schools. Use of computers, CD-ROMs, and the Internet are explored as potential problem solving methods. Also discussed are the types of tools available for school staff training.

What Good Is Security Without Monitoring?
Spellman, Richard
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , ps16-s18 ; Oct 2000
Makes a case for integrating the emergency action plan with improvements in physical security and communications to outside authorities that are poised to assist in an emergency. Current technology is explored, including tips for using computers to manage school security for each and every school in the community or district.

The Importance of Having an Effective School Crisis Response Plan.
Watson, James A.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , ps4,s6 ; Oct 2000
Details the components of a public school safety plan and how to develop a crisis response plan with emergency responders. The importance of crisis response team members knowing their roles and being held accountable are stressed.

Safety By Design.
Blue, Don
Principal Leadership; v1 n1 , p44-47 ; Sep 2000
The Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design approach blends effective design with occupants' physical, social, and psychological needs. CPTED principles work via three overlapping strategies: increasing occupants' territorial concern or watchfulness; improving natural surveillance features; and controlling people's access to spaces within a school campus.

Advances in Protection.
Szczerba, Peter
American School and University; v73 n1 , p24,26,28 ; Sep 2000
Explains how integrating information technology can extend the capabilities of school security systems beyond traditional card access. Explores the use of biometric identification technologies such as hand geometry and facial recognition as well as the use of digitized event recording.

Lifelines to the Office.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n10 , p38-39 ; Jun 2000
Discusses the integration of the school intercom system with phones in the classroom to enhance main office to classroom communication with an element of privacy. The contribution of classroom phones to safety and security issues is highlighted.

Security on a Budget.
Schmidt, Wayne S.
American School and University; v72 n10 , p30,32,34 ; Jun 2000
Explores some inexpensive solutions to school security systems when budgets are tight. Facility design elements, technology, and school ground assessment are discussed.

School Security 2000.
Agron, Joe; Anderson, Larry; Henry, Kate; Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n9 , 24 ; May 2000
This supplement, a collaboration of American School & University and Acces Control & Security Systems Integration magazines, presents four articles examining the equipment and management strategies to ensure school safety. Defines the parameters and quantifies the trend in the school security arena; discusses how community unity can stabilize public schools by examining three very different school districts and how they handle security issues; explores school safety and the security of portable classrooms; and discusses developing a security plan that minimizes the potential for legal troubles by protecting both students and staff while respecting their rights.

Common Sense Design for Safe Schools.
Scanlon, Paul W.; Pillar, Rob M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p60-61 ; May 2000
Shows how school design can enhance study safety by facilitating supervision. Design concepts of limiting building access to outsiders, creating good traffic flow, and avoiding blind spots and informal gathering areas that resist monitoring are discussed.

Making the Grade with School Security.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p39-41 ; Apr 2000
Shows how technology is helping school security directors prevent violence and protect students. One school's use of a state-of- the-art security system involving closed-circuit television, access control for doors, vehicles equipped with global positioning technology, and hand-held computers for security officers is discussed.

Closed View.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n8 , p40,42 ; Apr 2000
Discusses security requirement needs when selecting windows and doors for schools and university buildings. Issues addressed include key and lock management, window sturdiness, and emergency exiting.

Advanced Planning.
Lupinacci, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v72 n8 , p36-37,39 ; Apr 2000
Explains the importance of developing a comprehensive security plan prior to purchasing more equipment and resources to bolster school safety. Decision making following the plan's development is addressed including equipment choices, ID cards, access control, exit alarms, and video monitors.

A Checklist for Safe Schools
Educational Leadership; v57 n6 , p72-74 ; Mar 2000
School buildings ideally would have few exterior access points, no isolated hallways, and sunlit classrooms. A safety checklist recommends locating offices near main doors, monitoring hallway traffic, enhancing communications, updating crisis- management plans, teaching coping skills, standardizing dismissal policies, and ensuring legal compliance and community involvement.

Bringing SARA to School.
American School Board Journal; v187 n3 , p36-39 ; Mar 2000
Well-designed problem-solving plans have something metal detectors and security cameras lack: proof of success. SARA, an acronym for Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment, was shown to increase school safety in districts in Charlotte, North Carolina, and St. Petersburg, Florida. Program workings are explained.

Existing School Door Hardware Puts Teachers at Risk During Emergencies.
Guidi, Peter J.
Eschool News Online; Mar 01, 2000
Provides a brief history of classroom door locking mechanisms ("locksets") and recommends dual cylinder, ANSI F88 locksets for classroom use. F88 locksets allow doors to be locked from either side to prevent entry into the classroom from the corridor side, but they cannot be locked (in accordance with building and fire code requirements) to prevent egress from the classroom. The capability to quickly lock the door from either side is the fastest solution for “lockdown” situations. Additionally, F88 lever-style locksets meet all ADA requirements. Installation costs are several hundred dollars per door.

Building Security into Schools.
Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq
The School Administrator; v57 n2 , p24-26,31-35 ; Feb 2000
Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus security plan.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

Protecting Plano.
Bangs, Kenneth
School Planning and Management; v39 n2 , p41-42,44 ; Feb 2000
Examines how one school district used a comprehensive plan, that included cooperation between parents, students, and local law enforcement, to effectively respond to the current furor over school security. The components and costs of the plan are highlighted.

Closed Yet Open.
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v72 n6 , p24,26,28 ; Feb 2000
Examines ways of adequately providing the security of middle schools while creating an environment in which students and staff feel at home. Areas covered include architectural strategies to encourage better communication, controlling vandalism, and preventing unauthorized people from entering the building.

Auditing Schools for Safety.
Butterfield, Eric
School Construction News; v3 n1 , p20 ; Jan-Feb 2000
Explores the issues involved in conducting effective safety audits for educational facilities. Areas covered include auditing for site characteristics, access control, lighting, building exterior, door types and locking mechanisms, key control, alarm system controls, security monitors, and vision panels in the doors.

Designing for Safety.
Doban, Geoffrey; Samton, Peter
Learning By Design; n9 , p19-20 ; 2000
Explores school design's influence on enhancing school security inside and out and addresses whether schools should be designed as public spaces for the community at large. Design tips for planners are highlighted.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email:

Key Control and School Security.
Guidi, J. Peter, Jr.
School Construction News; v3 n1 , p21 ; Jan-Feb 2000
Explores three scenarios in school security involving key control: key duplication; a lost key; and unidentified keys. In each scenario the problem is detailed followed by a solution. Also discussed are re-keyable locks.

Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.
Lee, Martha A.
School Construction News; v3 n1 , p22 ; Jan-Feb 2000
Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology.

Developing a Security Profile.
Woodcock, Chris
American School and University; v72 n4 , p32-34, 36 ; Dec 1999
Examines the questions schools should address when re-evaluating how to protect people, property, and assets. Questions addressed include where and how to begin to improve security in a school, getting the most protection economically, establishing where electronic security should be used, using surveillance cameras and systems, and what the role of a communications system is in school security.

School Security Consultants and Overnight Experts: How Not to Be Exploited.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p30,32-33 ; Nov 1999
Examines the questions to consider when deciding to use consultants in addressing school safety and crisis preparedness. Reasons for exercising caution when selecting security consultants are addressed.

Technology's Role in Security.
Day, C. William
American School and University; v72 n1 , p54-55 ; Sep 1999
Examines the use of technology to bolster the school security system, tips on selecting a security consultant, and several basic strategies to make buildings and grounds safer. Technological ideas discussed include the use of telephones in classrooms to expedite care in emergency situations, surveillance cameras to reduce crime, and metal detectors to eliminate students bringing weapons to school.

Building Design for Greater Security.
Peters, Ronald
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 , p36-38 ; Aug 1999
Discusses school design concepts that can help create safer schools that provide a supportive environment where teachers can know their students better and where continuity of learning is fostered. Emphasis is away from building large scale schools to more compact learning environments.

Under Siege: Schools as the New Battleground.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; Special supplement to v71 n11 , 30p. ; Jul 1999
Provides information from experts in the security industry concerning school violence and its prevention. Articles address the lessons learned from recent school shootings that may help reduce future occurrences, the need for a greater adherence to order in schools to set the stage for a more secure learning environment, the use of identification badges, and ways of conducting a school facility security audit. It explains how to determine which technology is most important for school security and how to evaluate them, the development of a crisis management plan, and the preplanning steps that helped one community deal quietly with a rash of bomb threats.

Site Design for Greater Security.
Peters, Ronald
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p30, 32 ; Jul 1999
Describes how to use the school site and landscape plan to create a safer outdoor environment for students. Facility design concepts used by one school district to address its campus security issues are discussed.

Reducing Violence in Schools: Ideas That Work.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p24,26-27 ; Jul 1999
Examines four school district's practical and cost effective measures to eliminate children bringing guns into their schools. Lessons learned from these measures are discussed involving areas of leadership; cooperation; and the use of a balanced approach of enforcement, prevention, intervention, education, and community support.

School Security and Crisis Preparedness: Make It Your Business.
School Business Affairs; v65 n6 , p15-18 ; Jun 1999
The top five security risks in today's schools include aggressive behavior, weapons possession or use, drug trafficking, gangs, and "stranger danger." Home-made bomb threats are common. This article also discusses security system costs, risk-reduction frameworks, security assessments, crisis-preparedness guidelines, and security-related staffing.

The Building Blocks of School Security
Funck, Gary
School Business Affairs; v65 n6 , p29-31 ; Jun 1999
Few schools command the funding to shift from zero security to updated closed-circuit TV systems. Cost-effective school security identification cards, which provide a rapid means of identifying those belonging on campus, can be integrated with administrative systems to track attendance, age, subject studied, and other vital statistics.

Safety in the Workplace.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v71 n9 , p72-73 ; May 1999
Addresses workplace safety needs and tips for helping an organization achieve a high level of safety. Tips include showing administration commitment, establishing retribution-free reporting of safety problems and violations, rewarding excellent safety effort, and allowing no compromises in following safety procedures.

The Making of Safe and Secure Schools.
Schoolhouse of Quality; v3 n1 , p11-15 ; Spring 1999
Explains why the architectural design of school facilities is the first step in the process of making safer schools. School areas examined include the front entrance design; the design of corridors, stairwells, and restrooms; and building placement. Other safety considerations discussed include lighting and other visibility enhancements, and the use of a law enforcement presence.

Designs on Security.
Hubler, Gary L.
School Planning and Management; v38 i4 , p36-37 ; Apr 1999
Discusses design options that can bring about a more secure education environment while helping staff to better supervise students and reduce outside interruptions that can disrupt the learning experience. Suggestions include eliminating stairwells, controlling access, and placing teacher planning rooms strategically along main corridors where teachers can keep an eye on students.

Safe Havens: Preventing Violence and Crime in Schools.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v71 n6 , p18-20,22,24 ; Feb 1999
Discusses ways to help prevent crime and violence in schools and universities by predicting risk and training and planning for security. Signs of potential violence in students are highlighted, as are ways of guarding against bomb threats and use of preventive technology. Includes sources for security information and community characteristics where prevention, intervention, and crisis response strategies work best.

How To Handle Bomb Threats and Suspicious Devices.
Trump, Kenneth S.
School Planning and Management; v38 n2 , p28,30,32 ; Feb 1999
Discusses ways schools can handle bomb threats and suspicious devices and describes risk reduction steps in preparation for these events. It suggests security risk reduction can be accomplished through proper use of policies and procedures, conducting staff training, establishing security agreements, and creating crisis preparedness guidelines.

Using Common Sense to Effectively Integrate Security Technologies Within a School's Security Strategy
Green, Mary W.
Proceedings:The International Society for Optical Engineering; v 3575 , p241-248 ; Dec 1998
Security technologies are not the answer to all school security problems. However, they can be an excellent tool for school administrators and security personnel when incorporated into a total security strategy involving personnel, procedures, and facility layout. Unfortunately, very few of the tougher security problems in schools have solutions that are affordable, effective, and acceptable. Like any other type of facility, a school's security staff must understand the strengths and limitations of the security measures they are considering. It is imperative that the design for new schools incorporate good security practices, which will rarely increase new building costs if included in the initial planning. [Author's abstract]

Dealing with Trespassers.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p40-42 ; Nov 1998
Presents expert advice on keeping violations of school trespassing from escalating into worse violations of school safety. It discusses the use of trespass warning statements, identifying areas of danger, and whether police officers in schools are the solution.

Make School Safety a Priority.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; V37 n10 , p55-57 ; Oct 1998
This article addresses techniques can help to reduce violence, fear and weapons violations in schools.

The Lethal Threat: Security Countermeasures for Schools
Today's Facility Manager Online; Sep 1998
Educational facilities managers have always faced distinct challenges in creating environments conducive to learning while ensuring safety and security. Metal detectors and CCTV cameras do not create a friendly, inviting atmosphere for students; public access is always an issue since most students come and go throughout the day. Public schools must deal with the student population of the community they serve—and facilities managers often have very little control during non-school hours. Technical and human factors, both internal and external, must be examined carefully in this complex issue.

An Ounce of Prevention.
King, James D.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p50,52 ; Jul 1998
Discusses how campus crime prevention activities can help avoid "premises liability" injury lawsuits that target some physical defect in school property or the operation of that property. It suggests installing a proactive system that inhibits crime, but if a crime occurs, can provide strong a legal and ethical defense of reasonable efforts on the part of the institution.

Guns, Knives, and Schools.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n5 , p20-22,24-27 ; May 1998
Presents a strategy that can be used by public school officials to reduce the number of weapons coming into schools. Creating policies to protect children from bullies, educating students about the school's weapons policy, initiating weapons screening procedures, applying consistent sanctions, and acting on tips about students carrying weapons are addressed.

Are Video Cameras the Key to School Safety?
Maranzano, Chuck
The High School Magazine ; v5 n5 , p42-43 ; May-Jun 1998
Describes one high school's use of video cameras as a preventive tool in stemming theft and violent episodes within schools. The top ten design tips for preventing crime on campus are highlighted.

Designing with Traffic Safety in Mind.
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p58-60,62 ; Apr 1998
Proves an example of how one county public school system was able to minimize traffic accidents and increase safety around its schools. Illustrations are provided of safer bus loading zones, pedestrian walkways and sidewalks, staff parking, and acceptable methods for staging buses. A checklist for school driveway design concludes the article.

Security in Motion.
Hylton, J. Barry
American School and University; v70 n8 , p21-22,24 ; Apr 1998
Explains how strategic planning and careful balance of integration and implementation of security programs can create a safe school environment. The use of police personnel in schools is examined.

Ten Steps to Safer Schools.
Stephens, Ronald D.
American School Board Journal; v185 n3 , p30,32-33 ; Mar 1998
Safe schools require the collaboration and support of students, staff, parents, and the community. Lists 10 important steps school leaders can take. Contains a safe school quiz developed by the National School Safety Center to help gauge the situation at individual schools.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

The Security Factor in School Renovations.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n2 , p30,32,34 ; Feb 1998
Discusses how one Indiana high school used its renovation as an opportunity to reevaluate the school's security design. Security considerations in the building's external and internal environment include lighting, directional signage, parking, access control technology, and issues regarding the use of closed circuit television.

School Security.
Bete, Tim, Ed.
School Planning and Management; v37 n1 , p10-11 ; Jan 1998
Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with textbooks.

Smile, Vandals--You're on Candid Camera.
Lebowitz, Michelle
School Planning and Management; v36 n12 , p28-29 ; Dec 1997
Describes the Huntsville, Alabama school district's use of surveillance cameras and other high-tech equipment to ward off arson, theft, and vandalism. How these efforts reduced repair and replacement costs and helped the district retain its insurance coverage are discussed.

Better Safe Than Sorry.
Wilson, Walter E.
School Planning & Management; v36 n12 , p36,38 ; Dec 1997
Describes the use of nonslip flooring in educational facilities to reduce fall injuries and litigation costs. Discussions include the influence of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, regulatory considerations, and a brief litigation overview. A comparison chart of nonslip flooring surface performance is provided.

Is Your Security Budget Used Effectively?
Kaufer, Steve
School Planning and Management; v36 n8 , p28-30 ; Aug 1997
Presents survey information showing where school districts have invested their security budgets. Included are the various threats school districts see as requiring security actions and the areas most often covered by closed circuit television systems are pointed.

Safe and Sound.
Felder, Lanny I.
American School & University; v69 n8 , p32,34 ; Apr 1997
Describes a comprehensive security program that includes access control, surveillance methods, and personnel awareness, designed to keep public schools safe for students and faculty. Alternatives to traditional lock and key systems are discussed, as are patrolling tips for high crime sites and the need to educate staff and students.

How To Modify Your Facilities to Minimize Violence and Vandalism
Steward, G. Kent; Knapp, Megan J.
School Business Affairs; v63 n4 , p43-46 ; Apr 1997
Suggests school business officials, particularly those directly responsible for facilities, should know about school security measures such as metal detection devices at entry points, direct classroom telephone access, strategically placed mirrors, corridor video monitors, modified food-service facilities and bathrooms, stair and courtyard security measures, door security systems, and violence-deterrent new building designs. (13 references)

Detecting Crime.
Probst, Tom
American School and University; v69 n4 , p22,24,26 ; Dec 1996
Describes how electronic alarm systems can enhance school security by offering constant protection. Discusses the two types of electronic security systems available–hardwire and wireless–the best locations to place detectors, strategies in protecting specialized areas, and the importance of keeping accurate records regarding false alarms.

How To Keep Your Schools Safe and Secure
Gilbert, Christopher B.
School Business Affairs; v62 n11 , p5-6,8-11 ; Nov 1996
Discusses unforeseen costs(including potential litigation expenses), benefits, and consequences of adopting security measures (such as metal detectors, drug dogs, security cameras, campus police, dress codes, crime watch programs, and communication devices) to counter on-campus violence and gang activity. High-tech gadgetry alone is insufficient. Schools must also involve local officials and students. (10 legal references)

Is Your Center Secure? 20 Questions You Need to Ask
Child Care Information Exchange; n104 , p38-40 ; Jul-Aug 1995
Examines a wide range of potential safety and security issues in center-based child care. Suggestions include specific procedures for responding to all likely emergencies and for evacuating the center; plans to notify parents and secure the children; and safe access to the center and children in a consistent and sensible way.

Securing the Schoolyard.
Gips, Michael
Security Management; 1995
Cameras are rolling in schoolhouses across the nation for security monitoring locations, protecting students, faculty, and school property from harm. Some schools now require all students, faculty, and staff to wear picture IDs. The number of access points are being limited and entrances are being monitored. In addition, more schools are using metal detectors.

Designing Safer Schools
Crowe, Timothy D.
School Safety; , p9-13 ; Fall 1990
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is being used in schools and communities to improve the management of human space. Outlines CPTED concepts and strategies to implement crime reduction through environmental design of school grounds, parking lots, locker rooms, corridors, restrooms, and classrooms.

Designing for Safety.
Marshall, George, CSP, PE
Educational Facility Planner; v28 n5 ; Sep 1990
Safety must be considered in all phases of the design process. Safety engineering is as technical as any other in the design process and highly regulated. Facility planning teams should enlist the aid of safety consultants to help eliminate potential hazards and problems such as a "tight building syndrome" or "sick building syndrome". The HVAC system, air balance, new materials, building maintenance projects and water quality are all areas that require careful analysis in new or renovative projects. Educational and municipal laboratories have special needs for chemical fume hoods (to contain and eliminate harmful gases) and air exchange systems. The electrical system must have safeguards against fires, and the water system should safeguard against backflow problems while at the same time avoid contaminating the water system source.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).