NCEF Resource List: School Restroom Design
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Information on designing and retrofitting restrooms in school buildings, including resources on fixtures, materials, finishes, maintenance, safety, and accessibility.

References to Books and Other Media

Water Conservation Tips and Information, Relating to the Construction and Maintenance of Public Schools in North Carolina. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, School Planning Section, Raleigh , Jan 2008)
Offers water conservation tips for school kitchens, athletic fields, and restrooms. 4p.

The Real Dry Facts.
(, Orange, CA , Jan 2006)
Describes how waterless urinals work, what they cost to buy and operate, and documents their successful installation in several schools in Floyd County, Georgia. 2p.

Lavatory Water Consumption.
Woods, Paul
(, Milwaukee, WI , 2005)
Reports on a study of eight higher education restrooms where lavatory water use was measured before and after the installation of low-consumption aerators, and later. sensor-operated faucets. Water consumption after the low-consumption aerators were installed was reduced 39%, and after the automatic faucets another 31% savings was achieved, yielding a total savings of %70. 11p.

Parents Sound Off on School Restroom Conditions.
(Kimberly-Clark Corporation Press Release, Oct 15, 2002)
A survey of parents, conducted on behalf of the Kimberly-Clark Corporation by Opinion Research Corporation, identified a number of problems associated with schools' restrooms. Close to 20 percent of middle and high-school students admit to parents that they avoid the school restrooms due to dirty or unsafe conditions. Problems associated with these conditions include vandalism and grafitti and health problems in students. 3p.

School Toilets.
Aasletten, Ellen
(California Department of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento , 2001)
This provides solutions to design, maintenance and operations, and security questions about toilet rooms in schools. The answers lie in the layout and design of toilet facilities. 2p

K-12 Toilet Requirements Summary
(California Department of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, 1999)
Summary of minimum K-12 toilet requirements in California according to male and female students and staff, and comparison with 1994 requirements.

References to Journal Articles

Designed for Access in the School Washroom
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; , p32-38 ; Jul 2012
Schools can use up-to-date resources when planning accessible restroom facilities.

Cleaning Costs Are Overlooked In Restrooms
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
Cleaning costs are the most overlooked cost associated with restrooms. Minor changes in how the facilities are designed can make a big difference. For example, installing wall-mounted rather than floor-mounted fixtures and partitions will reduce the time required to clean the restroom.

Five Ways To Reduce Restroom Operating Costs
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
The best time to implement features to save restroom operating costs is during the design process. Take into consideration that over the life of a typical restroom, energy, maintenance, and operating costs will greatly exceed first costs.

Overdesigned Restroom Lighting Systems Can Increase Costs
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
One of the biggest energy costs in a restroom is lighting. Systems that produce too little light give the restroom the appearance of being dingy and dirty. For that reason, most restroom lighting systems are overdesigned. But those systems not only waste energy but also can be uncomfortable for users.

The Lap of Luxury
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; , p25-28 ; Nov 2011
Upscale, homey and robust, today's residence hall bathrooms are more than just necessary rooms. Describes how to provide a great bathroom renovation.

Sanitary, Safe and Green School Restrooms.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; , p26-28 ; Sep 2011
Well-designed school restrooms can enhance student health, deter misbehavior, and conserve resources. Discusses hygiene, vandalism, and energy conservation.

A Balancing Act for Water Conservation.
Huff, Winston
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p13-15 ; May 2011
Discusses toilet selection options, including the water use, maintenance requirements, and practicality of various models and valve configurations.

Slow the Flow.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n9 , p32,34,35 ; May 2011
Notes that facility restrooms typically account for 45 percent of water consumption, and outlines the criteria of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense program, which puts its imprimatur on low water-use fixtures.

Green Restrooms of the Future.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p18,20,21 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Profiles the Chicago Department of the Environment building, a renovated industrial facility that boasts abundant sustainability features. Of particular interest are the restrooms, finished almost entirely in recycled materials. Touchless fixtures, dual-flush toilets, waterless urinals, and green cleaning practices complete the scenario.

Good Impressions.
Renner, Jason
American School and University; v83 n1 , p26-28 ; Sep 2010
Discusses design and maintenance of restrooms for cleanliness and safety. Vandal-resistant and low-flow fixtures, aesthetically pleasing low-maintenance surfaces, automated toilets and faucets, lighting, and shower partitions are addressed.

Plumbing: Retrofits That Pay.
Hughel, Gregory
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p12,13 ; Aug 2010
Provides a step-by-step strategy for making decisions on choice and effectiveness of retrofits to a school 's water-use systems.

The Benefits of Continuous Cleaning and Touch-Free Solutions.
Heun, Brian
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p23-25 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Describes the advantages of automatic continuous cleaning devices on toilets and urinals, and advises on their installation and maintenance. Completely touch-free restroom fixtures are also recommended.

Flushing out Restroom Vandalism.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p22,24-26 ; Jul 2010
Discusses building caring relationships with students and design and furnishing choices that may suppress school restroom vandalism. Rapid removal of graffiti and vandal-resistant fixtures are addressed.

How to Select Products for a Green Washroom.
Morden, Lisa
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p20-22 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on assessing a company's overall environmental record when considering the environmental friendliness of their restroom products. Source reduction of waste, reduction of consumption, and efficiencies of packaging and transportation are discussed.

Restrooms: Green from Top to Bottom.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p24,26,27 ; Jul 2010
Discusses environmentally friendly restrooms, including low water-use fixtures, recycled content furnishings and products, low maintenance surfaces, and lighting.

Minimum Standards for School Toilets Are Needed to Improve Child Health.
Perez, Jenny
Nursing Times; Jun 22, 2010
Explains how poorly maintained toilets and missing supplies contribute to childhood constipation and toilet-related health problems, and calls for minimum toilet standards and parental inspection.

Restroom Hygiene: The Touchless Revolution.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n6 , p16,18 ; Jun 2010
Documents new concerns for restroom hygiene. In addition to facilitating the cleaning of surfaces, installing reliable fixtures and accessories, and assuring water conservation, facilities managers must now address concerns for H1N1 and other viruses. The solution is extensive use of hands-free fixtures and accessories.

Technological Advancements.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n10 , p26-29 ; May 2010
Balances the need for restroom design and equipment providing good hygiene with the need for judicious use of skin care supplies and amount of water used in showers, sinks, and toilets.

Waste Not.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n7 , p38-41 ; Mar 2010
Advises on water savings and hygiene in school bathrooms. Choices in toilet types and hand-drying equipment are addressed.

Restrooms: Smart Specification.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n3 , p24,26 ; Mar 2010
Advises on specification of low-waste, water-efficient restroom features, where maintenance and cleaning are easily accomplished.

Sustainability Initiatives at SMU.
Zimmerman, Rob
Facility Management Journal; v20 n2 , p59-61 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Describes sustainability efforts at Southern Methodist University, including a 2007 LEED Gold engineering building, and an extensive discussion of the installation and maintenance of vitreous waterless urinals.

Despite H1N1 Threat, Survey Shows Many Still Neglect Hand Hygiene.
Dommisse, Jon
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p38-42 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Cites the poor quality of restrooms as a disincentive to hand washing. Attractive and well-maintained facilities, with universal access, hands-free accessories, and solid-surface countertops are recommended.

Why Do Americans Still Neglect Hand Hygiene?
Dommisse, Jon
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n6 , p25,26 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Cites the poor quality of restrooms as a disincentive to hand washing. Attractive and well-maintained facilities, with universal access, hands-free accessories, and solid-surface countertops are recommended.

Plumbing: Rewarding Retrofits.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n11 , p18,19 ; Nov 2009
Describes conversion to water-saving plumbing fixtures at the University of Georgia, as well as attention to water use in cooling towers and research buildings. A saving of 90 million gallons of annual water use per year was realized.

Restrooms: Upgrade to Green.
Huff, Winston
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p8,10 ; Oct 2009
Discusses water-saving restroom fixtures, including high-efficiency toilets, and sensor-activated flushing controls. Different faucet flow rates for different types of hand washing are also addressed, as are potential incentives from local water utilities for reducing water use.

Restrooms and Sustainability.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p14,16 ; Aug 2009
Describes situations where restroom products are mismatched to the facility or users, creating waste. Adapting to more sustainable products requires examination of present use, selecting appropriate products, ensuring that the products being considered perform as advertised, engaging building occupants, and quantifying success.

Easy Access.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v81 n11 , p28-31 ; Jun 2009
Provides graphic design guidelines for accessible school restrooms, emphasizing mounting heights, clearances, and charts listing appropriate specifications for the various age groups.

Green Restrooms: Sustainability Meets Savings.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n4 , p14 ; Apr 2009
Advises on savings that can be realized from upgraded plumbing fixtures, air dryers, and dispensers in restrooms. Opportunities for maximizing custodial productivity through better scheduling are also discussed.

Facility Focus: Restrooms/Locker Rooms.
College Planning and Management; v12 n2 , p53,54 ; Feb 2009
Profiles respective new football and swim team locker room facilities at the University of Missouri and University of Texas, emphasizing details of locker construction and installation that accommodate their particular sport.

Germ Wars.
Alderson, Kris
American School and University; v81 n6 , p30-33 ; Feb 2009
Advises on attractive restroom design and strategic placement of fixtures to encourage respect for the facility and handwashing. Suggestions include incorporation of architectural interest, durable low-maintenance fixtures, and hands-free faucets and soap dispensers.

K-12 Restrooms.
Devol, James
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p46,47 ; Feb 2009
Advises on school bathroom design, including layout, ADA requirements, security, materials, fixtures, lighting, and accessories.

Hands Off! Touchfree Faucets are Important Germ-Fighting Tools.
Nortier, Richard
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p21-23 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly describes typical harmful microbes, their symptoms, and the most effective ways to prevent their transmission. Touch-free lavatory faucets are recommended, with various configurations, heights, sprays, and sensors described.

Putting Waterless to Work.
Yon, Douglas; Cosaboon, David
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n1 , p8,10 ; Jan 2009
Describes three current designs for waterless urinals, how they are installed in existing restrooms, maintenance and cleaning of the units, and training of custodial staff to work with them.

Partitioned Off.
College Planning and Management; v11 n12 , p34-37 ; Dec 2008
Discusses restroom partition materials, recommending long-lasting stainless steel as a first choice, with resins as the more affordable option. Proper installation that ensures privacy but still allow for observation and easy floor cleaning is also addressed.

Making Wise and Healthy Choices.
Pullin, Beth
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , p29,30,32,34,35 ; Dec 2008
Advises on selection of restroom fixtures and furnishings that are affordable, durable, and offer a reduction in maintenance costs. Also considered is efficient layout for optimal restroom traffic.

The Greener Side of Restroom Design.
Alderson, Kris
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n6 , p18-20 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses strategies for energy- and water-saving restrooms, including low-volume toilets, waterless urinals, furnishings made of recycled content, and touchless fixtures.

Restroom Dispensers: A Hands-Off Approach.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p22,24 ; Oct 2008
Addresses typical restroom paper dispenser problems, proposing specification considerations for hands-free paper dispensing and air hand dryers. Strategies employed by schools to make no-touch devices work are also addressed.

Necessary Upgrades.
Watson, John
American School and University; v80 n13 , p175-178 ; Aug 2008
Discusses water-saving restroom upgrades for existing campus facilities. Water-saving toilets and urinals are recommended for first consideration, and advice on earning LEED points for these upgrades is included.

Maximizing Touchless Technology.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p18,20 ; Jul 2008
Reviews the benefits of and recent advances in touchless restroom fixtures. Benefits include reduction of water, electricity, product use, and vandalism. Recent advances included improved controls, better battery life, and even models that recharge themselves via a turbine in the water line.

Why It's Worthwhile to Install Touchfree Plumbing.
Watson, John
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Contradicts three excuses generally given for not using touchfree bathroom fixtures, and lists a variety of water-saving and health considerations that support its installation. Results of research regarding the quantity of germs on traditional sink hardware are accompanied by a review of the varieties of options in touchfree systems.

Quality Counts.
Alderson, Kris
American School and University; v80 n11 , p32-34 ; Jun 2008
Reviews nationwide efforts to reduce energy and water consumption at schools, and briefly profiles water-saving strategies for restrooms including efficient toilets, showers, and lavatories.

Frugal Flow.
Nortier, Richard
American School and University; v80 n7 , p34-36 ; Mar 2008
Reviews water-saving school restroom devices, including high-use flushing devices and monitored plumbing control systems.

Building Blueprints. School Restrooms: A Potty Primer.
Pruner, Tony
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p102,103 ; Jan 2008
Reviews features of vandal-resistant school restrooms that are easier to maintain, including hard ceilings, high-density polyethylene stalls, vestibules, recessed dispensers, resin floors, and mirror placement.

Harmony Through Diversity.
Keating, Tom
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p26,28,30 ; Nov 2007
Discusses school restroom cleanliness from a multi-cultural view, encouraging consideration of ethnic diversity in school restroom hygiene training and signage.

Conserving Water Gets the Spotlight.
Shoemaker, Dawn
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n3 , p26,27 ; Fall 2007
Reviews water-saving dual flush toilets and waterless urinals, including the savings on plumbing and maintenance costs realized with waterless urinals.

Paper Trail.
Gagnon, Denia
American School and University; v80 n1 , p30,32-34 ; Sep 2007
Recommends powerful new bathroom hand dryers that work fast enough to satisfy users unwilling to wait as long as older models took to dry hands. The advantages of air dryers over paper towels are also discussed.

Greening Up Restrooms.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n8 , p30,32 ; Aug 2007
Advises on reducing material use, water consumption, and negative effects of chemicals in restrooms. Non-toxic alternatives to traditional cleaning and deodorizing compounds are described, as are more efficient soap and paper dispensers, more durable and efficient equipment, and automated or waterless fixtures.

Five Strategies for Designing Vandal-Resistant Restrooms.
Wilke, Arnie
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n2 , p30,31 ; Summer 2007
Recommends identification of problem restroom areas, use of durable materials, a focus on sink areas, hands-free fixtures and special construction features to prevent restroom vandalism.

Restrooms and Locker Rooms.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p30,32,34,36-38 ; Jun 2007
Discusses desirable, and more durable, locker room and restroom fixtures and furnishings. These inevitably cost more, but yield many more years of use due to their resistance to vandalism and the wear of ordinary use. The lower water use of newer fixtures also offer a return on the higher initial investment.

Water Ways.
Jahrling, Peter
American School and University; v79 n11 , p32-37 ; Jun 2007
Discusses water saving fixtures for school restrooms. Government definitions of efficiency and potential savings are discussed, and tables assist in providing baseline comparisons of regular, ultra-consumption, and zero-consumption toilets and sinks.

Campus Restrooms' Role in Universal Design.
Beltramini, Elizabeth
The Bulletin; v75 n3 ; May 2007
Details the pros and cons of unisex, single-stall restrooms on college campuses, as well as some legal and ethical implications. These facilities address accessibility, family needs, and transgender issues.

Palm Beach Schools Committed to Saving Water and Labor with Waterfree Urinals
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Apr 23, 2007
In 2004, the Palm Beach School District made the formal decision to install water free urinals in all new middle and high schools. The district is also systematically replacing any older model urinal that uses more than one gallon of water per flush. This discusses how the urinals work and their advantages.

Restroom Revolution: Touchfree, Low-flow, Infrared and Waterless.
Shroades, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n1 , p8,10 ; Jan 2007
Describes the advantages of these restroom fixture technologies, their struggles in gaining acceptance due to unreliability in the earliest models, inappropriate specifying, and frequent skepticism over new product efficacy.

Long-Term Lessons.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v79 n4 , p28-30 ; Dec 2006
Reviews typical unacceptable restroom conditions that are easily corrected, and suggests building system, appliance, supply, and custodial solutions.

Barriers to the No-Flush Rush.
Barista, Dave
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p52.-54,56 ; Nov 2006
Discusses persistent resistance to waterless urinals due to building code interpretation, plumbing union members resentment of the loss of work, and perceptions of lower levels of sanitation with these fixtures.

Plumbing Technology: New-Generation Training.
Adams, Matt
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p22,23 ; Oct 2006
Describes properties of touchless restroom fixtures, including sanitation, reduced maintenance costs, but also changes in maintenance procedures. Training elements for maintenance staff involved with these new technologies are described.

Vandalism: Preventing the Writing on the Wall.
Shroades, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p24,25 ; Oct 2006
Details vandalism-prevention techniques in restrooms, focusing on vandalism-thwarting fixtures. Installation of security cameras and quick response to graffiti and broken windows are also described.

Straight Flush.
Allen, Jim
American School and University; v78 n12 , p44-47 ; Jul 2006
Reviews water-saving toilet options such as urinals that use very little water and dual-flush toilets. Increasingly, legislative mandates to reduce water use and rebate plans for installing super-efficient fixtures motivate schools to retrofit their restrooms.

Restroom and Locker Room Design.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p48, 50, 52 ; Jul 2006
Describes some finer points of restroom and locker room design, citing design and equipment that enhances user safety, privacy, acoustics, water savings, moisture control, maintainability, and durability.

Restrooms: Innovation Update
Lorenz, Brandon
Building Operating Management; Jul 2006
A variety of products introduced over the last few years offers new choices to facility managers interested in better restroom performance. One example of innovation is the way electronic restroom devices are powered. Manufacturers now offer products that use photovoltaics, fuel cells and turbines to make electricity. Incorporating products that can improve restroom hygiene remains a key part of restroom design, while new technology that can control operating costs or improve the user experience in restrooms has also been introduced.

Clean and Comfortable: Avoiding Errors in Locker Room and Restroom Design.
Ocken, Jessica
Recreation Management; v7 n5 , p12-17 ; May-Jun 2006
Offers extensive advice on design and material selection to make locker rooms and restrooms easy to maintain. The needs and ages of users, the types of exercise offered at the facility, traffic flow, large "rush hour" crowds, safety, sanitation, cleanability and maintainability of the surfaces, and amenities are covered.

A Passing Grade.
Renner, Jason
American School and University; v78 n10 , p44-46 ; May 2006
Discusses the 2004 Americans with Disabilities Act Access Guidelines (ADAAG) that contain new provisions for adult access, as well as special considerations for "children's use" facilities. Vertical and horizontal clearances, surface heights, reach requirements, and accessory operation in restrooms are covered, as are exposure to hot water pipes and sharp objects.

Defending the Bathroom.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p38,40,41 ; Mar 2006
Describes vandal- and corrosion-resistant restroom fixtures and waterless urinals.

Winning the Arena Restroom Game.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v9 n3 , p22,24,26,28 ; Mar 2006
Discusses fan-friendly restroom design for athletic facilities, including more and larger stalls for women's restrooms, better sightlines within the restrooms, and fixture selection.

Hold the Water.
Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus
American School and University; v78 n6 , p31-33 ; Feb 2006
Describes the amount of water that urinals typically use, and then cites water savings that can be realized with waterless urinals in schools. Advice on choosing and maintaining waterless units is included.

A Lesson Plan for Reducing Restroom Maintenance.
Malek, Joan
College Planning and Management; v8 n12 , p30,31 ; Dec 2005
Offers advice on preventing restroom vandalism, as well as choosing and installing hygienic and low-maintenance lavatory systems, fixtures, and accessories.

Clarifying Barrier-Free Washroom Accessibility.
Gettelman, Alan
The Construction Specifier; v58 n10 , p46-53 ; Oct 2005
Advises on accessibility and universal design in restrooms, including dimensions of openings, raised thresholds, interior doors, lavatories, left- and right-hand equality, appropriate mounting heights for mirrors, dispensers, trash receptacles, grab bars, and coat hooks. Plans and diagrams illustrate the text.

Efficient and Low-Budget Restroom Design.
Renner, Jason
The Construction Specifier; v58 n10 , p40-45 ; Oct 2005
Presents an array of economical ways to create attractive and efficient restrooms, including techniques for achieving hygiene, low water use, easy maintenance, and vandalism resistance.

Designing Restrooms With Cleaning in Mind.
Griffin, William R.
(, Orange, CA, Jul 06, 2005)
Rest rooms play an important part in the design and function of education facilities due to the high level of usage and exposure to the public that they receive, and they are also a health and safety issue for those cleaning as well as for those using them. The author suggests that facilities managers should get actively involved early in the design phase for new and remodeled facilities in order to design and build a rest room with cleaning in mind from the start. Includes a list of cost saving measures that can be utilized when school buildings are constructed or remodeled that can make a big difference in rest room cleanliness. 2p.

Restroom Vandalism.
Gettelman, Alan
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p48,50-52 ; Jun 2005
Advises on school restroom numbers, design, size, and dispersal through the building to reduce vandalism and amount of time spent by students in the restroom. Toilet stall configurations, construction, installation, maintenance, and vandal resistance are detailed, as are mirrors, hand dryers, and soap dispensers.

The ADA-Compliant Restroom.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v8 n6 , p60-64 ; Jun 2005
Reviews restroom ADA requirements, including toilet stalls and accessories, with a focus on clearances, mounting heights, and reach distances.

Water Conservation Rules Spreading
Vickers, Amy
Building Operating Management; Apr 2005
Federal, state and local requirements are helping to drive use of water-efficient technologies. This provides an overview of technologies and practices that can curb water consumption, including waterless urinals and low volume plumbing fixtures.

Restroom Renovations, Big Benefits
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Apr 2005
Restroom renovations bring these areas into compliance with access guidelines, and they give engineering and maintenance managers an opportunity to introduce new and water-saving technology. This article discusses the specific benefits of renovations, improving hygiene, standardizing cleaning, tackling access troubles, and measuring success.

Clearing a Path for Access
Boga, Michael
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2005
Tackling these 8 trouble spots in restrooms ensures greater accessibility for visitors and occupants: signage, door considerations, door hardware, spaces and clearances, water closets, urinals, dispensers, grab bars and mirrors.

Making Waterless Work
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2005
The University of Southern Maine's investigation and installation of waterless urinals reveals both benefits and challenges. Driven by concerns over the rising costs of water and sewer utilities, and the awareness of all facilities’ impact on the environment, the university now has expanded their use to about 40 units in 10 buildings on two of its three campuses.

Plumbing. Volume Control: High-Trafffic Restroom Design
Windle, Lynn Proctor
Building Operating Management; Jan 2005
For decades, school washrooms have borne the brunt of students bent on destruction. This features a new high school with restrooms that will have ceramic tile at least eight feet high and exposed plaster surfaces that will be painted with epoxy, making them more resistant to moisture. Marble will be used for partitions. Not only is marble less expensive and more attractive than competing materials, but it’s hard to mark with graffiti, hard to break and, again, easy to clean. Tamper-proof touchless technology will be used as much as possible so that water runs only when it’s needed, making it harder to flush foreign objects or to stop up sinks with paper towels. Paper towels will be replaced with high-efficiency hand dryers that can dry hands in 10 seconds.

Special Report: Green Restrooms. Rising Water Awareness.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2004
Studies of facilities have shown that 30-50 percent of the total, non-process water use in a typical facility flows through restrooms. So the restroom is an excellent place to examine first when seeking ways to reduce water use and costs. This discusses low-flow fixtures, automatic controls, graywater systems, point-of-use water heaters, waterless urinals, and maintenance.

Public Health Worries Shape Restroom Choices
Windle, Lynn Proctor
Building Operating Management; Nov 2004
Facility executives can turn to improved technology and a wider array of options to address costs and water efficiency as well as hygiene concerns. This discusses innovations in restroom fixture and accessory design — particularly with regard to touchless technologies. Restroom patrons can use the toilet, wash their hands, leave the room, and hardly touch a thing. Water conservation also figures heavily in restroom innovations, particularly in terms of implementing sensor technology.

Restroom and Locker Design.
Eaves, Jennifer, L.
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , p34,35 ; Jul 2004
Makes recommendations for bathroom and locker room design and furnishing, based on safety, maintenance, vandal resistance, accessibility, and functionality.

Slowing the Flow.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n10 , p38,40-42 ; May 2004
Describes water-saving fixtures for restrooms, including waterless urinals, dual-flush toilets, no-touch hand washer/dryers, and "graywater" toilets.

Writing Restroom Specifications? Consider Traffic, Conservation, and Hygiene.
Jahrling, Peter
The Construction Specifier; v57 n3 , p58-62,64-67 ; Mar 2004
Presents three factors to be considered in restroom specifications: 1) traffic patterns and numbers of users, 2) hygiene and user comfort, 3) water conservation opportunities. Describes automated flushing and faucet technologies in detail, and documents how they use less water than manual systems.

Outside of the Mainstream
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2004
Waterless urinals, specified and installed strategically, can offer managers an alternative that can ease facility water use and maintenance needs. This article reviews the benefits and drawbacks of waterless technology options, and discusses additional facility considerations.

Accessibility for All: Proposed Changes in ADA Guidelines Would Affect School Designs.
Lauer, John
American School and University; v76 n1 , p30, 32-34 ; Sep 2003
Discusses proposed revisions to the Americans with Disabilities Act Access Guidelines that modify placement and clearance specifications for all bathroom fixtures. Age-specific guidelines for various school populations are a notable change.

Steps for Washroom and Locker Room Sustainability.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v6 n7 , p22-24 ; Jul 2003
Administrators and design teams can use proven approaches to create sustainable washrooms and locker rooms. Presents design strategies related to lighting, flooring, and water conservation that contribute to sustainability, then describes one college's experiences developing sustainable architecture, explaining how the building takes full advantage of natural light, and the washrooms use low-flow toilets, recycled tile, and faucets with on-off sensors to reduce energy consumption.

How To Solve the Restroom Design Equation.
Wilke, Arnie
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p39-41 ; Mar 2003
Offers design guidance for school restrooms, emphasizing the importance of keeping them sanitary and functional. Addresses the issues of building codes and American with Disabilities compliance.

Using Less, Staying Clean.
Jahrling, Peter
American School and University; v75 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2002
With careful layout and improved equipment, schools can enhance security and improve hygiene in their restrooms by installing products such as low-consumption, pressure-assist toilets (to reduce water consumption); sensor-operated plumbing fixtures (to improve hygiene and reduce vandalism); and automated-control systems (to regulate timing, location, and quantity of water used throughout the campus).

The Evolution of School Washrooms and Locker Rooms: Design and Product Selection for Today's Challenges.
Jagelski, Phil
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , p27-30 ; Jul 2002
Discusses the latest in school restroom and locker room design, such as wash facilities in outside corridors, infrared water control, repositioned mirrors, plastic lockers and benches, and multiple-head showers. These innovations are designed to address cost, maintenance, and security concerns.

A Nice Place To Visit.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n9 , p46,48,50 ; May 2002
Discusses how creative planning can help schools to keep washroom traffic moving, deter vandalism, and reduce maintenance.

Standing Up to Abuse.
Wood, Heather
School Planning and Management; v41 n3 , p41-42 ; Mar 2002
Describes how barracks renovations at West Point have included the replacement of privacy partitions and screens in restrooms and locker rooms with items of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), which is more durable than metal.

Keeping the Dialogue Flowing.
Kennedy, Susan
American School and University; v73 n8 , p34,36,38 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the need for complete communication between all interested parties to successfully build or renovate school restrooms. How the use of electronics can help restroom retrofits to be more cost effective and enhance conservation is highlighted.

A Greener Restroom.
Emderle, Jerry
School Planning and Management; v40 n3 , p31-33 ; Mar 2001
Discusses why electric hand dryers, while unpopular, are still the best alternative for school restrooms. Cost savings in paper towel purchases and disposal expenses are addressed as is the better hygienic qualities compared to cloth towels. New dryer capabilities are highlighted.

A Helping Hand.
Renner, Jason M.
American School and University; v72 n11 , p28,30,32 ; Jul 2000
Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined.

Behind the Seams.
Watt, W. Bradford
American School and University; v72 n11 , p52-54 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance are emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered.

Two-for-One Restroom Savings
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jul 2000
Among the challenges of upgrading restrooms are identifying areas within restrooms that need upgrading, quantifying financial benefits of upgrades to help sell projects to top management, and staying abreast of product and technology advances.

An Eye on Prevention.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n9 , p65-66 ; May 2000
Discusses the types of washroom fixtures and locker room equipment that educational facilities can utilize to help minimize and discourage student mischief. Topics include controlling germs by substituting epoxy paint for tile grout, using phenolic toilet-stall partitions to reduce vandalism, and using expanded metal lockers to control locker odor.

ADA Restroom Design.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p38,40-42 ; Mar 2000
Discusses the challenges that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) creates for designing school restrooms. The issues of mobility and circulation of users are addressed. Some of the dimension requirements required by the ADA are listed.

Bathrooms a Reflection of School's Climate
McKay, Gretchen
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette; Feb 28, 2000
Issues of bathroom cleanliness, graffiti, and even soap and paper towels tell you as much about the climate of a school as the strength of its academic program and number of extracurricular activities. Some students are reluctant to use the school restrooms because of safety concerns and because many of the restrooms are downright dirty.

Guidelines for Children s Facilities.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v72 n3 , p322-24 ; Nov 1999
Presents Americans with Disabilities Act guidelines for building school toilet facilities that serve children with disabilities. Several dimension charts are provided showing min/max measurements.

The Corridor Concept: New and Improved Restroom Design.
Champagne, Roger
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p33-35 ; Jul 1999
Discusses the advantages of placing school hand-washing stations in adjacent hallways in terms of space conservation, traffic management, cost savings, and facility maintenance. Also addresses issues of privacy, meeting Americans with Disabilities Act requirements, and reducing vandalism.

Use and Abuse.
Clement, Andy
American School and University; v71 n11 , p56,58-59 ; Jul 1999
Explores how well-equipped and well-maintained restrooms can help prevent their being vandalized. Products such as no-touch soap systems, sensor-operated faucets, and graffiti-resistant partitions are discussed as is the use of vandal-resistant materials for the restroom's interior space. Finally, specific school policies are detailed that can help minimize damage by vandals.

All Washed Up?
Jackson, Lisa
College Planning and Management; v2 n3 , p51-53 ; Mar 1999
Presents advice for avoiding problems when renovating wetrooms to include either bathrooms or laundry rooms. Tips include timely use of inspectors and incorporating delivery penalties into contracts.

Automating a High School Restroom.
Ritner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v38 n3 , p19-21 ; Mar 1999
Discusses how one high school transformed their restrooms into cleaner and more vandal-resistant environments by automating them. Solutions discussed include installing perforated stainless steel panel ceilings, using epoxy-based paint for walls, selecting china commode fixtures instead of stainless steel, installing electronic faucets and sensors, and replacing paper towels with electric hand dryers.

Washrooms and the ADA.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v37 n12 , p37-39 ; Dec 1998
Discusses the updated version of the Americans with Disabilities Act and how it applies to primary and middle school washrooms. It provides the specifications for water closets serving children ages 3 to 12, as well as other details concerning mirrors and lavatory dimensions.

Protecting Against Vandalism.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v71 n1 , p28,30,32,34 ; Sep 1998
Describes ways to make school washrooms more vandal resistant and cost effective through the use of durability and use-and-abuse criteria. It explores washroom accessory and toilet-partition selection and discusses additional vandal-prone concerns such as mirrors and dispenser protection.

Ten Tips for Better Washroom Design.
Bigger, Alan S.; Bigger, Linda B.
College Planning and Management; v1 n4 , p57-58,60-61 ; Jul 1998
Offers 10 tips for renovating or building school washrooms that enhance user satisfaction while making them easier to maintain. Tips cover all aspects of school washroom design and highlight the following elements of effective washroom design: user input, ease of maintenance, accessibility, and functionality.

Pass to Compliance.
Robb, Sam
American School and University; v70 n11 , p36, 38, 39 ; Jul 1998
Offers advice on washroom compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act Title III (ADA) regulations during school construction and renovation projects. Critical issues concerning bathroom accessibility and practical solutions in washroom design are discussed. Other recommended, non-ADA restroom design guidelines for elementary schools are highlighted.

Water, Water Everywhere.
Choudhury, Margaret
School Planning and Management; Mar 1998
Conserving water can save the school district money. Here is the latest in water conservation toilets, urinals, faucets, and shower systems.

Locker Rooms: The Durable Design.
Viklund, Roy; Coons, John
Athletic Business; v21 n9 ; Sep 1997
Offers advice on heavy-use locker room design that provides easier maintenance and vandal resistance. Design features and materials used for flooring, ceilings, and walls are addressed as are built-in systems and equipment, toilet and shower fixtures and partitions, lockers, and mechanical and electrical systems.

Flushing Out Solutions.
Baz, Jose
American School and University; v69 n11 , p52-53 ; Jul 1997
Discusses the use of pressure-assist technology to cut water usage volume in schools. Answers questions concerning whether to retrofit school washrooms with pressure-assisted technology and how much water would be conserved. Where to get more information on washrooms is also provided.

Maintaining the Best Defense.
Ring, David S.
American School and University; v69 n9 , p46, 48 ; May 1997
Explores school bathroom vandalism prevention strategies and tips in improving sanitary conditions. Ways of removing temptation from primary bathroom targets are highlighted, including adding warm-air hand dryers and sensor faucets.

Getting the Lead Out.
Whipple, Charlie
American School & University; v69 n9 , p48-50 ; May 1997
Examines plumbing standards and laws regarding lead content in school bathroom faucets and how to address these concerns. Issues to consider when building new school facilities are highlighted.

13 Points to Washroom Safety.
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v36 n3 , p.31-32,34 ; Mar 1997
Washrooms today must be outfitted according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), but many of the safety features mandated by the ADA also make good common sense for any school restroom. Provides checklists of items to look for in safe washrooms and locker rooms.

Barrier-Free Washrooms.
Gloekler, Mark
American School and Hospital Maintenance; Nov 1996
Low-energy operators offer a straightforward, "readily achievable" solution to a common problem found in many accessibility-related bathroom retrofit projects. The problem is lack of adequate space to provide sufficient maneuvering room for wheelchair users seeking to enter or exit the bathroom.

Plumb Fittings.
Jahrling, Peter
American School and University; v68 n9 , p34-36 ; May 1996
Discusses the electronic retrofitting of educational facilities plumbing systems. Some advantages of an electronic plumbing retrofit are cost, hygiene, water conservation, and meeting Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 (ADA) requirements. Issues important to the planning of a successful project are detailed.

Washing Your Hands of Vandalism.
Gettelman, Alan
American School and University; v67 n8 , p49-50,52-53 ; Apr 1995
Discusses planning techniques that help reduce washroom vandalism and also comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Guidelines for washroom accessories are highlighted, and accessory mounting and location tips are explored. Suggests use of heavy-duty installation configurations in combination with institutional hardware and vandal-resistant materials to reduce repair and replacement costs.

An Empirical Study of School Restroom Use
Hoag, Richard L.; Dizinno, Gerald; White, Edward T.
CEFPI Journal; v22 n6 ; Nov-Dec 1984
Hoag, Dizinno and White discuss a series of observations on restroom fixture utilization in a variety of schools and grade levels in a Florida school district seeking to validate or question state code requirements. A number of conclusions are made. Flushing counts do not represent use levels, the presence of observers sometimes does and sometimes does not affect counts and maintenance of restrooms along with perceived safety does affect use of facilities. The study suggests that further work should be undertaken because actual utilization at peak levels in male facilities would indicate a lower requirement than code 1-139 as opposed to a code requirement of 1-75 at middle school level.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).