NCEF Resource List: Post Occupancy Evaluation for School Buildings
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Information on the process of evaluating a school after the completion of a building project in order to optimize building and equipment use.

References to Books and Other Media

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

High Performance Public Buildings: Impact on Energy Use is Mixed. Adobe PDF
Fleming, Mark; Dean, David
(State of Washington, Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee, Olympia , Jun 23, 2011)
Reports that legislation mandating high performance construction in Washington's public buildings has added between 1 and 3 percent in reported construction costs. The impact of these standards on energy use is mixed, with some buildings meeting expectations while others do not. However, many show some improvement in energy performance over time. The impact on student performance and worker productivity is not clear. Many projects are newly completed with limited operating experience and incomplete data. 46p.
Report NO: 11-7

Performance Evaluation of Indoor Environment towards Sustainability for Higher Educational Buildings Adobe PDF
Khalil, Natasha; Husin, Husrul Nizam; Wahab, Lilawati Ab; Kamal, Kamarul Syahril; Mahat, Noorsaidi
(US-China Education Review , 2011)
The indoor environmental factors considered in higher educational building must be determined in order to meet the user's requirement. Disruption of indoor environment may reduce occupants' efficiencies and their learning process and activities. But the question is, how to ensure that the provision of indoor environmental aspects achieves high satisfaction to the building user. Therefore, POE (post occupancy evaluation) is a prominent tool that indicates satisfaction and comfort level needs by the building occupants as lessons learned to identify problems in the indoor environment. The information of the building's condition is gained by reviewing what the occupants' feelings are and how they response to their needs by using and occupying the building. With relation to the title, the main aim of this study is to determine the occupants' satisfaction levels and the probability of learning process, which can be affected due to poor environmental conditions, based on analytical study on concept and process of POE. A survey on occupants' satisfaction of 100 students in University Technology of MARA, Perak, Malaysia, has revealed that there is significance of providing good quality of indoor environmental conditions, that will affect the learning process of the students. It is concluded that POE is effective to be used in evaluating performance of environmental conditions in a building, especially to apply the relative impact of aspects towards the design of future buildings. By introducing POE in evaluating environmental conditions in higher educational buildings, it is hoped that it helps to move the industry towards sustainable, healthy and comfortable learning areas. [Authors' abstract]

Post-Occupancy Evaluation Report: Washington Middle School. Adobe PDF
(Rushing Blackbird, Seattle, WA , Aug 2009)
Presents energy and water use data, indoor environmental quality results, and occupant feedback for this school, which was built in 2004 as part of the Washington Sustainable Schools Protocol pilot projects. The report provides a comparison between projected performance and actual performance after two full school years of occupancy. It includes explanations of sustainable design strategies employed at WMS; quantitative and qualitative evaluation of as-built results, including operations and maintenance feedback; costs/savings reporting, comparing projected values to actual costs/savings; and occupant feedback, including students, staff, school district, and maintenance staff. 247p.

A Principal's Guide to On-Site School Construction. Adobe PDF
Brenner, William A.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington,DC , 2009)
This publication explores what school principals should know when construction takes place in or near a school while it is in session. It covers pre-construction preparation, including how to work with architects/engineers and other school staff; actions to take during construction, including proper information dissemination and safeguarding students and property; and post-construction activities, including custodial and maintenance staff training and post-occupancy evaluations. 4p.

Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
Earthman, Glen
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.

Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Programme on Educational Building, 2007)
The OECD Programme on Educational Building brought together experts from over 20 countries to discuss how they define and measure quality in educational facilities. This webpage describes the objectives, provides a list of experts, and includes abstracts, a draft report, and an international Facility Performance Evaluation Pilot Study to be launched in 2007.

Assessing Secondary School Design Quality. Adobe PDF
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Jul 03, 2006)
Presents the results of an audit by the United Kingdom s Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) of 124 secondary schools completed between January 2000 and September 2005. CABE assessed the quality of 52 of these, which were selected as a representative sample. The assessment was based on 111 indicators, grouped into three categories: the way the building is designed to be useful as a school (functionality), its building quality, and its ability to create a sense of place and have an uplifting effect on the local community and environment (impact). Each school was then given an overall rating. In this audit, half of the schools completed in the last five years were assessed as "poor" or "mediocre," although there was some indication that the situation was improving in schools from the end of the period. 100p.

Building Community: A Post-Occupancy Look at the Maryvale Mall Adaptive Reuse Project. Adobe PDF
Reagan, Lisa; Smith, Molly; Warner, Elisa
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Feb 2006)
Describes the conversion of Phoenix's vacant 1950's-era Maryvale Mall into an elementary and middle school. The project yielded a construction cost of $65 per square foot, and the new schools, along with the community services they housed, helped spur an urban renewal of the depressed Maryvale neighborhood 6p.

Selection Criteria of the Building Systems Functional Performance Assurance Engineer.
(Duval County Public Schools, Jacksonville, FL , Jan 2006)
Presents the Duval County Public Schools' selection criteria for the building systems functional performance assurance engineer, including types of selection, standard qualifying data and forms, and specific screening and selection procedures. 26p.

Facility Performance Evaluation. [Whole Building Design Guide]
Zimring, Craig; Rashid, Mahbub; Kampschroer, Kevin
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Apr 2005)
This section of the Whole Building Design Guide discusses facility performance evaluation (FPE, an extension of what had been called "post-occupancy evaluation." FPE is a continuous process of systematically evaluating the performance and/or effectiveness of one or more aspects of buildings in relation to issues such as accessibility, aesthetics, cost-effectiveness, functionality, productivity, safety and security, and sustainability. Several aspects of FPE are discussed including its definition, typical characteristics, types, phases, data-collection techniques, evaluators, emerging models, benefits, and barriers. In addition, how to conduct a successful FPE, how to develop effective and sustainable FPE programs, and why FPEs are important in the public sector are discussed.

Elementary School Post-Occupancy Evaluation.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2005)
This checklist for conducting a post occupancy evaluation of an elementary school is from Chapter 15: Assessing the Completed Project of Creating Connections: the CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning. 4p.

High School Post-Occupancy Evaluation
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2005)
This checklist for conducting a post occupancy evaluation of a high school is from Chapter 15: Assessing the Completed Project of Creating Connections: the CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning. 6p.

High School Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) Forms from the California Department of Education. Adobe PDF
(Resource Center, California's Coalition for Adequate School Housing., 2005)
Survey form that can be used to conduct a post occupancy evaluation of a high school. 3p.

Middle School Post-Occupancy Evaluation
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2005)
This checklist for conducting a post occupancy evaluation of a middle school is from Chapter 15: Assessing the Completed Project of Creating Connections: the CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning. 8p.

Schools. Property Management. Examples of Post Occupancy Evaluations [New Zealand]
(New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2005)
Post occupancy evaluation involves reviewing a building project once it has been completed and the building has been in use for a while. The purpose of the review is to enable the school to assess their experience of managing a property project at their school, whether they are satisfied with the completed project in terms of its functionality of purpose, the comfort and standard of accommodation, whether they believe they have received value for money, and whether they would do anything differently in future. The post occupancy evaluations of more than 20 schools are fully described.

Post Occupancy Evaluation for Secondary Schools. Summary of the Pilot Study Findings. [United Kingdom] Adobe PDF
(School Works Ltd. , Nov 2004)
This is the summary of findings from a pilot program to conduct post occupancy evaluations of five secondary schools in the United Kingdom. A description of the evaluation tool is included. 5p.

Energy Performance Evaluation of an Educational Facility: The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Adobe PDF
Pless, S.D.; Torcellini, P.A.
Nov 2004)
Documents the post-occupancy energy performance analysis of Oberlin College s Adam Joseph Lewis Center, an academic building designed to be an energy producer, rather than an energy consumer. Among the building s features are passive solar design, natural ventilation, enhanced thermal envelope, and geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling. The building also has a roof- integrated photovoltaic (PV) system to allow solar electricity to provide energy to the building. This study evaluated the performance of the building and some of its subsystems over three years in order to improve the initial performance and document lessons learned to improve future low-energy buildings. During the three years of observation, the several problem areas in energy use were corrected. Operational changes and equipment upgrades were made during the second year. The third year was colder than normal, yet by that time the building's energy used dropped 37% from the first year's. 140p.
Report NO: NREL/TP-550-33180

Creating Connections: The CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning.
(Council of Education Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Guides new and experienced school planners from the conception of educational needs through occupancy and use of the completed facilities. Chapters follow the planning, design, and occupancy processes in sequence as follows: forming the educational plan, creating community partnerships, establishing a master plan, writing educational specifications, addressing design guidelines, evaluating and selecting the site, infusing technology, integrating sustainable design, working with a design team, evaluating project delivery options, identifying cost and funding options, monitoring construction, integrating maintenance and operations, and assessing the completed project. Numerous references, photographs, drawings, figures, and a glossary are included. 386p.

Evaluation, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Provides post-occupancy evaluation guidance for Scottish schools. Building evaluations are described, accompanied by advice on how to get the most out of a building evaluation, a case study with action checklist, and references to assist in the evaluation. 38p.

Design Standards for a High School Museum Resource Center. Adobe PDF
Wallace, Rex
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Dec 2003)
Presents an investigative post-occupancy evaluation of five school museums using a facilities assessment instrument entitled "Appraisal Guide for a Museum Resource Center Building Program." This appraisal guide represented a model for a school museum. The appraisal guide and site interview questions were used as the framework for the gathering of data in this study. Two of the museums in this study were described as separate facilities within a high school and three were defined as separate facilities within a school system. One of the three facilities within a school system received the highest percentage score on the appraisal guide for being closest to the model. None of the facilities in this study had a dark ride, a separate conservation laboratory, an open storage area, or a shop section. All five of the museums in this study had in common the need for more space. The post-occupancy evaluations of the five school museums in this study described, judged, and explained the performance of each facility. The development of the appraisal guide and its use in the post-occupancy evaluations of the five museums provided examples on an item-per-item basis of design patterns that were adaptable to high schools. 299p.

Case Study: Commissioning of a New 450,000 sf Biomedical Laboratory Research Building at Yale School of Medicine.
Bjorklund, Abbe; Rounrier, Daryl; Collins, David; Larimer, Reyhan
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Reviews the benefits of, and lessons learned from, the commissioning process for Yale University's Congress Avenue Building. Topics addressed include: testing and verification techniques for complex laboratory systems, bridging the gap between design and functionality, avoided failures of critical systems; energy savings from commissioning, operations and maintenance savings from commissioning, training building users and operators as part of commissioning process, lessons learned, and commissioning documentation 14p.

Lessons Learned from Commissioning 15 Schools.
Erik A. Jeannette, PE; John C. Wood, PE; Michael J. Holtz, AIA
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Considers issues in commissioning school facilities, and presents a guideline for school-related commissioning services, including new construction, renovation and retrofit, retro-commissioning, and LEED TM -related commissioning. General concepts are illustrated by specific project experiences. 11p.

Financing Retro-Commissioning Services Utilizing Performance Contracts.
Herbst, Ronald
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Presents a delivery mechanism utilizing the performance contracting process to secure financing for a retro-commissioning (RCx) service. The approach utilizes building level benchmarking to target RCx activities and estimate savings. The implementation of RCx utilizes a program approach, targeting work with highest benefit relative to energy savings. The implementation combines site analysis and corrective actions into compressed and concurrent activities. Results are presented for four K-12 schools, where the financing was secured through performance contracting. 28p.

Commissioning Lighting Control Systems for Daylighting Applications.
Phelan, John
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Discusses commissioning activities during design, construction, and acceptance phases for daylighting that help ensure that the lighting control systems perform optimally. While the commissioning process for lighting controls is not fundamentally different than that for any other type of system, this paper highlights the unique aspects lighting control commissioning for daylighting design applications, particularly in regards to occupant training. 11p.

Emory's LEED-EB Pilot Project at Goizueta Business School.
Smith, Robin
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , May 2003)
Describes Emory University's efforts to develop a "green" camps, starting with a single building pilot facility. The University organizes its LEED focus into five areas: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor air quality. 11p.

Creating New Schools. Adobe PDF
(The Education Network, London, England , 2003)
This advises Britain's local education education authorities (LEA's) on innovative school design strategies. Various authors describe programs and experiences that include bringing students into the design process, creating healthy learning environments, preparing post-occupancy evaluation, and understanding the influence of buildings on student behavior. 12p.

Eliminating Humidity and Condensation Problems in University Dormitories: Case Study.
Chen, Hui;Hugghins, Joel; Bruner, Homer; Zhu, Yiwen; Turner, W. D.; Deng, Song Deng; Claridge, David.
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , Jan 2003)
Presents the investigation and follow-up efforts that identified reasons and corrective measures for high humidity levels in the living areas of two Texas A&M dormitories. The paper describes how the dormitories were affected by excessive humidity by verifying design and existing HVAC systems, diagnosing humidity problems, and then recommending continuous commissioning measures implemented to deal with these problems. High humidity was attributed to largely to excess infiltration of unconditioned outside air, and to lack of effective airflow pathways within the buildings. 10p.

Schools Designed with Community Participation. Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2002)
This publication presents case studies of school buildings to demonstrate the application of a post occupancy evaluation (POE) during various stages of the design and planning process. It explains that because POE is a process for gathering information about a building in use, it can be applied effectively both to renovation and expansion projects and to new construction. The case studies were selected because each addresses community and user participation as an integral part of the school planning process. In Jamestown, North Carolina, a POE incorporating a school building assessment survey was used for the Millis Road Elementary School addition to help architects learn about existing conditions and improvements expected in the new classroom addition. The Davidson Elementary School project in Davidson, North Carolina, linked all stages of the school building process, from user participation in the development of the program to the evolving design solution, and a building evaluation after completion. The Centennial Campus Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina, began with a vision shared by university educators and county school officials about the creation of schools within a school. The Rosa Parks Elementary School in Berkeley, California, (formerly the Columbus School) demonstrated a participatory process that included parents, teachers, children, and community members who initiated and passed a bond measure to rebuild the earthquake-damaged school. The case studies include building plans and photographs. Appendices contain a six-factor school building checklist, a school building rating scale, an inclusive school building assessment checklist, and a classroom arrangement rating scale. 67p.

Learning From Our Buildings: A State of the Practice. Summary of Post-Occupancy Evaluation.
(National Academy Press, 2002)
Report from the Federal Facilities Council and the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment. 138p.
TO ORDER: National Academies Press

A Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program. Adobe PDF
Oates, Arnold D.; Burch, A. Lee
The Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program described in this paper encourages school leaders to consider a more holistic view of the planning process. It is intended to assist those responsible for educational facility planning, who must assure that all important and relevant tasks are accomplished in a timely manner. The model's six phases are: (1) assessment of current facilities, programs, and community beliefs; (2) preliminary planning for facility master plan development; (3) implementing the facility master plan; (4) marketing the master plan; (5) implementation of projects in the master plan; and (6) post-occupancy evaluation. Each phase includes a list of tasks and responsible persons, and an estimated time frame.

The State of Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the Practice of Educational Design Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Paper presented at the Environmental Design Research Association, EDRA 32, Edinburgh, Scotland. , Jul 05, 2001)
Over the past decade, thousands of new school buildings and renovations have been planned, designed, and constructed in the United States. Of these, only a small fraction will ever be evaluated against the educational needs of students and teachers. This paper reflects on the state of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in the practice of educational facility design in the United States within the context of the "School Construction News/Design Share Awards 2000" program. One of the objectives of this program is to encourage and publicize nationally the value of conducting POEs. The paper provides a description and a comparative analysis of the methods used in each POE, a summary of jury comments, and recommendations for the refinement of the awards program in promoting the POE. 30p.

Understanding the Importance of Post Occupancy Evaluations.
Lackney, Jeffery
(Design Share, 2001)
Lasting change and innovation comes from the reflection of past experiences and the application of that knowledge to future projects. This discusses elements of POEs submitted to the School Construction News & Design Share Awards 2000 competition and the lessons to be learned from them.

School Building Assessment Methods. Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2001)
This manual addresses whether schools and classroom spaces enhance or detract from the learning process and provides school assessment guidelines for communities anticipating the expansion of existing schools or the construction of new ones. It is a collection of survey and discussion tools that encourage stakeholders to discover and reflect upon the physical features of school buildings. The manual identifies what works and what does not work in K-12 school buildings. Each assessment tool presented is for a particular purpose. Building surveys focus on the assessment of existing school facilities, while photo questionnaires present alternative spatial arrangements for group discussions. Small group discussions are suggested as an effective method for creating a productive dialogue allowing people to consider many different viewpoints. 41p.

Assessing School Facilities for Learning/Assessing the Impact of the Physical Environment on the Educational Process: Intergrating Theoretical Issues with Practical Concerns. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Sep 17, 1999)
This presentation explores a theoretical framework and a practical procedure for assessing the physical environment of urban schools to identify its perceived impacts on the educational process. Models identified in the literature for assessing the quality of the physical environment for learning are reviewed and critiqued. The assessment model presented offers a practical procedure based on a comprehensive theoretical perspective. The Baltimore City Public Schools Environmental Quality Assessment Project, which included five post-occupancy evaluations were to be used as a test case to illustrate the potential use of the assessment procedure in practice. The presentation concludes by emphasizing the value of institutionalizing an on-going process of environmental quality assessment that has implications for integrating facilities management and educational decisions for the benefit of the educational process. 35p.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Barney-Davis Hall
(Denison University, Granville, OH, 1999)
In the fall of 1998, Barney-Davis Hall reopened to students at Denison University with the McPhail Center for Environmental Studies housed within. The opening capped off a green renovation in which an effort was made to minimize the environmental impact of the building. During the spring of the following year, a Post Occupancy Evaluation of Barney-Davis Hall was completed to determine the success of the renovation in terms of both user satisfaction and environmental concern. The findings show that the project has achieved generally high satisfaction and environmental ratings. However, it is clear that some improvements can still be made on the building to improve its satisfaction and sustainability. The report also contains a series of reccommendations for Barney-Davis.

Guide for School Facility Appraisal
Hawkins, Harold L.; Lilley, H. Edward
(Council for Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1998)
This guide provides a comprehensive method for measuring the quality and educational effectiveness of school facilities and may be used to perform a post-occupancy review; to formulate a formal record; to highlight specific appraisal needs; to examine the need for new facilities or renovations; or to serve as an instructional tool. Suggestions are made for developing a facilities report. New trends in design and construction are summarized. Appraisal criteria are categorized into six areas: (1) the school site; (2) structural and mechanical features; (3) plant maintainability; (4) school building safety and security; (5) educational adequacy; and (6) environment for education. 52p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Martha Lake Elementary School Post Occupancy Evaluation. Adobe PDF
(Washington University, Center for Environment, Education and Design Studies, Seattle. , 1997)
This post-occupancy evaluation of Martha Lake Elementary School in the Edmonds School District, Washington, was designed to answer questions in two areas: (1) "What aspects of the facility are effectively supporting learning and the current educational program? Conversely, which aspects, elements, or components of the facility appear to be inhibiting learning activities?" and (2) "What do students, staff, and teachers think and feel about the building's character and functioning?" The report includes statistical data generated from responses to a questionnaire, and documentation of observations made by the evaluation teams. The report is organized to present a general overview of the site, common areas, and classrooms, followed by more detailed analyses of particular spaces in the school. 22p.

References to Journal Articles

Starchitecture High.
Hawthorne, Christopher
Metropolis; , p60-73,100 ; Jul 2011
Offers a post-occupancy evaluation of Central Los Angeles High School No. 9. The history behind the creation of this signature architectural work within a collection of prominent recent Los Angeles cultural institutions is reviewed, as are public reactions to the high cost of construction and student reactions to the sometimes impractical and stark design.

What's Keeping Us? Some Thoughts on Moving Forward. Adobe PDF
Kobet, Robert
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p53-55 ; 2011
Advocates for LEED certification of schools and particular attention to post-occupancy care of the building and site. Using LEED criteria to inform facility decisions and engage students is recommended. Creating high performance school with minimal risk and alternative certifications and codes are also discussed.

Grading Green Results.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v104 n9 , p60-62,64 ; Sep 2010
Discusses three universities' experience with sustainable design. Despite minor issues, all three institutions are saving energy and are pleased as well with the ability to use the building as a teaching tool.

Assessing Post Occupancy Evaluation in Higher Education Facilities.
Riley, Mike; Kokkarinen, Noora; Pitt, Michael
Journal of Facilities Management; v8 n3 , 202-213 ; 2010
Summarizes the main post occupancy evaluation (POE) techniques currently available and illustrates which method would be the most appropriate as a performance enhancement tool within higher education facilities. The history of, and barriers to using POE as a performance enhancement tool are analyzed through an extensive literature review. Despite a historic resistance to POE by construction professionals, interest has emerged in recent years, particularly with government clients and public funded projects, with a focus on the outputs of a project as opposed to the inputs. While many methods exist, only a few are specifically suited to evaluate the building performance of educational facilities to maximize student success and productivity.

Design for Communication: Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Classroom Spaces.
Potthoff, Joy
Open House International; v34 n1 , p26-34 ; Mar 2009
Examines faculty and student satisfaction with classrooms in an unnamed university facility in the midwest. The two-story, 95,000 square foot building was dedicated for use by the entire campus with no college or department given permanent classroom space. The facility s classrooms were designed to incorporate state-of-the-art communications technology including television monitors, DVD and video cassette recorders, overhead projectors and slide projectors, video presenters, and hook-ups for computers and CD, tape and other audio equipment. A post-occupancy evaluation (POE) survey of 125 faculty and 5,048 students using the facility indicated that the majority of faculty and students were satisfied with it. However, problems were cited including: difficulty in using equipment, uncomfortable room temperatures and seating, and a sterile environment.

Design Intentions and Users Responses: Assessing Outdoor Spaces of Qatar University Campus.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p82-93 ; Mar 2009
Explores the issue of design intentions versus users' reactions by conducting a post- occupancy evaluation study of Qatar University's outdoor spaces from the users' perspective, after it has been used and occupied for over 20 years. The assessment aimed at understanding the mutual interaction process between the built environment exemplified by the campus outdoor spaces, and the needs of the university community exemplified by students, faculty, and staff. The methodology incorporated walk-through evaluation, direct observation, behavioral mapping, and survey questionnaires. The investigation reveals a number of problems that may hinder the performance of different types of QU campus users.

The Users in Mind: Utilizing Henry Sanoff's Methods in Investigating the Learning Environment.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p35-44 ; Mar 2009
Analyzes reactions of teachers and students to classroom and cluster prototypes, among other aspects, against a number of spatial requirements and educational objectives. The results of this investigation support the assumption on how the school environment has a direct impact on the way in which teaching and learning takes place. A conclusion envisioning the need for going beyond adopting prescriptive measures to address the quality of the learning environment is conceived by highlighting the need to utilize knowledge generated from research findings into school design process, to pursue active roles in sensitizing users about the value of the school environment in reaching the desired academic performance while increasing teachers productivity.

Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Ornstein, Sheila; Moreira, Nanci; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana; Nogueira, Roselene
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p350-367 ; 2009
Describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POE?s) as a method for assessing school building performance. The authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of Sao Paulo s schools. The various methods of POE, including expert walkthroughs, physical measurements, observations, behavioral mapping, user interviews, focus groups, and survey questionnaires were applied within a purposefully selected case study school were examined. The findings indicate that the POE carried out at Fernando Gasparian High School revealed limitations in the building s design, particularly in light of the neighborhood context, thus raising significant concerns about safety and security. Users gave the construction quality of the building, a generally positive evaluation, however, there were some important aspects of the building design judged as deficient. In particular, researchers observed a significant mismatch between the building design and the realities of the surrounding community. This sort of incongruity introduced important challenges to principals, teachers, and staff, as they worked to ensure the safety of students who attend the school.
TO ORDER:;jsessionid=

Assessing the Learning Value of Campus Open Spaces Through Post-Occupancy Evaluations.
Spooner, David
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n3 , p44-55 ; Apr 2008
Uses the University of Georgia's Memorial Garden as a case study to examine how the composition and configuration of campus landscape elements affect behavior. The research examines how specific landscape elements did allow certain types of both individual and group studying behaviors, and that the overall arrangement of these elements either supported or limited these activities. This study also demonstrates that a post-occupancy evaluation can be a useful assessment tool that allows both designers and administration officials to determine the outcomes of built projects on an academic campus. Includes 22 references.

Looking Back and Moving Forward.
Gonchar, Joann
Architectural Record; v196 n2 , p160-162,164,166,168,169 ; Feb 2008
Discusses the importance of post-occupancy evaluations for new buildings, its particular import to sustainability, techniques for obtaining and processing occupant input, lessons learned from some recent evaluations of notable buildings, and the development of some standardized protocols for post-occupancy evaluation.

Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil. Adobe PDF
Ornstein, Sheila; Moreira, Nanci
PEB Exchange; 2008/1 ; Feb 2008
Summarizes the post-occupancy evaluations of three Brazilian schools serving disadvantaged populations. The methods, results, and anticipated next steps of the process are addressed.

Green Buildings in Use: Post Occupancy Evaluations. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; 2007/12 ; Oct 2007
Briefly describes users' experiences of two "green" school buildings. It also describes how communication concerning building performance is necessary to minimize environmental impact, just as it is necessary to achieve other aspects of building performance.

Is Generic Really the Answer? Post-occupancy Assessments Reveal How Users Really Work in Labs.
Burke, Wendy; Walston, Cynthia, Baughman, Jane
Laboratory Design; v12 n6 , p1-6,8,9 ; Jun 2007
Reviews occupant use of three open molecular biology research laboratories, with a goal of improving efficiency and cutting cost in a fourth laboratory that was being designed. Bench use, storage use, task performance times, collaboration patterns, and supply use are reported. An "ideal" laboratory relationship was developed, which involved pulling desk space outside, but next to the wet lab area; creation of collaboration areas within the office zone; separate storage rooms with inventory control; and a larger work bench with less, but more accessible storage.

Measurement and Verification: Monitoring Building Systems for Optimal Energy Performance.
Boehland, Jessica
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , pG10,G13,G14,G16,G18,G20 ; Apr 2007
Advocates consideration of measurement and verification (M&V) systems for buildings early in the design process. An M&V system's work begins by confirming that commissioning was done correctly, and continues with continuous review after the commissioning is complete. Sensing and processing elements of an M&V system are covered, as are typical costs and benefits.

Thinking Inside the Box: The Case for Post-Occupancy Evaluation.
Mendler, Sandra
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p30-34,36 ; Nov 2006
Advocates for post-occupancy evaluation, detailing the experience of the author s architectural firm in gathering data, reviewing the results, and interpreting the findings regarding occupant opinions on thermal comfort, energy use, acoustics, and overall satisfaction with their buildings.

Camino Nuevo Middle School, Los Angeles, California.
Merkel, Jayne
Architectural Record Review; , p38 ; Apr 2006
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of this charter school created within an adapted industrial building in a blighted neighborhood. The avant-garde building houses public services and features ten classrooms with storage covered by sliding whiteboards. Graffiti problems are being addressed with vines along the building exterior.

Post-Occupancy 2006: Ann Richards Middle School, La Joya, Texas.
Merkel, Jayne
Architectural Record Review; , p30 ; Apr 2006
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of this school organized around an open courtyard, which is appropriate for the warm climate. A bright, intense color scheme reflects the Mexican heritage of the area.

Post-Occupancy 2006: The Waverly School, formerly P.S. 156, I.S. 293, Brooklyn, New York.
Merkel, Jayne
Architectural Record Review; , p22,23 ; Apr 2006
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of this 2001 facility that houses an elementary school and arts magnet middle school. Abundant daylighting, bathrooms in lower-grade classrooms, and a large lobby waiting area for parents are particularly appreciated.

Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: A Case Study of Awareness and Participation of Users.
Bernardi, Nubia; Kowaltowski, Doris
Environment and Behavior; v38 n2 , p155-172 ; Mar 2006
This paper presents the results of an extensive post occupancy study of 15 schools in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. The learning environments were analyzed as to thermal, acoustical, visual, and functional comfort and possible simple solutions to improve the quality of the learning environment. Classrooms and recreation areas were observed and critical comfort conditions were measured with equipment. School directors, teachers, employees and students were questioned as to their perception and evaluation of the comfort conditions and given the opportunity to express their satisfaction and desires about their learning spaces. A low level of intervention toward comfort on the part of users was attributed to discipline codes that restrict student behavior.
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Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2005/suppl. n57 , p12-19 ; Feb 2006
Presents the research and experience of six school evaluation professionals from around the world, emphasizing their respective practices in developing data collection methods to assess school quality, standards assessment experiences, and post-occupancy evaluation.

Progress on Evaluating School Buildings in Scotland. Adobe PDF
Thomson, Keith
PEB Exchange; v2005/suppl. n57 , p24,25 ; Feb 2006
Describes post-occupancy evaluation experiences in Scotland, including obstacles encountered eliciting objective opinions from parents and pupils, differing perceptions of elementary and secondary schools, negative bias, and keeping expectations for the evaluation in proper perspective.

"Report Cards" for Campus Additions and Renovations.
Woodhead, Sarah
Learning By Design; n15 , p19-21 ; 2006
Discusses the importance of post-occupancy evaluation for school projects, emphasizing the need for feedback from all of a building's occupants, and timing of the evaluation long enough after initial occupancy. Suggested contents of a post-occupancy evaluation survey and advice on choosing an evaluator are included.
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Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland. Adobe PDF
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; v2004/3 n53 , p11-13 ; Oct 2004
Describes the benefits of post-occupancy evaluation, along with the Scottish government's commitment to and procedures for them. An elementary school case study is included.

Evaluating Montbrillant Lower Secondary School in Switzerland. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2004/2 n52 , p9-12 ; Jun 2004
Presents a post-occupancy evaluation of this urban school, citing significant successes and failures after a year of serving its lower-income and largely immigrant neighborhood .

An Innovative School Revisited: Leith Academy and the Projects that Followed It. Adobe PDF
MacKenzie, Don
PEB Exchange; v2004/1 n51 , p14-16 ; Feb 2004
Describes the success of Edinburgh's Leith Academy, built in 1991 on an innovative flexible plan which has adapted to changes in capacity and educational programming and is a source of community pride. The design principles of the Academy were applied in subsequent new and renovated facilities.

Results of the 2004 DesignShare POE Program.
Lackney, Jeffery; 2004
Presents teacher and student comments accompanying two of the projects submitted for the DesignShare/School Construction News Awards, along with reasons for conducting a post-occupancy evaluation at a school and a list of the questions asked in the DesignShare POE survey.

Review of Building Quality Using Post Occupancy Evaluation. Adobe PDF
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; v2003/1 n48 , p15-18 ; Feb 2003
Describes post-occupancy evaluation of school buildings in terms of its aims, principles, benefits, methods, timing, and results. Offers three examples illustrating the evaluation of educational facilities in New Zealand.

The Lycee Maximilien Perret in France. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2 n46 , p11-13 ; Jun 2002
Describes the design of the secondary and continuing education institution named in the title, including the educational context and design goals. Offers a brief post-occupancy evaluation describing which aspects of the buildings meet users' needs and which have not lived up to expectations.

Learning from Your Mistakes.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v36 n10 , p31-33 ; Oct 1997
Discusses bringing the community into the planning and development stages of educational facilities, including post occupancy evaluations, to enhance the facility's positive impact on the community. Provides examples of one school district's success planning for new computer workstations in anticipation of future regulations, as well as one failed process involving learning space development.

Post Occupancy Evaluation of Educational Buildings and Equipment
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; n32 , p18-21 ; Oct 1997
Details the post occupancy evaluation (POE) process for public buildings. POE's are used to improve design and optimize educational building and equipment use. The evaluation participants, the method used, the results and recommendations, model schools, and classroom alterations using POE are described. (Contains 9 references.)

Opening Pandora's Box.
Hurt, Jane
Educational Facility Planner; v30 n3 , p14-18 ; 1992
Excerpts from an architect's return to Virginia school almost 12 years after completion of the design and construction project. Originally designed for open-space education in 1975, the school was subsequently partitioned to form traditional classroom spaces.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Standley Lake High School
Macclay, William R.; Earthman, Glen I.;
Educational Facility Planner; v30 n3 , p7-14 ; 1992
For the postoccupancy evaluation of a Colorado high school, four instruments probed different aspects of the total facility. Tables show responses from different groups regarding the overall quality of primary space, building design, and site facilities.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation.
White, Edward T
CEFP Journal; v24 n6 , p19-22 ; 1986
Postoccupancy evaluation is a careful, systematic, and reliable process intended to ensure that findings can be applied to future buildings. Some of the important issues about postoccupancy evaluation are explored using questions that are often asked about this new component in the building delivery system.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).