NCEF Resource List: School Energy Management--Renewable Energy
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SCHOOL ENERGY MANAGEMENT--RENEWABLE ENERGY

Information on using solar, wind, and geothermal to power, heat, cool, and light schools, resulting in energy efficiencies and conservation, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

Senate Bill 1149 Energy Surcharge: Unrealized Savings on Energy and School Utility Costs Adobe PDF
(Oregon Department of Energy, May 01, 2012)
Passed by the Oregon Legislature in 1999, Senate Bill 1149 created a 3% surcharge on electricity bills to fund energy conservation programs, renewable energy resources, low- income weatherization, and energy conservation in schools. This audit determines whether Oregon school districts have utilized energy surcharge funds to implement measures with the highest paybacks. Analysis of 6,859 energy efficiency measures from 2002-2010 found that school districts did not consistently implement the most cost-effective measures or realize the greatest energy savings. Had districts implemented the top-ranked measures instead, they could potentially have achieved almost $40 million more in anticipated district utility bill savings and gained an additional 70% energy reduction over the collective lives of the measures compared to the estimated results of those measures that were actually implemented. 19p

Rooftop Revolution. How Solar Panels on Public School Rooftops Can Jumpstart the Local Green Collar Economy and Dramatically Expand Renewable Energy in New York City Adobe PDF
Stringer, Scott
(Office of the Manhattan Borough President, Jan 2012)
Describes how New York City's public school system, the nation's largest, could be a launching pad for the expansion of solar energy in the city, using structured Power Purchase Agreements. Report presents data showing installation of solar panels on the rooftops of 1,094 school buildings could host 169.46 megawatts of clean, renewable energy and eliminate 76,696 tons of carbon from the air each year. Report also suggests that the Department of Education should develop curriculum for all schools focused on solar and other forms of renewable energy. 32p

Building Energy- Efficient Schools in New Orleans Adobe PDF
(U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Dec 2011)
This case study presents the lessons learned from incorporating energy efficiency in the rebuilding and renovating of New Orleans K-12 schools after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The experiences of four new schools—Langston Hughes Elementary School, Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School (which was 50% new construction and 50% major renovation), L.B. Landry High School, and Lake Area High School—and one major renovation, Joseph A. Craig Elementary School—are described to help other school districts and design teams with their in-progress and future school building projects in hot-humid climates. 23p

LBJ NetZero Middle School
Sole, John
(Guerilla Educators, Nov 2011)
On November, 11-12, educational facilities planners from CEFPI had the opportunity to visit and participate in a NetZero Symposium at the Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, located in Irving, Texas. In this video, a tour of the school is given by Alejandro, a student there. The school is virtually paperless and produces more energy than it uses which is then sold back to the local utility company.

50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings
(ASHRAE, the American Institute of Architects, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, and the U.S. Green Building Council, with support from the Department of Energy, Oct 2011)
Guide provides a sensible approach to easily achieve advanced levels of energy savings in K-12 school buildings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analysis. Covers administrative and office, classrooms, hallways, restrooms, gymnasiums, assembly, libraries, food preparation and dining areas. Case studies and technical examples throughout the guide illustrate the recommendations and demonstrate the technologies in real-world applications. Includes recommendations for practical products and off-the-shelf technology needed for achieving a 50% energy savings compared to buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The energy savings target of 50% is the first step in the process toward achieving a net-zero energy building, which is defined as a building that, on an annual basis, draws from outside resources equal or less energy than it provides using on-site renewable energy sources.

Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.
(U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Oct 2011)
Details best practices for financing and installing photovoltaic (PV) systems on school buildings. The report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Some highlights of the report include: an introduction to financing PV installations on schools; a look at the direct-ownership option, which takes advantage of financing mechanisms such as general funds, bonds, construction funds, and grants; and a review of the third-party finance model, including power purchase agreements and energy services performance contracts. In addition to comparing a range of financing options for PV installations, the report provides real-world examples of financing solar installations on K-12 schools and other public facilities. These examples may be used by school districts around the country to help them navigate the process of financing PV installations. 38p

Sensitivity Analysis: Comparing the Impact of Design, Operation, and Tenant Behavior on Building Energy Performance Adobe PDF
Heller, Jonathan; Heater, Morgan; Ecotope, Mark Frankel
(New Buildings Institute, Jul 2011)
This study compares the magnitude of energy impact that various design features, operations and tenant behaviors have on total building energy use. Study finds that although the market generally assigns responsibility for building energy performance to the design team, operational and tenant practices have a very significant impact on building energy use. Summarizes the extent to which operations and occupant behavior impact a building's energy use compared to design characteristics, such as aspects the building envelope, HVAC systems and lighting system features. It examines how buildings use energy and what aspects of building energy performance need more attention in design, operation and policy strategies. The findings of this study can help the building community begin to align their priorities with those building features and operational characteristics that have the most impact on building energy use. 81p

Building R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP's Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. To perform this analysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated 190 technology R&D projects funded directly by the Emerging Technologies subprogram or via the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs. This effort identified 11 commercially available products, 41 emerging technologies, and 68 potential technologies that are still being researched but are more than three years away from commercialization. The report documents the methodology and results of PNNL?s technology tracking effort, including various analytical cross-sections and descriptions of the commercially available and emerging technologies that resulted from support of the Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. 122p.

Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts. Adobe PDF
Kandt, Alicen
(NREL, Apr 2011)
The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project(SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay Area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar America Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund,and implement solar photovoltaics (PV) projects in school districts across the country

A Textbook Example: Why American Schools Must Go Green.
(RenewableEnergyWorld.com , Sep 08, 2010)
Profiles a public/private partnership, assisted by grants, that enabled a Connecticut school to install a photovoltaic array on its roof at no cost to the district, while allowing immediate access to cheaper electricity that will save $25,000 in the first year alone. 2p.

School Financing Options for Energy Projects. Adobe PDF
Skiver, Neal; Hill,Craig
(Solar Schools Forum, Mar 26, 2010)
Outlines the big picture for school district renewable energy project financing, describing how to pay for a project and the financing tools available, the parties involved in a school district energy project, and two basic ownership strategies. 19p.

Bagley Nature Area Classroom Pavilion.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2010)
Presents a tour of a humble LEED-Platinum classroom, at the University of Minnesota in Duluth, that has the ambitious goals of net-zero energy and Passive House certification. The Passive House standard's founder Dr. Wolfgang Feist and members of the design team explain reliance on passive strategies more than technological ones. The building demonstrates leadership in energy efficiency, renewable energy, wastewater treatment, stormwater management, passive heating, natural ventilation, water efficiency, local and renewable materials, and a healthy indoor environment.

Wind for Schools Affiliate Programs. Adobe PDF
(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dec 2009)
Provides information on Wind for Schools programs for individual schools or for state wide initiatives. Explains available support from the Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 4p.

Carbon-Neutral Campus Architecture Webinar: Climate-Specific Design and Innovation.
(American Institute of Architects , Nov 19, 2009)
This webcast focused on three projects designed to create high-performance environments that are also exemplars of pedagogical and aesthetic excellence. Examples of carbon neutral buildings from three different climate zones are highlighted, with detailed discussions of the passive and active strategies of these buildings, and how they respond to their specific climatic conditions. The program moderator is Nicolai Ouroussoff, architecture critic for The New York Times, and panelists include an architect and client from each project.
TO ORDER: http://www.aia.org/practicing/groups/kc/AIAB082334

EVs with PVs: Analysis of Electric Vehicle Integration at Stanford University Using Solar PV Panels. Adobe PDF
Bethany Corcoran, D. Paul Golden, Kevin Larson, & Stephen Schneider
(Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, Lexington, KY , Jun 2009)
Proposes a 25-year (2010-2035) scenario for the development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure from solar electric power that Stanford University can implement on campus. Covering existing parking lots with solar photovoltaic (PV) panel-powered EV charging spots can provide a source of essentially carbon-free electricity to charge EV batteries during the day, while avoiding the aesthetic issue of covering Stanford's red tile roofs with PV panels. This also provides an added benefit of shade for the vehicles and increased grid reliability. By maintaining the current amount of commuter and resident vehicles, assuming a logical growth in EV penetration from current drivers switching from gasoline vehicles to EVs, and adding PV panels each year to match this growth in EV capacity, it is estimated that Stanford can avoid 362,488 metric tons of CO2 emissions and save 1,225,871 MWh of energy over the 25 year time period. 32p.

Wind for Schools Project Power System Brief. Adobe PDF
Swapp, Andy
(National Renewable Energy Laboratory, May 2009)
Provides an overview of the system components of a Wind Powering America Wind for Schools project. The basic system configuration incorporates a single SkyStream™ wind turbine, a 70-ft guyed tower, disconnect boxes at the base of the turbine and at the school, and an interconnection to the school’s electrical system. A detailed description of each system component is provided in this document. 2p.

Techniques: Going Green.
(Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, Apr 2009)
This issue of Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers covers the growing role that career and technical education plays in efforts to increase energy and environmental sustainability. Article titles include: Making the Change to Sustainability: Building Green Builds a Better Education; CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability; Harnessing the Power of Wind Technology; C-TEC: Ohio's First All-Green School; Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits; and Building Green the Right Way.

Heating with Biomass: A Feasibility Study of Wisconsin Schools Heated with Wood. Adobe PDF
(Focus on Energy, Madison, WI , Feb 2008)
Based on data collection from four schools in Wisconsin that currently heat with biomass, and recent fuel use and pricing, this study found that 200-300 schools in Wisconsin now heating with natural gas may find biomass heating economical at current fuel prices. These systems will often cash flow positive in the first year of installation. Case study results from the four schools are included. 38p.

30% Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers; Atlanta, GA , 2008)
Assists design teams in constructing energy-smart schools using off-the-shelf technology that can cut energy use 30 percent or more annually. It provides recommendations for various climate zones and implementation advice via a series of case studies. Also included are suggestions for achieving LEED energy credits and supplemental strategies for achieving advanced energy savings beyond 30 percent. Design suggestions from the guide include: 1) Daylight the classrooms and gym so that lights can be off most of the day, but design it carefully so that additional cooling needs are not required. 2) Design lighting that uses the most current energy-efficient lamps, ballasts, and integrated controls. 3) Control the HVAC system based on actual occupancy of each space at a given time. 4) Design a well-insulated envelope, including good wall and roof insulation and low-e windows. 5) Use high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment. 174p.

Gorham Middle School: Evaluation of Geothermal and HVAC System. Adobe PDF
Doughty, Richard
(Maine Dept. of Education, Augusta , Nov 21, 2006)
Evaluates a geothermal HVAC system at a Maine middle school. Details on the system s performance compared to other schools is provided, as are initial cost comparisons and a life cycle analysis. The report concludes that the system significantly outperforms typical existing schools, and marginally outperforms other high performance schools. 14p.

Cost-benefit analysis of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Roofing System for a School Located in Blacksburg, Virginia. Adobe PDF
Cholakkal, Leena
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg , May 2006)
Analyzes how solar radiation, temperature, solar altitude, and solar azimuth affect the power produced by a new thin film photovoltaic panel. Through the application of multiple linear regression, the model developed is then used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the building integrated photovoltaic roofing system when connected to the utility grid when compared to a conventional roofing system. The analysis is applied to a school building located in Blacksburg, Virginia. Using the current utility rates and the energy consumption data, the payback period of the system is evaluated for full roof, half roof and quarter roof coverage. 93p.

Solar Secure Schools: Stategies and Guidelines. Adobe PDF
Graun, G. W.; Varadi, P.F.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO , Jan 2006)
Explores possibilities for schools to have more stable energy costs because they derive a portion of their electricity from solar panels. Large numbers of solar power systems are already being deployed at U.S. schools. Solar secure schools are not only technically feasible but also economically justified when grid electricity prices are high and volatile or schools are shut down by grid power outages more than once every 10 years. Solar power prices and grid electricity prices are trending strongly in opposite directions, so solar secure schools soon will be an attractive cost control and public safety strategy in most states. This document presents a simple step-by-step process that school officials can use to assess energy security options. 30p.
Report NO: NREL/SR-520-38435


The Business Case for Renewable Energy: A Guide for Colleges and Universities.
Putman, Andrea; Philips, Michael
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , 2006)
Examines how colleges and universities are saving money and even making money with renewable energy, which includes solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydropower. They can either build a renewable energy project on or near campus, or they can buy renewable electricity generated by others through a local utility or other supplier. It provides guidance on how to consider the various technologies, ownership options, relationships with utilities, and financial strategies. 153p.
TO ORDER: http://www.appa.org/

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Environmental and Economic Benefits for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Joblin, Nathan
(Adapted from masters thesis, University of San Francisco, 2005 , 2005)
Describes how the energy savings from geothermal heat pumps can typically pay for the system in ten years through reduced energy and maintenance costs. Indoor air quality benefits are also described. The study also finds that U.S. schools spend $6 billion a year on energy and that $1.5 billion to $2.4 billion could be saved if U.S. schools converted to geothermal. Includes 15 references. 5p.

Energy Performance Evaluation of an Educational Facility: The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Adobe PDF
Pless, S.D.; Torcellini, P.A.
Nov 2004)
Documents the post-occupancy energy performance analysis of Oberlin College s Adam Joseph Lewis Center, an academic building designed to be an energy producer, rather than an energy consumer. Among the building s features are passive solar design, natural ventilation, enhanced thermal envelope, and geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling. The building also has a roof- integrated photovoltaic (PV) system to allow solar electricity to provide energy to the building. This study evaluated the performance of the building and some of its subsystems over three years in order to improve the initial performance and document lessons learned to improve future low-energy buildings. During the three years of observation, the several problem areas in energy use were corrected. Operational changes and equipment upgrades were made during the second year. The third year was colder than normal, yet by that time the building's energy used dropped 37% from the first year's. 140p.
Report NO: NREL/TP-550-33180


America's Schools Use Wind Energy to Further Their Goals. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Washington, DC , Aug 2004)
Summarizes the work of seven school districts in seven states, as well as efforts in three native American community colleges, to harness wind energy. 2p.

MATCH School Photovoltaic System
(Media and Technology Charter High School, Boston, MA, 2004)
With funding from the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative Green Buildings Program and the design expertise of HMFH Architects Inc., the Media and Technology Charter High School has incorporated many green design features into its building. One of the main green features and the focus of this web site is the utility interactive photovoltaic (PV) system designed by Solar Design Associates, Inc. on the roof of the school.

The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC. , Jun 2003)
Rebuild America is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy that focuses on energy-savings solutions as community solutions. This guide focuses on colleges and universities. Each chapter spells out options and provides guidance for implementing projects that can save substantial energy and money. Information is taken from successful projects implemented nationwide. Each section ends with case studies that provide examples of how the nation's colleges and universities are realizing energy savings. Four sections focus on: (1) "Project Financing" (e.g., financing options and common financial misconceptions); (2) "Clean Fuel Fleets" (e.g., biodiesel and ethanol); (3) "Combined Heat and Power" (e.g., system components and system integration and sizing options); and (4) "Emissions Markets" (e.g., air pollution and climate change programs and opportunities for colleges and universities to participate in air pollution markets). 55p.

National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , 2002)
This guide was developed specifically for architects and engineers who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, and for the project managers who work with the design teams. The design strategies presented here are organized into 10 chapters covering important design disciplines and goals: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource-efficient building products. An additional chapter addresses commissioning and maintenance practices. Each chapter contains a list of related resources. 457p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1610


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cold and humid climates, for which Minneapolis-St.Paul, Minnesota, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1542


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Dry Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept.of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cool and dry climates, for which Denver, Colorado, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1543


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cool and humid climates, for which Boston, Massachusetts, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 85p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1539


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections scrutinize the following key interrelated components of high performance school design: site design; daylighting and windows; energy-efficient building shell; lighting and electrical systems; mechanical and ventilation systems; renewable energy systems; water conservation; recycling systems and waste management; transportation; and resource-efficient building products. The Phoenix, Arizona, climate was used as the model for these recommendations. Resources for additional information conclude the document. 89p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1291


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for hot and humid climates, for which Orlando, Florida, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1541


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for temperate and humid climates, for which Atlanta, Georgia, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 85p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1540


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document. The checklist is a quick reference for key architectural and engineering considerations. Case studies can also be found at the end of the document. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for temperate and mixed climates, for which various cities in Washington and California served as a models. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. (Contains a list of numerous Web resources.) 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1544


Commissioning, Preventive Maintenance, and Troubleshooting Guide for Commercial Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA, 2002)
This book covers the project implementation stage and reviews the necessary technical information for geothermal or geoexchange heat pump systems. Commissioning, maintenance requirements, and troubleshooting for these energy-efficient systems are covered in detail. This guide is a reference for those involved in the design, installation, and operation and maintenance of commercial building ground-source heat pump systems. 112p.
TO ORDER: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
http://www.ashrae.org

Sustainability Theory and Educational Facilities.
Woodson, Carol Mitchell
(Dissertation, University of Florida, 2002)
The focus of this comparative case study was to test, discern, and document whether the theory of the construct of sustainability, specifically in the area of renewable energy systems, could be utilized in educational facilities as measured by cost effectiveness and efficacy. This study examined two Texas schools that approached supplying their energy needs in the two different ways: one using traditional methods and one incorporating the use of renewable energy. Data were collected to establish a life-cycle cost model for assessing the cost-benefit of sustainable renewable energy systems in place in educational facilities. Efficacy of the systems was established from the perceptions of the participant users of the facilities by use of an oral survey. It was the purpose of this study to test the theory for appropriate utilization of sustainable renewable energy systems in educational facilities in anticipation of providing the needed documentation to support a policy change in the design and construction of educational facilities. [Author's abstract]
TO ORDER: UMI Dissertation Express
http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb

How to Guide: Maximize Energy Savings in School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, State Energy Program, Washington, DC , Jan 2001)
This guide focuses on implementing cost-effective energy saving measures in school buildings and emphasizes the key role of collaboration at the State and local levels. Describes for students, teachers, and community members the economic, environmental, and health benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Presents the steps necessary to work with a local school district as a way to implement a program at the community level. 6p.

Passive Solar Schools International Expertise in Support of the First Sustainable Elementary School of The Netherlands. Adobe PDF
Van Weenen, Hans, ed.
(Sokkerwei School, Castricum, The Netherlands , 2000)
Presents the results of an international workshop convened to create a sustainable elementary school in the Netherlands. Complete presentations are included that detail existing passive solar school design and technology from the countries of the participants, followed by a preliminary design for the Dutch school. Includes 28 references and a contact list of the participants. 64p.

Schools Going Solar. A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2. Adobe PDF
Gibson, Bob, Ed.; Bokow, Jacquie, Ed.; Hitchcock, Susan Tyler
(Utility Photo Voltaic Group, Washington, DC , Oct 1999)
This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of organizations and programs that can provide information and assistance for solar school projects. 48p.

Performance Contracting: A Promising Means to Finance Solar Schools.
(Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, DC, 1999)
Paying for the addition of a solar energy system on a new or existing school is a challenge. When considered in isolation, the full, up-front costs of a photovoltaic system and even a solar thermal system are more than many school districts feel they can afford. This discusses performance contracting as a means to fund expanded use of solar in schools.

Comparing Maintenance Costs of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems with Other HVAC Systems in Lincoln Public Schools: Repair, Service, and Corrective Actions.
Martin, Michaela A. ; Durfee, David; Hughes, Patrick J.
(Paper presented at the 1999 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, 1999)
The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four new elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service, and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACC/GHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCC/GHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCC/ GSB). Preventative maintenance and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13 cents/ ft 2 - yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.884 cents/ ft 2 - yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73 cents/ ft 2 - yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07 cents/ ft 2 - yr. Because of tax exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R 2 50.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
http://www.ashrae.org

Benchmark for Performance: Geothermal Applications in Lincoln Public Schools.
Shonder; John A.;. Martin, Michaela A; Sharp, Terry R. ; Durfee; David; Hughes, Patrick J.
(Paper presented at the 1999 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, 1999)
Vertical-bore, geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been providing heating and cooling to four new elementary schools located in Lincoln, Nebraska since 1995. According to representatives of the local utility and school district, the systems are providing a comfortable, complaint-free environment with utility costs that are nearly half of that of other schools in the district. Performance data collected from on-site energy management systems and district billing and utility records for all fifty schools in the Lincoln district indicate that only five consume less energy than the best performing GHP school; however, these five cool less than 10% of their total floor area, while the GHP schools cool 100% of their floor area. When compared to other new schools (with similar ventilation loads), the GHP schools used approximately 26% less source energy per square foot of floor area. Variations in annual energy performance are evident amongst the four GHP schools, however, together they still consume less source energy than 70% of all schools in the district. These variations are most likely due to operational differences rather than installed equipment, building orientation, or environmental (bore field) conditions. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc
http://www.ashrae.org

The Geothermal Heat Pump Alternative - The Neff Experience.
Anstrand, David E.
(Presentation at Council of Educational Facilities Planners International (CEFPI) Conference, Vancouver, Canada , Oct 1998)
The John Henry Neff Schools (Lancaster, Pennsylvania) underwent a renovation of the elementary school and conversion of the high school as well as creating a 15,500 square foot connector between the buildings that required an evaluation of a new heating and air-conditioning system. This document describes the school district's experiences in researching and planning the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the eventual adoption of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. Included are results from a feasibility study that compared different HVAC systems, a summarization of the cooperative agreement between the school district and power company, and a description of the HVAC chosen and the energy savings realized. Appendices include a chronology of events of the GHP system analysis, and energy use statistical data from eight schools and their mechanical systems. 21p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facilities Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove Drive, Ste.104; Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: (480)391-0840
http://www.cefpi.org

Geothermal Heat Pumps Score High Marks in Schools.
Office of Geothermal Technologies
(U.S. Dept. of Energy,National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO , 1998)
Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are showing their value in providing lower operating and maintenance costs, energy efficiency, and superior classroom comfort. This document describes what GHPs are and the benefits a school can garner after installing a GHP system. Three case studies are provided that illustrate these benefits. Finally, the Department of Energy's involvement in fostering the development of a fast- growing, self-sustaining, national GHP industry infrastructure is discussed. Organizational sources for additional information are listed. 4p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-10098-650

TO ORDER: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401-3393; tel:(303)275-3000
http://www.nrel.gov/

The Sun's Joules: What is Renewable Energy? An Introduction to "The Sun's Joules" CD-ROM and Energy Education Program.
Weiskopf, Joyce Lowry
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC , 1997)
This guide accompanies a compact disk that provides a comprehensive collection of information resources. The compact disk is organized according to energy sources and cross-referenced to issues that must be considered when making decisions about energy. This booklet, designed around questions common to high school students, illustrates how the compact disk can enable students to find answers to their questions and form opinions based on facts. The activities directly support the content and pedagogy in science curricula that address the need for more students to study science and for all students to develop scientific literacy. The six activities focus on the use of renewable resources and the effects on society. Activities are the following: "What Is Renewable Energy?"; "Why Do We Need Options?"; "What Is Energy Efficiency?"; "What Is the Environmental Cost of Energy?"; "How Can Passive Solar Be Used in Home Construction?"; "How Can Motor Vehicles Use Renewable Energy?". 29p.
TO ORDER: The Learning Team, 84 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Tel: 800-793-8326.

Passive Solar Schools: A Design Guide.
Architects and Building Division
(Department for Education, London, England , 1994)
Solar energy is gaining increasing interest in the United Kingdom due to it being a renewable, non-polluting source for heating and lighting schools. This book describes the principles and practice of passive solar design in new and refurbished schools, offers advice on how to approach passive solar design, and provides some design recommendations. Chapters introduce the main passive solar features and how they are incorporated into designs, provide economic and energy appraisal data, and include case studies of 17 schools selected out of 40 investigated for design excellence. 99p.
Report NO: DFE-BB-79

TO ORDER: The Stationery Office Publications Centre, PO Box 29 Norwich NR3 1GN, UK
http://www.tso.co.uk

References to Journal Articles

Thinking Green Mindset Changes That Make a Difference
University Business; Jun 2012
Shares ideas that have resulted in changes in the way campuses think about food, water, energy consumption, and solar energy. Sections include: 1) water woes: eliminating wasteful habits; 2) dining hall dilemma: changing the way campuses think about food; 3) solar farms sprouting up on campuses; 4) energy dashboards promote responsible usage; and 5) sustainable solutions.

Working With the Wind
Cortese, Anthony
College Planning and Management; , p66-67 ; Jun 2012
Colleges and universities are discovering the many benefits of wind turbines.

Biomass Heating--Should You Consider It for Your Campus Adobe PDF
Abbe Bjorklund, Chip Lederer, Rich Ney
Facilities Manager; May-Jun 2012
Reviews compelling reasons for considering and challenges to be addressed for using biomass (typically wood chips) as an alternative fuel source for heating campuses.

CEED Becomes First Public School to Use Passivhaus Technology in the U.S.
Sims, Torrey
School Construction News; Apr 2012
The Center of Energy Efficient Design in Rocky Mount, Va., is the first public school to use the energy-efficient Passivhaus technology, which has enabled it to use 68 percent less energy than conventional schools. CEED was designed as a demonstration school to show students and future developers Passivhaus’ impact on design when it comes to sustainability and cost-saving results.

NZEB in Progress. Adobe PDF
Barrett, Laura and Jefferson, Pete
High Performing Buildings; , p6-20 ; Spring 2012
Case study of the Evie Garrett Dennis Campus in Denver, a multi-school K-12 campus that takes first steps toward achieving net zero energy.

Below the Surface
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; , p40-44 ; Apr 2012
Ball State University's geothermal heating and cooling system will save $2M per year and produce a host of environmental benefits.

Energy Advantages for Green Schools
Griffin, J. Tim
American School and University; Apr 2012
The scale of district energy systems provides opportunities to generate and deliver energy to school buildings in a more sustainable manner. Renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), and thermal energy storage—often are expensive to install and impractical to maintain within a proposed building’s site. Because of the scale of district energy, these challenges can be overcome when installing them within the district energy system itself.

Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools
Kelley, Brian and Fiedler, Lon
American School and University; Apr 01, 2012
Understanding the process of installing solar thermal systems can help schools determine whether it will meet needs now and into the future. Includes a solar checklist of Issues to consider when determining whether a campus is a viable candidate for a solar heating system:

Going Solar With Confidence
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p27-32 ; Apr 2012
Provides two examples that demonstrate the success of solar energy, one at an individual high school, and the other is within a district.

Going Solo
Selleck, Paula
College Planning and Management; , p30-34 ; Apr 2012
Case study of California State Fullerton solar project that reaps profits and energy savings.

Energy Management: Key Success Elements
Woodroof, Eric
Buildings; Mar 2012
This article describes key success elements for an energy management program, many of which originate from other industries. Elements include: Treat Energy as a Business Issue… that has a Plan; Have a Bottom Line Perspective; Consider the Relatively Low Risk of Energy Management Programs/Projects; and Apply Full Dollarization and Professional Management.

Operational Versus Designed Performance of Low Carbon Schools in England: Bridging a Credibility Gap
Amrita Dasguptaa, Antonis Prodromoub & Dejan Mumovicc
HVAC&R Research; v18 n2 , p37-50 ; Feb 29, 2012
In the UK, schools alone are responsible for 15% of the energy consumption in public and commercial buildings. The recent studies showed that newly built schools are failing to meet even basic performance criteria related to both energy consumption and provision of indoor environmental quality (acoustics, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and lighting). The main objectives of this article are three-fold: (a) to review the results of three major studies related to operational performance of newly built schools in England, (b) to identify major issues of importance for energy efficient provision of indoor environmental quality in school buildings based on results of a comprehensive survey of 286 UK building professionals, and (c) to estimate the influence of uncertainty of some design parameters on energy consumption using differential sensitivity analysis. The article concludes that our current ongoing efforts to deliver low carbon school buildings conducive to learning have had little success due to a poor understanding of how to design, engineer, and facilitate learning spaces for changing pedagogical practices to support a mass education system. Major identified issues refer to aspects of policy, design, and commisioning that affects building performance. [Authors' abstract]

Net-zero Energy Building Schools
Wim Zeiler, Gert Boxem
Renewable Energy; Feb 23, 2012
In the Netherlands with respect to sustainable educational building the main focus has been on energy saving. Recently some schools were built as rather environmental friendly schools with more attention to comfort and health aspects. The first NZEB designed school is analyzed and the results compared with other more traditional schools. With all the enthusiasm for NZEB buildings it is good to look into the pro and cons. In the past important necessary technological and organizational changes were frustrated and thus delayed as people only focused on the positive aspects and forgot about the possible negative aspects. This then resulted in disappointing pilot projects. Therefore the article will give a list of advantages and disadvantages and will come up with recommendations to gain more and lose less in the process of doing so. The way to approach the design task is to look for win–win situations, find those solutions which increases the advantages of NZEB while at the same time improve some of the NZEB disadvantages characteristics.[Authors' abstract]

Designing and Constructing an Exemplar Zero Carbon Primary School in the City of Exeter, United Kingdom
Tatchell, Arthur
CELE Exchange; , 6p ; Jan 2012
Montgomery Primary School is the UK’s first zero carbon in use and climate-change-ready exemplar school built to the Passivhaus standard. Its design and solar generating electrical power plant enable its electricity bill to be zero each year.

Solar Success at Colorado State
Wilmsen, Emily Narvaes
College Planning and Management; , p102 ; Jan 2012
Colorado State University's major renewable campus project includes large solar installations.

First Geothermal Energy System in Checotah School District
School Construction News; Dec 28, 2011
Describes Checotah Public Schools' $15.4 million high school construction project that will be powered by geothermal energy, a renewable resource. While the Oklahoma school will save money over time, adding the geothermal system cost $1 million more.

Solar Heads to School
Potovsky, David
School Construction News; Dec 2011
For many schools, a solar power installation or solar energy system can provide long-term budget relief. Ample land, unobstructed expanses of roof space, parking lots and/or lunch quads can make implementing a solar energy system a good choice. Describes the challenges that need to be considered in evaluating solar options.

All Systems Go For Net-Zero.
Sharpe, Stephen
Eco-Structure; Nov 21, 2011
Discusses Lady Bird Johnson Middle School in Irving, Texas, where extensive efforts were made to design and build the nation’s largest net-zero-energy public K–12 school.

Looking Up.
Berman, Scott
School Planning and Management; Nov 2011
Discusses school districts transforming their open spaces by looking up — to their roofs - transforming what can be a functional afterthought into a new asset in order to advance strategic goals. Points to solar arrays and other green energy, green roofs and new educational and recreational spaces, all presenting myriad options and variables.

Solar Growth Documented on Higher-Education Campuses
American School and University; , 1p ; Oct 07, 2011
Describes the Campus Solar Photovoltaic Installations database compiled by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education(AASHE). Solar power capacity on higher-education campuses has grown 450 percent over the last three years. It attributes the increase solar installations to a 40 percent drop in the installed cost of solar over the last four years and new financing mechanisms.

Solar Power Excelling at U.S. Schools.
Renewable Energy World; Sep 19, 2011
As schools battle with budget deficits and look to educate students about renewable energy, there has been a wave of new solar projects at schools across the country. This rapidly growing market has attracted the attention of solar developers.

A Zero Utility Bill Building.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v105 n9 , p22-24 ; Sep 2011
The Sustainable Living Center (SLC) in Fairfield, Iowa was commissioned by the Maharishi University of Management. The facility is a forward-looking project that draws from an “East Meets West” approach to sustainability, and is the first to integrate four separate building challenges: LEED Platinum, the Living Building Challenge, Building Biology, and Maharishi Vedic Architecture. The 6,900-square-foot building is off-grid for electricity, water, and sewer.

Roofing: A Passing Grade.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p12,14,15 ; Aug 2011
Describes how bad publicity concerning Scottsdale Schools' failing roofs led to positive steps taken to rectify the situation. Steps included preventive maintenance, finding funding for repair and upkeep, and introduction of solar installations.

Colleges, Universities, and Renewable Energy: A Perfect Match.
Mann, Michael J.; Reinstein, Todd R.
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses the benefits associated with the development of on-site, “green” energy systems—solar photovoltaic systems, wind power systems, and cogeneration facilities, including reduced energy costs, enhanced service reliability, and a smaller carbon footprint.

The Solar College: Generating Savings with Green Technologies.
Campus Technology; May 12, 2011
Describes how Santa Barbara City College has shaved $650,000 off of its energy expenses with a few strategic moves, including solar panels that double as cover for parking and Web-based software for micromanaging lighting and mechanical energy use.

Going Solar.
Domine, Mark
American School and University; v83 n8 , p34,36,38,39 ; May 2011
Describes cost savings to a school by using solar power. The article also addresses financing options and available rebates.

Renewable-Energy Systems: Practical Considerations.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p23 ; May 2011
Advises institutions considering installation of renewable energy sources on how to work with local utilities and maintain systems.

Clean and Green at UNT.
Price, Buddy
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p67,68 ; May 2011
Profiles the on-campus wind turbine system that will be used to power the University of North Texas's new stadium, as well as a number of other campus buildings.

Solar-Powered Waste Collection.
Del Vecchio, Bill
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p76-79 ; Apr 2011
Describes solar-powered recycling compactors that can retain large amounts of recyclables in a normal-sized bin. The example of their deployment at Georgetown University is used to describe their high capacity, low maintenance, wireless networked communication, and vermin resistance. Less frequent need for emptying has contributed to less noise and air pollution from trash collection vehicles, as well as savings in waste personnel and vehicle costs.

Going Solar in Green Schools.
Domine, Mark
American School and University; Apr 2011
Outlines the top considerations for education facilities looking to bring solar power to campus, including financing options and partnerships.

Sedona School District Goes Solar.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p20-22,24,26,28 ; Apr 2011
Profiles several photovoltaic panel installations in this Arizona district, ranging from small rooftop arrays to a large 806 kilowatt array installed on the high school grounds. Energy savings, estimated payback, system lifespan, and arrangements with the local utility are discussed.

No More "What Ifs."
Smith, Susan
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p58,60,62 ; Apr 2011
Explores many elements that contribute to a "net zero" school that uses no more energy than it produces. Geothermal systems, water harvesting, wind energy, and use of the school as a teaching tool are addressed.

Going Bold, Going Green.
Willyerd, Scott
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p83-86 ; Apr 2011
Profiles sustainability efforts at Messiah College, which include extensive use of solar hot water and photovoltaics, a community garden, using environmentally sound paper, updating HVAC systems, and implementing sustainable practices in the surrounding community.

Engineering a Sustainable School.
Beddow, Bruce
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Mar 08, 2011
Details the design of a school HVAC upgrade that included a geo-solar system. Engineers designed a system that was architecturally integrated, offering students a unique learning tool. The article includes charts that illustrate energy use and the anticipated time for the recovery of the investment is discussed.

Geothermal Grows Up. Adobe PDF
Johnson, William; Kraemer, Steven; Ormand, Paul
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p36-40 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Reviews the past and future of the geothermal industry, with emphasis on how higher education institutions are benefitting from these systems. Unfortunate examples of early systems that were not properly designed are accompanied by success stories of later systems that have performed adequately, even when the budget prohibited building a system of ideal size. Recent important advances include reducing the necessary well field size and hybrid geothermal/conventional systems.

Sunlighting the Way: University Solar Fields on the Rise.
Kamal, Sameaa
School Construction News; v17 n2 , p12,13 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Describes significant photovoltaic installations at Colorado State University and the University of Arizona. Bidding, contracting, and funding issues are discussed, as are the benefits and the agreements concluded with the investors and utility companies.

Wyoming School Draws from Museum Design and Local Landscape.
Gosling, Nicholas
School Construction News; v17 n1 , p11,12 ; Jan-Feb 2011
Profiles this Casper elementary school that features a rooftop solar installation, a geothermal system, flexible classrooms organized around "houses" for each grade, and a central area that serves as cafeteria, theatre, gymnasium, and community gathering space.

Windfall?
Gregerson, John
Buildings; v104 n11 , p42-44 ; Nov 2010
Discusses different designs of wind turbines, with emphasis on vertical axis models that can capture wind power from a variety of directions, as is often the case in urban settings where wind direction is unreliable.

Seeing the Light.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p29,31-33 ; Nov 2010
Profiles the unique lighting of the University of California San Diego Sustainable Research Center. Photovoltaic panels on the roof supply the DC-DC lighting system, augmented by daylight and electricity from the campus grid after dark. Photoluminescent exit signs use no electricity at all.

Renewable Resources.
Shaw, Frank
American School and University; v83 n3 , p224-226,228 ; Nov 2010
Describes economic incentives and federal benefits of implementing the use of renewable energy sources. Examples of programs at six universities are briefly described. Also described are strategies for implementing renewable energy sources on campuses, as well as financing and ownership options.

An FM's Guide to Solar Power.
Stanley, Bernie
Facility Management Journal; v20 n6 , p67-69 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses options for capturing solar energy through photovoltaics and solar-heated water. Required calculations for proper positioning of solar arrays, types of systems, installation issues, and alternatives to roof-mounted arrays are addressed.

Expectations for a Greener Tomorrow.
Buildings; v104 n10 , p50,51 ; Oct 2010
Profiles the North American Wind Research and Training Center at Mesalands Community College. The facility features a large, commercial-grade wind turbine that supplies electricity to the entire campus.

Plugging into the Earth.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p20,22,24-31 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the widening use of geothermal HVAC systems in schools, addressing the savings realized by several schools that use them and the lack of widespread engineering knowledge for these systems.

The "Elements" of a Healthy Campus.
Przyborowski, Danielle
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p33,34,36,38 ; Oct 2010
Describes conservation efforts at three higher education institutions: intensive composting at Bastyr University, a wind turbine a Macalester College, and water reclamation at Sonoma State University.

Roofing Hot-Button: Photovoltaic Systems.
Mattison, Kent
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p16,17 ; Aug 2010
Discusses advantages of conversion to alternative, renewable energy sources. These include financial savings, environmental advantages, reliability, hedge against rate hikes, peak energy savings, public relations, and national security. The article also lists important questions regarding the physical feasibility and economics of installing the system.

Green Dot Animo Leadership Charter High School.
Architype Review; v4 n3 ; Jul 2010
Profiles this Lennox, California, facility. The small site near a freeway was addressed with an inner courtyard design, featuring 650 solar panels. A list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

Going Solar.
Raeke, Richard
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p50-52 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on using a power purchase agreement (PPA) to obtain photovoltaic electricity. Under these agreements, a PPA provider pays for the photovoltaic system, with the building owner agreeing to purchase electricity from them. Basic costs, tax incentives, and appropriate locations for photovoltaic arrays are addressed.

On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies.
Mavrogianni, A.; Mumovic, D.
Indoor and Built Environment; v 9 n 3 , 340-354 ; Jun 2010
Focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. [author's abstract]
TO ORDER: http://ibe.sagepub.com/content/19/3/340.abstract

Geothermal for School.
AHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p40-42,44 ; May 2010
Details the planning and building of geothermal exchange system for HVAC at Whitmore Lake High School, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Details include building layout to accommodate zone sensors and unitary heat pumps and moisture-resistant fabric ductwork. Results include very little consumption of natural gas. Green innovation in restroom facility design and processes for kitchen's refrigeration and freezing result in other cost-savings.

Analyzing the Alternatives.
Grayson, Jennifer
Campus Technology; v23 n8 , p30,32,34,36,37 ; Apr 2010
Describes progress toward photovoltaic energy at three universities. Photovoltaic panels as well as energy conservation measures are described, as are connections to the respective IT departments for monitoring of energy generation.

Mod Genius.
Grayson, Jennifer
T.H.E. Journal; v37 n4 , p28-30, 32-34 ; Apr 2010
Discusses how innovative building manufacturers are designing new modular classrooms that offer a range of eco-friendly features, an inspiring learning environment, and the right price. Examines the idea of the building as a teaching tool. The energy-neutral modular building by Project Frog is outfitted with 60 solar panels that generate enough electricity to power the structure, with perhaps a surplus.

Photo Finish.
Hadian, Ali; Sedighi, Ben
American School and University; v82 n7 , p32-35 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the possibilities for photovoltaic systems on schools. Options for procuring a system, design on new and existing buildings, and choosing the right system is addressed.

Seizing Sustainability.
Gawlik, Kate
Environmental Design and Construction; v13 n2 , p20 ; Feb 2010
Profiles the installation of a photovoltaic system on a Providence College roof. The specifications and aesthetics of the system are discussed, as is the building addition on which it was installed.

The Surges of Green Power.
Gregerson, John
Buildings; v104 n2 , p34-36 ; Feb 2010
Describes the back-and-forth advancement of clean energy resources, largely due to its higher cost and lower affordability during economic slowdowns. Examples of current commitments to renewable energy sources are included.

BIM and Life-Cycle Analysis Help Determine Value of Green Strategies.
Niewoehner, Daniel
R&D Magazine; v15 n2 , p1-4 ; Feb 2010
Reviews six strategies used to assess the value of energy-saving features in a laboratory model. The return on investment, annual cost savings, and cost per LEED credit is described for heat recovery, a ground source heat pump, glazing, wind turbines, a high efficiencies boiler, photovoltaics, chilled beam cooling, and a green roof.

Renewable Energy Perspective.
Qualk, James
Environmental Design and Construction; v13 n2 , p22-26 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the current mix of electricity generated from traditional versus renewable sources, the growing potential and percentage of renewable energy in the mix, and what is needed in the way of legislation and market transformation to continue the trend.

Wind Power: An Emerging Choice for Schools.
Hiserodt, Lisa
School Construction News; v16 n1 , p11,22 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the potential for wind energy at schools, particularly in the Midwest, turbine types and selection, and addressing local resistance to windmill installation.

Knowing How to Measure a Green Building Can Help Sell Renewable Energy.
Nutcher, Paul
Design Cost Data; v54 n1 , p5,9,18 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses rating systems that help verify energy savings and promote renewable energy. The LEED and ASHRAE systems are discussed, with respective attention to the versions of LEED for new and existing buildings.

Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School. Adobe PDF
Stanfield, Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2,3 ; 2010
Discusses the design of Richardsville Elementary in Kentucky, to be an affordable net zero facility. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing enough energy to meet the school's operating demands. Coupled with the goal of a LEED certified facility, the building's components were identified and implemented to affordably attain a facility that demonstrates a sustainable site, net zero energy, water efficiency, materials and resources conservation, and an indoor/outdoor environment that promotes a healthy, progressive learning atmosphere while reducing life cycle maintenance costs and zeroing out electricity costs.

Teaching Moment.
McGuire, Virginia
The Architect's Newspaper; v7 n19 , p18 ; Nov 18, 2009
Profiles the Germantown Friends School's new science center, a highly sustainable building employing photovoltaics, fresh air ventilation, geothermal heating and cooling, a vegetative roof, sustainable building materials throughout, and exposed building systems.

Riverbend Elementary School-a Model for Energy Self-Reliance.
Design Cost Data; v53 n5 , p23,24,26 ; Sep 2009
Details the design and installation this school's rooftop photovoltaic system that generates more than 45 percent of the campus' annual energy needs, along with daylighting and water conservation features.

Earth, Wind, and Fire.
Gold, Donna; Ferlazzo, Mike
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , p22,-24,26-28 ; Jul 2009
Profiles three colleges’ respective use of wind power, composting, solar energy, geothermal systems, and intense water conservation.

Rutgers University Relies on the Sun.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p78-80 ; Apr 2009
Profiles a solar energy facility at Rutgers University's Livingston Campus. The $10-million investment is expected to net a profit of $6.6 million in 15 years, through sale of surplus electricity. Other sustainability efforts at the school include stormwater retention, reduction of surface parking, lighting replacement, and increased recycling.

Sustainable Facilities: Strategies for Today's Economy.
Damon, David
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p28,30,32,34,36 ; Apr 2009
Advises on engaging in and funding sustainability initiatives on higher education campuses. Programs that are eligible for federal support are described, with an emphasis on those that conserve energy or generate energy from alternative and renewable sources. Examples of sustainable building initiatives are also included, along with a review of LEED certification of higher education buildings.

2,000-Year-Old Lesson.
Gisolfi, Peter
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p60,62,64-66,68 ; Apr 2009
Discusses passive solar strategies for school buildings. Examples of passive solar heating from indigenous architecture are cited, as are more recent sun-oriented structures. Similarities among the buildings in materials use, orientation, and ventilation are noted. Ideal orientation of school buildings to take advantage of the sun and be protected from winds, as well as preferable interior arrangements to distribute the solar benefit are discussed.

Energy Goes to School.
Detering, Paul
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n2 , p38,40 ; Feb 2009
Profiles the photovoltaic system at the Athenian School in Danville, California. The design and manner in which it was installed at no cost to the school are described.

Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential. Adobe PDF
Johnson, Bill
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p14-18 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Reviews the state-of-the-practice and the kinds of engineering and programmatic expertise that are required to properly scale geothermal applications up to the institutional level and provide optimized benefits. Some pitfalls of poorly-designed systems are described, and approaches to avoid these are presented.

A "Greenprint" for a Healthier World.
Eisenberg, Larry
Community College Journal; v79 n2 , p20 ; Oct-Nov 2008
The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) embraced a precedent-setting green policy, a "greenprint" for how environmental design and construction could be done. It mandates that all new buildings funded with at least half of the funds from its $2.2 billion Bond Construction Program be developed to fit Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards. As a key component of the sustainability policy, the LACCD developed a renewable energy plan that included generating enough on-site, alternative power through solar, wind, geothermal, hydrogen-generation, and storage technologies at each campus to make all nine colleges energy-independent.
TO ORDER: http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Publications/CCJ/Pages/default.aspx

Powering Up with Power Purchasing Agreements.
Roper, Preston
School Business Affairs; v74 n7 , p34,36 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the use of power purchasing agreements for energy enhancements at schools. Under these agreements, and outside provider installs a source for alternative energy (wind or solar) on the campus, and then sells the resulting power to the school at a discount.

Going Green: Environmentally Friendly Schools Pay Off.
Lafee, Scott
California Schools Magazine; Apr 10, 2008
Describes California's Inderkum High School, its geothermal HVAC system, and the savings anticipated from the system. The rapid spread of high performance schools in California and the role of the Collaborative for High Performance Schools is also discussed.

Sunny Future.
Hall, Mike
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p88-90 ; Apr 2008
Discusses incentives for schools to incorporate solar and other forms of renewable energy into their facilities. These include energy savings, grants, and other forms of financial assistance. Two California case studies are included.

Sustainable Education: Community Colleges as Environmental Champions.
Wong, Wylie
Community College Journal; v78 n5 , p22-24 ; Apr-May 2008
This article describes how community colleges, as educational institutions, play a central role in the sustainability movement and in the battle against climate change. They are building new green buildings, upgrading their facilities to be more energy-efficient, and installing new equipment, such as solar panels or wind turbines, to generate electricity. At DeAnza College, educators not only are preparing students to live as good stewards of the natural world, they are also leading by example, creating a hands-on, organic learning environment that serves as a living, breathing reminder of the fragile state of the planet on which people live--and society's charge to protect it.

Into the Light. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v11 n2 , p16 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Discusses the advantage of solar power for schools, where it will yield an educational benefit as well as lower energy costs. Types of solar panels and challenges to installing solar are also addressed.

The 800-Pound Gorilla: The Threat and Taming of Global Climate Change. Adobe PDF
Hansen, Jim
Facilities Manager; v24 n2 , p22-24,26,28 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Provides two case studies examining the current and future consequences of continued global warming at the current business-as-usual pace and at a decreased (new alternative forms of energy) level. Cause and effect relationships are explored, such as the varying levels of CO2 emissions and the effect it has on melting ice, higher sea levels, and the extinction of species. Potential policy solutions such as a carbon tax and renewable energies are addressed, as well as the critical role that colleges and universities can play by committing to achieve climate neutrality.

Sunpower for Schoolkids.
Evans, Deane
Architectural Record; , p107-110 ; Jan 2008
Discusses photovoltaic systems for schools, including how they work and are configured, how they may be incorporated or applied to the building, and their economic benefits.

Something New Under the Sun: Lagunitas School District s Fast and Cheap Solar Program.
Johnson, Pat
Green Technology Magazine; Winter 2008
Documents the very intricate steps towards obtaining financing for sustainable energy in Marin County, California. Income from community foundations, construction financing lines of credit, and federal tax credits have different criteria for making grants, and each must be accommodated. Community education is another vital influence on funding sources.

Demand Pumping Allows Optimum Control of Energy Use.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p22 ; 2008
Presents an interview that reviews the advantages of and obstacles to demand pumping and geothermal HVAC systems for schools, citing three Texas schools as examples.

Colleges Strain to Reach Climate-Friendly Future.
Monastersky, Richard; Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n16 , pA1,A16,A18-A21 ; Dec 14, 2007
Describes the efforts of a growing list of higher education institutions to become more "climate neutral," both by upgrading facilities and changing constituent behavior. Several hundred participating institutions have signed on to the American college and University Presidents Climate Commitment, and the rationales behind four institions' reluctance to sign are also discussed. The mixed return on investment in wind power is cited, due to the expense of acquiring and maintaining windmills.

Geothermal Installation Wins Praise from SUNY Brockport.
Heochaidh, Roibin
School Construction News; v10 n7 , p23,24 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Profiles the individual geothermal HVAC units that serve a new townhouse-style residential facility at the State University of New York at Brockport. Highlights of the system's design, along with other energy saving features of the residences are discussed.

Geothermal: Engineer Says System Can Lower Costs.
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v10 n7 , p22 ; Nov 2007
Presents and interview with Tom Perry, HVAC designer, that discusses the types of geothermal systems available, how much they can save schools on energy and maintenance costs, and some of the challenges facing schools when installing a new system.

School Buildings in Greece: The Bioclimatic Challenge and a Photovoltaic Pilot Project. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; 2007/9 ; Oct 2007
Briefly reviews projects to provide photovoltaic power, carbon dioxide controls, green roofs, solar heat, and occupancy sensing in various Greek schools. A more detailed report on the photovoltaic installation is also included.

Go for the Green. Funding School District Solar Projects. Adobe PDF
Morgan, Kerry J.
Key Post (New Jersey Association of School Business Officials); v23 n1 , 3p. ; Oct 2007
Discusses how solar projects can be financed by: (1) negotiating a lease-purchase; (2) entering into a power purchase agreement with a solar provider; and (3)long-term financing of a school construction project through school district bonds.

Green Design Powers New Elementary School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v28 n7 , p10 ; Jul 2007
Profiles California's Monterey Ridge Elementary School, which receives 50-60% of its electricity from a photovoltaic array on an adjacent hillside. The facility also features automated lighting, a cool roof, an automated energy management system and HVAC system, and a neighborhood location that minimizes commuting.

Geoexchange HVAC System Sets a New Standard for Energy Efficiency.
School Planning and Management; v46 n2 , p36-39 ; Feb 2007
Profiles a geothermal HVAC system at an Ottoville, Ohio, K-12 school. The energy saved paid for the elaborate system in less than the projected four years.

Solar Roofs in San Diego.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p19-21 ; Jan 2007
Describes an ongoing project to install photovoltaic systems on roofs of school and administrative buildings in the San Diego Unified School District. The roofs' design, construction, financing, partnerships, and savings are detailed. SDCS estimates the overall project will result in potential savings of more than $37 million in avoided costs during the next 20 years. It is anticipated that the project will have a capacity of 6.53 MW (milliwatts), producing 10,452MWH (milliwatt hours) of electricity annually. As of January 1, 2007, 3.57MW are operational.

Harnessing the Sun.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v10 n1 , p76,77 ; Jan 2007
Discusses the installation of photovoltaic systems on roofs of school buildings, considering the type, slope and orientation of the roofs; materials required, and citing an example from the University of Buffalo Norton Hall where the university’s calculations show that the system will produce enough power for about six percent of the building’s annual electric power consumption.

Green Goes Underground.
Schneider, Jay
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p59-61 ; Nov 2006
Profiles the University of Ontario Institute of Technology's geothermal system, which is the largest in Canada and the second largest in North America. The extremely deep wells were bored by oil well drillers. In spite of the significant installation cost, the huge system is expected to pay for itself in four years of energy savings.

Making Photovoltaics Pay Their Way.
Yudleson, Jerry
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p63,64,66 ; Nov 2006
Reviews the current favorable climate for photovoltaic systems, as installation costs have declined, energy costs and federal tax credits have risen, and many states, municipalities, and utility companies are also offering incentives.

Selling the Light of Day.
Fortmeyer, Russell
Architectural Record; v194 n9 , p149-152,154,156 ; Sep 2006
Describes types of current and anticipated photovoltaic technologies, their availabilities and costs, building-integrated photovoltaic design and products, and competition between the photovoltaic and semiconductor industries for silicon.

Future of Learning and Learning Centers.
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p51,52 ; Jun 2006
Describes the design and assembly of the photovoltaic wall at the Tiger Woods Learning Center, which will generate 3800 kilowatts of electricity per year. A brief description of the building's educational and extracurricular program is included.

Solar School-Escondido Elementary. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v27 n5 , p12 ; May 2006
Profiles this Palo Alto school that hosts a photovoltaic system providing 16 percent of the school s electricity needs. The funding partnership that paid for the system is also described.

Geothermal Heat and Graywater Storage Systems Enable Bowdoin College to Build Residence Halls.
Greim, Clif; Reinheimer, David
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , pG16,G18 ; Apr 2006
Explains how Bowdoin College was able to add two new residence halls by using rainwater collection and geothermal heating and cooling. These innovations overcame two problems: 1) The town's stormwater collection system could not accommodate runoff generated by the new facilities, and 2) The college's central steam plant lacked the capacity to heat the new buildings.

Boosting Budgets by Building Green.
Vujovic, Vuk; Ogurek, Douglas
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p5-9 ; Jan 2005
Describes goethermal heat pumps, photovoltaics, daylighting, and green roofs as energy-saving design features for school buildings. Estimates of what these systems can save are offered. Includes 15 references.

Underfloor for High-Tech Campus.
Inghram, David
ASHRAE Journal; v46 n5 , p48-50 ; May 2004
Describes the under-the-floor HVAC system at Des Moines Area community College that takes advantage of the raised floor created for power and technology cabling. A nearby pond assists with geothermal heating and cooling. The system reduced energy costs by 43 percent.

Geothermal Heat Pump Technology Saves Energy for America's Schools.
McCray, Kevin
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p35-39 ; Dec 2003
Describes how geothermal systems work, how they are designed for various buildings, possible savings that can be realized, and how they are installed. Variables include building type, geology, hydrology and materials selection. Decommissioning of abandoned systems is also covered.

Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.
Lensenbigler, John D.
College Planning and Management; v5 n7 , p30,32 ; Jul 2002
Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback.

Eco-Friendly, Affordable, School.
Molina, Jean
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n5 , p52,54,56 ; May 2001
Describes green components of Montreal's St. Johns School, an affordable and eco-friendly building with a solar wall, a geothermal system, and heat recovery.

Back to the Earth.
Abnee, Conn
American School and University; v72 n3 , p316-18 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how schools can use geothermal technology to conserve energy and save money. How geothermal climate control works and its payback are examined, and examples of development and use are highlighted.

Innovation & Risk Management Result in Energy and Life-Cycle Savings
Anstrand, David E.; Singh, J. B.
HPAC Engineering; v71 n8 , p52-54,56,58-59 ; Aug 1999
Examines a Pennsylvania school's successful planning, design, and bidding process for acquiring a geothermal heat pump(GHP)system whose subsequent efficiency became award-winning for environmental excellence. Charts and statistical tables describe the GHP's energy-savings. Concluding comments review the lessons learned from the process.

A Combined Geothemal Heat Pump System - the Results After Two Years
Matthey,Bernard;Freiburghaus,Sonia; Langel, Sylvian
IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter; v17 n2 ; 1999
An installation consisting of an electric heat pump coupled to an underground thermal storage system and a combined heat and power unit has made spectacular energy savings possible for a secondary school complex. The storage system is recharged by 306 m2 of selective, unglazed solar collector. Financial balance would be attained if the fuel (natural gas) were to cost 46 cents per KWh, which is slightly higher than current prices. This article describes the system and evaluates the technical and financial results after 2 years of operation.

Heating and Cooling from the Ground Up.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p32,34,36,37 ; Nov 1998
Explains why converting to geothermal heating and cooling is a good option when constructing or retrofitting schools. Reasons discussed include competitive installation costs, lower operating and maintenance costs, greater building design flexibility, and greater user satisfaction.

Breaking Ground.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p30-32,34 ; Jun 1998
Explains how using geothermal systems can reduce energy costs and improve heating and cooling in multipurpose schools. What geothermal systems are and their potential benefits in simplifying the school infrastructure and streamlining operating costs are highlighted.

Geothermal Systems for School
Dinse, David H.
ASHRAE Journal; v40 n5 , p51-54 ; May 1998
Describes an award winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy efficient technologies, variable flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided.


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Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

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