NCEF Resource List: Roof Repair and Maintenance for Schools
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Information on school roof maintenance, inspection strategies, scheduling, documentation, and repair, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

The Book on School Roofing (Short Version). Adobe PDF
Phinney, Peter
(Building Exterior Coordinators, Huron, OH , 2008)
Presents the detailed observations of a building professional regarding the present and hoped-for state of school roofing. The author addresses the mystery of school roof problems in an overview, and then proceeds in subsequent sections to discuss roof selection, new building roof and wall leaks, new schools and roof problems, architects and roof replacement projects, flat roofs, new metal roofs that leak, roof warranties, new roofing technology and how to approach it with caution, roof replacement challenges, the profile of a good roofing contractor, what a school district needs to know about new construction, building codes, and particular issues with roof inspection according to Ohio laws. 21p.

Aerial Infrared Roof Moisture Surveys.
Stockton, Gary
(Maintenance World , Feb 2005)
Describes the processes of infrared roof moisture surveys and why they are most effectively executed from aircraft, rather than by standing on the roof. Infrared imagery can reveal where a roof is retaining moisture, as wet areas retain heat longer than dry areas. Excessive moisture retention in the roof may indicate deterioration. 4p.

Comprehensive Nonresidential Building Analysis to Estimate the Current Reality of Roofing Longevity.
(Roofing Industry Alliance for Progress , 2005)
This study was undertaken to determine whether existing depreciation rules for nonresidential roofs are realistic, and whether they may create obstacles for the timely replacement of those roofs In total, more than 500 in-depth interviews were conducted with pre-qualified respondents. Respondents were asked about both their real-world experiences with different roof systems, and their preceptions of roof system life span. A weighted model of roof system life span was then developed to estimate longevity, using a number of important variables.
TO ORDER: National Roofing Foundation, 10255 W. Higgins Blvd. Rosemont, IL 60018-5607. Tel: 847-299-90700

Repair Manual for Low-Slope Membrane Roof Systems
(National Roofing Contractors Association; Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association; SPRI, 2005)
This helps identify problems and permanently repair low-slope roof membranes. Discusses reliable long-term repair procedures for built-up, modified bitumen, thermoplastic and thermoset roof systems. Repairs are categorized as spot patching, general, and major repairs and maintenance.
TO ORDER: National Roofing Contractors Association, 10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600, Rosemont, IL 60018; (847)299-9070

District of Columbia Public Schools: Availability of Funds and the Cost of FY 1997 Roof Projects. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia Committee on Governmental Affairs Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Accounting and Information Management Div., Washington, DC. , 1998)
This document presents the results of a review of the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) efforts to repair school roofs during the summer of 1997. The statement details when funds were made available to pay for roof repairs, the costs of the roof repairs, and additional roofs to be fixed in fiscal year 1998 and beyond. Sufficient funding ($38 million) to begin roof work became available in 1997 and repairs were initiated that summer. A review of construction shows that the DCPS spent $37 million for roof repair in fiscal 1997. The cost included an extensive amount of work to ensure that facilities were structurally sound and watertight. Considering the costs for all the work involved, the average per spare foot cost was about $20. Contracts managed by the General Services Administration averaged $13 per square foot, whereas contracts overseen by the DCPS cost around $22 per square foot. Much of the cost was caused by extensive repairs that were required at particular schools. For fiscal year 1998, the DCPS Capital Improvement Program budget shows that about $35 million will be spent on 40 school-roof projects. 8p.
Report NO: GAO/T-AIMD-98-95

The Repair, Replacement and Maintenance of Historic Slate Roofs
Levine, Jeffrey S.
(National Park Service Technical Preservation Services, 1992)
Installed properly, slate roofs require relatively little maintenance and will last 60 to 125 years or longer depending on the type of slate employed, roof configuration, and the geographical location of the property. Some slates have been known to last over 200 years. Found on virtually every class of structure, slate roofs are perhaps most often associated with institutional, ecclesiastical, and government buildings, where longevity is an especially important consideration in material choices. This describes the character and detailing of historic slate roofs; deterioration of slate roofs; repairing slate roofs; the replacement of deteriorated roofs; and maintenance.

The Repair and Replacement of Historic Wooden Shingle Roofs.
Park, Sharon C.
(National Park Service Technical Preservation Services, 1989)
Wooden shingle roofs need periodic replacement. They can last from 15 to over 60 years, but the shingles should be replaced before there is deterioration of other wooden components of the building. Appropriate replacement shingles are available, but careful research, design, specifications, and the selection of a skilled roofer are necessary to assure a job that will both preserve the appearance of the historic building and extend the useful life of the replacement roof. This describes replacing deteriorated roofs, provides specifications for the replacement roof, discusses roofing practices to avoid, and maintenance.

References to Journal Articles

The Grass Ceiling.
Seward, AAron
Architect Magazine; Nov 07, 2011
Discusses how to balance aesthetics and energy savings of green roofs with the practicalities of structure, water, and wear. Covers how to analyze the layers, learning from applications, and measuring the benefits. Includes slide show of several green roof projects.

Roofing: A Passing Grade.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p12,14,15 ; Aug 2011
Describes how bad publicity concerning Scottsdale Schools' failing roofs led to positive steps taken to rectify the situation. Steps included preventive maintenance, finding funding for repair and upkeep, and introduction of solar installations.

Asset Management.
McNeil, Dennis
American School and University; v83 n11 , p22,24,26 ; Jul 2011
Advises on the elements of regular roof inspections and the risks of not conducting them. Engaging a roof specialist is recommended, and the qualifications that such a professional should possess are discussed.

Roofing: Strategies for Avoiding the Breaking Point.
Mattison, Kent
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p18-20 ; May 2011
Advises on regular roof maintenance and how to determine whether to repair or replace a roof. Examples of significant losses due to roof leaks are cited, as are cost-effective leak avoidance, repair, and replacement strategies.

Retrofit Revolution: The High Cost of Cheap.
Mattison, Kent
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p8,10 ; Apr 2011
Discusses controllable factors in roof performance: design, installation, materials, maintenance, inspection, and warranty. The hazards of cutting corners in these areas are emphasized.

Proactive Maintenance.
Cook, Richard; Stieve, Douglas
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p41,42,44,45 ; Mar 2011
Encourages and gives guidelines for proactive roof maintenance. Biannual inspections and routine maintenance will extend the life expectancy of the roofing system. A management plan is included, with topics such as use of high quality materials and adding insulation, and use of a roofing consultant.

Troublemakers on the Rooftop.
Warseck, Karen
Building Operating Management; v58 n2 , p37,38,40,42,43 ; Feb 2011
Documents most frequent causes of leakage problems with roofing, when the roof membrane is penetrated, changes plane, or ends. Various approaches to repairs are described.

Rooftop Damage Control.
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p55,56,58,61 ; Oct 2010
Details the specific threats of wind, hail, and ice and snow freeze/thaw to roofs. Addressing damage that seems small at first but has later consequences, or damage accumulated from several assaults is emphasized. Maintaining records of visual assessments to benchmark roof conditions is also recommended.

Roof Coatings: The Energy Connection.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p9,10 ; Sep 2010
Discusses roof rating programs designed to help building owners increase energy efficiency, energy-saving coatings that can be applied to existing roofs, and how to choose and apply the best coating for a roof.

Upon Closer Concern.[ Roofing Maintenance.]
Warseck, Karen
Building Operating Management; v57 n8 , p29,31,32,34 ; Aug 2010
Details roofing inspection issues, including when to test, methods of testing, wall and glazing leaks that might present as roof leaks, selecting an inspector, and warranties.

From a Nightmare to a Dream. [Project Profile: Roofing Retrofit.]
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p11-13 ; Jul 2010
Details the replacement of a problematic roof at Duke University Medical Center. The design of the successful replacement and recycling of removed roofing materials is described.

Roof Coatings in a New Light.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n3 , p14-16 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the sustainability benefits of roof coatings, as well as how to determine if a roof coating is a viable option to extend the life of a roof.

Staying Green.
Griswold, Nathan
Environmental Design and Construction; v13 n2 , p18,19 ; Feb 2010
Advises on expert inspection of green roofs during the installation, establishment, growth, and long term periods. Individual elements to be examined are listed.

Repairs Done Right.
Warseck, Karen
Building Operating Management; v57 n2 , p23,24,26 ; Feb 2010
Advises on roof repairs, addressing hiring qualified contractors, identifying the type of roof, finding the leaks, using compatible repair materials, and knowing when the roof needs to be replaced.

Inspection Insights: Ensuring Roof Performance.
Kaiser, Tom
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n11 , p8,9 ; Nov 2009
Discusses inspection of roofing elements during installation. Pre-inspection issues, roof deck substrates, insulation, bitumen temperatures, membranes, and base flashing are addressed.

Five Ways to Make a Roof Last Longer.
D'Annunzio, John
Building Operating Management; v56 n10 , p37,38,40,42 ; Oct 2009
Discusses extending roof life through proper design, quality materials, quality workmanship, weather considerations, and timely maintenance.

Stretching Your Roofing Dollars: The Metal Retrofit.
Howard, Chuck
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p21-22 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Advises on installation of a sloped metal roof over an existing flat one or an existing sloped metal roof. The grade, underpinning, typical problems encountered, and advantages of a double roof are discussed.

Don't Let Roofing Top Your Budget.
Chiodo, Samuel
Facility Management Journal; v19 n4 , p20,22,23 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Discusses annual roofing inspections, types of roofs, roofing problems, and their solutions.

Flat Roof Follies: The Importance of Venting and Understanding Water.
Eversen, Lawrence
The Construction Specifier; v62 n6 , p68-70,72,74-81 ; Jun 2009
Describes the typical construction of a flat roof, addressing the proper flashing and venting techniques to prevent water penetration and to prevent condensation of interior water vapor within the roof.

Stretching Your Roofing Dollars with Metal Retrofit.
Howard, Chuck
College Planning and Management; v12 n5 , p43-45 ; May 2009
Discusses retrofitting of flat roofs with sloped metal roofing that sits on top of the flat roof, as well as re-covering existing sloped metal roofs with a new one. Opportunities for energy-saving features are addressed, as well as improvement of wind resistance. The cost for adding a new sloped roof is often less than the cost of replacing a flat roof.

Action Items.
Baker, Mark : Keane, Brian
American School and University; v81 n6 , p34-37 ; Feb 2009
Advises on roof repair by carefully following the steps of assessment by a qualified inspector, selecting the right partner for the job, using the right materials, evaluating a warranty, and monitoring the restored roof.

The View from Above: Roof Construction and Maintenance.
Chiodo, Samuel
Buildings; v103 n2 , p40-43 ; Feb 2009
Discusses involving a roofing expert in the early design phase of a building, along with their responsibilities. The elements of a pre-installation roofing conference are addressed, as are those of inspections as roof installation progresses, and of a final roofing report. Elements of a management program of existing roofs are also covered.

Extending the Roof Life.
Hutchinson, Thomas
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p49,50,52,54 ; Feb 2009
Discusses the leading causes of roof failure, followed by four components of a roof system maintenance program. These four elements of keeping records of installation and warranties, regular inspections, attention to deficiencies, and documentation of maintenance procedures are elaborated with details of what should be checked during inspections. Emergency repairs and roof restoration options are also addressed.

Living with a Green Roof: Secrets to a Successful Long-Term Relationship.
Wegscheid, Christopher
The Construction Specifier; v62 n1 , p18 22,24,26-28,30-35 ; Jan 2009
Details long-term issues of a green roof. Topics include why to choose a green roof, classification of green roofs, installation methods, the components of a green roof, replanting, drainage, irrigation, weeding, fertilization, exposure to the elements, fire, warranties, maintenance, and accessibility.

Green Roofs...What Did We Forget to Ask?
Kravitz, Robert
College Planning and Management; v11 n12 , p26-28 ; Dec 2008
Advises on designing and maintaining a green roof, including weight calculation, irrigation, runoff, and media and plant selection, and timing the installation. Initial and long-term maintenance considerations include weeding, trimming, and removal of debris are also addressed.

Roof Coatings: Bottom-Line Considerations.
Opel, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p12,13 ; Dec 2008
Discusses benefits of roof coatings, especially when applied to roofs still in good condition. Solar reflectivity, and cleaning of white roof coatings to maintain cooling properties are addressed, as are preparation and application of coatings, and warranties.

A Landmark Project.
St. John, Ashley
Professional Roofing; v38 n8 , p49-51 ; Aug 2008
Discusses the replacement of a slate roof on Georgetown University's historic Healy Hall. The complicated process for access, removal, repair of the deck, re-shingling, and flashing replacement on this detailed roof are described.

Making a Match, System by System.
Hitchcock, Reed
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p27,28 ; Jul 2008
Advises on selecting roof coatings, with descriptions of products and application procedures for metal, single-ply, modified bitumen, and asphalt BUR systems.

The Big Top.
Markham, Jared
American School and University; v80 n12 , p20,22,24-26 ; Jul 2008
Details plant selection, medium preparation, installation instruction, and maintenance considerations for green roofs.

The Technology of Roof Inspections.
Wilson, Mike
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p14,16 ; Apr 2008
Discusses the benefits and components of roof inspections, typical problems caused by roof leaks, and roof inspection technology.

Roofs: A New Frontier for Green.
Nelson, Steve
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n3 , p10,12,14 ; Mar 2008
Reviews types of green roofs; their planning, design, and implementation; and particular issues pertaining to their maintenance.

Tob Job.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n6 , p37-39 ; Feb 2008
Discusses roof inspection and cool roofs for school buildings.

Reparing and Restoring Historic Roofs.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p24,26,28 ; Nov 2007
Advises on historic school roof repair and replacement, citing the need to determine if it is replacement or simply repair that is needed; consideration of replacement with the same, a facsimile, or different material; assessment of the aesthetic qualities of the roof; and regular maintenance of any roof, old or new.

Metal Roofing: Toughness on Top.
Liscum, Curtis
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n9 , p19,20 ; Sep 2007
Discusses metal roof classifications, insulation and vapor retarders, inspection, typical sources of leakage, and repair strategies.

State of the Art: As Green Roofs Build a Track Record in North America, What Fundamentals Apply?
McIntyre, Linda
Landscape Architecture; v98 n6 , p84,86-88,90 ; Jun 2007
Considers the record of green roofs in North America, with special attention to its climate that is more extreme than in Europe, where green roofs are more common. Advice is given on plant selection, planting times and configurations, growing media, drainage, irrigation, maintenance, stormwater management, and energy benefits.

The Key Benefits of Green Roof Systems.
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n2 , p6,8,9 ; Mar 2007
Briefly reviews the benefits of green roofs to stormwater management, energy conservation, and roof life. Costs, structural, and maintenance issues are addressed.

Hot Solution: Roof Coatings.
Hounsel, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n1 , p14,15 ; Jan 2007
Describes the advantages of roof coatings, citing their use by the Clark County, Nevada, School District. The coatings expand and contract with the roof, extend the life of the roof system, and reflect sunlight, which helps keep the attic space and building cool.

Roof Inspections: A Closer Look.
Evans, Jeff
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p13,14,16 ; Oct 2006
Describes a coherent roof management plan consisting a complete roof inventory that includes date of installation, installer, manufacturer, warranties, type of system, and leak and repair history. This is followed by visual and non-destructive condition assessments, performed by those familiar with the roof type. Elements and frequency of these inspections are discussed.

Enhancing Roofing Performance.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p34,36,37 ; Mar 2006
Discusses current design and product solutions for school roofs and describes the Denver Public Schools' system for assessing roofs and prioritizing repair and replacement.

Leak Proof.
James, Steve
American School and University; v78 n3 , p281-283 ; Nov 2005
Describes the virtues of extended roof warranties and how to use roofing asset management software to take advantage of them. Typical features available in these software programs are covered, along with advice on what to consider when matching a program to your needs.

Facility Managers Benefit from the Web.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v8 n11 , p16,17 ; Nov 2005
Reviews basic features of computerized maintenance management systems, capital planning and asset management systems, and roofing asset management software. These products are increasingly web-based, which eases software management and data sharing.

So Many Choices.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v44 n8 , p34-39 ; Aug 2005
Offers inspection guidance in determining whether a roof should be repaired, with procedure and material recommendation for specific repairs. Descriptions of various types of new roofing is included.

Put a Lid on It.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v8 n8 , p46,48-51 ; Aug 2005
Discusses re-roofing options when repairs have been exhausted, focusing on coating or recovering existing roofs, and the advantages of cool roofs.

Rewarding Performance.
Lambert, Brian
American School and University; v77 n12 , p36,39,40 ; Jul 2005
Lists some features of sophisticated roof asset management software, compares the real costs of aggressive preventive maintenance and reactive maintenance, and describes some creative funding options for roof financing.

Roofing Retrofits.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p40-43 ; Feb 2005
Discusses probable causes and locations of roof leaks, frequency and techniques of roof inspection, and determining when and how to repair or replace roofs.

The Roofing Shell Game.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p20,22-24 ; Nov 2004
Describes the common defects in roofing, loopholes in roofing warranties that make them worthless, and ways a school system can protect themselves.

Looking Good.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p25,26 ; Nov 2004
Describes various school districts' approach to maintenance of the exterior elements of walls, roofs, windows, stairs, and landscaping.

Roofing Customer Service.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , p18,20,22 ; Nov 2004
Advises on how to select a roofing contractor by scrutinizing their references, the certifications for the type of roof they install, their financial standing, their workers compensation records, and their commitment to maintenance.

Save Now, Pay Much More Later.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p39,40,42,44 ; Jun 2004
Presents the perspectives of a manufacturer, consultant, and school district on choosing a correct roofing system, installing it correctly, and maintaining it for overall savings. The gap between those who know roofing and those who are responsible for roof selection is often considerable, and the possibility of collateral damage to interiors and furnishings due to premature roof failure is almost never taken into consideration.

Fixing the Leak: It's Not as Simple as it Looks.
Russo, Michael
Buildings; v98 n5 , 5p. ; May 2004
Even roofs that enjoy regular maintenance may leak at some point in their service lives. One of the advantages of a formal roof maintenance program is that it makes it easier to predict, pinpoint and repair small roof problems before they become catastrophic. While building maintenance personnel may have the skills to make temporary, emergency repairs, it is always better to rely on the roofing contractor to handle this work. Sending untrained personnel to patch a roof during a rainstorm can be dangerous, and their efforts may wind up voiding the manufacturer's warranty.

The Roofing-Mold Connection
Liscum, Curtis
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
Proper installation of roofs, thorough inspection, and prompt repairs can combine to help protect facilities operations and occupants from the ramifications of mold. This discusses identifying the culprit, leak response, proactive steps, clean-up considerations, and cold-weather roofing considerations.

The Perfect Patch.
Gaither, Joseph F.
American School and University; v76 n4 , p34-36 ; Dec 2003
Suggests ways to manage roof maintenance when different types and ages of roofs are found on campus buildings of various vintages. An audit of all roof conditions is the first step, followed by thorough awareness of the materials and systems of each installation, and then inclusion in the capital budget of the institution.

A Guide to Protecting Your Roof from a Snow-Related Failure.
Brown, Gary W.
Facilities Manager; v19 n6 , p35-38 ; Nov-Dec 2003
Provides criteria used to calculate potential snow loads around the country and suggests ways to prevent collapse of roofs during heavy snows. These are: 1)Ensure that the roof was properly designed. 2)Ensure that the roof drains properly, even in cold weather. 3)Inspect regularly to ensure that weakening or deformation has not occurred over time. 4)Determine safe snow depths for the roof. 5)Develop a snow removal plan. 6)Pay extra attention to canopies, overhangs, and the materials stored below them. 7)Inspect after each storm.

School Roof Retrofits.
Praeger, Charles E.
School Planning and Management; v42 n11 , p26,28 ; Nov 2003
Explains advantages in longevity, drainage, installability, and environmental friendliness of standing seam metal over built-up flat roofs.

New Life for an Older School.
Ladesich, Jim
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p32-36 ; Jun 2003
Describes the exterior renovation of Central Lee Community School District's high school, near Donnellson, Iowa, particularly the installment of a standing-seam metal roof system and other energy-related improvements.

Guidelines for Inspecting Your Roof Systems.
Watkins, Daniel L.
College Planning and Management; v6 n6 , p56,58,59 ; Jun 2003
Provides guidelines for inspecting the roof of a facility. Suggests that periodic roof inspections should be performed on a quarterly or semi-annual basis and after severe storms. Proactively identifying potential problem areas is the best defense against roof leaks.

A Permanent Fix.
Fransen, David
American School and University; v75 n8 , p42-43 ; Apr 2003
Discusses the benefits of a preventive maintenance program for a school's building envelope, especially roofing, including avoiding a crisis-management mentality and gaining greater control over time and finances.

PVC Single-Ply System Solves Multiple Reroofing Problems.
Witthun, Melissa; Ballensky, Drew
College Planning and Management; v6 n1 , p24-25 ; Jan 2003
Describes the benefits Georgia Tech University has found from the use of a proprietary thermoplastic PVC single-ply system for reroofing, particularly ease of installation.

Investigating and Diagnosing Moisture Problems.
Lstiburek, Joseph
ASHRAE Journal; , p36-41 ; Dec 2002
Water comes in four forms: solid, liquid, vapor and adsorbed. All four forms can cause grief to building owners, designers, and contractors. When water causes building problems, investigating and diagnosing the problem can be challenging because water constantly changes it form inside a building and within its materials. The investigator must hunt down the water by thinking like water.

Prolonging the Life of Your Roof: Patience, Persistence, and Partnerships.
Moore, Frank J.
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p41-43 ; Dec 2002
Describes maintenance tips to prolong the life of school building roofs.

Market Your Maintenance Program.
Puniana, Ambika
Professional Roofing ; v32 n7 ; Aug 2002
Roofing companies have found that roof system maintenance programs, if marketed properly, can build a loyal customer base. This discusses a maintenance program for Florida's Brevard County Public Schools which resulted in more than $1 million in energy rebates from its local utility company, and the reduction of roof leaks from more than 850 annually to less than 40.

Putting Up Appearances.
Wyeth, Leonard
American School and University; v74 n11 , p48,50 ; Jul 2002
Discusses "picture framing"--when roof shingles appear to bulge at the joints of insulated roofing panels. Explains how lack of ventilation contributes to the problem and offers some solutions.

Getting a Clear Focus on Roof Replacement and Management.
Patterson, Valerie B.
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p41-46 ; Jun 2002
Describes how a new generation of X-ray-like vision--the patented INFRARED2k--provides roof-condition reports that help extend roof life, conserve energy, and survey for mold-supporting environments, thereby improving indoor air quality.

Rules To Roof By.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v74 n6 , p35-37 ; Feb 2002
Advises schools on keeping roofs healthy, thereby saving costly repairs to both the roof and the entire building. Discusses inspections, preventive-maintenance programs, weather, and when to re-roof.

A Lasting Relationship.
Reming, Thomas W.
American School and University; v74 n2 , p34,36 ; Oct 2001
Offers basic planning principles needed to ensure long-term roofing system performance for schools and universities. Discusses decision making tips for selecting a quality manufacturer and other suppliers. Provides guidance for general maintenance and inspection.

Applying Green Roofs to Schools.
Scholz-Barth, Katrin
School Construction News; v4 n5 , p24 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Article discusses how green roofs, elevated roof surfaces covered entirely by a thin soil and vegetation layer, can provide benefits to schools. First, green roofs improve the built environment by storing and absorbing rainwater and reducing the negative environmental impact of sealed surfaces. Second, the roofs create a learning environment that students and staff can utilize in studies involving water and energy efficiency. And third, operation and maintenance efforts are reduced through installation of a cooling green roof that also protects the roofing membrane and can outlast conventional roofs.

A New Way of Looking at Roofs.
Patterson, Valerie
College Planning and Management; v4 n6 , p30-32 ; Jun 2001
Discusses how colleges can use infrared technology to identify roofing moisture problems and help extend roof life, generate energy savings, and increase air quality.

Making Prevention Routine.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n8 , p48-50 ; Apr 2001
Explains how schools that focus on roofing maintenance are more likely to avoid leaks and costly repairs. Includes brief comments on the U.S. Department of Education's report on roof ratings and adequacy.

Prolong Your Roof's Performance: Roof Asset Management.
Teitsma, Jerry
School Planning and Management; v40 n4 , p46,48-49 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the roof asset management process for maintaining a roof system's integrity and value in a cost-effective manner. Included is a breakdown of roofing surface characteristics for multiply and single ply roofing systems.

Top-Level Software Strategies
Walton, Terry E.
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jan 2001
A properly specified computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) gives managers a powerful tool in maximizing roofing-system performance. Most roofing-system manufacturers do not offer their own software to help manage roofing assets, so managers usually have to manage roofing maintenance using traditional CMMS applications. The benefit of this arrangement is that each manager can customize the process for a particular facility’s needs. The specification challenge is to fully understand a facility’s roofing management needs — and organizational needs, as well — and select an application that satisfies both.

How To Prevent Roof Abuse.
Hutchinson, Thomas W.
College Planning and Management; v13 n12 , p28-29 ; Dec 2000
Discusses ways to prevent school roofing failure through good maintenance practice and the proper handling of emergency situations. What types of problems show up when roofs are not maintained are highlighted.

Make the Most of Metal
Ernster, Kevin
Maintenance Solutions Online; Oct 2000
Maintenance and engineering managers who are developing and updating a roofing inspection strategy need to be aware that the inspection and maintenance of metal roof systems requires different techniques and materials than those associated with built-up or single-ply systems.

Under Cover.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n1 , p20, 22 ; Sep 2000
Explores how to improve roofing inspections so minor repair problems can be exposed while they are still inexpensive to repair. The need for regular inspections is advocated. Tips are provided for checking a roof for potential problems.

Defeating the Drips.
Moss, Lincoln
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p34-36 ; Mar 2000
Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings, emphasizing the related topics of roof leaks and roof waterproofing, condensation, and HVAC design.

Specifying, Installing and Maintaining Built-Up and Modified Bitumen Roofing Systems.
Hobson, Joseph W.
College Planning and Management; v3 n2 , p39-40,42-43 ; Feb 2000
Examines built-up, modified bitumen, and hybrid combinations of the two roofing systems and offers advise on how to assure high- quality performance and durability when using them. Included is a glossary of commercial roofing terms and asphalt roofing resources to aid in making decisions on roofing and systems product selection.

Keys to a Successful Roofing System.
Kornahrens, Rob
College Planning and Management; v2 n12 , p20,22 ; Dec 1999
Provides advice on successfully managing an educational facility's roofing system by first getting the best roofing system possible, then undertaking regular precautionary measures to assure its peak performance. Specific points address such areas as choosing a roofing contractor, hiring a professional to create specifications, monitoring installation, documenting project completion, and organizing creative maintenance.

Summer Roof Maintenance.
Liscum, Curtis L.
School Planning and Management; v38 n6 , p42-44 ; Jun 1999
Presents the items to review in roofing maintenance to prepare for the impact of summer, including checking drainage, roof field surface and membrane, flashings, sheet metal, and rooftop equipment, such as skylights and penthouses. A list of roofing facts facility managers should know are highlighted.

Keeping the Lid On.
Mulvihill, Stephen R.
American School and University; v71 n10 , p40,42,44,46 ; Jun 1999
Discusses the basics of roof design, maintenance, and purchasing to help school administrators and facility managers resolve their roofing concerns and save money. Examines the development of a five-year roofing maintenance, repair, and replacement plan to manage roof systems. Highlights areas to consider if a replacement roof is necessary. The article lists twenty "Do's" and "Don'ts" about roofing as well as six maintenance tasks that a school must routinely perform on roofs. There is also a brief case history illustrating how one school established a roofing management program to keep tabs on its 42 roofs.

Staying on Top.
Evans, Jeff; Booze, John
American School and University; v71 n6 , p30,32 ; Feb 1999
Explains how a roof-management plan that includes preventive maintenance can reduce costs and extend a roof's life cycle. Discusses what type of historical and roofing asset information needs to be gathered. Reviews program staffing needs. Identifies roof inspection requirements and recommends how frequently to conduct preventive maintenance tasks.

What's Up with Your Roof?
Kalinger, Peter
College Planning and Management; v1 n6 , p51-54 ; Nov 1998
Examines the many consequences and causes of roof leaks and the fallacy that, once a roof has been installed, no further action is required. Explains the importance of knowing the condition of a school's roof. Discusses how to design an economical preventive maintenance program. Lists cost calculation techniques to evaluate a roof maintenance program, maintenance documentation requirements, and roof surveying procedures.

Cold Fusion.
Dutton, Eileen; Salazar, Chris
American School and University; v71 n2 , p36,38,42 ; Oct 1998
Discusses ways to prepare school building roofs for the winter season by paying attention to areas of the roof where problems typically occur. Reviews inspection procedures and application guidelines for built-up roofs. Also highlights the use of white elastomeric roof coatings, their benefits, and procedures to observe for proper application.

Leaky Roof? Tight Budget? No Problem!
Szcygiel, Tony L.
School Planning and Management; V37 n10 , p28-30 ; Oct 1998
Re-roofing your school doesn't need to be an all-or-nothing proposition. The piece-by-piece approach can be the solution to both maintenance and budget concerns.

Critical Review.
Haerer, Deane N.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p38,40,42,44 ; Jun 1998
Recommends implementing a roof-maintenance program as part of a comprehensive assessment of all building components that is intended to identify potential or existing moisture problems before they become excessive and costly. Examines techniques for assessing roof conditions. Explains how to establish a critical priorities list. Identifies five key elements to properly manage a roof system and techniques to maintain the roofing management program.

The Benefits of Preventive Roof Maintenance.
Kalinger, Peter
School Planning and Management; v37 n6 , p44-47 ; Jun 1998
Explains how to convince a school administration that a roof maintenance program can extend roof life and save money, even in the presence of roof warranties. Discusses ways to evaluate the cost benefits of roof maintenance and the importance of creating an historical file when any new roof is installed that contains such information as specifications, drawings, roof plan, details, and inspection reports.

Preventive Medicine.
Jozwiak, Dick
American School and University; v70 n6 , p16, 18 ; Feb 1998
Investigates the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Discusses preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party damage. Emphasizes the need to keep drains clear.

How to Respond to Roof Leaks.
Boon, Richard
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1998
Observes that roof leaks are inevitable but that proper planning and anticipation can minimize the time spent to pinpoint leaks and minimize damage. Provides specific and detailed advice on what to do when a leak is discovered, including inspecting the roof, clearing drains, patching holes in certain roof membranes, protecting building contents, notifying the contractor and manufacturer, and documenting the event.

Roofing Maintenance.
Boon, Richard
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1998
Examines factors for determining where a roof is on the aging curve and what can be done to extend its life. Explains the tools required and the steps to take in conducting a roof inspection as well as some tips for extending roof life. Lists the following activities that would be part of a program for roof maintenance: assembling tools for a roof walkover, examining the original plans and specifications, making a roof drawing, limiting access to the roof, utilizing an inspection checklist, and assembling information on each roof into a discrete information file.

Time To Check Your Roof.
Boon, Richard
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1998
Asserts that inspection is a cost effective technique to prolong roof life and keep minor problems from becoming major ones. Explains that a comprehensive inspection should survey the entire roof, with particular attention to flashings, perimeters, and areas where past problems have occurred. Notes that inspections should be performed using a checklist for that specific roof and that particular attention be paid to areas where movement and stresses occur because of temperature changes, vibration, and roof traffic. Such areas include points where penetrations exist from HVAC units, pipes, drains, and other roof-top equipment.

High-Tech Roof Management.
Benzie, Tim
School Planning and Management; v36 n12 , p25-27 ; Dec 1997
Describes the use of a computerized roof management system (CRMS) for school districts to foster multiple roof maintenance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Highlights CRMS software manufacturer choices, as well as the types of nondestructive testing equipment tools that can be used to evaluate roof conditions.

Life Signs.
Spencer, William
American School and University; v70 n1 , p30, 32-33 ; Sep 1997
Examines the use of life-cycle analyses in conjunction with a roofing database to manage educational facility roofing as assets. Roofing database development, quantifying and benchmarking roofing investigations, and using warranties as part of a roof asset-management program are discussed. Tips on how to start a roofing management program are highlighted.

Designing Systems with Maintenance in Mind.
Boon, Richard A.
American School and University; v69 n10 , p32,34,36,38 ; Jun 1997
Discusses school roof inspection and upkeep and the steps needed to help extend a roof's life. Water removal systems, material selection, and roof design considerations are addressed.

Resolving Those Roofing Dilemmas.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v36 n2 , p30,32-33 ; Feb 1997
Roof problems arise from faulty design, imperfect installation, vandalism, severe weather conditions, and more. Describes how three educational institutions overcame such problems.

Preventing a Washout.
Poindexter, Dave
American School and University; v69 n4 , p34-35 ; Dec 1996
Offers ideas for locating a roof leak. Discusses why many leaks originate in the roof's base flashings and the importance of knowing the roof's material makeup. Advocates keeping a roof-leak history and gives advice on performing inspections to check for leaks. Discusses how to find small holes in roofs.

Covering Your Assets.
Nichelson, Allen
American School and University; v68 n10 , p20,22 ; Jun 1996
Describes how a roof maintenance program will ensure that schools enjoy optimum protection for occupants and property. Discusses how to set up a plan, which includes annual inspections; inventory and documentation, such as recording warranty numbers; and implementing maintenance/repair plans. Offers suggestions for finding a roof consultant.

New Life for Old Roofs
Delsas, Richard A.; Griffis, Carl
American School Board Journal; v182 n4 , p39-41 ; Apr 1995
Today's modern roofs allow heat to build up in the roof membrane, eventually causing structural damage. An annual roof inspection typically costs less that 3% of roof replacement costs and can identify which areas need immediate attention. Offers suggestions for a roof-maintenance program.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).