NCEF Resource List: Project Management for School Construction
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Information on the management of school construction projects by school administrators, business officials, board members, and principles.

References to Books and Other Media

Recovery School District. Construction Compliance Audit Adobe PDF
(Louisiana Legislative Auditor, Jun 13, 2012)
Compliance audit of New Orlean's Recovery School District’s (RSD) Capital Construction Program to analyze planning, design, construction, and project management and to determine adherence to contractual obligations of all contracted parties during its execution. For the period August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012, construction projects were analyzed with obligated funds totaling $210,168,688. The audit recommends that RSD should tighten controls over contract changes that drive up costs at some school construction sites, and policies for testing of construction materials also needed improvement. 19p

Building Information Modeling (BIM) at Whatcom Middle School.
Middleton, Reid
(, Jul 19, 2011)
After a devastating fire that destroyed the iconic Whatcom Middle School Building in Bellingham, Washington, Reid Middleton worked closely with the school district, their insurer, the design team, and the contractor to develop an innovative building replacement strategy. Due to the fast-paced project schedule and the complex nature of the project, Reid Middleton utilized a Revit building information model (BIM) to develop design drawings and to clearly and visually communicate. BIM helped facilitate the project’s success.

BIM Accelerates Design-Build Delivery: The French School Story.
(American Institute of Architects, Feb 25, 2011)
As Architects of Record for the design-build team, Hilliard Architects helped the client: Lycee Francais La Perouse (an independent French immersion K-12 school) transform an historic landmark building (44,000 sf, two-stories with basement and roof terrace, seismically unsafe concrete building) to a middle and high school for 250+ kids in under eight months, on a tight budget, with 120 children inside.

Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems During Construction and Renovation. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Division of Occupational Safety, Occupational Hygiene Program, West Newton, MA , 2011)
Handy list of recommendations that have been successful in reducing indoor air quality complaints during building renovation activities, including 1) coordinate construction schedule; 2) separate construction and occupied areas; 3) prevent dust from migrating to occupied areas; 4) prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals in construction products; 5) inspect areas for lead and asbestos; 6) respond to acute episodes of indoor air quality complaints; 7) check building ventilation. 3p

Principal's Guide to the Design and Construction Process. Adobe PDF
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland , 2011)
Assists school principals through the process of planning, designing, and building a new, renovated, or expanded school. Step-by-step instructions and guidelines are provided for educational program development, architect selection, feasibility studies, architectural design process, relocation, building construction, ordering of furniture and equipment, moving in, and closing out the project. 153p.

Selected Laws Relating to the Construction and Repair of Public School Facilities in North Carolina. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Jul 2010)
Focuses mainly on financial concerns covering areas such as bids, sources of state funds, selling or buying school property, bonds, capital outlay funds, and general loan information. Other statutes covered include architectural and engineering services, public contracts, classroom sizes, the duties of local educational and civic authorities, inspections, energy savings contracts, lease properties, long-range facility plans, the North Carolina Historical Commission, facilities guidelines, repair of damage to school property, replacement of buildings, and fire safety. 107p.

Directory of Acronyms. Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Aug 26, 2009)
Lists typical acronyms used in the school facilities industry. The list addresses government agencies, planning, financing, design, construction, project management, operations, and maintenance. 28p.

ConsensusDOCS 310 Green Building Addendum.
(ConsensusDOCS, Arlington, VA, 2009)
Thia contract document is for use on projects with green building elements, particularly those seeking a third-party green building rating certification such as LEED. It provides a contractual mechanism to identify clear objectives, and assign roles and responsibilities to achieve green goals. The parties designate a Green Building Facilitator (GBF) to coordinate or implement identified objectives, which can be a project participant or consultant. It contemplates that such services will be included in the underlying agreement with the project participant or in a separate agreement with a GBF. The document can be appended to any standard or non-standard contract document.

A Principal's Guide to On-Site School Construction. Adobe PDF
Brenner, William A.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington,DC , 2009)
This publication explores what school principals should know when construction takes place in or near a school while it is in session. It covers pre-construction preparation, including how to work with architects/engineers and other school staff; actions to take during construction, including proper information dissemination and safeguarding students and property; and post-construction activities, including custodial and maintenance staff training and post-occupancy evaluations. 4p.

Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
Earthman, Glen
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.

Report to the Utah Legislature: A Performance Audit of School Building Construction. Adobe PDF
(Office of the Utah Legislative Auditor General, Salt Lake City , Nov 2008)
Reports on construction expenditures in 21 out of 40 Utah school districts during 2006- 2008. The report cites a lack of competition in the bidding process, greater oversight in the procurement of subcontractors, more consistent evaluation of proposals, a favorable comparison of the state's construction cost to national averages, and square footage per student that typically exceeds the state guidelines. Recommendations to remedy deficiencies are included. 70p.

Construction and Modernization: Information to Assist School Districts in Addressing Construction and Modernization Needs. Adobe PDF
(San Mateo County Office of Education, California , 2008)
Advises local school districts on how to manage construction projects. Topics covered include district leadership and staffing, procedures for selecting professional design consultants and firms, contracts, master planning, and project delivery programs. 17p.

The Auditor of State's Report on Reaudit for the Period July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2005: Special Report, Findings and Advice of counsel of the Independent Counsel. Adobe PDF
Critelli, Nicholas
(Des Moines Independent Community School District, Iowa , 2008)
Reports that the Des Moines Independent Community School District awarded approximately $182,000 in contracts on a high school annex without getting competitive bids. The investigation also found another $105,000 in projects that were awarded without competitive bids, a discrepancy that is in addition to that found by the state auditor. The report also found the school board acted properly in accepting less than the highest bid for a school property, and that there was no conflict of interest by a school board member who recused herself from the votes to sell disused school property to her in-laws. In a statement, the school district said the investigation reviewed $88 million in construction contracts and found the district had violated state competitive bidding laws in one-half of one percent of the contracts. 72p.

Why School Roofs Don't Work.
Phinney, Peter
(Building Exterior Coordinators, Huron, OH , Jan 2008)
Addresses the disconnection between the design and construction industries that often leads to leaking school roofs. The author proposes engaging a "building envelope specialist" to oversee the design and construction process. 2p.

Design and Construction Procedures. Adobe PDF
Oct 2007)
Identifies a number of procedures, regulations, and agencies associated with the construction of school facilities in North Carolina, and provides information that can expedite logical and efficient planning. The document covers the project development phase, plans and specifications procedures, and post-construction procedures. Modular units and charter schools are also addressed. 34p.

Program Progress Update.[Cleveland] Adobe PDF
(Bond Accountability Commission, Cleveland Board of Education, OH , Aug 13, 2007)
Reviews the behind schedule state of school construction under Cleveland's current bond issue. Efforts to catch up include elimination of some project from the original program. A short glossary of construction management terms is followed by reports for each of nine segments of the master plan. Good budget performance in some segments will offset poor performance in others. 14p.

NJSDA Safety Manual. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Schools Development Authority, Trenton , Aug 2007)
Provides itemized and compulsory safety instructions for contractors working on New Jersey schools. A lengthy list of personnel issues, construction site equipment, and procedures are covered in 64 chapters and sub-chapters. The manual establishes uniform practices and procedures, with the goal of reducing accident frequency and severity. 91p.

Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International Building Code for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven R.; Collins, David S.; and Juroszek, Steven P.
(Wiley, Apr 2007)
This illustrative guide presents the complex code issues inherent to designing schools in a clear, easily understandable format. It highlights major changes between the new international code and previous model building codes to help readers better understand how these changes will affect their practice. 432p.

School Building Authority 2007 Guidelines and Procedures Handbook [West Virginia].
(West Virginia School Building Authority, Charleston , 2007)
Provides guidance for compliance with the Building Authority. The document addresses comprehensive educational facilities plans, funding of School Building Authority projects, funding specific facility plans, project administration and review, and School Building Authority contracts, agreements, and procedures. Extensive appendices detail the Authority's regulations and procedures, as well as providing numerous forms for assessment, review, and submission. 240p.

Performance Audit: Self-Contracted Construction Projects, Arkansas Public School Districts. Adobe PDF
(Arkansas Division of Legislative Audit, Little Rock , Jun 09, 2006)
A randomly selected review of fifteen Arkansas school district projects from the fifty- eight (58) self-contracted construction projects started during calendar years 2002-2004 found the districts were in substantial compliance with Arkansas Law, Division of Legislative Audit rules and regulations, and/or local school district policies. However, certain exceptions to the requirement of receiving prior written approval from the State Fire Marshal and the designation of seismic ratings, as well as potential conflicts of interest are noted. The report also recommends that the Division and the General Assembly consider whether more oversight or support is needed for public school district construction projects that are not conducted under the Academic Facilities Partnership Program to better ensure construction projects are being completed in accordance with applicable laws and contract provisions. 8p.

Dekalb County School System SPLOST II Forensic Program Review: Preliminary Report of Findings and Recommendations.
(Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA , Jun 2006)
Presents the results of an audit of the County's school construction program that offered 11 major conclusions in regard to program management and oversight by the school system administration and board of education. The auditors reviewed in particular detail perceived problems including an understated needs assessment, approval of projects for which there was inadequate budget, performance by the program manager under its contract, and a school system policy of allocating to each school cluster 40 percent of its 10-year assessed needs and allowing it to decide how to use the funds. The report also provides 19 recommendations relating to policies, processes, contracting, staffing, systems, communications and best practices. 75p.

2006 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , 2006)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. Organized by CSI Masterformat divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 111p.

Construction Budget Management.
Lingensjo, Richard
(Richard Lingensjo , 2006)
Discusses controlling the budget as the essence of construction management, with particular attention to school construction projects. Once every activity, material, and risk is quantified into a dollar amount, tracking financial expenditures is the primary function of those in authority. The focus is school building construction, however, for a complete analysis the industry should not be viewed in a vacuum. Therefore, the social environment, such as illegal aliens, teachers unions, and whistle blowers are topics. 302p.

Building Your Dream School: Some Thoughts to Consider.
Slone, Robert
(Robert S. Slone, Sr., Mason, Ohio , 2006)
Presents a reader-friendly account of the school design process, with guidance on defining a community's "dream school," building support for its funding, converting dreams into an actual design, managing construction, and celebrating the building opening. Includes tips on guiding participants' efforts, selecting consultants, and making key design decisions. 40p.
TO ORDER: Robert S. Slone; Voorhis, Slone, Welsh, Crossland-Architects, Inc., 414 Reading Road, Mason, OH, 45040; e-mail:

Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.

The Development of a Model Design-build Specification Document for Educational Facilities Construction Projects.
Bavi, Reza
(Doctoral Dissertation, Wilmington College, Delaware , Jul 2005)
Proposes a design-build process for schools, in order to have a more efficient and cost effective plan when designing construction projects for new buildings and renovations. The first stage of the development phase included identification of ideas, techniques, and recommendations as well as resources, personnel and strategies determined to be effective in this study. Once these factors were determined, a committee structure was designed. The second stage of the development phase was to select a joint planning committee which represented eight areas of construction projects. The structure identified in this project included setting up a schedule of four meetings. The first meeting introduced the concept. The second meeting introduced the design- build document and evaluation questions. The third meeting discussed the document and the fourth meeting included acceptance of the document. The final stage was field testing of the model by the local community college on three different construction projects. The results of field-testing the design-build construction specification model for three projects were successful and construction was completed on schedule. The college saved a significant amount of money on all projects by using the design-build specification. 106p.
Report NO: 3189965


Education and Expansion: Model School District Policies for Protection of Staff and Students During School Construction.
(New Jersey Work Environment Council, Trenton , May 30, 2005)
This contains recommendations for school districts on maintenance of good indoor air quality and a safe learning environment during school construction. Lists elements to be included in a safety policy in chronological order, under headings that correspond to the stages of building construction: pre-construction planning, establishment of communication procedures, safety items to include in the bid specifications, and project completion. 11p.

The Duties, Responsibilities, and Challenges of Opening a New Elementary School.
Sims, Kathy
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville , May 2005)
Examines the challenges to principals who opened new elementary schools and identifies the essential responsibilities and duties they encountered. Identifying the role and latitude of the principal at different phases of the school construction was also examined. The sample for the study included three principals from three Tennessee public elementary schools who opened a new school for the first time during the 2001-2002 or 2002-2003 school years. Several findings emerged revealing observations about the duties, responsibilities, and challenges that principals encounter opening a new school. These included: 1)The planning and design stage of the new school was developed before the principal was appointed. 2)The latitude of the principal during the construction phase varied depending on when principals were appointed. 3)There was a diverse list of duties and responsibilities consisting of processes, procedures, and functions for which no assistance was provided or formal guidelines established. 4)An incredible amount of time and energy was spent by the principal dealing with unexpected and unavoidable challenges and concerns. 5)There is a need to consult and involve all stakeholders in the process of establishing a new learning community. 6)Specific skills and attributes are needed by those who open new schools. 7)A sufficient amount of time is needed by new school openers to focus solely on the task of organizing and implementing a new school setting. 8)There is a rewarding personal and professional feeling that accompanies the challenge of opening a new school. The following recommendations are drawn from the findings of the study. The recommendations of the study suggest: 1)Principals should be appointed early in the design and planning phase of new schools. 2)Specific knowledge, skills, and characteristics are needed by those who open new schools. 3) A support system is needed for new school openers. 4)Principal preparation programs need to be improved. 168p.
Report NO: 3180924

TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email:

Managing Your Environmental Responsibilities: A Planning Guide for Construction and Development. Adobe PDF
(United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , Apr 2005)
Provides guidance for federal environmental requirements in construction and development process, with advice on how to recognize the federal environmental requirements and factor in the associated expenses for the project, designate the responsible party to fulfill these requirements, file the necessary paperwork, perform the required activities, obtain the essential permits and identify additional sources of information to help implement these requirements throughout your project. Part one of the guide presents background information on environmental requirements for the construction and development industries, with a checklist to help assign environmental responsibilities. Part two contains seven self-audit checklists that help construction companies evaluate their compliance status in these seven areas once the project has commenced. 255p.
Report NO: EPA/305-B-05-003

2005 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , 2005)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. Organized by divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 108p.

FMI K-12 Public School Construction Management.
(FMI, Raleigh, NC , 2005)
Presents the results of a survey of the largest 500 school systems in the U.S. that discusses top issues in construction management, trends in school construction, master planning practices, funding, project management practices, commissioning, prototype schools, and sustainability. 26p.
TO ORDER: Contact Phil Warner at, Tel: 919-785-9357

Major Capital School Construction Project Workbook.
(Maine Dept. of Education, Augusta, 2005)
Provides guidance for the school construction projects, covering architect selection and approval, new construction versus renovation, site selection and approval, educational specifications, space allocation, financing, technology, bond approval, life cycle analysis, energy efficiency standards, design and funding approval, reporting requirements, and equipment.

Curbing Construction Costs Through Value Engineering.
Dunlap, Chris
(, Orange, CA , 2005)
Discusses the makeup and qualifications of members of a value engineering team for school construction. A construction manager is recommended, and his/her qualifications and duties detailed. Also recommended is the use of in-house maintenance staff to execute small changes to the plans, rather than submitting change orders with the contractor. 3p.

The Non-Architect's Guide to Major Capital Projects: Planning, Designing, and Delivering New Buildings.
Waite, Phillip
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2005)
Introduces the steps and sequence of planning, designing, and delivering a capital project. The six stages of the project delivery process (planning or pre-design, schematic design, design development, construction documents, construction administration, and occupancy) are covered in order, with emphasis on the pre-design phase, where non-architects are the most involved. A glossary is included, as are appendices which explain how to interpret architectural drawings, suggest further reading, and categorize design services. Includes 30 references. 128p.

The What, Why and How of Job Order Contracting (JOC). Adobe PDF
Jayne, Ken
(The Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Oct 2004)
Defines Job Order Contracting (JOC), where the owner and construction/contractor enter into fixed-price, indefinite quantity, long-term relationship with pre-defined line items. It is recommended for repetitive projects that would normally be contracted with individual "design-bid-build" contracts, and is particularly useful for time-sensitive projects and situations where the scope of work may vary as actual conditions are uncovered. Reasons for using, steps for securing, and ways to use a JOC are provided. 4p.

21st Century Schools Design Manual. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Schools Construction Corporation, Trenton , Sep 30, 2004)
Establishes a uniform and detailed approach to school facilities design for the New Jersey School Construction Corporation. The guide sets forth 24 required criteria that inform the design process and sets individual goals for each. Required design and construction standards follow, organized by CSI Divisions. Required deliverables for each major phase of work are described. Appendices explain how project progress reports will be made and provide a LEED checklist. 237p.

The Abbott School Construction Program: Report on the NJ Department of Education Proposed Regulations on Long-Range Facilities Plans Adobe PDF
Ponessa, Joan
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Feb 16, 2004)
According to findings contained in this report, Abbott districts must develop new five-year facility improvement plans next year, but lack guidance from the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE)on how to perform this critical task. In addition, rules recently proposed by NJDOE fail to address minimal requirements for sound facilities planning, and must be completely overhauled. The proposed rules are under review by the State Board of Education. The rules fail to: 1) Direct districts to adopt a schedule and budget to ensure effective completion of the plans by the EFCFA deadline, and to maximize participation of stakeholders in the planning process; 2) Instruct districts on conducting a thorough re-assessment of their education program as a foundation for planning new or renovated facilities; 3)Provide standards for planning community centered schools; 4) Require NJDOE to maintain a reliable, public database to promote community engagement in facilities planning and State and district accountability for effective program implementation. 15p.

The Abbott School Construction Program. NJ Department of Education Proposed Facilities Regulations: Analysis of Preschool Issues Adobe PDF
Ponessa, Joan; Boylan, Ellen
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Feb 2004)
This report on preschool facilities analyzes regulations proposed by the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE)to implement the Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act. The report begins with a summary of key findings and recommended amendments to the NJDOE proposed regulations. It then provides background on the Abbott preschool and school construction programs, analyzes the proposed NJDOE regulations, and makes recommendations for needed changes. As the report makes clear, substantial revision of the proposed rules are necessary to improve implementation of the Abbott preschool and facilities programs over the next five-year construction cycle. 14p.

For Generations to Come: A Leadership Guide to Renewing School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2004)
This guide provides a framework for community involvement in modernizing or building new public school buildings. The process is broken down into the five steps of assessment, envisioning, planning, development and implementation of the project. The chapters for each step are preceded by an overview of how facilities affect the quality of education and community, and how to initiate the process of improving a school building. 60p.

Managing Schools During Construction Projects, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Discusses staffing, training, planning, and management imperatives for schools that remain open during construction. School co-ordinator's training and responsibilities, recommended consultations, opportunities that might arise, communication issues, hazard and disruption management, and migration to the completed project are detailed. 19p.

School Construction Handbook.
(Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Mechanicsburg , 2004)
Advises school board members on a variety of school condition and construction issues, including the impact of facilities on student achievement, how to get started with capital improvements, new construction versus renovation, project management, selecting design professionals, key components of school design, "green" construction, financing, and typical legal problems of school construction. 186p.

Building & Renovating Schools: Design, Construction Management, Cost Control.
Macaluso, Joseph; Lewek, David; Murphy, Brian
(R.S. Means, Kingston, MA , 2004)
Covers the building and renovating process from initial planning, needs assessment and design through move-in. The “Planning and Design” section features guidelines for developing planning documents and selection of the design team, green design standards and technologies, integrating computer and building automation technology, security equipment and design approaches and cost issues, and the special design considerations of specialty spaces. “The Construction Process” section covers estimating and monitoring project costs, the role of a project manager and project team, and construction contracts and schedules. Also included are case studies of recently completed school projects, square foot cost models for elementary, middle, and high school facilities with costs for individual building components such as classrooms, auditoriums, labs, administration areas, gyms, libraries, and swimming pools. 412p.
TO ORDER: Reed Construction Data, 63 Smiths Lane, Kingston, MA 02364-0800, Tel: 781-422-5000

Ten Ways to Help Avoid Legal Problems in School Construction. Adobe PDF
Kelin, Howard L.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC. , Sep 2003)
This publication recommends that school districts include a legal plan in every school construction project. The author discusses negotiating agreements with the project architect and construction manager early on; exercising due diligence in selecting the project team; determining proper levels of professional liability insurance; clarifying legal issues with the architect and the construction manager; predetermining methods of dispute resolution; reviewing non-technical contract provisions in bid packages; developing surety bonds for bid packages; and exercising care in handling non-responsible bidders, bid errors, and contractor disputes. The publication concludes that properly applying these measures can significantly increase the chances of completing a school construction project on time, within budget, and without litigation. 8p.

Crumbling Schools: Tens of Millions Wasted in Slow, Sloppy Construction, and Miami-Dade Children Are the Losers.
Cenziper, Debbie; Grotto, Jason
(The Miami Herald, FL , Feb 13, 2003)
This series of articles examines the condition of public schools and public school construction in Florida's Miami and Dade Counties. To prepare the series, the Miami Herald studied thousands of pages of construction records, correspondence, school district reports, and accounting statements over 15 years. It analyzed state and national construction costs, school enrollment reports for Florida's 67 school districts, growth rates, and census data. More than 200 people completed interviews, and reporters and photographers made about 25 visits to schools. The Herald obtained school district databases detailing construction costs and schedules, contractor and architect information, contractor defaults, construction charges, and life-safety violations. The construction analysis of new schools, additions, renovations, and repairs was based on over 1,200 projects, totalling $1.6 billion, completed since 1988. The articles include: "Crumbling Schools: Tens of Millions Wasted in Slow, Sloppy Construction, and Miami-Dade Children are the Losers" (Debbie Cenziper and Jason Grotto); "Aging Schools Wait Endlessly for Renovation" (Debbie Cenziper); "Records of Costs, Budgets are Hard to Come By" (Debbie Cenziper and Jason Grotto); and "Stierheim Vows Fundamental Change" (Debbie Cenziper). 12p.

Citizen Oversight of Public School Construction Programs: In Search of Promising Practices. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Feb 12, 2003)
This paper asserts that one part of a comprehensive control system for school construction projects is a citizen oversight committee. It suggests that citizen oversight committees are a cost-effective and politically important method for supplementing a school board in its monitoring and oversight functions. In addition, the committee acts as a means of engaging the public to increase accountability, meeting the public's desire to ensure taxpayer dollars are used effectively, efficiently, and equitably. The paper provides information on the advantages associated with having a citizen oversight committee as well as lessons and promising practices on how to develop and implement a committee. Ten districts with citizen oversight committees in place were interviewed to determine promising practices that are most effective in fulfilling the responsibilities and achieving the advantages of an oversight committee. 20p.

Coalition for Our Children's Schools. Abbott School Construction Program Report Card.
(Education Law Center, Trenton, NJ , 2003)
In July 2000, the New Jersey State Legislature enacted the Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act, providing $6 billion to rebuild the schools of the Abbott districts, and created a procedure controlled by State government by which the school construction and renovation was to take place. This report card on the Abbott school construction program gives the state a D for its progress to date in implementing the school construction mandate of the court and legislature. 17p.

School Construction Guide.
(Associated General Contractors of America, Alexandria, VA , 2003)
This guide is intended to help those involved in school construction to better understand the process to ensure the project is successful for everyone. Eight sections walk the reader through the school construction process from project planning to project turnover. The Guide covers site selection, funding alternatives, design, and construction. It explains the roles of the participants, various methods of project delivery, and highlights the unique nature of school construction. 110p.
Report NO: 2913

From the Ground Up: Legal Issues in School Construction.
Brickman, Heather K.; Goodrich, Christine A.; Griffith, Christine W.; Kuhn, Jeffrey L.; Levi, James S.; Levin, Michael I.; Osher, Daniel A.; Segal, Su
(National School Board Association Council of School Attorneys, Alexandria, VA , Apr 2002)
This publication is intended to assist school lawyers, business officials, board members, and administrators in making sound decisions, understanding the legal implications, and securing the maximum contractual protections for the school district before a school construction project begins. The first chapter examines the necessity of investigating and evaluating potential sites for school construction to avoid unforeseen environmental liability. This is followed by chapter 2 exploring the legal ramifications of an emerging project delivery method, design-build--its advantages and disadvantages, and the legal considerations before opting for this non-traditional approach to school construction. Chapters 3, and 4 describe the agreements school districts will sign with various entities in the design and construction process. Chapter 5 deals with issues relating to architect-owner agreements and construction manager contracts review standard forms of agreement commonly proffered by these professionals and recommend changes to protect the school district's interests and concerns. Chapter 6 discusses school construction bidding issues; and finally, chapter 7 explains the provisions crucial to an effective contract between schools and general contractors. (An appendix lists other resources.) 202p.

Planning and Managing School Facilities. Second Edition.
Kowalski, Theodore
(Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT , 2002)
This book addresses the administrative procedures associated with planning and managing school facilities and discusses planning from the perspective of both individual facility projects and more comprehensive district-wide efforts. Part One examines historical and contemporary perspectives on school facility planning. A systems perspective is provided for defining the adequacy of school buildings, and the effects of changing demographics, school reform, technology, and obsolescence are detailed. Various planning paradigms and needs assessment are the focus of Part Two. Part Three examines specific tasks related to completing a facility project, including public opinion polling, securing professional services, and management responsibilities before, during, and after construction. Part Four includes focused issues: planning elementary schools, planning secondary schools, making enrollment projections, working with other agencies, choosing between renovation and new construction, financing capital outlay, and maintaining facilities once they become operational. 279p.
TO ORDER: Bergin & Garvey, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Tel: 203-226-3571

A Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program. Adobe PDF
Oates, Arnold D.; Burch, A. Lee
The Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program described in this paper encourages school leaders to consider a more holistic view of the planning process. It is intended to assist those responsible for educational facility planning, who must assure that all important and relevant tasks are accomplished in a timely manner. The model's six phases are: (1) assessment of current facilities, programs, and community beliefs; (2) preliminary planning for facility master plan development; (3) implementing the facility master plan; (4) marketing the master plan; (5) implementation of projects in the master plan; and (6) post-occupancy evaluation. Each phase includes a list of tasks and responsible persons, and an estimated time frame.

Errors and Omissions: When Should Your Architect Pay? or...Should the Architect Ever Pay? or...Why Should the Architect Ever Pay?
Gongaware, Sherry; Vinson, Gary; Rainforth, Michael
(C.A.S.H., Sacramento, CA, Mar 06, 2001)
Discussion of errors from a school district's perspective and from an architect's perspective. Includes understanding legal terminology and standards of professional care. Case examples are given.

Cost Containment Cookbook for Public School Construction. Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , 2001)
This document is intended to be a "cookbook" of the numerous elements that collectively influence the cost containment of school construction projects. Each element is meant to indicate an action in the process that the school district should pay attention to and ensure is properly accomplished. The elements influencing cost containment are detailed in five categories, each representing one of the basic phases of a project: (1) pre-design; (2) design; (3) bid and award; (4) construction; and (5) occupancy. (Contains a glossary of terms.) 20p.
TO ORDER: Coalition for Adequate School Housing

Planning and Construction Manual [California].
(California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento, CA, 2001)
This revised manual is a resource document for looking at facilities from the planning stage through construction and occupancy. It includes sections on advanced planning, school facilities funding, design process, and construction. The manual is updated on a yearly basis to address the changes to various components. 480p.
TO ORDER: California Association of School Business Officials Bookstore, 700 N. 10th Street, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95811; Tel: 916-447-3783, Fax: 916-447-3794

Public School Construction Cost Reduction Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(California State Allocation Board, Sacramento , Apr 26, 2000)
Sets forth best practices and strategies for constructing or modernizing school facilities. Developed through a series of workshops, it identifies some of the key issues and processes that inflate construction costs, and suggests how to avoid them. The recommendations are organized under the categories of joint use, site selection, consultant relations, contractor relations, state agencies, construction, prototypes, and project delivery. 107p.

Rules for School Construction Projects. [Maine] Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Education, School Support Systems Team. , Apr 04, 2000)
This document defines the conditions under which the State of Maine will subsidize school building construction projects. The document identifies several stages of approval that must be secured, including site approval, concept approval, local voter approval, and funding approval. A flow chart identifies how the project will proceed and the various organizations that will have primary importance during each stage. There are descriptions of these organizations and their specific responsibilities. The report also specifies general submission guidelines and deadlines, and it details the rating system to be used in evaluating each school construction process under a major capital improvement program. The document also contains the educational specifications and space allocations information required from each local unit by the state's department of education. Other sections discuss site size regulations; the required school site approval documentation; financial record keeping requirements; regulations regarding school construction project bonding; surplus project fund handling and contingency usage approval; and definitions of moveable equipment. 20p.

From the Ground Up: Practical Information on a School Construction Project Adobe PDF
McGahan, William C.
(North Platte Catholic Schools, NE , Apr 2000)
This paper describes some of the author's experiences in financing and building a new $4 million Catholic elementary school facility and activities center in rural North Platte (Nebraska). Important points that lead to successful school building projects are highlighted and include establishing good relationships with all the stakeholders involved, developing a clear and well-substantiated need, selecting a quality building committee, selecting a quality architect in whom the entire community has confidence, and hiring a proven firm to lead the capital campaign effort. Good communication with all parties is stressed as key to all phases of the process. 11p.

Planning Effective Leadership for Facility Development (for Small and Medium Size Districts). Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Feb 23, 2000)
This paper draws on the experience of the Sebastopol Union School District, a small school district in California, which formed a team to manage facilities renovation. The team was comprised of the district superintendent, the architect, a construction manager, and a facility/financial consultant; it allowed the district to succeed at the school construction "game" in a manner similar to large school districts that enjoy well-developed facility departments. The roles and responsibilities of each team member are outlined for the following phases of facility development: master planning/educational specifications, funding and finances, design, pre- construction, construction, and post-construction. It illustrates the manner in which the several consultants coordinated their roles and responsibilities in an effort to ensure the most effective leadership for successful completion of projects that support the facility master plan. 13p.

Frugal Construction Standards. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(SMART Schools Clearinghouse, Tallahassee, FL , Jan 25, 2000)
This booklet provides best practice recommendations for building functional and frugal schools in Florida. Seventeen best practice construction recommendations are addressed, including recommendations for sitework, concrete, masonry, metals, wood and plastics, thermal and moisture protection, doors and windows, finishes, equipment, furnishings, mechanical and electrical, and technology systems. Application procedures are also provided for design professionals to have their design evaluated and designated as a "SMART School Design." A final document is included that lists guidelines for partially determining a school's inclusion as a "SMART School Design." 41p.

A Guide for School Governors: Developing School Buildings.
(Royal Institute of British Architects, RIBA Schools Client Forum, London, England , 2000)
This two-part guide presents information for United Kingdom school governors [school board members] to help them in the management and development of their educational facilities. The guide explains how to carry out duties and responsibilities as a client for a building project, and it shows how to ensure that the work carried out is appropriate and helps raise the school's educational standards. Part 1 establishes the context in which capital and recurrent funding may be used. Part 2 describes the possible processes needed to carry out building projects, whether minor repairs or a major capital project such as a new classroom or block. Lists of references and main professional bodies conclude the guide. 40p.

Fiscal Tracking For a New School [California]
(California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento, CA, 2000)
This user guide was developed to assist school districts, step-by-step, through the log on and retrieval of New Construction and Modernization project information for the Lease-Purchase Program. By utilizing this service, school districts can avoid delay when inquiring for standard project standard questions. The Office of Public School Construction published the Project Tracking User Guide to assist you in understanding how to use the Project Tracking System (PTS). It will explain how to access the service, what to enter in the fields, and how to move from screen to screen. The guide includes a survey summary of costs for new schools. 180p.
TO ORDER: California Association of School Business Officials Bookstore, 700 N. 10th Street, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95811; Tel: 916-447-3783, Fax: 916-447-3794

Guide to School Renovation and Construction: What You Need to Know To Protect Child and Adult Environmental Health. [New York]
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide presents cautionary tips for protecting children's health during school renovation and construction projects, the New York state laws regarding school renovation and construction, and the steps the law requires to eliminate dangerous conditions for children during these projects. Included is a checklist of uniform safety standards during school renovations and construction and several examples illustrating the negative outcomes when districts renovated or constructed their schools without regard to the effects on children's and adult's health. Selected resources for additional information are provided. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.; Tel: 518-462-0632

Managing the Rural School Facility Construction Process. Adobe PDF
Passarelli, Angelo; Goehring, Wade; Harley, Anne
(Chapter 7 in: Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support. , 2000)
The decision to renovate or replace a school building is the starting point for a long and challenging journey with many phases: planning, development, and project delivery and construction. Each phase requires different levels of expertise, skills, and activities. The challenge of a rural facility project is to find leadership to provide guidance through all phases of the project. This chapter describes an approach to project management that can help the school district leadership to successfully interact with the construction management team while facilitating open, respectful, and effective communication with local stakeholders. This approach--the project cost management system (PCMS)--has proved successful in rural school construction projects in Nebraska, Iowa, and South Dakota. Key to the success of this approach is a project manager with a good understanding of community needs and a good grasp of the technical aspects of school facility construction. This individual has responsibility for both developing community consensus and managing the technical details of the construction process. The various phases of PCMS are described, along with the role of the project manager in each: (1) the planning process (forming a facilities study committee, identifying needs related to building code violations and to new educational models and technologies, and seeking broad-based input from staff and community); (2) design workshops to develop the plan; (3) developing community consensus; (4) bond referendum campaign; and (5) project delivery and construction. 13p.

Planning Educational Facilities for the Next Century.
Earthman, Glen I.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2000)
This book examines each phase in the process of planning capital projects and those individuals in the schools who make decisions about the buildings students will use. It uses the long range planning process of the school system as the vehicle for providing the proper housing for students and programs. Program development, student enrollment projections, existing facility evaluation, and financial planning are discussed. Further areas address the development of the capital improvement program, architect employment, educational specifications development, the federal regulations in planning educational facilities, design phase monitoring, construction project bidding and construction phase management, and technology planning. Appendices provide sample forms and correspondence such as the standard forms of agreement between owner and architect and between owner and contractor, a middle school appraisal form, site selection flow chart, a flow chart for developing educational specifications, job description for construction supervisor, a planning process evaluation form, and school planning checklist. 299p.

The ABC's of Building a School.
(Oklahoma State Dept of Education, Financial Services Division, Oklahoma City, OK , 1999)
This booklet is designed for administrators who are being encouraged to build a new, or remodel an old, school facility. It describes the planning process from perceived need to the hiring of an architect; the duties of the architect, bondsman, and contractor; school bonds and finances; disability access requirements; force account; economical maintenance; the chronological order of construction; an overview of building systems and materials; applicable state laws; construction costs; and sample construction forms. Also included are Oklahoma State Fire Marshall fire resistive considerations and safety. Appendices contain a checklist for designing maintenance-free buildings; samples of the forms used in building construction projects such as contracts, bonds, and affidavits; and examples of energy conservation measures. 84p.
TO ORDER: Oklahoma State Department of Education, 2500 North Lincoln Boulevard,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105-4599; Tel: 405-521-3812

What is Facilities Program Management?
(National School Board Association Toolkit, Washington, DC, 1999)
Facilities program management is a comprehensive method of managing all capital resource needs, including planning, design, and construction. Program management provides a single-source professional agent representing the school board, like an in-house facilities department. Program management may be provided by a construction company, architect, or engineering firm. It is most successful when provided by a company that specializes in this service.

Construction Project Administration.
Fisk, Edward R.
(Prentice Hall, New York, NY, 1999)
This book provides information needed by design professionals, project managers, contract administrators, and resident engineers or inspectors, laying out steps for conducting on-site project administration. Chapters cover project delivery systems, documentation, construction laws and labor relations, meetings and negotiations, materials, claims and disputes, and project closeout. 587p.

School Project Manual: Methods to Manage a Successful Project.
Poles, Michael Stuart
(MPGroup, Los Angeles, CA, 1999)
This manual of procedures, protocols, and recommended guidelines is for the construction administration, quality control and structural inspection of school construction projects. Resource for school administrators, architects, attorneys, contractors, project managers, superintendents, inspectors of record, and special inspectors. 122p.
TO ORDER: Builder's Book, Inc.

A Tale of Two Schools: The Role of the Elementary Principal in School Design.
Rose, James O.
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wyoming, Laramie , May 1996)
Examines the roles of the building principals assigned to the schools, their perceptions of the building design and construction process, and how their respective roles in the process are manifested in ownership of their schools. The focus of the study was two schools designed by the same architectural firm and constructed at the same time by the same general contractor. The results suggest a relationship between a principal's involvement in the school design process and resultant ownership. 129p.
Report NO: 9630629

TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email:

Form of Agreement Between Client and Architect for School Building Projects. Adobe PDF
(Elk Grove Unified School District, Sacramento, CA, 1996)
This is a sample contract between a school district and an architect. It includes such basic services as schematic design, preliminary plans, final plans, modernization, consultants extra services, clients responsibilities, project costs, architect compensation, time schedule, accounting, insurance documents and arbitration. 18p

The School Design Primer: A How-To Manual for the 21st Century.
(Little Institute for School Facilities Research, Charlotte, NC , 1996)
This document was developed to provide those individuals involved in school construction with an easy-to-understand resource. Ten chapters address facility and educational planning, budgeting and funding, organizing the planning team and process, site selection, space planning, contracts and negotiating, the design and building process, special features of an educational facility, security and vandalism prevention, and indoor air quality. Includes a school evaluation and a site selection criteria checklist, theoretical space profiles for three educational facility levels, a table detailing adequate space allocation, and a standard school project schedule and construction timeline. The appendix provides the following samples: "Request for Proposal" questionnaire, policy statement, letter of intent for subcontractor, commitment form, school construction project directory, construction data sheet, and project cost data sheet. 125p.
TO ORDER: Little Diversified Architectural Consulting, 5815 Westpark Dr., Charlotte, NC 28217. Tel: 704-525-6350

Guidelines of Best Practices for School Building Projects. [Kentucky] Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Dept. of Education, Division of Facilities Management, Frankfort , May 1995)
This guide addresses the most common considerations when building school facilities in Kentucky. Included are the regulations for the Capital Construction Process, the Kentucky Department of Education's Project Review Process, and a suggested document filing system. Additionally, it features common questions and their answers regarding the Kentucky Facility Programming and Construction Criteria Planning Guide. Appendices provide a variety of school design and construction information accumulated from school construction projects, a plan review checklist for school building projects, and forms for developing requests for proposals and project account summary sheets. 48p.

Managing the Construction Process. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No. 6. Adobe PDF
Odell, John H.
(Association of Independent Schools of New South Wales, Ltd., Sydney, Australia , 1995)
A school construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects with guidance on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides guidance in the area of managing the construction process covering such topics as consultant appointment and management, various contracting methods, forms of contract, time management, budget control, managing contractual changes, and post-contract management. Specific topics include an explanation of consultant types, agreements, and fees; securing quotes for work; assessing tenders; and describing the roles of the project and construction managers. 27p.

The Impact of Construction on an Elementary Campus While School Is in Session.
Hermie, Marian Riggins
(Doctoral Dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe , Aug 1994)
Examines how the instructional process is affected by major construction on an elementary campus while school is in session. Five schools in Arizona’s Washington Elementary School District formed the setting for this study. The study concluded that the students were not impacted nearly as much as the principals, faculty and staff of the schools. Three recommendations were made for those considering renovation: 1) allow time to examine the worthiness of the renovation project as well as time to carry out the project; 2) hire adequate support staff to aid in carrying out the project; 3) hire a construction supervisor to represent the school who is well versed in construction and education and is knowledgeable in coordinating the two. 188p.
Report NO: 9500721

TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email:

The Relocation Plan. Adobe PDF
Heyl, Harry
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, Inc., New York, NY , 1974)
School modernization projects must deal with the problem of what to do with students who may be displaced during the construction. This report is based on information provided by some 50 school districts that had experienced relocation problems. Each of the major relocation strategies is examined, and its advantages, disadvantages, and requirements are discussed. To tie the discussion to real situations, the experiences of some school districts that have tried each strategy are reported. 16p.

Step by Step to Better School Facilities.
Boles, Harold
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY , 1965)
Considers the improvement of school facilities in four parts: 1) development of a long-range plan including curriculum and building needs; 2) development of an individual project, covering stages from planning through occupancy; 3) planning for specifics of function, health, beauty, and economy, and 4) whether to modernize or build new. 382p.

References to Journal Articles

Get Ready, Get Finished, Get Out.
Jensen, Rick
School Planning and Management; , p16-18 ; Mar 2012
Provides six essential steps for managing campus construction during the low occupancy time of summer: start early; set your budget; determine scope; rethink hard bids; assemble a team; take advantage of the reconstruction phase; and invite subcontractors into the mix.

School Construction Summer Slam
Jensen, Richard F.
American School and University; Feb 2012
Setting priorities, determining a budget, finding the funds, assembling a team, defining the scope, analyzing constructability and buying materials take time and should not be crammed into a few short weeks. In order to ensure proper execution, schools should begin the process as early as possible.

Constructing the Perfect Design
Hendrickson, Tricia
School Construction News; Nov 2011
Recommends incorporating FF&E (furniture, fixtures and equipment) responsibilities into the program management function, allowing school districts to pull multiple disciplines into one source, delivering synergy, and the best possible solutions. Project managers smooth out the FF&E process by serving as a liaison between school officials and all project teams, helping communicate each partner’s needs. In addition, as the functionality of Building Information Modeling advances, the FF&E process will enhance the ability to design in digital space before installing furniture and fixtures in real space. This will help detect unforeseen problems with infrastructure coordination.

BIM-The Intelligent Choice for O&M.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v105 n8 , p32-36 ; Aug 2011
Demonstrates use of BIM for visualization when planning facilities, including simplifying facilities mangement for ongoing maintenance and repairs, inventory and asset management, energy monitoring and forecasting, and space inventory and lease negotiation.

Whose Job Is It Anyway? Roles and Responsibilities When Planning New Construction.
Robertson, Sue
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p16-19 ; Jul 2011
Discusses the importance of experience when developing master plans and assessments. While many school districts have on hand the staff and experience needed to perform these functions, smaller school districts may not, and should seek outside expertise. In some cases, state school facilities authorities will be the source of project guidance. In all cases, as much local input as possible is recommended.

School Building Projects: Managing Insurance and Contracts during Construction.
Shands, Richard
School Business Affairs; v77 n6 , p28-30 ; Jun 2011
Discusses risk management for school districts involved in construction projects. A wide variety of insurance coverage for various stages, and even after the completion, of the project are discussed. This coverage is typically the design and construction professionals responsibility, but it is the district's duty to confirm that it is in place.

Legally Speaking: Minimizing the Legal Pitfalls of Sustainable Design and Construction (Part 1)
DeVries, Matthew; Stephens, Angela
Design Cost Data; v55 n3 , p6,7 ; May-Jun 2011
Advises building professionals seeking to deliver sustainable buildings to promise only what they can deliver, to not guarantee any level of certification, to identify all the participants and their roles and responsibilities, to clarify the standard of care, and to only assume responsibility for delays that one can control.

Billions to Spend. How a $5.7 Billion Program to Rebuild Los Angeles Community Colleges Went Astray.
Holland, Gale; Finnegan, Michael
Los Angeles Times; Mar 2011
A six-part series investigates how tens of millions of dollars was wasted in a Los Angeles Community College District $5.7 billion project to rebuild its nine campuses for the 21st century.

Preparing Concise Repair Documents.
LeMay, Mark
Buildings; v104 n12 , p30-32,33 ; Dec 2010
Advises on preparing accurate building condition assessments in advance of building repairs, so that contractors can deliver accurate bids. Topics addressed include bid types, elimination of potential of variables, inclusion of limitations, timing, project uniqueness, and constraints that will affect access and timing of work.

Step by Step.
Schaffer, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p40,41 ; Dec 2010
Outlines steps and considerations in the process for planning, distributing, receiving, and evaluating requests for proposals (RFP's); and ultimately granting a contract.

Defining Change.
Jackson, Keegan; Carlson, Ed
American School and University; v83 n3 , p216-219 ; Nov 2010
Advises on managing change orders in school construction. Typical project delivery methods are defined, nine typical reasons for change orders are addressed.

Sustainable Delivery.
Hoffman, Paul
American School and University; v83 n2 , p36,38 ; Oct 2010
Discusses pre-construction modeling, integrated project delivery, and building commissioning as three components of successful "green" building.

Measure Twice, Cut Once.
Duobinis, Vince
Design Cost Data; v54 n5 , p6,8,9 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Details a step-by-step process for developing a scope of work for the Job Order Contracting (JOC). The five steps are preceded by general advice on what working relationships and considerations must be in place for a JOC contract to succeed.

Improve Rehab, Repair Projects with Job Order Contracting.
Mulcahy, Debbi
Laboratory Design; v15 n9 , p1,5,6 ; Sep 2010
Details the virtues of job order contracting in laboratory construction, especially in small and repetitive projects. The unique communication-enabling procedures of job order contracting, savings that can be realized, and ease of work for all parties are emphasized.

Staying Safe on Site.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p36,38,40 ; Jul 2010
Discusses safety on occupied school construction sites. Clear communication, background checks and photo identification of construction workers, and OSHA requirements are addressed, as is the safety of visitors, students, and other building occupants. Fire plans, along environmental quality and isolation are also discussed.

Safety 101: A Contractor's Perspective.
Kuntz, Kevin
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p40,42,43 ; Jul 2010
Addresses safety and security at higher education construction sites. Planning and staging the project around current occupancy, emergency action plans, and securing the site are discussed.

You Want How Much for that Change Order?
Gauer, Mary; Cooley, Lisa
Design Cost Data; v54 n3 , p6,8,46 ; May-Jun 2010
Advocates Job Order Contracting to control construction costs and avoid expensive change orders. Areas where savings are realized are administration, procurement, design, construction, change orders, and claims. An example from the University of New Mexico is included.

Integrated Transformation for a Growing University.
Wight, Mark
College Planning and Management; v13 n5 , p41,42,44,46-48 ; May 2010
Addresses the challenges of coordinating multiple capital projects at a small or medium-sized college of university. The article describes integrated delivery methodology.

Integrated Existence.
School Construction News; v16 n2 , p14-16 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses the design and delivery of the Cronkite School at Arizona State University. The article focuses on this joint city/university project, the time and site constraints, and the project management method.

Collaboration: A Better Way to Quality, Efficiency and Value in Construction.
Cherafat, Ramin
Laboratory Design; v15 n1 , p1,4,5 ; Jan 2010
Discusses inclusion of a construction manager when building laboratories, and that person's role in potential modular construction, building in future flexibility, and fast tracking the project.

Architects and Design-Phase Cost Estimates. Adobe PDF
Coakley, John
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p30-32 ; 2010
Emphasizes the importance of cost estimates being done by independent estimators. The articles provides responses to the usual client arguments for not doing so.

Get The Picture.
Demarest, David
School Construction News; Nov 10, 2009
Using a student housing project at the University of Dallas as an example, this explains how BIM modeling enables facility owners to evaluate costs alongside the construction team of architects and contractors, from the beginning of the project.

Green at the Forefront.
Sherrard, Troy
American School and University; v82 n3 , p232-234 ; Nov 2009
Advises on coordinating the entire school design and construction team for sustainability at the outset of the project, in order to achieve maximum results. The use of current sustainability rating systems and building information modeling (BIM) is also discussed.

Managing a Massive Modernization: How One Construction Program Stays on Track. Adobe PDF
Fischer, Kenneth
CASH Register; v30 n9 , p12,13 ; Sep 2009
Describes the management of one section of the Los Angeles Unified School District's construction program. Complications from a backlog of work, the necessity of working in schools after classes have ended, phasing, and safety measures are addressed.

Planning for School Construction on Occupied Sites, Part Two. Adobe PDF
Stack, Greg
CASH Register; v30 n8 , p11,12 ; Aug 2009
Examines challenges of planning for construction in an occupied school building. Phasing, communication, and avoiding the use of relocatables that consume funds that could be put toward permanent construction are addressed.

Cost Control.
Foreman, Phillip
American School and University; v81 n12 , p28-30 ; Jul 2009
Advocates for third-party review of school construction documents to detect errors and help prevent expensive change orders. The benefits of engaging an independent reviewer and advice on selecting one are outlined.

Construction Tips to Reduce Operating and Maintenance Costs.
McCarthy, J.
Facility Management Journal; v19 n4 , p79,80,82 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Discusses changes that facility managers can suggest during the construction phase that may reduce operating costs. These include design of curbs and sidewalks, plumbing and fire protection systems zoning, freight elevator size, and standardization and reduction of numbers of light fixtures. Advice on gaining acceptance by the design and construction personnel and effective timing of requests is included.

Planning for School Construction on Occupied Sites, Part One. Adobe PDF
Stack, Greg
CASH Register; v30 n7 , p13,14 ; Jul 2009
Discusses design and communications considerations for building on school sites that are in use. Clear specifications and communication with occupants, staging of vehicle access, utility needs, construction hours, management of dust and noise, and coordination with police and fire responders are addressed.

WGDG: A Resource for All.
Brodt, Bill; Smith, Dana
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p32-38 ; May 2009
Describes the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG), a web-based portal providing government and industry building professionals with access to current information on a wide range of building-related guidance, criteria, and technology. The WBDG is organized into categories of Design Guidance, Project Management, and Operations and Maintenance. It s Resource Pages provide topic summaries, and links to resources developed by a variety of government agencies. The article emphasizes resources and links that are of particular use to facilities management professionals.

A Cradle-to-Grave Integrated Approach to Using Uniformat II.
Schneider, Richard; Cain, David
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p42-48 ; May 2009
Proposes adoption of Uniformat II for all phases of higher education building, from planning through to construction, operation, and demolition. The National Park Service's use of Uniformat II is detailed as an example, with similarities to higher education campus management and suggestions for higher education applications included.

Getting Started and Working with Building Information Modeling. Adobe PDF
Smith, Dana
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p20-24 ; May 2009
Advises on achieving thorough communication from planner to designer to contractor and then to facility operator through building information modeling (BIM). Tools for getting started are recommended and the particular advantages to large portfolio operators, such as school systems and universities are addressed.

Why Total Project Management?
Hoffman, Paul
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p74-79 ; Apr 2009
Illustrates how Total Project Management (TPM) helped deliver three sustainable Wisconsin school on time and at less than the prevailing average cost per square foot. Principles of TPM are briefly listed, followed by details from the three successful school projects. Elements of collaboration between owners, designers, and builders are emphasized.

Beating the Odds by Spreading the Word.
Maue, Jean; Tongay, Bill
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p42-45 ; Feb 2009
Describes how the Edwardsville (Illinois) Community Unit School District 7 constructed much needed new schools in record time through contractor awareness and pre- qualification, a regularly updated website that posted bid documents and dates, incentives to contractors for on-time completion, and abundant communication between all parties.

Terror in the Board Room: The Bid-Opening Process.
Shoop, James
School Business Affairs; v75 n2 , p28-30 ; Feb 2009
Advises on planning for a bid, including proper advertising that complies with the law, coordinated receipt of bids by a single entity, and an adequate facility to accommodate all those who will attend the opening. Supplies needed and coordination of the opening procedure, along with three possible serious complications with their possible resolutions are also described.

The Top Ten Tips for Choosing an Off-Site Contrator.
Johnson, David
21 Century Schools; v4 n1 , p6-8 ; 2009
Advises on assessing a school construction contractor s experience in school construction, how to achieve high standards of architecture, the contractor s commitment to customer service, their consistency of project delivery and cost, and their ability to minimize impact of construction on the environment.

Which Documents Govern When They Differ? Precedence of the Contract Documents.
O Leary, Arthur
Design Cost Data; v53 n1 , p6-8 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Discusses types of errors in and inconsistencies between construction documents, document review procedures, and the lack of a universally accepted hierarchy of construction documents. Preferences for priority of one set of documents by various design and construction parties are discussed, as are their respective interpretations of documents.

Finished in a Flash.
Sturgeon, Julie
University Business; v12 n1 , p34-37 ; Jan 2009
Discusses how fast-tracking construction and bundling projects for higher education construction. Examples from several campuses illustrate how labor costs can be higher due to overtime, how compressing the schedule can lead to fewer cost overruns in general, and how construction must proceed while design is perhaps only slightly ahead.

Radnor Middle School.
Design Cost Data; v52 n6 , p50,51 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Profiles this Pennsylvania school project whose construction management team held pre-bid meetings that ensured that the prospective bidders understood the bid documents and the construction schedule, leading to more precise and lower bids. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

Needed: Constructive Advice.
Darden, Edwin
American School Board Journal; v195 n11 , p43,44 ; Nov 2008
Advises on scrutiny of local and state laws when embarking on school construction, and careful handling of bids, contracts, and project team selection. Basic public-private financing arrangements are cited, as are post-construction matters.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Efficient Resolution of Construction Disputes: Alternative Dispute Resolution.
O Leary, Arthur
Design Cost Data; v52 n6 , p8,10,22 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses negotiation, mediation, and arbitration as an alternative to traditional legal proceedings in a construction dispute. Professional counsel may or may not be involved in these proceedings, depending on the competency of the litigants and the size of the case. In negotiation and mediation, the litigants have the most influence because voluntary concurrence is required.

Taking Ownership.
Schmidt, Wayne ; Kunce, Deb
American School and University; v81 n3 , p363-365 ; Nov 2008
Advocates the hiring of an owner's representative when an institution or school system is involved in a considerable amount of construction. The role of the representative is defined, emphasizing its function as an extension of the administration to the community, school faculty and staff, and the professional teams.

Claims: If I Can't Avoid Them, How Can I Get through Them Unscathed?
Braden, Kristen
Design Cost Data; v52 n5 , p10,13 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Describes construction claims and situations that can lead to them. Advice on dealing with claims through knowledge of scheduling and documentation is followed by advice on avoiding them altogether. Components of a claims mitigation strategy and effective communication are also discussed.

Some Construction Documents Are Not Contract Documents.
O'Leary, Arthur
Design Cost Data; v52 n5 , p8,9 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Defines and reviews certain construction contract documents, and then provides a lengthy list of construction documents which are not contracts. Various written and oral agreements that may rise to the level of contracts are addressed.

Seven Questions Project Managers Should Ask about BIM.
Stauffer, Craig
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 28, 2008
Advises on interoperability of designer and builder software in order to enable building information modeling. Questions to ask concern types of software in use, legal documents, and how the model will be used.

Hidden Risks in the Current Construction Environment.
Himes, Paul
Buildings; v102 n7 , p116-118 ; Jul 2008
Details prevalent risks to the owner of a construction project, including subcontractor default, contractor default, schedule delays, material security, materials substitution, and increased claims.

Build Smarter, Faster, and Cheaper with BIM.
Madsen, Jana
Buildings; v102 n7 , p94-96 ; Jul 2008
Describes the benefits of building information modeling (BIM) software, including virtual three-dimensional construction of a building, ease and accuracy of information exchange between design and construction parties, better code compliance, improved cost estimating, shorter construction time, life-cycle cost analysis, and others.

Build It Right.
Levien, Kenneth
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , p26,28,30 ; May 2008
Advises on assembling a school construction team, detailing the duties of a project manager, how the project manager addresses the school district's culture and financing mechanisms, and consultant roles.

Transforming a Neighborhood and Building a Treasure.
Swenson, Craig
School Business Affairs; v74 n5 , p32,34 ; May 2008
Profiles San Diego's new Laura G. Rodriguez Elementary school, built on a former dumpsite in a distressed neighborood. The creation of the complex seven-building campus on an aggressive construction schedule and a small site was coordinated by a construction management firm.

Get the Grade.
Westmoreland, Douglas
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , p53-56 ; May 2008
Discusses the advantages of Design-Bid-Build project delivery for school construction. Recent state legislation and experience with this method are considered, as are its potential disadvantages and advantages.

Eastside High School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v29 n4 , p10,11 ; Apr 2008
Profiles this high school designed to accommodate 3,500 students. Flexible classrooms and sustainability elements are described, as are complications that accompanied the bidding process for such a large facility.

Imperfect Contract Documents: Who Pays for the Errors?
O Leary, Arthur
Design Cost Data; v52 n2 , p6,8,9 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Discusses coverage of mistakes in construction documents, considering when the architect should pay costs associated with errors related to their mistakes, and when they should not be held liable for errors attributed to the owner or contractor. Measuring the amount of liability to be assessed to the client, architect, and contractor is discussed, as are typical insurance carried by architects and recommendations to owners as to how to anticipate and prepare for extra costs and delays.

Constructive Criticism.
Trainor, Charles
American School Board Journal; v195 n2 , p42, 43 ; Feb 2008
Discusses oversight of school construction contractors to assure safe work that follows specifications. Hiring of a knowledgeable clerk or construction manager is recommended, and their qualifications and duties are cited. Oversight of expenses and regular site visits by the school board are encouraged, as is strict security at the jobsite.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Paperless Bid Services: How Can Planners Benefit?
Maupin, Kelly
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n1 , p11-14 ; 2008
Discusses the history of paperless bidding, beginning with federal government adoption and slow adoption by the commercial market, which remains largely paper-friendly. Examples of what can be saved with paperless bidding are included and advice on how to implement it in school construction are included.

Fast-Tracking Helps KU Create Complex Building in Just 15 Months.
Nudi, Jeffrey
Laboratory Design; v13 n1 , p12-14 ; Jan 2008
Profiles the construction of the University of Kansas Multidisciplinary Research Building, whose completion in 15 months made the University eligible for federal grants. Details of design, project management, construction, and pre-ordering of equipment are included.

How to Improve Lab Project Delivery with Early Contractor Involvement.
Cherafat, Ramin
Laboratory Design; v12 n9 , p1-3 ; Sep 2007
Advises on how to avoid extra design costs to redesign a laboratory down to meet a budget. This involves bringing the general contractor or construction manager into the project earlier than the bid phase, to work along with the design team. The benefits to scheduling, quality, and cost of early and continuous teamwork are discussed as well.

From Headaches to Lawsuits.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p20-23 ; Aug 2007
Reviews situations in new school construction that can escalate from inconvenience to litigation. These include site selection, project delays, cost overruns, improper contracting, and poor workmanship.

Why School Building Programs Go Bust.
Carey, Kelley
School Business Affairs; v73 n7 , p8-11 ; Jul 2007
Provides an extensive checklist of warning signs that might indicate funding trouble for a school capital program. These involve long-range planning, management of the bond issue, construction project management, building programming, and communication and citizen involvement.

Managing Construction and Renovation While School Is in Session.
Levien, Kenneth
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p78-81 ; Jun 2007
Reviews details of managing construction on campuses that are in use, advising on before-, during-, and after-construction issues involving hazard mitigation, site preparation, scheduling, communication, emergencies, engaging of custodial staff, environmental issues, fire precautions, student safeguards, delays, and educational opportunities.

Managing the K-12 Portfolio.
Schneider, Jay
Building Design and Construction; v48 n7 , p43,44,46 ; Jun 2007
Reviews how the city of New Haven, Connecticut, is managing a program to build five new schools and renovate seven others. Financing and project management are covered.

Quick Work.
Twomey, Mark
American School and University; v79 n10 , p51-53 ; May 2007
Reviews tactics of fast-track building of school facilities, including pre-ordering equipment and materials, beginning construction before design is completed, and project delivery methods that can accommodate fast-track building. The risks and advantages of fast-track are discussed, and examples of two successful fast-tracked university buildings are provided.

How to Tackle Tough Facility Design Considerations.
Kalina, David
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers ; v82 n4 , p40-41 ; Apr 2007
This focuses on some of the planning and design concepts one may be asked to consider in providing direction to a design and construction team. These include technology, aesthetics, and environmental responsibility. This article is part of a series that has offered insight on planning a facilities project, hiring professionals, delivery system options and owner's responsibilities.

Education Transformation.
Robertson, Katherine
New York Construction; Apr 2007
Describes the turnaround of a troubled Middletown, Connecticut, high school construction project. The dismissal of the first project management team and changes made by the second that put the project on track are covered.

Being an Effective, Engaged Owner during a Design and Construction Project
Kalina, David
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers; v82 n3 , p28-30 ; Mar 2007
This article explains how a project owner can be an active participant during the design and construction of his/her facility. The author discusses the two levels of participation the project owner needs to actively work with the design and construction team. And he further states that a project owner can enrich his/her personal experience and learn a lot about the process of design and construction by being actively involved and asking questions throughout the design and construction period.

Craft a Claims Process to Reduce Construction Risk. Adobe PDF
Dacey, John; Bertman, Gregory
CASH Register; v28 n1 , p8,9 ; Jan 2007
Discusses how a school district can establish a fair and expedient construction claims process. An effective process continually shifts the responsibility to act on the claim back and forth between the owner and the contractor based upon who is in the best position to act; requires the party advancing the claim to advance it promptly with full backup as soon as the event, circumstance or occurrence giving rise to the claim has ended; and allows partial agreements to be processed as change orders so that the cash flow can continue.

Avoiding Change Orders in Public School Construction
Günhan, Suat; Arditi, David; and Doyle, Jacqueline
Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice; v133 n1 , p67-73 ; Jan 2007
Increased student enrollment and the current poor state of the educational infrastructure require the construction of more school buildings and the renovation of many of the existing ones. The large number and magnitude of change orders in these projects constitute an impediment to the rapid and economic delivery of these projects. A total of 6,585 change orders filed in a school district's projects in the 5 1/2 year period from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed in five categories including owner-directed changes, code compliance issues, errors/omissions in contract documents, discovered or changed conditions, and others. The results of the study indicate that the dollar value of change orders relative to the original contract can be reduced if preventive measures are taken. These measures include choosing the right construction management firm, emphasizing the definition of project scope early in the project, and effectively managing the precontract activities by conducting value engineering and constructability reviews. The results indicate that school projects can be completed with change orders not exceeding 5% of the contract value if these measures are taken. This study is of relevance to practitioners involved in school design and construction projects. [Authors' abstract]

Building Understanding.
Kocher, Erik
Athletic Business; v31 n1 , p43-47 ; Jan 2007
Discusses construction project management at length, including timing, assessing, and securing the bids; contingency funding; liquiditated damages to cover delays; contractor- generated voluntary alternates; timing, funding, and reducing the number of change orders; and keeping the project out of litigation when disputes arise.

What Really Happens on Bid Day? Things You Should Know before Embarking on a New Building Program.
Moultrie, Robert
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 , p10-13 ; 2007
Provides a description of the most common project delivery methods, along with some key tools that owners can use to ensure that projects meet quality, cost, and schedule goals. Design-Bid-Build, Construction Management At-Risk, and Design-Build are discussed, with a scenario for a bidding timeline included for Design-Bid-Buld.

Desiccant Dehumidification Beats Heat as Construction Drying Method.
Brown, Russ
Facilities Manager; v22 n6 , p42-44 ; Nov-Dec 2006
Describes the necessity of drying building materials after installation, outlining risks of damage and contamination from moisture lingering in the building. HVAC systems should not be used to accomplish drying. Proper drying is defined, and problems using heat for drying are cited. Dessicant heaters constructed specifically for this purpose are recommended, as they attract a greater volume of moisture and operate well at a variety of temperatures.

Managing Excellence Delivering Success Awards.
School Planning and Management; v45 10 , p36 51 ; Oct 2006
Shares effective management techniques in the planning, design, and construction of several K-12 projects from inception to completion. The selected projects showcase methods and procedures used to control time, cost, and quality in order to provide safe, secure, and appropriate physical environments.

Early Owner Planning Leads to Project Success.
Gainsboro, Dan
Planning for Higher Education; v35 n1 , p42-58 ; Oct 2006
Discusses the three phases of project start-up at hypothetical 2,000- to 3,000-student schools in a suburban business school, a liberal arts college, and a small urban university. Phase one involves understanding the project and desired outcomes. Phase two is identifying and preparing the internal team. Phase three is selecting the external team of consultants. A multitude of steps to be taken within each of these phases are presented in detail, and options for project delivery are described.

Building Schools in Phases. Adobe PDF
Hoyle, Terry; Sockwell, Keith
American School Board Journal; v193 n10 , p36-38 ; Oct 2006
Describes multi-phasing in school construction, where subsequent phases of new construction and expansion are contracted as one project, thus locking in the costs of construction and equipment. A detailed case study from Texas' Northwest Independent School District is included.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

The Green Team.
Jahnigen, Charlie
American School and University; v79 n1 , p32-34 ; Sep 2006
Reviews the benefits of the participation of LEED-certified green building experts in project management, architectural design, interior design, lighting, landscape, and facility management in a school building project. These professionals can also help determine which LEED points are achievable and at what cost.

Get it Together.
Coffey, Dave
American School and University; v78 n13 , p162-165 ; Aug 2006
Discusses computer modeling of large-scale projects to coordinate the work of designers and contractors, particularly in the timing of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems installations.

Why Construction Safety Is Important.
Emmons, Jim
Facilities Manager; v22 n4 , p60-64 ; Jul-Aug 2006
Reviews the owner's role in construction safety, and advises on how the owner can work with the contractor to encourage the contractor's obligations under safety regulations. The elements of a contractor safety program that can control the owner's risks are detailed, and suggestions on how to find a contractor with a good safety culture are offered.

The Project Prospectus.
Dober, Richard P.
College Planning and Management; Apr 2006
Money and time can be saved, communications improved and the stresses and strains of decision-making reduced by preparing a project prospectus as an institutionally approved statement of project justification and feasibility prior to the launching of the design and construction cycle.

Schematic Design Giveth and Design Development (CAN) taketh Away
Hill, Franklin; Feb 28, 2006
Schematic design, the first phase of the design process, can often set the framework for the entire project and identify all the “wish-list” items desired by the client. After schematic design, many people leave the process happy and assured in the knowledge that they have been heard, their needs identified, and the building will be perfect, futuristic, and flexible. There involvement is over…unfortunately. It is during the remainder of Design Development and Construction Document preparation that items thought to be “in the project” (may be) taken away. This article advises involving the client in the whole process, from Schematic design right through to construction documents.

Master Builder.
Silverman, Fran
District Administration; v42 n2 ; Feb 2006
Presents an interview with Los Angeles Unified School District's Jim McConnell, who led the District into the building of 160 new schools and renovation of many more. He describes his efforts at salvaging the District's damaged reputation, his techniques for staying within budget, and the solution for the notorious Belmont School site.

Construction Coordination Is a Team Effort.
Midler, Scott
Learning By Design; n15 , p14-16 ; 2006
Advises on selection of architects and construction managers for school projects, as well as how to encourage teamwork and handle change orders during the project.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email:

Order Up.
Gibeault, Michel
American School and University; v78 n3 , p288,289 ; Nov 2005
Discusses change orders originating from unforseen conditions, design-related changes, and changes in project scope. Tips for minimizing them through sophisticated site investigation, allocated risk, and effective contracting are offered.

On Target.
Levien, Kenneth
American School and University; v78 n3 , p290,291 ; Nov 2005
Describes benefits of engaging a project manager for school construction projects, citing the positive experience of a Brooklyn private school that completed a complicated renovation.

Ready and Able.
Osborn, John
American School and University; v78 n3 , p292,293 ; Nov 2005
Reviews the construction bidding constraints under which many school districts operate, recommends a construction manager to coordinate work, and outlines ten typical construction "sins," that can be resolved by proper advanced planning, project management, scheduling, understanding of local conditions, dispute resolution, and quality control.

Managing Excellence-Delivering Success Awards.
School Planning and Management; v44 n10 , p37-45 ; Oct 2005
Shares effective management techniques in the planning, design, and construction of several K-12 projects from inception to completion. The selected projects showcase methods and procedures used to control time, cost, and quality in order to provide safe, secure, and appropriate physical environments.

Managing Excellence-Delivering Success Awards.
College Planning and Management; v8 n10 , p43-51 ; Oct 2005
Shares effective management techniques in the planning, design, and construction of several K-12 projects from inception to completion. The selected projects showcase methods and procedures used to control time, cost, and quality in order to provide safe, secure, and appropriate physical environments.

Five Ways to Reduce Construction Risks. Adobe PDF
Dacey, John; Bergman, Gregory
CASH Register; v26 n10 , p6,7 ; Oct 2005
Discusses the following five steps school districts can take to reduce risk: 1) Conduct a critical self- evaluation. 2) Improve and coordinate construction and professional service contracts. 3) Use bonds drafted by the school district. 4) Establish a fair and expedient claims process. 5) Develop a problem solving mind set.

Delivering Project Information. Adobe PDF
Johnson, Nicholas
CASH Register; v26 n8 , p4,5.7,11 ; Aug 2005
Discusses inefficiencies and added construction expense incurred by lack of communication in school project management. The benefits to communication coordination offered by project management software are addressed, as is the necessity of creating a collaborative design and construction environment.

New Campus Construction Brings New Liabilities.
Hoye, William
Chronicle of Higher Education; v41 n38 ; May 27, 2005
Reviews a case where a general contractor and university were held liable for a subcontractor employee's severe injuries, and advises institutions on their legal obligations and the indemnifications and provisions that should be in place during construction and renovation.

Essential Questions to Raise During a Building Project.
Schneider, Tod
The School Administrator; v5 n62 , p39 ; May 2005
Presents twelve questions that should be answered during the school design process to enhance safety, health, and connectivity within the facility. The questions focus on the organization and observability of the physical spaces, protection from external and internal threats, a healthy environment, and interdisciplinary communication.

Putting Technology to Work on a Capital Project
Hare, Dudley, Jr.
School Administrator; v62 n4 , p51 ; Apr 2005
Managing complex capital construction projects provides formidable challenges to school leaders. Increasing enrollment, new state mandates, aging schools and the need for technology-rich environments are issues that require both more space and better quality facilities. Short-handed district leadership teams already find themselves more than fully engaged with ongoing responsibilities. Taking on a major construction project creates a broad range of new, time-consuming duties. When the oversight of a complex, multi-million dollar capital project is added to the leadership's ongoing responsibilities, a school administrator faces a daunting question: How can all this be managed? In this article, the authors attempt to answer that question.

Remote Control.
Sturgeon, Julie
District Administration; v41 n4 ; Apr 2005
Discusses the use of construction management software in school projects, with emphasis on web-based systems. The benefits of construction management software include improved accountability, honesty, timing, and management.

MasterFormat 2004 Edition.
Merriman, Dan
Facilities Manager; v21 n2 , p44-46 ; Mar-Apr 2005
Explains significant changes in MasterFormat with the 2004 edition. The number ofdivisions has been increase from 16 to 50, and the five-digit section numbers have been increasedto six. Significant changes within the divisions and the benefits of the new system to facilitymanagers are described.

L.A. Facilities Chief Brings Military Ethic To Massive Operation
Joetta Sack
Education Week ; Feb 02, 2005
Profile of Jim McConnell, facilities chief for the 740,000-student Los Angeles Unified School District. As the director of the largest school construction program in the country, he will oversee the building of 160 new schools and the renovation and maintenance of nearly 12,000 other facilities in one of the country’s most densely populated areas. [Free subscription required to access online article.]

Delivering Project Information.
Johnson, Nichols
Educational Facility Planner; v40 n1 , p14-17 ; 2005
Discusses the financial impact of poor communication in construction projects and advocates for web-based program management as a solution. Communication methods and standards should be specified and written into the contract.

Effective Project Management and Project Delivery: A Canadian Perspective.
Skinner, Hugh
Educational Facility Planner; v40 n1 , p21-24 ; 2005
Examines Canadian use of the standard project delivery methods, and the trend toward the Design-Build method and public/private partnerships due to a significant backlog of deferred maintenance and inadequate funding at the provincial level.

Eyes Wide Open.
Brennan, Daniel
American School and University; v77 n3 , p366-368 ; Nov 2004
Defines the roles of school and architect in a construction project, describing what should be done in the pre-design, what services and deliverables should be specified in the contract, how budgetary issues should be resolved, and how the architects should be paid.

Paper Chase.
McConaghy, Dan
American School and University; v77 n3 , p378-381 ; Nov 2004
Describes the procedures and advantages of document coordination reviews in school construction. These can be done by the design professionals involved, or by a third-party design, construction, or document review professional.

Smooth Operations.
Paul, Jeffrey
American School and University; v77 n3 , p382-383 ; Nov 2004
Describes the components of a campuswide construction mitigation plan, with specific recommendations to address traffic, noise, dust, and utilities during construction periods.

Misconceptions of a School Construction Project.
Rosenberg, David
The School Administrator; v61 n10 , p45 ; Nov 2004
Dispels three common misconceptions surrounding school construction: 1) Schools are easy to build. 2) To get the lowest construction price, choose the lowest bidder. 3)Construction is an isolated event that should be kept completely separate from ongoing school activities.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

When to Lead, When to Ask.
Rydeen, James; Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v77 n3 , p341-343 ; Nov 2004
Advises school planners and architects on proper timing and content of meetings with board members, administrators, and staff when creating a new school. Opportunities for leading are found by taking responsibility for focus groups, workshops, and steering committees. Opportunities for asking, or learning, from the client are found in soliciting ideas and concerns through these meetings, along with written surveys and questionnaires.

Managing Excellence Delivering Success Awards.
School Planning and Management; v43 n10 , p33-48 ; Oct 2004
Shares effective management techniques in the planning, design, and construction of projects from inception to completion. The selected projects showcase methods and procedures used to control time, cost, and quality in order to provide safe, secure, and appropriate physical environments.

A Project Primer.
Osborn, John E.
American School and University; v76 n13 , p150-152 ; Aug 2004
Suggests planning steps which can help ensure a successful school construction or renovation project. Start by forming a planning committee consisting of representatives of faculty, staff, students, parents, the community, business, and government. Carefully choose the architect and construction manager, include general conditions in the bid package, and at closout obtain warranties, and train staff.

Change Order Management.
Boot, Edward
School Planning and Management; v43 n4 , p16-20 ; Apr 2004
Discusses six major causes of change orders and suggests five ways to avoid them. Even with extensive planning efforts undertaken to avoid them, it is advisable to budget for unforseen circumstances.

Pitfalls Lurk for School-Project Chiefs.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n29 , p1,16,17 ; Mar 31, 2004
Potential delays and hidden costs are a fact of life in many school projects. Building schools requires not only architects, contractors, and facilities managers to work together, but also several different, and often competing, parties: the school board, the superintendent, other school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members. The ultimate goal is to have good communication between school officials and builders. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Internet Magic.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p36-40 ; Mar 2004
Discusses ways that the Internet can be used to manage school construction, post student grades, integrate security devices, and contact parents.

Access Control at the Construction Site.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p32,34,35 ; Mar 2004
Describes ten security procedures to protect students from assault or injury when construction is in progress during school hours.

What Can $3.6 Billion Buy? Los Angeles School Construction Has a Choice.
Fielding, Randall
DesignShare; , 5p. ; Feb 2004
Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) is pioneering a more efficient method for managing a $3.6 billion construction program so that decisions are made faster and vendors are paid in a timely manner. This questions whether or not Los Angeles' focus on delivering seats in schools will stand the test of time from an educational perspective. The author recommends that LAUSD focus more on sustainable, high performance design.

San Diego Rights Its Ship Under Navy's Lou Smith.
Illia, Tony
ENR: Engineering News-Record; v251 n24 , p17-23 ; Dec 15, 2003
Profile of Lou Smith, program director for San Diego's $1.51 billion school construction program. Smith has been credited with reinvigorating a small staff and reining in sloppy project management practices, getting costs back in line, booting poor performing contractors, and partnering with firms with which the district chooses to work.

Staying on Track.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n4 , p20-22 ; Dec 2003
Describes successful methods of planning and communication to help keep construction projects on schedule. Examples of how specific school systems encountered and then surmounted problems are provided.

Building for Success: The New Jersey Schools Construction Corp.
McNeill, Alfred T.
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p25-27 ; Dec 2003
Describes the work of the New Jersey Schools Construction Corp. (SCC) in managing school construction funded by the state's Educational Facilities Construction and Financing Act of 2000. The SCC has been able to serve the districts as clients by granting them flexibility in contracting, increasing their own staff, and opening field offices closer to the sites where most of the work is occurring.

Improving Construction Management at UCI through Effective Data Warehousing.
Hanspal, Amar
College Planning and Management; v6 n11 , p32,34 ; Nov 2003
Describes how improvements in construction management made at the University of California at Irvine streamlined the design-build program and enabled simultaneous construction projects to be coordinated in a time- and cost-effective manner.

Pardon Our Dust.
Prager, Gary
American School and University; v76 n3 , p301-03 ; Nov 2003
Lists facility and personnel considerations for successful construction during the school session, including maintaining circulation, safety, creating temporary spaces, sequencing plans, and keeping the school's staff informed.

Get Real.
Dellicker, Lee
University Business; Sep 2003
How can you arrive at an accurate construction estimate when you only have a vision? Simply follow these four steps to a credible conceptual budget: start with teamwork; do your homework; design to the budget; and assess your success.

Construction Management: Planning Ahead.
Arsht, Steven
American School and University; v75 n11 , p18,21-22 ; Jul 2003
Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency planning. A sidebar presents an example of effective preconstruction at one university.

Integrated Communication Systems.
Simpson, Ward
School Planning and Management; v42 n5 , p28,30,32 ; May 2003
Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress.

Creating Classrooms for Overcrowded Los Angeles.
Korman, Richard; Rosta, Paul
ENR: Engineering News-Record; v250 n13 , p32-39 ; Apr 07, 2003
This article details the accomplishments of Kathi Littmann, who won ENR's 2003 Award of Excellence for her exceptional public service in reinvigorating the Los Angeles Unified School District's construction program. As school construction chief, Kathi Littman speeded up the Los Angeles school construction program that urgently needed to acquire sites and complete designs to obtain state funding. She also reached out to parents and to community groups, and went out of her way to hire good architects and stimulate them to produce quality designs.

School Planning on the Web.
School Planning and Management; v41 n12 , p32-33 ; Dec 2002
As demands for more education facilities rise, Web-based program management tools can help reduce costs. Online program management systems such as e-builder (which improves communication between project participants, increases accountability, and streamlines the development process) can help control costs, minimize claims, and handle schedules. Understanding challenges unique to schools is the first step in configuring a solution to new development projects that burden facility department staff.

Districtwide Designs.
Lopez, Robert; Ruck, James A.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p341-44 ; Nov 2002
Discusses steps to help ensure successful district-wide school building improvement projects: identify the right people, plan carefully, implement community communications, and manage the design and construction process.

Punch List Process Concludes Building Project.
Roark, Steven
College Planning and Management; v5 n10 , p34 ; Oct 2002
The fourteenth article in a series following a single building project (the expansion and renovation of Longview Community College s Liberal Arts Building), describes the punch list process that concludes every building project. This list delineates issues for the contractor that, when addressed, transfer responsibility to the owner.

Developing Bid Specifications for Facilities Projects.
Baule, Steve
Knowledge Quest; v31 n1 , p14-17 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses developing bid specifications for facilities projects. Highlights include: the four basic sections of bid specifications (general conditions, specific conditions, table of values, and information about the bidder's company); setting standards for products; determining whether the bidder is qualified to do the work; a sample timeline; and reviewing the bids.

Why Districts Should Get Principals Involved in Renovation Projects.
Cianca, Marie; Brent, Brian O.
School Business Affairs; v68 n8 , p13-16 ; Sep 2002
Describes nature, benefits, concerns, and training needs related to principals' involvement in the school-renovation process.

Use Your Spreadsheet as a Project Management Tool.
Johnson, Donald R.
School Business Affairs; v68 n8 , p17-20 ; Sep 2002
Describes how to build a Gantt chart using a spreadsheet program to manage a school building project.

Managing Success.
Gaydon, Tony
American School and University; v74 n12 , p148-151 ; Aug 2002
Offers guidelines to ensure a smooth school construction project: (1) validate the program and budget; (2) create a management plan; (3) develop a reporting system; (4) qualify designers; (5) manage the design phase; (6) put the schedule in bidding documents; and (6) closely manage the construction phase.

Construction in the Mix.
Rush, Richard D.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p156-159 ; Aug 2002
Offers guidelines on conducting school construction projects when classes are in session.

Keeping Promises.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n11 , p18-24 ; Jul 2002
Describes how, with thorough planning, focus, teamwork, and discipline, school systems in Houston and San Diego have proven that they can manage massive and complicated construction programs without becoming mired in financial and bureaucratic difficulties.

Renovating & Reconstructing in Phases: Specifying Phased Construction.
Bunzick, John
The Construction Specifier; v55 n6 , p60,62-64,66-69 ; Jun 2002
Discusses planning for phased school construction projects, including effects on occupancy (for example, construction adjacent to occupied space, construction procedure safety zones near occupied areas, and code-complying means of egress), effects on building systems (such as heating and cooling equipment and power distribution), and contract documents (including a checklist).

Facility Planning for Educational Change: The Perfect Storm.
Brady, Thomas
Facilities Manager; v18 n3 , p33-35 ; May-Jun 2002
Delineates the enrollment, program, and funding factors that contributed to a facilities crisis in the Fairfax County Public Schools, explains the planning process implemented to address them, and offers suggestions for adaptation by other institutions of learning. The focus is on the need to be proactive, to scan the environment for change, and to incorporate collective wisdom in decisions.

Traps and Treasures: How To Stay Safe and Avoid the Perils of School Construction.
Marshall, Colin A.
American School and University; v74 n9 , p38-41 ; May 2002
Provides steps school administrators can take to ensure safe construction: stay visible, update students, separate students and construction workers, engage workers in the educational process, monitor student movement, observe construction workers, barricade work areas, watch for stored materials, check emergency exits daily, conduct fire drills, involve the local board of health, develop a parking plan, and communicate with parents.

Managing the Successful Start of a New School.
Pettersen, R. Lawrence
The School Administrator; May 2002
Advice from a Portland, Oregon principal on planning, building, and opening a new school. Discusses inadequate educational specifications, boundary recommendations, diffusing communication, fighting battles, and opening in a positive way.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

Safety Program Guidelines for Public School Facility Construction and Operations.
Usmen, Mumtaz; Baradan, Selim; Jayyousi, Kifah
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction; v7 n2 , p74-80 ; May 2002
Facilities management programs at public schools covering capital improvement projects and facility operations and maintenance functions need comprehensive safety programs to ensure that workers, school staff, and students are provided a safe and healthy environment during all related activities. This paper reviews the elements of a school safety program and discusses program implementation issues to make it successful. Program guidelines are provided for safe construction, operations, maintenance, and design in the context of school facilities. [Authors' abstract]

Construction Projects--Managing from "Outside the Frame."
Christenson, James E.
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p10-11,13 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Describes the tasks of a construction project manager: listening, offering alternative solutions, translating needs into facilities components, assuring adequate funding, and tracking and facilitating the project. Also asserts that there should be one person handling all phases of the project for the customer.

Critical Points To Consider when Starting an Expansion Program.
de los Reyes, Sergio
College Planning and Management; v5 n3 , p24-26 ; Mar 2002
Discusses four steps to take before starting a major design and construction expansion program: (1) prepare a space program; (2) prepare a detailed conceptual estimate; (3) rank projects in order of importance; and (4) organize the institution to act effectively.

Under Control.
Henry, Rich
American School and University; v74 n3 , p365-66 ; Nov 2001
Offers advice on how school administrators can properly plan and monitor school construction projects to contain costs. Cost control tips discussed include project scope definition, contract bidding and awarding practice, and project management techniques.

Managing the Money.
Laudolff, Paul
American School and University; v74 n3 , p320-23 ; Nov 2001
Explains how schools and universities that clearly define their construction projects will have greater success staying within budget. Examines some fundamentals of project definition and key cost- management steps, including assembling a team, developing a concept, design phase, award phase, and construction phase.

Avoiding Construction Snafus.
Rochefort, Mark; Gosch, Jerry
American School and University; v74 n3 , p347-48 ; Nov 2001
Discusses risk management planning tips that help schools avoid project-delaying construction problems. Preconstruction planning topics explored include the type of construction method to use, contract selection, and the need for efficient project management.

Involving Principals in School Renovations: Benefit or Burden?
Brent, Brian O.; Cianca, Marie
Journal of Education Finance; v27 n2 , p729-40 ; Oct 2001
Examines the nature and extent of principal involvement in school renovation, assesses costs and benefits thereof, and reviews principal training in school renovation.

Timing is Everything: A Guide to Planning Your Building Project Calendar.
Brunner, Patrick M.; Shelley, Kevin D.
American School Board Journal; v188 n10 , p27-29 ; Oct 2001
Describes the major steps for a school board to include in a school building project timeline: 1) build community support by communicating school construction needs to the public; 2) work with board members, administration, teachers, and the community in the programming phase; 3) provide input in the design and documentation phase; 4) plan on two months for a complete bidding process; 5) plan on a minimum of 12 months of construction time for smaller renovations or additions, 15 months for a new elementary school, two years for a new high school, and up to 30 months for renovations or additions to a large high school that is occupied during the construction phase; and 5) plan one month for cleaning and moving into a building.

School Officials Learn Lesson in Managing Booming Work.
Angelo, William; Rubin, Debra
ENR: Engineering News-Record; v247 n7 , p47-48 ; Aug 13, 2001
This article describes how education officials in Arizona keep track of nearly 6,000 school improvement projects at once by using a large Web-based extranet that links the state's 228 school districts with architects, contractors and statewide supervisors.

Job Ordering Contracting: Obtaining Construction Services Efficiently and Economically Through the JOC Delivery System.
Kashiwagi, Dean T.
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n2 , p4-10 ; 2001
Discusses what job order contracting (JOC) for facilities managers is and its advantages and disadvantages. Also discusses the Center for Job Order Contracting Excellence, the impact of the "low- bid" award process, the benefits of JOC's use of multiple on-site contractors, and utilization of performance-based procurement and performance information.

Successful Management of Public School Capital Improvement Programs.
Filardo, Mary
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p4-10 ; Dec 2000
In 1999, the 21st Century School Fund interviewed seven large school districts regarding management of capital-improvement programs. Researchers found three basic models: in-house management, other-public-agency management, and private-sector management. Systematic oversight and quality-control approaches will protect school systems from mismanagement, fraud, and abuse.

Meeting Environmental Guidelines and Completing School Construction Projects on Time and Within Budget.
Preyar, Chester F.
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p17-20 ; Dec 2000
Taxpayers expect school-construction projects to be managed efficiently and in accordance with environmental standards. Phases include selecting an architect and site, stating project requirements, working with the architect, considering nvironmental factors, getting budget estimates and reviews, and choosing a contractor and project-schedule monitor

Managing Projects Online.
Anderson, J. Mark; Cheak, Kathy; Jurewicz, John Jr.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p421-25 ; Nov 2000
Describes a web-based project management (WBPM) for university construction projects and the two approaches for establishing this type of system. Also highlighted is how a WBPM can improve project delivery by reducing project lost time, system comparisons, and project cost savings generated by a WBPM.

This Space Occupied.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p37-38,40,42 ; Aug 2000
Discusses how to plan year-round school construction projects so that they have less negative impact on student learning. Extensive communication with all parties involved to identify potential problems and being clear in contracting proposals concerning construction criteria are stressed.

Managing Changes in Building Plans
Schoolhouse of Quality; v4 n1 , p5-7 ; Winter 2000
Examines why school building plans get modified, how it affects the new school, and what can be done to plan for it. The role of the architect in managing change and use of a contingency fund are discussed as are the five types of changes that can happen and how they should be paid for.

No Summer Vacation: The Challenges of Summer Construction.
Frei, Emil
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n3 , p16-17 ; 2000
Discusses the problems school construction projects face during building and maintenance efforts over the summer. Issues involving planning, the use of teamwork, community concerns, child safety, and surprises that cannot be thoroughly accounted for in the pre- construction phase are addressed.

Lessons Learned.
Hassell, Kim Dale
Learning By Design; n9 , p13-15 ; 2000
Discusses the common mistakes in school design and construction and how to avoid them. Mistake avoidance in master planning, site acquisition, drawing changes, budgeting, school design process, construction management, and the architect's role are highlighted.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email:

How to Manage a New School Building.
Chan, T.C.; Ledbetter, David
Principal; v79 n2 , p25-26 ; Nov 1999
Although the principal of a new school must tackle curriculum planning, staffing, and community relations, the greatest challenge is making sure the building opens smoothly and on time. A principal must be a key planner, an events coordinator, a good communicator, a maintenance supervisor, and a visionary leader.

Keep Talking.
Haglethorn, Gary; Garris, John
American School and University; v72 n3 , p328-30 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how frequent communication between school administrators and construction managers can prevent construction calamities. How a construction committee works and the need for concentrating on safety issues are examined.

Delivery Order Contracting: A Better Way To Build.
Kline, Clayton M.
Facilities Manager; v15 n5 , p19-24 ; Sep-Oct 1999
Explains what delivery order contracting (DOC) is and how it can be used to provide a cost effective, efficient, and less acrimonious environment when doing low-bid contracting. Benefits of DOC are discussed, such as compressing the acquisition time; reducing maintenance, repair, and renovation backlogs; and reducing up-front costs. Concluding comments offer tips for managing DOC successfully.

Are You Ready for At-Risk Program Management?
Echols, William C.
School Planning and Management; v38 i4 , p56-57, 59 ; Apr 1999
Describes the use of the At-Risk Program Management approach to project delivery management, an approach that guarantees results for time, scope, quality, and cost for all components of project delivery while incorporating any combination of delivery methods. Its general parameters and the role of the at-risk program manager are explored as is the methodology for choosing a contracting method.

Easing the Pain.
McGovern, Gene
American School and University; v71 n5 , p37-40 ; Jan 1999
Discusses school building program planning for construction projects on occupied school campuses. Advice is given for choosing a general contractor, scheduling the work to limit its disruptive effects on the school community, establishing safety procedures, preparing the surrounding community for the inconveniences that construction may cause, and raising funds.

Avoiding Project Creep.
Scarnati, James T.; Kennerknecht, Norbert J.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p138-140 ; Aug 1998
Discusses how to keep school district capital-improvement projects within budget. Areas where runaway costs creep into a project and ways of cutting are lessening these costs are examined, such as using standard agreements, controlling architect's expense reimbursements, developing a quality control process, and reducing document duplication.

On the Right Track.
Metzner, Richard R.; Feifer, Irwin J.
American School and University; v70 11 , p28,30,32 ; Jul 1998
Offers tips on developing a clear and detailed plan that can keep a school rehabilitation project on time and within budget. Developing proper communication between stakeholders, knowing the regulations, probing for facts about deterioration, and being persistent and demanding in monitoring the construction project are stressed.

Interdisciplinary Coordination Reviews: A Process to Reduce Construction Costs.
Fewell, Dennis A.
Facilities Manager; v14 n2 , p42-43,45,47-48 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Interdisciplinary Coordination design review is instrumental in detecting coordination errors and omissions in construction documents. Cleansing construction documents of interdisciplinary coordination errors reduces time extensions, the largest source of change orders, and limits exposure to liability claims. Improving the quality of design documents is discussed.

Third Party Project Management: A Coming Reality for an Increasingly Unrealistic World.
Griffin, Jeff
Facilities Manager; v14 n2 , p19-23 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Third party management of the development and facilities delivery process is a response to trends in the design, construction, and legal industries. Changes in the process and the architect's organization, the role of the project manager, drawbacks to third party management, and the relevance for educational construction projects are discussed.

Six Rules for School Boards.
Connor, William F.
School Planning & Management; v37 n2 , p61-62 ; Feb 1998
Examines administration rules that a public school board should consider for navigating through school construction and renovation projects. Rules include establishing a forum for public input, identifying project management experts, and requiring a document turnover and familiarization plan.

"Wrapping Up" Your Construction Insurance.
Ferraro, Mark
School Business Affairs; v64 n1 , p56-59 ; Jan 1998
School facility managers are beginning to use a special insurance-management technique called wrap-up. The project owner purchases a bulk construction insurance policy consisting of general liability, excess liability, workers' compensation, and builders' risk insurance. Wrap-ups ensure competitive pricing, safety incentives, lower claims costs, an expanding pool of new proposers, and the appropriate policy wording.

RFIs and Change Orders Made Simple.
Barrett, Julie R.
School Business Affairs; v63 n12 , p34-36 ; Dec 1997
Owners of public building projects are increasingly turning to Interdisciplinary Coordination and Constructibility Reviews prior to going out to bid. The ICCR is a methodical quality-assurance process designed to make building projects more cost effective, constructible, and of better quality. This article describes the Preconstruction ICCR process and benefits.

Back to School: An Effective Approach To Managing School Renovations.
Lankenau, Matthew; Zack, James G., Jr.
The Construction Specifier; v50 n9 , p40-41,46,49 ; Sep 1997
Explains that U.S. schools are in no physical condition to educate students in ways that will increase the quality of life by developing a more enlightened and skilled populace. It outlines a simple approach to efficiently define these problems, raising construction quality, increasing client satisfaction, and reducing construction costs.

Balancing Act.
Hillinger, Howard
American School & University; v69 n4 , p36-37 ; Dec 1996
Describes how adding a project manager can ensure a smooth process during capital improvements. Discusses ways to fill program management needs, such as developing in-house staff or retaining a qualified program-management consultant. Details the importance of the project manager scrutinizing overhead costs, risk, responsibility, and other matters.

Right from the Start--Constructing a Healthy School.
Oetzel, Mary
(School Business Affairs, Jun 1994)
School Business Affairs; v60 n6 , p4-8,10-11 ; Jun 1994
A new high school in Stillwater, Minnesota, was completed in June 1993 with the objectives of creating a safe indoor environment, minimizing health risks to construction workers, and avoiding a negative impact on the environment. Lists the guidelines used to evaluate products and methods. Displays the findings of five school systems regarding the costs of various school floor coverings.

Keeping the Roof on Building Costs.
Rydeen, James E.
School Administrator; v51 n6 , p8-13 ; Jun 1994
School construction overruns and other disappointments usually stem from inadequate planning, mismanagement, and inexperienced individuals. This article shows how to compute "ballpark" estimates based on a district's unique planning requirements for curriculum, scheduling, and class sizes; screen firms' and individuals' qualifications; devise a realistic budget, monitor the design and construction process; and develop shared responsibility for outcomes.

Control Points in Planning a New or Remodeled School Building.
Herman, Jerry J.
School Business Affairs; v57 n1 , p22-24 ; Jan 1991
Outlines crucial administrator responsibilities during the planning and construction phases of a new or remodeled school building. Includes designing the program, contracting the architect, and establishing and selling a bond issue.

The School Board Must Adopt a Policy and Approve Rules and Regulations to Avoid Pitfalls When Dealing with New Construction.
Herman, Jerry J.
Educational Facility Planner; v29 n4 , p12-17 ; 1991
A recommended model policy related to new school construction has four major phases: (1) determining needs; (2) planning for facilities; (3) constructing new facilities; and (4) accepting and operating facilities once they are constructed.

New School Planning--What Do We Really Believe?
Lane, Kenneth E.
Educational Facility Planner; v29 n6 , p8-11 ; 1991
The principal is viewed as the one responsible for the opening and occupation of a new school. Lists 17 questions a newly appointed principal needs to have answered. Stresses the importance of operating an efficient and effective maintenance and operations program. (eight references).

Preventing Chaos during School Renovation--The Need for Relocation Planning.
Vasilakis, John N.
School Business Affairs; v56 n3 , p23-24 ; Mar 1990
Modernization or reconstruction programs can be coordinated by developing a relocation plan for each school site. A relocation plan is a detailed outline of the proposed work to be accomplished in a planned sequence to accommodate the educational needs of the school during the project.

New Construction: A Guide for Principals.
Gross, Donald, et al.
NASSP Bulletin; v72 n510 , p101-02 ; Oct 1988
This article outlines questions to consider before construction begins and how to manage two facilities as construction progresses.

How to Maintain Project Control via Checkpoints.
Hargraves, Darroll; Vanwechel, Pamela
School Administrator; v44 n6 , p17-20 ; Jun 1987
Provides an outline of items for consideration when planning construction projects for new educational facilities. Establishing checkpoints, calendaring events, delineating responsibilities, and developing a checklist and timeline to follow during planning and construction as well as a close-out audit help ensure success. Includes a copy of a timeline form.

Features of Construction Contracts to Expedite Construction Work, Reduce Owner's Financial Risks and Expenditures.
Birrell, George S.
CEFP Journal; v24 n6 , p.15-19 ; Nov-Dec 1986
Describes the array of contractual features between the project owner and the main contractor that can lead individually or in permutations to expediting the construction process and reducing the financial risks and expenditures of the project owner.

How Well Do You Know School Construction?
Day, C. William; Groten, James P.
School Business Affairs; v52 n11 , p44-47 ; Nov 1986
Describes construction process principles and discusses problems school owners experience: (1) laws that require selection of the lowest bidder, (2) decisions that must be made by the duly elected governing body, and (3) school board members who often lack knowledge about the construction process. Includes a quiz for owners and attorneys.

Who Affects Costs of Constructing School Facilities?
Day, C. William
CEFP Journal; v23 n6 , p9-10 ; Nov-Dec 1985
School officials must be aware of their own and others' influences on the cost of constructing a school facility. Administrators' responsibilities include investigating the architect's reputation for performance and adhering to a clearly defined educational program.

Options in the Construction Process.
Craig, James W., Jr.
CEFP Journal; v19 n5 , p6, 10 ; Sep-Oct 1981
Discusses the construction phase of the school planning process. Presents an overview of the different contractual relationships between an owner and contractors.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).