PRESERVING HISTORIC NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOLS
Information on preservation and modernization of historic neighborhood schools, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
The Greenest Building: Quantifying the Environmental Value of Building Reuse.
Preservation Green Lab of the National Trust for Historic Preservation
Study concludes that, when comparing buildings of equivalent size and function, building reuse almost always offers environmental savings over demolition and new construction. Provides compelling evidence of the merits of reusing existing buildings as opposed to tearing them down and building new.
You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South.
(Northwestern University Press, 2012)
Tells the story of Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington whose meeting led eventually to the construction of thousands of schools for black children in the segregated South. Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Co., was one of the richest men in America; Washington rose out of slavery to become a civil rights leader. Together they worked with local communities to build schools that often served as civic centers as well as schools. Though most schools closed when segregation ended, there has been interest in recent years in renovating and restoring them.
Video: Tulane Architect and Treme Actress Plea for Preservation of Wheatley School.
(The Times-Picayune , Apr 06, 2011)
The Phillis Wheatley Elementary School, a mid-1950s design by architect Charles R. Colbert, in New Orleans is slated for demolition to make way for a new, larger school to open in 2013. Tulane University architecture professor John P. Klingman, Tulane school of architecture visual resources curator Francine Stock and actress/author/former Wheatley student Phyllis Montana-LeBlanc -- who appears on HBO's "Treme" television show -- plead for the preservation of the school.
Lead-Safe Practices for Older and Historic Buildings.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2011)
Offers guidance on renovations of buildings with pre-1978 paint, which may contain lead. Through inexpensive materials and lead-safe renovation techniques, historic buildings can be made lead safe while preserving their architectural features. New federal requirements for contractor requirements concerning lead-based paint abatement are also addressed.
Rosenwald School Buildings: Case Studies
(National Trust for Historic Buildings, 2011)
Preservation efforts underway at Rosenwald school buildings across the South and Southwest. These buildings are being saved through a combination of grants, private donations, fundraising, and volunteer work. Many buildings have been given new life and new purposes, again becoming the centers of their local communities. Includes case studies, the development of the Rosenwald school designs, and architectural plans.
Historic Preservation [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Nov 2010)
This section of the Whole Building Design Guide provides an overview of the topic and suggests four treatment approaches. There is a full discussion of the following recommendations: Apply the Preservation Process Successfully; Update Building Systems Appropriately; Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs; and Comply with Accessibility Requirements.
Community-Centered Schools Are Critical For Sustainable Neighborhoods? So How Can We Encourage More?
(International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC , Jun 2010)
Advocates for more community schools, examining obstacles to their creation, the importance of proximity between school and neighborhood, recommendations for policy changes that will enable more community schools, particularly where acreage requirements are concerned. Eight references are included. 6p.
Renovate Ohio's Historic Schools
(Renovate Ohio Schools, Feb 2010)
Advocates for the preservation of historic Ohio schools, which are being lost quickly. The website offers several publications to assist the preservationist, a description of the benefits of saving schools, myths surrounding older schools, and a photographic inventory of saved and lost schools in Ohio.
Older and Historic Schools: Restoration vs. Replacement and the Role of a Feasibility Study.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2010)
Provides a checklist to help create a complete and fair feasibility study when deciding whether to restore or replace an older school. Selecting the proper consultant, proper accounting, building codes, public participation, cultural and historic significance, site plan, scheduling, and educational programming, components of the study, and steps in executing the study are addressed. 7p.
Helping Johnny Walk to School.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , Jan 2010)
Advocates the siting of schools to achieve educational, public health, and sustainability objectives. A community-centered school helps anchor the surrounding neighborhood, is centrally-located to a majority of students, and uses existing infrastructure whenever possible. The report identifies the larger community interest in decisions about retaining existing schools and deciding where to locate new ones. It describes the states' role in school siting decisions and identifies state level policy changes that will ensure that educational, environmental, health, community, and fiscal considerations are weighed by communities when school districts make school closing, consolidation, and site selection decisions. 44p.
A New Life for the Franklin School: Connecting the Past to the Present.
Simon, Chaya Rachel
(Theses, University of Maryland, 2010)
When the Franklin School was built in 1869 in the heart of Franklin Square, a vibrant area of Washington, D.C., the school was the gold standard for D.C. public schools. However, over the years, the building and its surrounding neighborhood have deteriorated. Franklin Square has become a business district active only during business hours, with an underused park. The school, which is currently empty, has undergone a few renovations, but the interior of the building has deteriorated. Despite its emptiness, it remains the only lasting memory of Franklin Square's vibrant past. By redeveloping the Franklin School into a new and accessible public charter school and connecting it to the park, the two can become a catalyst to re-activate the area. By testing different approaches to adaptive re-use, this thesis will explore ways to reconnect the building and its surroundings to the past.[Author's abstract]
Administrative Procedures: Aging School Program, Maryland Public School Construction Program.
(Maryland Public School Construction Program, Jul 2009)
The Aging School Program in Maryland provides state funds to all school systems in Maryland to address the needs of their aging school buildings. These funds may be utilized for capital improvements, repairs, and deferred maintenance work at existing public school buildings and sites serving students. This describes eligible projects and the application process. 19p.
School Buildings and Community Building.
(National Center for Safe Routes to School, Chapel Hill, NC, May 2008)
An Environmental Protection Agency employee discusses the low priority of walkability in siting schools, the role of school siting in community development, and the history of neighborhood planning. State acreage and funding requirements for schools are cited, examples of poorly and well-sited schools are profiled, and various positive and negative efforts of communities and associations to create walkable schools are described.
State-of-the-Art Performing Arts Facility Born out of Historic High School.
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , 2008)
Profiles Colorado State University's new University Center for the Arts, which converted the 1924 Fort Collins High School into a facility providing concert, theatre, dance, and visual arts spaces. Plans and photographs are included. 3p.
Educate Yourself About Preservation: Preserving Pennsylvania’s Historic School Buildings.
(Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC), 2007)
From one-room nineteenth-century schoolhouses to the sprawling post-war high schools of the mid-twentieth century, historic schools across Pennsylvania are threatened. The PHMC’s historic school buildings initiative includes resources that encourage the preservation and continued use of historic school buildings. Included here is online information on the following: 1) Why Historic Schools are Important; 2) Why are Historic Schools at Risk?; 3) A Brief History of Public Education Policy in the Keystone State; 4) Guidelines for School Rehabilitation and New Construction; 5) Rehabilitation Technical Assistance; 6) School Renovation Successes ; 7) Advocacy Efforts; 8) Where to Go for More Information; and 9) Bibliography.
Renovate or Replace: The Case for Restoring and Reusing Older School Buildings.
(Save Our Land, Save Our Towns Inc. with funding by the William Penn Foundation, on behalf of the Pennsylvania Historic Schools Task Force , 2007)
Helps school boards and communities assess their options when considering replacing or renovating an established school. Considering the renovation the school within the context of neighborhood revitalization is emphasized, as is the construction quality typical of older schools, the assistance design professionals can provide, the value of small schools, the benefits of walking to school, the environmental wisdom of reusing older buildings, and the potential for adaptive reuse of older commercial buildings as schools. Case studies and opportunities particular to Pennsylvania are included. 32p.TO ORDER: Save Our Land, Save Our Towns Inc., 222 Chestnut Street Pottstown, PA 19464. Tel: 610.323.6837
Alfred Kiger Savoy Elementary School Modernization and Co-Location Project.
(The 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Dec 01, 2006)
Presents the plans for an upgraded Washington, D.C., elementary school campus which will subsequently host a renovated 40-year old school and a new public charter school. A project summary, plans aerial views, perspectives, project schedule, LEED approach, and budget are included. 22p.
Schools Cycle Back into the Heart of the Neighborhood.
(Oregon School Boards Association, Salem , Summer 2006)
This issue of the publication "Focus on Critical Issues" provides information to help encourage cycling to school. This includes planning and siting considerations for neighborhood schools, with examples of community and trail-linked campuses, parking lot size reductions, and preservation of historic schools. A list of resources is also included. 12p.
Model Policies for Preserving Historic Schools.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , May 2006)
Outlines components of school facility policies that successfully combine rehabilitation of older schools and construction of new. These policies feature flexible acreage standards, joint use, funding partnerships, feasibility studies to compare the costs of renovating and building new, and sale or reuse of older school buildings that are not renewable. Citations for 20 exemplary state policies are included. 4p.
Preserving Rosenwald Schools.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2006)
Narrates the history of the Rosenwald Schools, citing their funding, design, amenities, and educational legacy. Efforts to preserve surviving Rosenwald schools as schools, community centers, and museums are described, as are resources for preservation assistance. Includes 26 references. 20p.TO ORDER: National Trust for Historic Preservation
Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 2: Schools as Centers of Communities Policies.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve the creation of schools as centers of community. The recommended policies cover extensive and innovative community use of the public school facility, community partnerships that support high quality education and contribute to life-long learning, co-location with local government agencies and/or community organizations resulting in creative program service delivery and more efficient utilization of public land and buildings, and opportunities for new and/or additional sources of funds for financing building improvements and program delivery. Preservation of historic and other neighborhood schools is particularly encouraged. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 15p.
An Appraisal Guide for Older and Historic School Facilities.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2005)
Assists in the evaluation of the physical condition and educational adequacy of older and historic school facilities. The authors discuss principles of school facility assessments, the appraisal process, and preparation of the final report. Appraisal criteria include educational adequacy, educational environment, the school site, safety and security, structural and systems condition, and maintainability. A glossary and scoring instrument are included. 50p.TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org/i4a/ams/amsstore/category.cfm?category_id=9
Minneapolis Public Schools Historic Context Study.
(Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission , 2004)
This historic context study spans more than a hundred years and the approximately 140 buildings constructed, acquired, maintained, expanded, and sometimes removed by the Minneapolis Board of Education between 1849 and 1962. The timeframe extends from the first public schools constructed in Minneapolis to the expansion of elementary and junior high schools for the post-World War II baby-boom generation. It examines the creation and maintenance of the school plant as evidenced by Minneapolis Board of Education policy and building design and describes the relationship of each remaining property to advances in school construction and program development. The historic context narrative includes an inventory of existing schools, including those now in private ownership.
Rosenwald Schools in Virginia.
(United State Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DC , 2004)
Presents historical documentation for Virginia's Rosenwald Schools, detailing their creation, funding, architecture, distribution, and significance as landmarks worthy of preservation. Also included is documentation for the schools' accompanying teacher residences and industrial arts laboratories. Includes 27 references. 19p.
A Primer for the Renovation/Rehabilitation of Older and Historic Schools.
Gilberg, Mark; Peters, Ron; Weihs, Janell
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Provides guidance to communities in rehabilitating historic schools. The benefits and opportunities offered by older structures within neighborhoods are cited, along with advice on how to assess the economics of renovation and obtain funding. Practical guidance regarding sites, building codes, ADA compliance, building systems, safety, sustainability, and environmental hazards is offered. Includes 46 references. 44p.TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org/i4a/ams/amsstore
Hard Lessons: Causes and Consequences of Michigan's School Construction Boom.
McClelland, Mac; Schneider, Keith
(Michigan Land Use Institute, Beulah, MI , 2004)
This provides a detailed review of how school construction decisions — whether to renovate existing buildings or build new, greenfield facilities — are made in Michigan and their effect on development patterns. The report aims to help school officials, community leaders, homeowners, and parents evaluate the full cost of new school construction or renovation. It recommends changes in state policy that, if implemented, will capture the economic and cultural benefits of renovating older schools or building new ones in town. 20p.
Concept Plan for Relocation to the Nichols Avenue School.
(The 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Dec 29, 2003)
Presents a conceptual plan for locating a law-related charter high school to a small, historic neighborhood school building. The deficiencies described include lack of administrative, physical education, cafeteria, and assembly spaces, and sufficient classroom space. Site plans illustrate the design remedies and are accompanied by cost estimates. 59p.
The One-Room Schoolhouse: A Tribute to a Beloved National Icon
(Universe Publishing, Nov 2003)
From 1750 through about 1950, the one-room schoolhouse was a common fixture on the American landscape, with as many as 200,000 in total across the land. Today, approximately 450 one-room schoolhouses are still in use. This book is a celebration rather than a serious study of this American icon. It provides a tour of these structures still standing, detailing the best examples from forty-eight states, exploring working schools, some in existence for more than 100 years, schools restored as historic museums, and schools converted into private residences. 208p.
An Honor and and Ornament: Public School Buildings in Michigan.
(State Historic Preservation Office; Michigan Historical Center; Dept. of History, Arts and Libraries; Lansing , Sep 2003)
Presents a summary of a state study that explored the history and architecture of the Michigan public school building built 1835 to the present. Illustrated chapters cover the design influences, school types, building forms, styles, and key architects of the state's inventory. 29p.
Historic Neighborhood Schools Deliver 21st Century Educations.
Beaumont, Constance E.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , May 2003)
Examines the numerous advantages that can be gained from preserving older neighborhood schools. Debunks the notion that well-renovated historic schools cannot meet modern standards. Recounts the experiences of three successful school renovation projects in Spokane, Washington; San Antonio, Texas; and Boise, Idaho. Concludes with several briefer examples illustrating how communities have found creative solutions to common problems encountered during historic renovation. Fifteen color photographs convey the value of these projects from an architectural and aesthetic perspective. 16p.
State Policies and School Facilities: How States Can Support or Undermine Neighborhood Schools and Community Preservation.
Beaumont, Constance E.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , May 2003)
This report reaffirms the contribution made by historic neighborhood schools to their communities. It offers guidance to officials and local preservationists for creating state policies that help preserve and maintain historic community schools, and for building new schools that serve as community centers. The report describes state requirements for community involvement in school planning, the overly generous site standards that contradict the creation of community schools and preservation, and funding mechanisms that help preserve historic schools. Information for the report was gathered from telephone interviews, correspondence with state school facility officials,and online reviews of printed school facility standards. Includes 13 references. 32p.
Preserving Georgia's Historic Schools.
(Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources, Historic Preservation Division, Atlanta , 2003)
Offers justifications for preserving the state's historic schools along with advice on how to receive historic designation and state funding for rehabilitation. Discussions of renovation versus building new, deferred maintenance, adaptive use, and community use follow. 12p.
Historic Schools Technical Assistance Consortium. Final Report.
Williams, Judith B.
(Columbus Landmarks Foundation, Columbus, OH , Dec 2002)
This in-depth study of selected historic schools in the Columbus Public School district demonstrates that the renovation of such buildings can achieve a high standard of educational adequacy for a cost that is less than new construction. Four case studies are beautifully illustrated with photographs, floor plans, and artist's renderings of conceptual design solutions. 86p.
Why Johnny Can't Walk to School: Historic Neighborhood Schools in the Age of Sprawl.
Beaumont, Constance E.; Pianca, Elizabeth G.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , Oct 2002)
This report examines public policy effects on historic neighborhood school expansion, renovation, and replacement needs. It addresses four basic questions: (1) Are public policies inadvertently sabotaging the very type of community-centered school that many parents and educators are calling for today? (2) Do some policies and practices promote mega-school sprawl at the expense of older neighborhoods? (3) Why can't kids walk to school anymore? and (4) How have some school districts overcome policy and other barriers to the retention and modernization of old historic schools? Included are examples of how some communities are addressing these policies, including several school renovation successes. Concluding sections provide recommendations for policy reforms to buttress neighborhood conservation and smart growth efforts that can help to retain and improve good schools that have served established neighborhoods for generations. 52p.
Saving Ohio's Historic Neighborhood Schools: A Primer for School Preservation Advocates.
(Heritage Ohio, Columbus, OH , Jul 24, 2002)
This publication was developed to assist concerned citizens faced with the loss of their neighborhood schools. It recounts a brief history of school reform in Ohio, leading to the current crisis, and suggests strategies advocates for the preservation of their neighborhood schools can use to save their neighborhood assets. Broad issues addressed include understanding the process of school construction, understanding the perspective of the educator and community, organizing stakeholders, confronting challenges, and designing a communications campaign. (Contains a list of organizational resources.) 14p.
Myth and Reality: A Study of Excess Space in the District of Columbia Public High Schools. A Case Study of Cardozo and McKinley Technology Senior High Schools.
(21st Century School Fund; Senior High Alliance of Parents, Principals, & Educators, Washington, D.C. , May 2002)
This study involved an in-depth floor space analysis of Cardozo Senior High School, and a review of design plans for a modernized McKinley Tech High School (both in Washington, DC), in order to prompt District of Columbia public schools to develop accurate measurements of useable (i.e., net) floor space, thereby allowing design standards flexible enough to accommodate old and historic schools. Detailed findings from the floor space analyses led to the following recommendations: (1) revise the standard specs to allow greater flexibility so that existing high schools will not face a complete demolition of their interiors at extremely high cost; (2) change the floor space design standard value or eliminate its use altogether; (3) calculate the quantity of net floor space by measuring instructional and administrative space, thereby helping with the determination of enrollment capacities; (4) reexamine the quantity of total existing gross floor space, which is critical to the determination of excess space; and (5) undertake site studies to determine whether structured parking or other improvements are possible to alleviate site constraint problems. (Contains several tables of floor space analysis. Appendices contain floor plans, a list of rooms measured at Cardozo, and a comparison between Cardozo and standard specs of net floor spaces and student capacities.) 43p.
Education and Smart Growth: Reversing School Sprawl for Better Schools and Communities. Translation Paper Number Eight.
(Charles Stewart Mott Foundation in collaboration with the Funders' Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities and Grantmakers in Aging. , Mar 2002)
The paper describes how the trend toward building new schools on large sites far from existing development centers, called “school sprawl” or “school giantism,” can have far-reaching impacts on school children,school districts and the larger community. Educators and parents express concern that large schools reduce educational outcomes, particularly for at-risk youth. Schools that are more distant can diminish student participation in extra-curricular activities, parental involvement and taxpayer support. Students are walking and cycling to school less, which contributes to alarming rates of childhood obesity. Rather than build shopping mall schools at the edge of town, smart growth advocates encourage the continued use of existing schools and the construction of new schools on infill sites within existing neighborhoods. Smart growth advocates' interest in neighborhood schools dovetails with education reformers' interest in small schools, presenting an important opportunity for collaboration. 12p.
Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington, DC.
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Jan 12, 2002)
This report presents a case study of the renovation of Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, DC, focusing on how an improved school environment contributed to higher levels of educational performance. The school was chosen as a school revitalization demonstration project for the Urban Schools Initiative. The objective of the project was to: turn a school building with acute indoor environmental problems into a model school environment, assess the resources required for such work, train district personnel in the prevention of future indoor environmental quality problems, and provide guidance to other schools in environmental remediation. 30p.
American Institute of Architects Guide to Historic Preservation.
(American Institute of Architects, Historic Resources Committee, Washington, DC, 2002)
This booklet includes definitions of various treatments for historic properties, such as preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and reconstruction. It describes what makes a property of historical significance, and lists identification systems and surveys. Preservation services provided by architects are fully explained, and include the research, investigation, and analysis phase; design development phase; contruction document phase; bidding, negotiations, and construction contract phase; and construction and contract administration phase. The booklet concludes with the discussion of the preservation team, preservation benefits, preservation costs, and the selection of an architect. 9p.
Historic Neighborhood Schools: Success Stories. Issues and Initiatives.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC. , 2002)
This document offers 19 case studies that show how people across the United States have kept historic schools as vital parts of their communities. The case studies offer concise summaries of information that architects, contractors, and school administrators have shared with the National Trust for Historic Preservation. They describe projects that illustrate reasonable solutions to: building code compliance, structural problems, deferred maintenance, mechanical-HVAC upgrades, safety issues, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, integration of 21st-century technology, adaptation to modern educational programmatic needs, and sympathetic additions to historic structures. Contact information provided in each "success story" gives school facility decision makers and neighborhood preservationists the opportunity to talk directly with experts who have overcome vexing problems in school rehabilitation. The schools profiled are: (1) St. Helena Elementary School, St. Helena, California; (2) Portland Middle School, Portland, Connecticut; (3) The Thomas A. Edison Charter School, Wilmington, Delaware; (4) William McKinley High School, Honolulu, Hawaii; (5) Boise High School, Boise, Idaho; (6) Evergreen Academy, Chicago, Illinois; (7) William H. Ray Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois; (8) Carl Schurz High School, Chicago, Illinois; (9) The Shakespeare School, Chicago, Illinois; (10) East Boston High School, Boston, Massachusetts; (11) Fairhaven High School, Fairhaven, Massachusetts; (12) Sidney Pratt School and Community Education Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; (13) Edward Lee McClain High School, Greenfield, Ohio; (14) Logan Elementary School, Columbia, South Carolina; (15) St. Louis School, Castroville, Texas; (16) Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, Texas; (17) Appomattox Regional Governor's School, Petersburg, Virginia; (18) St. Andrew's School, Richmond, Virginia; and (19) Latona Elementary School, Seattle, Washington. 61p.
Historic Schools: A Roadmap for Saving Your School.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2002)
This brief suggests that not every historic school can or even should be saved, but all too often, historic schools and options for renovation are routinely dismissed without full consideration of alternatives or community input. The article further asserts that many schools are either abandoned or demolished simply because of their age, as school administrators argue that they cannot be preserved and adapted to meet modern educational program needs. The article suggests that as residents, parents, elected officials, or school board members, there are various ways to get noticed, participate, and ultimately advocate for saving a historic neighborhood school. The included strategies serve as a road map to help get started, ask the right questions, follow leads, identify warning signs, and build support. The strategies include: (1) get familiar with the process (school facility evaluations, inflated school renovation cost estimates and prejudices, state reimbursement rules, acreage standards); (2) understand the perspective of the educator and the community (find your target audience, recognize the needs of children, consider the educator's point of view, be sensitive to socio-economic and racial issues, maintain civility, anticipate the process); (3) organize stakeholders (engage the school community, form alliances, bring in the experts); (4) plan for obstacles and success (seek funding to support your effort; recognize the human factor); (5) confront the challenge (understand the case for replacement); and others. 10p.
School Treasures: Architecture of Historic Boston Schools.
(Font and Center Press, Weston, MA. , 2002)
This book explores the architectural treasures of the Boston, Massachusetts public schools. It includes photographs and descriptions of 129 buildings that were constructed in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century and notes that the first and oldest public school in the United States was founded in Boston in 1635. Eight chapters focus on: (1) "Exploring for Treasure"; (2) "Turning the Century"; (3) "Growing Up"; (4) "The Roaring Twenties"; (5) "A New Deal"; (6) "After the War"; (7) "Suburban Spread"; and (8) "Turning the Century--Again." A CD-ROM with over 100 images and descriptive captions of the architectural treasures of the Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts is included. 138p.
New Schools for Older Neighborhoods: Strategies for Building Our Communities' Most Important Assets.
(National Association of Realtors, Washington, DC , Jan 2002)
The case studies in this booklet highlight how five communities, in big cities and small towns, overcame the obstacles inherent in creating good new schools in existing neighborhoods. There is mounting evidence that small schools provide a better quality education than large ones. Among the obstacles faced in establishing new schools in old areas are: (1) school building standards, codes, and regulations; (2) difficulty in acquiring land; (3) districts have lost the skill to build schools; and (4) building “greenfield” schools is more familiar. The Oyster School in Washington, D.C., is an example of a school modernized through parent efforts when the school system was not able to find the funds for improvement of the facility. Sharing the existing space with an apartment building, at the cost of some space, resulted in a renovated school. In Pomona, California, a school was built at the site of a mall and vacant supermarket. A magnet-type school was built in Dallas, Texas, on the last piece of undeveloped land near a multifamily apartment complex. Two public academies were established in downtown Chattanooga, Tennessee, to attract children whose parents work in town and ensure that both the academies were filled to capacity. Rebuilding on the site of an old school was the solution for Manitowoc, Wisconsin, as it worked to meet the needs of a neighborhood. Some other examples of noteworthy approaches to new schools for old communities are briefly outlined. 20p.
Reconstructing School Renovation: A Study of the Renovation of Johnson-Williams Middle School, Berryville, Virginia. Building Blocks to Better Learning Series, Volume Six.
Tuttle, James B., II
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Richmond , 2002)
This document provides a case study of the renovation of Johnson-Williams Middle School in Clarke County, Virginia. Chapter 1, "Planning and Designing a School Renovation," describes considerations for measuring the quality of a school renovation project, including its value to users and its imapct on learning. It presents the condition of the school prior to renovation, and articulates the planning phases of the construction processes. It concludes by delineating the projected outcomes and expected benefits of the renovation project to its stakeholders. Chapter 2, "Undertaking the Construction Process," discusses the guiding principles of the project and the punch-list phase of construction. Chapter 3, "Outcomes of Renovation," discusses the results of the renovation in terms of industry standards of renovation quality, user perceptions of facility quality, changes in social interactions and school relationships, and student achievement outcomes. The concluding chapter provides thoughts on educational facilities research and implementing school renovation. (Appendices contain a list of the primary sources and the plans of Johnson-Williams Middle School.) 42p.
Saving Historic School Buildings: Keeping Schools at the Center of the Community.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ, Dec 13, 2001)
This press release describes a cooperative agreement between the Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI) and the National Park Service (NPS), through its National Center for Preservation Technology Training (NCPTT). The two organizations recommend that the choice of renovating historic neighborhood schools be placed on the same level as new construction in the decision process that deals with issues of capacity and conditions of school buildings.
Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2001)
This report addresses the decision-making process for replacing or modernizing District of Columbia public schools. The three-section document discusses old and historic schools and their future; the schools’ historical and architectural value; cost of replacement and modernization; design; materials; and the environmental impact of school replacement. The first section explores issues related to the modernization or replacement of old and historic schools and factors that should be considered in the District. The second section presents a history of the school system. The third section provides detailed school-by-school surveys of the historical and architectural details of public schools built in the District before 1945, including address, school size, site size, the architect involved, architectural style, design date, dates of construction, past alterations, and additions. 158p.TO ORDER: Twenty-First Century School Fund, 2814 Adams Mill Road NW, Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-745-3745.
Assessing the Fit Between Educational Programs and Older Buildings.
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Feb 2000)
Explores the evaluation of an aged school facility's ability to support today's educational programs and ways of enhancing this support through building improvements. Covers national school condition assessments and considerations regarding building new or renovating; presents a methodology for performing a school condition assessment, including economic analysis; offers case studies used during the workshop. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation consisting of 50 slides used in a community workshop. 50p.
Funding Formulas Encourage School Sprawl, Not Smart Growth.
(Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation, Atlanta, GA, Feb 07, 2000)
Excerpt from the author's testimony before Georgia Governor's Education Reform Study Commission regarding the adverse impact on older schools under the state’s funding formula. Over 100 smaller, older Georgia school buildings have been closed since 1986. Provides justification for renovating older schools and keeping educational facilities within community centers. The author is President of the Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation.
Preserving Heritage While Restoring and Improving Facilities: A Rural Community's Experience.
Dickerson, Burton Edward
(Chapter 3 in: Improving Rural School Facilities: Design, Construction, Finance, and Public Support., 2000)
In Waitsburg, Washington, the community was actively involved in a rural school facilities improvement project. The district serves approximately 410 students in three buildings on a single campus. Spurred by growing enrollment and aging facilities, the project included the complete renovation and restoration of a historic school building to serve as a junior high school, as well as remodeling and new construction for the elementary school building. A new superintendent, hired after efforts to build a new elementary school failed, established a facilities steering committee of key community members, launched a monthly district newsletter, held a series of community meetings to gather feedback, and conducted surveys to determine priorities of need for facilities improvement and to offer the community a range of project options. After the scope of the project was established, a bond issue was narrowly passed and state matching funds were obtained. Separate committees worked on the design of each building, with the local historical society involved in decisions about the historic junior high building. To offset the limited funding available, crews of community volunteers did the initial interior demolition work, moved furniture to temporary classrooms in churches and community buildings and then back to the schools when the renovation was complete, and did landscaping. (Contains 26 references and a brief literature review on rural school-community involvement.) 16p.
A Community Guide to Saving Older Schools.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2000)
This booklet takes a critical look at some of the assumptions that "newer is better" when it comes to school buildings and considers what is actually lost each time an older neighborhood school is razed or retired. The following six assumptions are examined relative to their accuracy in the real world: 1) that "old" means out of dated or obsolete; 2) that in the long run it is a better investment of funds to construct a new building than to renovate an older one; 3) that older school buildings fail to meet national guidelines for school facilities; 4) that older school buildings have numerous practical drawbacks that cannot be realistically overcome; 5) that a new school will be a source of pride and affirmation for students and teachers; and 6) that a new school building will be an asset to its community and region. Decision making to close a school and getting the community involved prior to that decision are discussed. Several success stories involving school preservation are provided as is a list of national, state, and local organizations for more information. 33p.TO ORDER: National Trust Historical Preservation
Wait for the Bus: How Lowcountry School Site Selection and Design Deter Walking to School and Contribute to Urban Sprawl.
(A Report Prepared for the South Carolina Coastal Conservation League, Charleston. Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC. , Nov 1999)
This paper presents a study on how the South Carolina school site selection process can affect the quality of the students' experience and access to their schools. Focusing on students options for getting to school, e.g., hazards that prevent students from walking to school and the size of school sites that place schools on the edge of communities, the study found that students are four times more likely to walk to schools built before 1983 than to those built after 1983. The reasons for these trends is the disconnect between the school site selection process and land use planning considerations. School officials and planning agencies work independently of one another. This disconnect is partly attributed to current habits of site selection that were crystallizing in the early 1970s. Recommendations are discussed. Appendices provide lists of Lowcountry schools with data, schools with hazard routes and applicable date, and school sites by decade of construction. Appendices also present the percentage above and below state requirements of K-12 schools built in different decades, the South Carolina Department of Education criteria for school site selection, conservationist land use goals, and efforts to improve site selection in other states to avoid sprawl. A list of informational sources concludes the paper. 70p.
Renovating Older Schools: Reusing Older Schools.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Jun 24, 1999)
A slide presentation text examines the decision making process behind whether a community should renovate their older school facilities or abandon them for new facilities. Three factors to be considered in this decision are addressed and involve the school's location, the history of the school, and the relationship of the school to the community and the opportunities the older school affords. Each factor is examined and examples of school design are provided, including modifying double loaded corridors to provide resource areas and cluster learners to promote collaboration. 22p.
Renovating Early and Middle 20th Century Schools [Conference] (St. Louis, Missouri, June 24-26, 1999).
Biehle, James T.; and others
(Sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Architects National Committees on Architecture for Education and on Construction Management , Jun 1999)
A conference of school architects, construction managers, and school administrators convened to examine the question of renovation or replacement of aging public schools. The panel discussed such topics as turn-of-the-century architectural features and sources of renovation financing. The proceedings contrast the distinguishing characteristics of schools from the early 20th century and the mid 20th century and they address the unique design principles and materials typical of facilities constructed during these eras. Other subjects include evaluation and assessment of existing school buildings; the tools and techniques for condition assessment; management of K-12 renovation projects; construction management as a construction delivery method of school renovation; the role of the architect as construction manager; construction scheduling; renovation programs that preserve valuable resources; and alternative funding possibilities such as public/private development partnerships. 24p.
Preserving Older and Historic School Buildings
(Historic Massachusetts, Boston, MA, Dec 1998)
Alarmed at the pattern of abandonment and destruction of older and historic school buildings, Historic Massachusetts provides suggestions for communities, case studies, and fiction and fact concerning Massachusetts state school building assistance.
School Building Initiative: An Endangered Historic Resource. [Massachusetts]
(Preservation Massachusetts, Jan 1998)
Discusses the benefits of using existing buildings and the challenges communities face as they renovate schools. As shown through various case studies included in this report, existing buildings can not only house extraordinary educational spaces, but they also provide a link to a community’s heritage and protect open space by encouraging rehabilitation over sprawl and new development. 46p.
Planning Schools for Rural Communities
Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith,Charles; Dickens, Ben
(Appalachia Educational Laboratory, Inc., Charleston, WV , 1998)
School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good rural community school" and briefly considers the relationships among learning, community, and facility construction in rural areas. A 20-point "Rural Community Schools' Facility Checklist" is included that reflects connections to community, curriculum, and issues related to quality of life in rural places. 9p.
What Difference Do Local Schools Make? A Literature Review and Bibliography.
Salant, Priscilla; Waller, Anita
(Rural Schools and Community Trust. Prepared for the Annenberg Rural Challenge Policy Program. , 1998)
This paper reviews the literature on the noneducational impacts of rural schools on their communities and provides an annotated bibliography of sources. Taken as a whole, the literature suggests that the school-community relationship is multifaceted. Community schools have positive economic impacts related to local employment, retail sales, and infrastructure; have positive social impacts related to social integration and collective community identity; function as an arena for local politics; provide a resource for community development through student projects and school-to-work programs; and offer a delivery point for health and social services, improving access to health care and other services. The annotated bibliography has two sections containing 43 research papers and 68 advocacy and position papers. Entries were published 1938-98 (primarily in the 1980s and 1990s) and include journal articles, federal documents, conference papers, monographs, books, book chapters, research bulletins, and master's theses. 48p.
Position Paper on School Closings.
(Twenty-First Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 1997)
A position paper addresses school closings in the District of Columbia arguing that these closings are not within the context of a 10-year educational facilities plan that included community input, and valid criteria for closing decisions being consistently and objectively applied. Current closings decisions are viewed as being made in a vacuum with little regard for the educational mission of the school system, the larger role of schools in communities, the management issues involved, or the families effected. It discusses why restraint must be exercised before closing a large number of facilities without a master plan, why in some cases the closing criteria is not supported by the demographic data, and why the building assessment process is a weak link in the system. It also addresses how school closings can affect the District community involved beyond the sentimental attachment, why schools targeted for closure be measured against educational as well as physical benchmarks, and the importance of linking modernization and closing that help assure relocated children and their parents that the new facility they are going to is safe and appropriate. 7p.
The Altaville Schoolhouse: Community and State Cooperation in Local Historical Resource Preservation
Napton, L. Kyle; Greathouse, Elizabeth A.
(Coyote Press, Salinas, CA , 1997)
This report documents the archaeological investigations conducted at the former site of the Altaville Schoolhouse in Calaveras County, California. These investigations were carried out through the cooperative efforts of the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, the Calaveras County Historical Society, and the local community. The schoolhouse is the only one-room brick school building remaining in the Mother Lode area of California. It is California Historical Landmark Number 499, and in 1979 the schoolhouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1996, the 330 artifacts excavated were examined, identified, and cataloged. The first part of this report narrates the history of the schoolhouse: its construction in 1858 through its closure in 1950; its protected state from 1950-81; its relocation and renovation; and its current condition. The second part of the report gives an overview of the structural, educational, and cultural specimens obtained by archaeological investigations at the original site. The major part of the document consists of: 29 historical photographs of the school; 16 figures of school artifacts; a 330-item catalog of artifacts; newspaper and magazine reprints; copies of relevant documents, correspondence, legislation, maps, and blueprints; and chapter 7 from "Calaveras, the Land of Skulls" (R. C. Wood) describing state and county schools and teachers in California, 1855-59. (Contains 33 references.) 140p.TO ORDER: http://www.CoyotePress.com
America's Country Schools
(University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO , 1996)
As late as 1913, half of U.S. schoolchildren were enrolled in the country's 212,000 one-room schools--the heart of American education. Although only about 428 of these schools remain in use as of 1994, the country school continues to be a powerful cultural symbol. The first section of this book examines country schools' educational and cultural legacy. Chapters (1) provide an overview placing country schools in the larger social and historical framework of American education; (2) describe the country school curriculum, discipline, and teaching methods; (3) present anecdotes and memoirs describing teacher education, teaching conditions, and teachers' lives on the Western frontier in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; (4) portray the role country schools played as rural community centers; (5) discuss the assimilation of immigrants and minorities in rural schools, focusing on Native Americans, Blacks, and Hispanics; and (6) look at public, private, and parochial country schools in operation today. The second section examines the great variety of design in country school architecture, including schoolhouse sites, architect designs, building forms, building materials and techniques, classroom furniture, and building standardization. The third section discusses the preservation and restoration of country schools; describes new uses as museums, centers for living history programs, and community centers; presents preservation case studies; and lists one-room schools, by state, that remain in public ownership. This book contains approximately 275 references, 400 photographs, numerous illustrations, and an index. 296p.
Socio-Economic Impacts of School Consolidation on Host and Vacated Communities.
Sell, Randall S.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Thompson, JoAnn M.
(North Dakota State University Department of Agricultural Economics , 1996)
The number of public high school districts in North Dakota declined from 256 to 186 during 1970-94; 22 school districts were eliminated in the last 5 years of that period. A survey was conducted in eight communities (four pairs) that had gone through school district consolidation and school closing during 1991-94. Community populations in 1994 ranged from 45 to 696, and 6 communities had experienced recent population declines. Schools that closed had 47-97 students in their last year, while consolidated schools had 75-677 students in 1994. Responses were received from 601 of 2,190 residents surveyed and covered perceived reasons for school consolidation; impacts on community social infrastructure, retail trade, and quality of life; consequences for students; and ease of transition. In the past 10 years, participation in community organizations increased in host (receiving) communities and declined in vacated (school-closing) communities, while retail trade and number of businesses declined in both types of communities. Quality of life scores did not differ by type of community before consolidation, declined in both types after consolidation, and were considerably lower in vacated communities than in host communities after consolidation. Both groups felt that students were better off academically and socially after consolidation, and that having public meetings was the most important factor in easing the process of consolidation. 60p.
Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.
Shultz, James A.
This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation principles, identifies alternative preservation strategies, and highlights preservation practices in Virginia and their relationship to educational facilities preservation. Basic management principles for incorporating a preservation policy include: (1) coordinate the preservation activity within the community's master plan; (2) consider using outside professional help in preparing a brochure for advertising the available property; (3) consider explicit incorporation of a preservation component in the school system's long-range capital plan; and (4) recognize the key role of the local government in zoning and land use controls. Virginia state laws are not extensive or comprehensive; compared with other states, the state government does not empower its localities to offer strong preservation protections. In conclusion, when educational facilities planners develop a master plan for an older facility or plan for the acquisition of additional space, they should consider options other than simple disposal or new construction. Contains 14 references. 13p.
"Is There Life in Town after the Death of the High School?" or High Schools and the Population of Midwest Towns.
Dreier, William H.; Goudy, Willis
(Paper presented at the Annual Rural and Small Schools Conference, Manhattan, KS, Oct 24, 1994)
An overview of the history of rural school consolidation in north central Iowa reveals that by 1994, 9 of the 10 high schools in towns of less than 500 in 1940 had closed, and 3 of the 5 high schools in towns with populations of 500-999 had closed. However, all three towns with populations over 1,000 in 1940 had high schools in 1993-94. This down-sizing trend is evident in all areas of Iowa in that the number of towns with a high school decreased to 727 in 1950, to 419 in 1970, and to 359 in 1990. This study examined whether a greater percentage of incorporated towns in Iowa with a high school had a population increase, compared to towns without a high school during the same decades. During 1930-50, rural areas lost population, but the state gained and the number of places with high schools did not change. During 1950-70, population trends were the same, but a greater number of places lost their high schools to consolidation. During 1970-90, the state lost population, and the number of communities without a high school continued to increase. Data analysis revealed that half the communities with a high school gained a significant amount (5 percent or more) of population over 2 or more decades, and within the same time frame, three-fourths of communities without a high school were losing population. This study concludes that a community without a high school loses population faster when compared to all the towns losing population during the same time period. 12p.
A Comparative Study of Pupil Attitudes toward New and Old School Buildings.
Chan, Tak Cheung
(School District of Greenville County, Greenville, SC , Jan 1982)
Student attitudes toward the physical environment of a school opened in 1980 are compared to student attitudes toward two older schools: one constructed in 1923, the other in 1936. The control group consisted of all the 119 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1936-era school. The experimental group consisted of all the 96 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1923-constructed building who were later transferred to the new school. Pupil pre-test and post-test scores on the "Our School Building Attitude Inventory" served as the dependent variable. The independent variables were the physical facilities in the three school buildings, and students' sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Analyses of covariance and variance were used to examine the variables. The main finding of the study was that pupils housed in a modern school building have significantly more positive attitudes toward their school building than do pupils housed in an old building. Race and socioeconomic status had no effect on pupil attitudes toward school buildings, though females in the control group scored significantly higher than males in both the pre-test and the post-test. Six pages of selected references accompany the report. 33p.
A Guide for the Adaptive Use of Surplus Schools.
Giljahn, Jack W.; Matheny, Thomas R.
(Columbus Landmarks Foundation, OH , 1981)
This manual provides recommendations for school boards and communities concerning the leasing, selling, and marketing of school buildings. The reuse potential of each type of school building is investigated, and suggestions are made for successful conversions. Design considerations and the many aspects of acquiring and developing a school reuse project are discussed, including ownership, building codes, feasibility analysis, design guidelines, and financing. Finally, successful school reuse projects from across the country, along with designs developed by the authors, are cited to further demonstrate the great reuse potential which school buildings have. Appendices provide the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and selected funding sources. (Contains 40 references.) 119p.
To Re-Create a School Building. "Surplus" Space, Energy and Other Challenges.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, Virginia , 1976)
School administrators confronted with the possibility of having to close a school need to inform the public, assess community attitudes and needs, and identify the best possible use of the buildings. Existing schools must be reexamined in light of the new need to conserve energy and reduce operating costs. Measures that reduce energy consumption can be taken and, if necessary, schools can be remodeled. The motivation for modernization is now upgrading the environment and remodeling space for change in the educational program, plus phasing out buildings that have outlasted their usefulness. For schools over 100 years old, historic preservation can often restore and adapt them to new needs. Thirty-five successful examples of upgrading existing facilities and, in some cases, changing their function are documented in photographs and floor plans. 216p.
References to Journal Articles
To Save a Schoolhouse -- and History.
CNN; Jun 16, 2012
Reports on fresh energy in an effort to preserve historic Rosenwald schools in the rural South. About 5,000 schools were built to educate black children; about 800 remain. While 10 years ago, Rosenwald schools were on the "most endangered places" list, today preservationists and alumni are meeting to discuss how to save more of the buildings.
Study: Wexler Building at Palm Springs High School Not Historic
The Desert Sun; Jun 16, 2012
A new historic resources assessment report concludes that the 55-year-old Ramon Academy building on the Palm Springs High School campus by two renowned midcentury architects does not qualify as a historic resource. The study is being touted by those who want to demolish it for a new facility. It was designed by Donald Wexler and Richard Harrison.
Historic Schools: Restore or Replace?
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
As school districts examine options in today’s economic environment for maximizing student capacity, reducing operating costs and accommodating ever-changing educational programming, the question of whether to replace or restore historic schools looms large. Operational costs, programmatic adequacy, repair and modernization costs and more all require consideration in order to chart the most appropriate course. Advises to not decide without first conducting a feasibility study to weigh the pros and cons.
Building Blueprints: Historic Preservation.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p44,45 ; Aug 2011
Profiles the replacement of Robins Hall at California's Newport Mesa Unified School District. The beloved 1930's landmark was deemed seismically unredeemable, so a new building that emulated the old was built. Architectural detailing from the original building we either preserved and reused, or replicated. Five strategies for approaching this type of project are discussed.
The Value of New: Elementary School Facility Age and Associated Housing Price.
Journal of Housing Research; , p67-86 ; Apr 14, 2011
The purpose of this article is to assess the relationship between elementary school facility age and single-family housing price in the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area. This is a cross-sectional study employing multivariate regression. The model includes facility age as a measure of perceived school quality, along with a series of control variables to assess the relationship between public elementary school facility age and the corresponding housing prices within the associated school attendance zones. This study provides evidence that housing prices are associated with school facility age. The findings show housing prices to be positively correlated with newer and historic school facilities. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://ares.metapress.com/content/xq445wlr4853u007/
Saving Modern New Orleans.
Architectural Record: Off the Record Blog; Apr 07, 2011
Describes the preservation movement to save the Phillis Wheatley Elementary School in the Tremé neighborhood of New Orleans, a 1954 design by Charles R. Colbert. Includes a video that discusses mid-20th-century New Orleans architecture and how the school embodies a regionally specific style of Modernism. A second video is about post-Katrina school development, efforts to save Wheatley, and what wrangling over the school’s fate can teach about preservation discussions.
Are Canada's Historic Schools Our Next Endangered Species?
Wiebe, Christopher and Quinn, Carolyn
Heritage; v13 n3/4 , 20p. ; Dec 2010
Canada's historic schools in inner cities, mature suburbs and rural areas are falling victim to declining enrolment, deferred maintenance, consolidation, development pressures, pedagogical pressures and the perceived high cost of rehabilitation. The scale and pace of school closures across Canada is staggering. Highlights numerous examples of successful renovations or repurposing of the historic buildings.
Jolicoeur, Mark; Kahl, Melanie
American School and University; v8 n12 , p16,18,19 ; Jul 2010
Promotes the value of retrofitting and renovating older, neighborhood schools. Improved public health from walking to school, lower property taxes for having not built a new school, saved transportation costs, and a strengthened community are cited. The example of Illinois' Lake Forest High School is cited.
Out of the Urban Landscape, Inspired Design.
Learning By Design; n19 , p4,5 ; Spring 2010
Profiles the Washington, DC, School Without Walls. The historic building was thoughtfully restored and connected to a new addition. Gymnasium, auditorium, and food court space is shared with George Washington University, which surrounds the site.
Midcentury Modern High Schools: Rebooting the Architecture.
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Apr 2010
Discusses the obsolescence of mid-20th century high school facilities, but then demonstrates how these buildings can be effectively renovated to accommodate contemporary educational programs. Advice on rehabilitating wiring, plumbing, and HVAC systems is included, and asbestos abatement is addressed. Examples of three Illinois high schools from this era that were successfully remodeled are included.
Schoolhouse of the Future.
Learning By Design; n19 , p14-17 ; Spring 2010
Discusses renovation of existing and historic schools to accommodate contemporary educational programming. Typical advantages and disadvantages of existing schools are discussed, as are remedies. A new addition to create necessary spaces that don?t exist is recommended, as is partnering with nearby parks for athletic space. Several successful examples are cited.
Historic Preservation and Green Architecture: Friends or Foes?
Preservation; v62 n2 , p28-35 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses the potential conflict between historic preservation and updating buildings for sustainability. While it is sometimes impossible to conserve energy and retain all of a buildings original fabric at the same time, a variety of options and compromises are possible.
A Modern Facility for Modern Learning.
Buildings; v104 n2 , p30-32 ; Feb 2010
Profiles the renovation of Riverside, Illinois' 1917 Riverside Brookfield high School. The phasing, cost breakdown, partial demolition, and more energy efficient outcome are addressed.
When Funding is Scarce: Making the Best Use of Existing Facilities.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p21-24 ; 2010
Offers an array of guidelines for determining renovation and adaptation needs in a school facility's operational considerations, time and schedules, facility modifications, and found spaces, and makes specific suggestions for most cost-effective solutions.
Enadia Way Elementary School Reopening.
Design Cost Data; v53 n4 , p30,31 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Profiles this 1950’s California school that had deteriorated during four years of vacancy, but was reopened after thoughtful renovation and new landscaping. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.
Can these Windows Be Saved?
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p13,14,16 ; Mar 2009
Advises on care, repair, and replacement of windows. Avoiding water penetration; the effects of moisture, condensation, and mold; and determining whether to repair or replace windows are addressed.
The Old School Approach.
Preservation; v61 n2 , p38-42 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Profiles the conversion of a vacant Durango, Colorado, middle school into a center for arts professionals. In addition to restoring original materials and details, energy-saving insulation and systems were installed, along with solar panels on the roof. Disputes with local preservationists over the visibility of modern systems are also addressed.
Overcoming Challenges to Community-Centered Schools.
Forum Journal; v23 n2 , p12-19 ; Jan 2009
Reviews state- and local-level challenges to creating smaller, community-centered schools and preserving historic neighborhood schools. These historically come from acreage requirements in school facility guidelines that are gradually being abandoned. Nonetheless, the desire to build large, remote schools persists. Deferred maintenance that has led to decrepit inner city schools that are deemed unsalvageable is also blamed. A variety of remedies suggested include relaxing cost percentage rules for renovation versus new construction, joint use of neighborhood facilities, and more accurate feasibility studies for renovation versus new construction.TO ORDER: http://www.preservationbooks.org/Bookstore.asp?category_id=29&Item=1366
Making What's Old New Again.
Learning By Design; n18 , p169 ; 2009
Briefly describes the conversion of Wilmington, Delaware's landmark Pierre S. DuPont school from a high school into an elementary school. The reconfiguring of the interiors for smaller learners, retention of the structure's historic fabric, and reuse of materials are described.
A Resonant Ensemble.
Texas Architect; v59 n1 , p40-45 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Profiles the renovation of and addition to Dallas's Booker T. Washington High School for the Visual and Performing Arts. The restored 1922 high school was enlarged with modern suites that accommodate the arts curriculum, as well as providing science and computer laboratories, a library, and student commons. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants are included.
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p26-29 ; Aug 2008
Advises on the decision to restore or replace school windows, citing issues of historic value, sustainability, and cost. The decision to replace windows frequently does not consider improved restoration products, and can also lead to replacement windows of a quality inferior to that of the existing windows. The process of restoring valuable school windows is illustrated with the example of John Handley High School in Winchester, Viginia.
Lincoln Technical Academy.
CASH Register; v29 n6 , p14,15 ; Jun 2008
Profiles this abandoned 1916 landmark school that was renovated to accommodate career and technical education programs. Preservation of the exterior alongside the updating of the interior is described.
Building Blueprints: Adaptive Reuse.
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , p62,63 ; May 2008
Reviews two adaptive reuse projects involving Colorado schools. In the first, a corporate office was converted into a K-12 charter school. In the second, a former high school was converted into a higher education arts center.
Cleveland High School.
Architectural Record; , p56-59 ; Jan 2008
Reviews a design charrette for this St. Louis historic landmark. A plan for conversion of the facility into small learning communities was the outcome.
From Mold to Gold.
Preservation; v60 n1 , p14-16 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Profiles the Cambridge City Hall Annex, an LEED-certified adaptive reuse of an 1871 school building into a municipal administrative center. Details of materials used, design features, and restoration of architectural detailing are covered.
Restoration vs. New Construction: How to Make the Right Decision.
School Business Affairs; v73 n7 , p16-18 ; Jul 2007
Presents points consider when deciding between new construction or renovation of a school. These help to decide between renovating or restoring a school; to assess the architectural merit, condition, and educational usefulness of a school; to involve the community; to select the right design and construction professionals; and to get the best project for the money.
Trash or Treasure.
Willson, Adele; Petri, Gary
American School and University; v70 n12 , p14-16 ; Jul 2007
Provides guidance in assessing the renovation potential of a school. Sustainability, community attachment, and academic performance factors are considered.
You Can Always Hear the Music.
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p68-73 ; Jun 2007
Profiles the renovated and expanded Stivers School for the Arts in Dayton, Ohio. The historic 1908 structure was preserved and reused to "wonderful advantage," and at a cost lower than demolition and construction of a new facility. Partial demolition made way for new spaces that accommodate contemporary music education, and administrative and common areas were relocated to more accessible parts of the building.
Building a Successful Addition.
American School Board Journal; v194 n2 , p45,46 ; Feb 2007
Advises on creating school additions that transform the whole building, rather than just create additional space. The historical practice of attaching incompatible modern structures to old ones is described, followed by examples where new and old have been successfully blended.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
School of Entrepreneurship, Buffalo School District, Buffalo, New York.
Architectural Record; Supplement , p70-73 ; Jan 2007
Presents the design of this small, specialized learning environment within an historic 1930's high school. 12-hour use, security, accessibility, and the division of the building into three academies are discussed.
The Rosenwald School Initiative: A Plan to Build Hope.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n2/3 , p3-6 ; 2007
Cites historical laws that segregated white and African-American students, the inadequacy of schools built for the latter, and the response by philanthropist Julius Rosenwald to build better schools for African-Americans in the early 20th century. The history and legacy of the resulting Rosenwald Schools are described, as are successful and continuing efforts to preserve many of the structures.
Historic Preservation and Green Building: A Lasting Relationship.
Environmental Building News; Jan 2007
This article looks at numerous case studies and specific strategies for combining historic building preservation with green building practices. Although new buildings are seen as more energy efficient than older ones, the difference in efficiency between a rehabilitated historic building and a new building does not always justify the costs of starting over from scratch, if the existing building is structurally sound and well-built. Historic buildings, defined as pre-1936, may also qualify for federal tax credits if renovations meet the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation.
Canadian Architect; v51 n10 , p33-36 ; Oct 2006
Describes a contemporary addition to a Winnipeg adult education facility that was built in 1898 as a neighborhood school. Plans, photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants are included.
Preserving History, Making Progress.
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p20-22,24,26 ; Jul 2006
Presents case studies of three historic Chicago-area schools that were modernized while preserving their significant architecture, or in some cases, having that architecture restored after neglect or inappropriate additions.
Estes Family Middle School Building, Kingswood Oxford School.
Design Cost Data; v50 n2 , p26,27 ; Mar 2006
Describes this Connecticut middle school, which was carefully fitted into an existing historic campus in a residential neighborhood. Building statistics, a listing of the design and construction participants, cost details, a floor plan and photographs are included.
El Segundo High School Renovation: Design and Redesign.
de la Cal, Jorge
Facilities Manager; v22 n2 , p50-53 ; Mar 2006
Details the renovation of this landmark California high school building that involved restoration of the notable 1935 original structure, demolition of insensitive and educationally inadequate additions, and the creation of state-of-the-art facilities for science, the arts, and community recreation.
Historic Preservation Renews an Educational Facility.
Buildings; v100 n1 , p70-72 ; Jan 2006
Describes the renovation of a beloved, but threatened 1934 elementary school by removing unremarkable additions of the 1960's and 1970's, and building a modern wing that honored the architecture of the original.
CASH Register; , p8,10 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Profiles this small California K-8 school that features classrooms that host two grades each, community-use facilities, and preservation of the 1871 schoolhouse on the site.
Reclaiming Segregation-Era, African American Schoolhouses: Building on Symbols of Past Cooperation.
Klugh, Elgin L.
Journal of Negro Education; v74 n3 , p246 ; Summer 2005
The significance of segregation-era African American schoolhouses and the efforts of community groups engaged in their preservation are explained. The community groups which are involved in preservation activities are motivated by desires to honor the strivings of their forbearers and preserve their own history for future generations, to inspire children and teach them about their heritage.TO ORDER: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-924340811.html
American School and University; v77 n9 , p34-36,38,40,42 ; Apr 2005
Suggests ways to preserve historic schools, including examples of partnerships with the private sector to reuse schools for other purposes. Where some people see decaying eyesores, many educators, preservationists, architects and neighborhood activists see once-impressive buildings that can be resuscitated to recapture their past glory and upgraded to serve the needs of modern students and surrounding communities.
Learning By Design; n14 , p14-16,19 ; 2005
Reviews the historical bias against renovation of older schools, recent renewed interest in preserving them, state policies that discourage preservation, and reasons to renovate rather than build new.TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Same Space, Different Use.
American School and University; v77 n3 , p351-353 ; Nov 2004
Describes issues one may encounter when adapting a school building for other use, or a non-school building for educational use. Structural safety, human comfort, acoustics, columns, and space planning must commonly be addressed in older structures that are changing functions.
Historic Rosenwald Schools Rebuilt and Reborn.
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p61 ; Oct 2004
Description of Rosenwald schoolhouses built in poor African American communities in the rural south in the 1920's. Includes a case study of the Walnut Cove Colored School in Stokes County, North Carolina which was converted to the Walnut Cove Senior Citizen's Center.
Education Week; v23 n33 , p30-34 ; Apr 28, 2004
Article on preservation efforts of some of the more than 5,300 Rosenwald schools and other buildings that were built from 1913 to 1932, in rural areas of 15 states. The idea for the schools was conceived by the black educator and author Booker T. Washington and financed by Julius Rosenwald, the president of Sears and Roebuck. Rosenwald set up a program that offered state-of-the-art facility plans designed by architects from Tuskegee Institute and funding for grants that were matched by local communities. The schools served black students who were shut out of regular public schools in the era of Jim Crow, or who attended classes in decrepit structures if at all. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Schnitzer, Denise K.
American School Board Journal; v190 n8 , p20-23 ; Aug 2003
A renovation and addition to the 60-year old Granby High School in Norfolk, Virginia, provided the opportunity for this large comprehensive high school to be divided into four smaller academies that allow students a more personal learning environment. Positive growth is shown in test scores, dropout rates, and the narrowing achievement gap between minority and majority students.
More than Blue Skies.
Preservation; v55 n4 , p34-37 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Describes efforts to find and preserve some 5,000 Rosenwald schools. These buildings were funded with seed money during the 1920s from Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, and served as schools and public buildings for black residents in the rural South.
Can What Is Old Be New Again?
Hammond, Gerald S.
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p60-63 ; Jun 2003
Describes how school districts in Ohio have dealt with old, architecturally significant school buildings when state rules mandated that it would be cheaper to rebuild. Many districts found ways to renovate the buildings or convert them to other uses.
Build New or Renovate: How Facility Assessments Can Help.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p14-17 ; 2003
Explains what a facilities assessment consists of, what it measures, the benefits of engaging a professional, and how long it might take.
Preserving Our Older and Historic Schools: Rehabilitation Versus New Construction.
Gilberg, Mark; Weihs, Janell
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p3-5 ; 2003
Advocates a sequence for assessing older and historic schools for use by existing educational programs, and for special and alternative uses so that more older schools may be saved. (Includes 15 references.)
To Build New or Renovate--That Is the Question.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p22-26 ; 2003
Presents seven categories for evaluating a school building when attempting to determine renovation versus replacement: 1) appropriateness of site and location, 2) building condition, 3) code compliance, 4) flexibility of spaces, 5) economics of replacement or renovation, 6) time considerations, 7) political considerations.
Site Planning for Older and Historic School Facilities.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p27-30 ; 2003
Discusses site location and size requirements to be considered when renovating a school. Changes in transportation habits, environment, accessibility regulations, and student athletics laws will affect the suitability of a current site.
Unleashing the Potential of an Emerging "Creative Class:" the Restoration of Maggie L. Walker High School.
Westmoreland, Douglas D; Huebner, Joanne M.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p9-13 ; 2003
Describes the restoration of Richmond's 1937 Maggie L. Walker High School through a public-private partnership. A double-loaded corridor design was opened up and equipped with the latest technology to accommodate a program of advanced, independent, and self-directed study for gifted students.
Renovation vs. Replacement: Beyond Arbitrary Rules in the 21st Century.
Yeater, Royce A.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p18-21 ; 2003
Urges reconsideration of percentage rules that too frequently dictate replacement over renovation of schools. The history of these rules and the evolution of new attitudes are described.
To Renovate or Build New: Looking Beyond the Numbers.
Yurko, Amy M.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p6-8 ; 2003
Presents steps for reaching a decision on whether to renovate or replace a school: 1) Define the vision for the school. 2) Evaluate the existing school according to the vision. 3) Assess the resulting costs, life span, and community significance of a new or renovated facility.
A Call for Preservation.
Kacan, George M.; Bolling, Roger E.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p338-40 ; Nov 2002
Explores how saving historic educational facilities can enhance a school's status as a community focal point.
A Landmark Rehabilitation.
School Construction News; v5 n6 , p34-37 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Describes an extensive $12.5-million renovation of Public School 157 in New York City, which was designed in 1907. Discusses issues faced in the historical preservation. Includes photographs.
Saving History and (Sometimes) Money.
School Planning and Management; v41 n5 , p22-30 ; May 2002
Offers a sampling of historic preservation projects by school districts. Examples include New York City Public School 157; Edward Lee McClain High School in Greenfield, Ohio; Dillard High School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Melbourne High School in Melbourne, Florida; and Colonial High School in Orange County, Florida.
American School and University; v74 n9 , p18-22 ; May 2002
Describes how schools and universities are finding new uses for outmoded facilities, thereby saving on land and construction costs and in many cases preserving buildings that have achieved historical status in a community. Offers several examples.
Sack, Joetta L.
Education Week; v21 n22 , p38-43 ; Feb 13, 2002
School districts across the country are grappling with whether to renovate existing buildings, or demolish them and build anew. The issue often pits nostalgia and old-time charm against the contemporary necessities and conveniences a new facility can provide. This articles discusses how historic preservationists and some architects increasingly are arguing that schools can have both. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Don't Destroy Neighborhoods To Educate Them.
Planetizen; Jan 16, 2002
Well intentioned but off-target planning regulations are neglecting to create the community-centered schools the public is demanding. This discusses acreage standards, policies restricting the amount of money that school districts may invest in the renovation of older schools, and the disconnect between land-use planning and school facility planning.
Preservation ; v53 n6 , p42-47 ; Nov-Dec 2001
Describes the restoration of unusual stained glass windows in Berwick Academy's Fogg Memorial Building in South Berwick, Maine, a Romanesque landmark completed 100 years ago. The windows were designed and fabricated by Sarah Whitman, a prominent Victorian artist. The window restorations so heightened enthusiasm for campus history that the school undertook several other restoration and repair projects.
Turf: Last Bell Rings for Historic Schools
New York Times; Jul 05, 2001
From Jacksonville, Florida to New York City to Los Angeles, aging schools, many in downtown African-American neighborhoods, become too old for use, school boards say. Without significant sums of money for rehabilitation, they will be lost.
Bricks & Mortar, Heart & Soul: Saving a Landmark School in Downtown Boise.
Linik, Joyce Riha
Northwest Education; v6 n4 , p24-27,40 ; Jul 2001
Recognizing its integral role in the community, Boise (Idaho) renovated its 100-year old high school instead of building a new one. The architect, contractor, principal, students, and teachers cooperated throughout the planning and construction. The city enacted a "smart code" to encourage the rehabilitation of historic buildings and a statute that enabled the hiring of a construction manager.
Don't Know Much About History
Architecture Magazine; v90 n7 , p116 ; Jul 2001
Discusses the proposed replacement of the Cleveland, Ohio Kirk Middle School, a 1930 colonial-style building, with a smaller building that would occupy what is now the Kirk athletic fields. The land on which the school currently stands would become a new athletic field and parking lot.
Stopping School Sprawl.
Planning; v66 n5 , p9,10 ; May 2001
Discusses school site planning and policies and the problem of school sprawl. Cutting down on free parking to help reduce school sprawl is explored as is why planners and educators should think about public accessibility when designing schools. Ideas to reverse the trend include relocating schools in city centers, reusing existing buildings, and smaller schools.
Endangered. The Johnson & Hearding Schools, Aurora, Minnesota.
Architecture Magazine; v27 n3 , p23,59-60 ; May-Jun 2001
Discusses how obsolete schools in one community were reused as economic-development resources for the community while also preserving the architectural heritage of the area.
Don't Trash Old Schools in Rush to Build New Ones
Boston Globe ; , pA17 ; Feb 21, 2001
Facing threats that include inadequate maintenance budgets, sprawl-promoting state policies, inflexible building codes, and consolidation of smaller facilities into megaschools, historic schools are being abandoned and demolished at an alarming rate. Instead of tossing them aside like yesterday's newspaper, state education departments, local school boards, and citizens should do all they can to keep historic neighborhood schools alive.
William Hall High School, West Hartford, Connecticut.
Kubany, Elizabeth Harrison
Architectural Record; v189 n2 , p142-44 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how architects redesigned an old, dark, and brooding school building into a school whose architecture, and the physical environment it creates, play a positive role in student learning. In contrast to the almost windowless existing building, the architects designed an addition with bright, airy spaces for art studios, general classrooms, and science laboratories. Photos and a floorplan are included. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Little Red School House. A Historic New York City School Connects With Itself and its Neighborhood.
Pearson, Clifford A.
Architectural Record; v189 n2 , p146-46 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how architects successfully added a new 10,000 square-foot building, complete with glass-fronted library and skylit art room, to two existing structures built at different times and with different floor heights. Photos and a floorplan are included. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Skillful Blend of Old and New.
Texas Architect; v51 n1 , p32-34 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Presents design features of Burkburnett High School (Burkburnett, Texas) where architects transformed a disjointed group of 1960s buildings into a compact, highly functional, and subtle yet spectacular blend of old and new architecture. Photos and a floor plan are included.
National Trust Urges Saving Historic Schools.
Education Week; v20 n12 , p3 ; Nov 22, 2000
Reports on efforts by several communities across the country to save and renovate historic neighborhood schools rather than closing and replacing them with edge-of-town schools that have litte character. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Historic Neighborhood Schools: National Trust Asks, 'Why Can't Johnny Walk to School?'
Holmes, Natalie Carter
American Association of School Administrators Leadership News; Nov 16, 2000
Discusses a report by the National Trust advocating a harder look at renovation and keeping neighborhood schools put vs. relocation and new construction. It says that state and local policies governing school facilities and district expenditures are promoting a "big-box" mentality in school design and abandonment of older facilities in favor of new construction, aggravating traffic congestion and increasing isolation and anonymity in local communities.TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email: email@example.com
Blending Old and New.
Smith, Sylvia J.
American School and University; v72 n12 , p156-60 ; Aug 2000
Discusses how schools and universities can transform outmoded urban structures, such as factories, warehouses, and department stores, into attractive and functional school facilities. Issues addressed include the importance of sound planning to maximize building funds, the problems of blending new facilities with older ones, and working without the benefit of an older building's original architectural drawings.
McMahon, Edward T.
PlannersWeb [Planning Commissioners Journal]; , p16-18 ; Jul 2000
All over the country smaller, older schools are being closed in favor of bigger, new schools in far flung locations. Neighborhood schools are worth saving, and this article describes why. [The full article can be ordered and downloaded from PlannersWeb.]
Historic Neighborhood Schools: "E" is for Endangered
Nieweg, Rob; Wood, Byrd
Forum News [National Trust for Historic Preservation]; v6 n6 , p1-2, 6 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Examples illustrate what is happening to historic schools from Billings, Montana, to Macon, Georgia. Older and historic schools are being abandoned, demolished, and replaced at an alarming rate. The threats to schools include deferred maintenance; the perception that new is better and more cost effective; building code deficiencies; population shifts; consolidation into mega-schools; ignorance of rehabilitation options; and public policies slanted toward new construction.
Location, Location, Location.
Planning; v66 n5 , p4-8,11 ; May 2000
Discusses how good schools have drawing power in revitalizing both urban and rural communities and increasing property values. Several examples of the value of school renovation and its impact on the surrounding community and enrollment are discussed, including descriptions of planning and financing renovation efforts by some communities.
How Much Is a Neighborhood School Worth?
Bogart, William T. ; Cromwell, Brian A.
Journal of Urban Economics; v47 n2 , p280-305 ; Mar 2000
This paper presents evidence of the effect on house values of a school redistricting in Shaker Heights, Ohio in 1987. As a result of redistricting, neighborhood schools are disrupted, bus transportation is introduced, and school racial composition changes. The data include all arms-length sales of houses in Shaker Heights between 1983 and 1994. We find, using a difference-in-difference estimator, that disruption of neighborhood schools reduces house values by 9.9%, or $5738 at the mean house value. This result is robust to a variety of alternative specifications, including repeat-sales analysis and within-neighborhood analysis. [Authors' abstract]
One Room, Many Lessons.
Schoolhouse of Quality; v4 n1 , p8-11 ; Winter 2000
Explores the lessons learned about education revealed from the one-room schoolhouse, including what these types of schoolhouses would look like today if they were resurrected. Parental bonding and involvement, teaching across grade levels and subjects, and the non- threatening atmosphere one-room schoolhouses offered are discussed.
Modernizing an Old School.
Alberson, Vonda M.; Kate, Sandra M.
Principal; v79 n2 , p5-6,8,10-13 ; Nov 1999
Provides a detailed look at the modernization of Franklin Elementary School in Montezuma, Ohio, a comprehensive upgrade typical of those required by many schools across the country. The modernization, which more than doubled the size of the school, included new heating, electrical, and communications systems, new windows, new restrooms, new cabinets and shelving in every room, a new playground, and new paint and carpeting. Important considerations were to attain flexible teacher instructional spaces, flexible technology wiring, comfort during construction, and communication throughout the process.
Jean Parker School, San Francisco
Architectural Record; , p122-125 ; Nov 1999
Describes the post-earthquake renovation of a San Francisco urban elementary school that preserved its historical detail within a modern replacement. Design features are detailed; photos and a floor plan are included.
Old School Can Be Assets or Eyesores.
Betts, Elizabeth S.
The Tennessean; Jul 26, 1999
Discusses the possibilities for old historic schools vacated under Nashville's school improvement plan.
American School and University; v71 n11 , p16-18,20,22 ; Jul 1999
Explores how various school districts assessed and decided on whether to reinvest in expanding old schools or to construct new ones. Discusses the balancing between school enrollments, construction versus renovation costs, and varying community support.
The School as a Place for Leadership.
Architecture California; v20 n1 , p36-39 ; Summer-Fall 1999
Describes how a principal and community in Oakland, California, worked together to preserve a school building located near a fault line and avoid permanent use of portable classrooms.
Historic Preservation of Schools Can Save Open Space.
The Newton Conservators Newsletter; Jun 1999
The historic preservation organization, Historic Massachusetts, has been leading the charge to prevent the pattern of abandonment and destruction of older and historic school buildings caused by the reimbursement policies of the Massachusetts School Building Assistance Bureau. These buildings, many of which are beloved neighborhood schools or landmarks anchoring downtown districts, are threatened by shortsighted policies that encourage new construction over the renovation of existing facilities.
Administrators Joining Preservationists To Save Schools.
Johnston, Robert C.
Education Week; Oct 07, 1998
The Brentwood, Pa., school board came up with a plan to save $6 million by renovating two old schools, rather than tearing them down to build new ones. But when its request for state construction aid was rejected because of state restrictions on the schools' wood-frame construction, the board joined historic-preservation advocates in a two-year struggle to alter Pennsylvania policy. These efforts were rewarded when the state education department made it easier to qualify for aid to renovate older facilities. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Saving Community History
Kaplan, Arthur R.
American School Board Journal; v185 n10 , p32-34 ; Oct 1998
Though full of memories, landmark schools are often deemed inadequate for today's educational needs. The community and school officials should ask: What factors should we consider when evaluating older schools for extensive remodeling versus building new schools? Lists steps for conducting a technical feasibility study.
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p131-133 ; Aug 1998
Discusses transforming outmoded educational facilities to meet the new and diverse educational needs of students. Describes how to assess an old facility's potential for new uses and create added-value benefits to an older building through careful renovation.
Renovating a Historic School for Continued School Use
North Carolina Preservation; n108 , 7p. ; Summer 1998
Case study of the renovation of George Watts Elementary in Durham, North Carolina. Discusses the key factors making the project possible, as well as innovative solutions incorporated by the architects.
Why Johnny Can't Walk to School
Preservation; v50 n3 , 20+ ; May 1998
Discusses the difficulties of preserving America's historic school buildings, which are currently being abandoned and threatened with demolition. The biggest barrier to preservation may be modern teaching methods, with many of today's classrooms requiring open space that can be easily subdivided and expensive wiring for computer and audiovisual equipment. The abandonment of historic schools in downtown areas in favor of new buildings in less developed areas can jeopardize neighborhoods, whereas school renovation can be a neighborhood revitalizing activity.
Why Can't Historic Schools Continue to Serve Their Communities as Places of Education?
(Harrisburg, PA, 1998)
Pennsylvania at Risk ; 1998
This special issue of Pennsylvania at Risk features historic school buildings threatened by policies that discourage preservation and encourage abandonment and demolition. Discussions involving Preservation Pennsylvania, concerned citizens, the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) and the Governor's office have initiated a review of PDE guidelines that put historic school buildings at risk.
Fighting For Our Older Schools--And Community Soul.
Peirce, Neal R.
Nation's Cities Weekly; Nov 1997
Grand old public school structures continue to be mindlessly demolished, replaced by nondescript, low-slung buildings in seas of parking lots on the outskirts of towns. And not always by accident. Just as there's a highway lobby, there's a powerful lobby for tearing down old schools and building anew. It includes school construction consultants, architects, builders, and their allies in state departments of education.
The Teamwork Touchdown.
School Planning and Management; v36 n6 , p10-19 ; Jun 1997
Winner of the School Planning & Management 1997 Building Team Contest is the Jackson Memorial Middle School in Massillon, Ohio. Renovation and addition to the middle school (Jackson Local School District)--the original high school built in 1930--preserved the nostalgia that the structure held for many of the townspeople. Lists 15 ways to help building teams succeed.
The Evolving Role of the American Schoolhouse.
Bradley, William S.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n2 , p13-14 ; 1997
Discusses the role that architecture has played in distinguishing, harboring, and facilitating public education in America over the last 200 years. It reveals how population growth, educational policy, and community preferences have caused the one-room schoolhouse to evolve to meet changing needs.
Reclaiming a Symbol
Texas Architect; v47 n1 , p66-69 ; Jan-Feb 1997
Discusses the renovation process for preserving a community high school and the role of the architectural firm in gaining community support for the required bond issues. The architectural firm's design responses to school board requirements and new student needs are described. The new school's floor plan is included.
Worth the Fight.
School Planning and Management; v35 n4 , p26-28 ; Apr 1996
The community of Crawfordsville, Indiana debated for more than seven years over whether to renovate the existing high school, built in 1910, or construct a new building on a new site. Factors of cost, space availability, and energy efficiency entered into the decision in favor of a new facility.
Scrap It or Rehab It: A Process for Deciding When to Renovate.
Earthman, Glen I.
School Business Affairs; v60 n1 , p3-7 ; Jan 1994
The number of students in schools is growing, and school boards are faced with the choice to renovate or build new schools. Terms used when talking about remodeling and building schools are defined. Formulas to use when challenged by the renovate-or-rebuild dilemma and questions that need consideration during the decision-making process are addressed.
Deteriorating School Buildings: And the Walls Come A-Tumblin'Down
Glass, Thomas E.
Illinois Issues; v16 n11 , p21-24 ; Nov 1990
Describes the challenge that Illinois faces in trying to bring its older schools up to date. Discusses the debate over replacement versus renovation, enrollment and projected rises in this rate, the need to accommodate advanced technology programs, and the billions of dollars it will take to render these structures suitable for instruction.
Stop, Look, and Listen before You Mothball that Priceless Old School
American School Board Journal; v173 n1 , p28-29 ; Jan 1987
Old schools are among the finest examples we have of period architecture, craftsmanship, and decorative use of building and art materials. Advises on how to decide if a school is worth saving, identifies preservation groups that can help, and describes three New Jersey schools that are classics.
Educational Facility Planner; v2 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1986
Beginning with an historical review of philanthropic funding to promote public education for all groups in the South, the author chronicles the efforts of Julius Rosenwald whose funding gifts were designated for elementary schools for black children. The author traces the growth of the Julius Rosenwald Fund and building program from its inception in 1917 until 1932 when the last of 5,358 modern rural black schools was built. The author includes interesting accounts of the Rosenwald building program.
Priorities for Preservation.
American School and University; v52 n10 , p46-47 ; Jun 1980
Because Central High School in Little Rock (Arkansas) was placed on the National Register of Historic Buildings, compliance with the original design is an important part of the renovation program.
Preserving a Fieldstone Tradition.
American School and University; v49 n8 , p34-35 ; Jun 1977
Haverton, Pennsylvania, was able to keep its distinctive school buildings with a renovation program that cost a fraction of the price of new schools.
Preserving the Past and Building for the Future.
School Planning and Management; v17 n2 , p8-13 ; Feb 1973
Describes how Highland Park, Illinois, school administrators and board members convinced their community that the Elm Place School -- the oldest school and the most symbolic of the community's cultural and social heritage -- needed facility upgrading and program improvements. Provides the procedures in acquiring their 68,000 square foot addition and in modernizing older buildings (in spite of tradition.)