NCEF Resource List: School Restroom Maintenance
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Information on restrooms or washrooms in school buildings and how certain maintenance equipment, products, and methods can prevent vandalism, ensure sanitary standards, and promote good hygiene.

References to Journal Articles

Cleaning Costs Are Overlooked In Restrooms
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
Cleaning costs are the most overlooked cost associated with restrooms. Minor changes in how the facilities are designed can make a big difference. For example, installing wall-mounted rather than floor-mounted fixtures and partitions will reduce the time required to clean the restroom.

Five Ways To Reduce Restroom Operating Costs
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
The best time to implement features to save restroom operating costs is during the design process. Take into consideration that over the life of a typical restroom, energy, maintenance, and operating costs will greatly exceed first costs.

Overdesigned Restroom Lighting Systems Can Increase Costs
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
One of the biggest energy costs in a restroom is lighting. Systems that produce too little light give the restroom the appearance of being dingy and dirty. For that reason, most restroom lighting systems are overdesigned. But those systems not only waste energy but also can be uncomfortable for users.

Clean and Safe Washroom School Maintenance
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; , p24-26 ; Mar 2012
Schools and universities must be vigilant about upkeep of their washrooms to avoid potential health and behavior problems. Discusses health issues, problems with bullies and vandalism, and water conservation.

School Bathrooms: Would You Go There?
Dave Schechter
CNN Newsroom; Oct 03, 2011
Describes the condition of bathrooms in America's schools today. An estimated one-third of more than 900,000 public school bathrooms in this country are dirty, unhealthy or unsafe.

Back to School Starts with Bathrooms: Tom Keating, Founder of Project CLEAN
DiGiurlio, Laura M.
Executive Housekeeping Today; , 4p. ; Aug 2011
Describes Project CLEAN (Citizens, Learners, and Educators Against Neglect) created by Tom Keating in 1996 to advocate for wellness and the improvement of safety, cleanliness and hygiene of public restrooms in schools. Includes advise to parents, health teachers, and maintenance staff.

Restroom Hygiene: A Clean Record.
Dixon, Maurice
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p16,18 ; Jul 2011
Recognizes the importance of clean and sanitary restrooms. Crews must have effective tools and resources, gloves and goggles, germicidal detergents, cleaning supplies for mirrors and other fixtures, microfiber cloths, instruction on properly mixing cleaners and disinfectants, and appropriate method fo refilling soap dispensers.

Drain Cleaning: Critical Operations.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p21 ; Jul 2011
Provides information for assembling drain-cleaning equipment that is flexible, reliable, and powerful enough to help tradespeople meet the demans of an expanding institution.

Naturally Green.
Kramer, Sue
American School and University; v83 n7 , p42-44 ; Mar 2011
Notes that needs of maintaining clean and sanitary restrooms can go unnoticed, and that some administrators are unconvinced that green products are affordable and efficacious. The article documents that green restroom cleaning products can improve indoor air quality (IAQ), which has a very positive impact on student performance; and use of green products reduces the chemical inventory and storage locations in the school. Best practices for use are described, as is a plan for making the products cost-effective.

Good Impressions.
Renner, Jason
American School and University; v83 n1 , p26-28 ; Sep 2010
Discusses design and maintenance of restrooms for cleanliness and safety. Vandal-resistant and low-flow fixtures, aesthetically pleasing low-maintenance surfaces, automated toilets and faucets, lighting, and shower partitions are addressed.

Flushing out Restroom Vandalism.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p22,24-26 ; Jul 2010
Discusses building caring relationships with students and design and furnishing choices that may suppress school restroom vandalism. Rapid removal of graffiti and vandal-resistant fixtures are addressed.

How to Select Products for a Green Washroom.
Morden, Lisa
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p20-22 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on assessing a company's overall environmental record when considering the environmental friendliness of their restroom products. Source reduction of waste, reduction of consumption, and efficiencies of packaging and transportation are discussed.

Healthy Drains Lead to a Healthy Environment.
Schauff, John
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses sources of drain odors and clogs, with recommendations on how to remove them without the use of chemicals that are a threat to the environment or sewer system.

Restrooms: Green from Top to Bottom.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p24,26,27 ; Jul 2010
Discusses environmentally friendly restrooms, including low water-use fixtures, recycled content furnishings and products, low maintenance surfaces, and lighting.

Minimum Standards for School Toilets Are Needed to Improve Child Health.
Perez, Jenny
Nursing Times; Jun 22, 2010
Explains how poorly maintained toilets and missing supplies contribute to childhood constipation and toilet-related health problems, and calls for minimum toilet standards and parental inspection.

Restroom Hygiene: The Touchless Revolution.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n6 , p16,18 ; Jun 2010
Documents new concerns for restroom hygiene. In addition to facilitating the cleaning of surfaces, installing reliable fixtures and accessories, and assuring water conservation, facilities managers must now address concerns for H1N1 and other viruses. The solution is extensive use of hands-free fixtures and accessories.

From Soap to Citizenship: European Union Style.
Keating, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p54-56 ; Jun 2010
Discusses European school restrooms, whose unsatisfactory conditions are similar to those of American schools. European programs to improve restroom quality are highlighted.

Despite H1N1 Threat, Survey Shows Many Still Neglect Hand Hygiene.
Dommisse, Jon
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p38-42 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Cites the poor quality of restrooms as a disincentive to hand washing. Attractive and well-maintained facilities, with universal access, hands-free accessories, and solid-surface countertops are recommended.

Keeping it Flowing.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p21,22 ; Jan 2010
Profiles the University of Las Vegas' program to keep drains clear, describing the equipment they use, training, the advantages of the latest equipment.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).