NCEF Resource List: School Preparedness for Natural Disasters
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Information on school preparations for wind, earthquake, and flood hazards, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. 85p.
Report NO: NCES 2011320

On Shaky Ground.
Johnson, Corey G.
(California Watch, Apr 2011)
California Watch investigates seismic safety oversight of California's public schools. A three-part series shows that lax oversight of school construction, poor judgment in hiring building inspectors and inability for schools to access renovation funds have all contributed to the tens of thousands of public schools that fail to comply with the Field Act, which laid out building safety codes after 70 schools collapsed in a 1933 earthquake. Includes audio and videos, interactive maps, photos, Iphone app, events, and social media.

Flooding and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2011)
Discusses what flooding can do to schools; how to prevent or mitigate flood damage; how to prepare for and respond to flood emergencies; and how to recover from a flood. Includes an appendix on schools as emergency shelters, 31 references and additional online resources. 4p.

Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools Toolkit
(Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. , 2011)
Includes course materials, comprehensive preparedness guide, prevention and preparedness resources, mitigation resources, respoonses & recovery resources, sample forms, video library, analyzing hazards, developing procedures, addressing special needs, and more.

School Crisis Guide. Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis.
(National Education Association (NEA) and the National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN), 2011)
This web-based guide and toolkit were developed to help schools respond to both human and natural disasters. Included are tips, resources, ideas, and examples. The kit is divided into four sections that discuss: 1) being prepared before a crisis, 2) being responsive during a crisis, 3) being diligent in moving beyond crisis, and 4) hands-on assistance tools for educators.

Seismic Strengthening of School Buildings
Proeça, Jorge and Gago, António Sousa
(Parque Escolar, Lisbon, 2011)
Portugal knows all too well how destructive earthquakes can be. This publication is a testament to the recent work of experts, governments and communities to seismically strengthen school buildings. In addition to presenting 13 detailed case studies of school strengthening completed as part of Portugal’s Secondary School Building Modernisation Programme, the authors describe the context – type of structures, building codes and regulations, technical procedures and assessment frameworks – surrounding these efforts. Published in English/Portuguese (bilingual) 190p

Mass Notification for Higher Education. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2010)
Discusses essential considerations when designing a campus-wide mass notification system, and the pros and cons of current notification systems. 8p.

Disaster Mitigation Planning Assistance Website
(Library of Congress Preservation Directorate, the Center for Great Lakes Culture and the California Preservation Program. , 2010)
Disaster plans for cultural institutions, including libraries, museums, historical societies and archives help to mitigate damage to collections in the event of a disaster. This site allows the user to view disaster plans submitted by libraries and archives as a model for developing your own plan. Resources are available in a database that can be searched geographically, by service, expert or supply. The search menu allows searching by state, multiple states nationally, or by type of service, expert, or supply. The results of a search can be downloaded for updating of your institution's disaster plan.

CDC Guidance on Helping Child Care and Early Childhood Programs Respond to Influenza during the 2009-2010 Influenza Season. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA , Sep 2009)
Provides guidance to help decrease the spread of influenza among children in early childhood programs and among early childhood providers during the 2009-2010 flu season. The guidance provides a menu of tools that health officials, Head Start, and other early childhood and child care providers can choose from based on conditions in their area. It recommends actions to take now, during the 2009-2010 flu season, suggests strategies to consider if the Centers for Disease Control determine that the flu is becoming more severe, and provides a checklist for decision-making at the local level. 6p.

Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know.
Borland, Larry
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. 46p.

Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey.
CELE Exchange; 2009/5 ; Jun 2009
Presents highlights from visits of Chinese officials to these countries, following this earthquake which disproportionately destroyed schools that were typically not earthquake resistant. Topics of the meetings included 1) how to formulate a comprehensive plan for reconstructing and retrofitting public facilities, 2) how to organize a reconstruction program for public facilities, 3) how to finance earthquake reconstruction and retrofitting programs, 4) how can the financial burden be shared among levels of government, and 5) how to monitor reconstruction efforts.

HT: Emergency School Reconstruction Project. Adobe PDF
(The World Bank, Washington, DC , Feb 17, 2009)
Outlines the World Bank's project to "build back better" and safeguard Haitian schools seriously damaged by hurricanes. The project intervenes in schools that have been destroyed and/or schools whose infrastructure represent a serious risk for the safety of the occupants, finance the upgrade of facilities in a few selected schools that are used as temporary shelters in case of natural disasters, and put in place a nation-wide program contributing to the reduction of major risks to and vulnerability of schools caused by natural disasters. 7p.

Emergency Management Standards. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). 2p.

Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction. Adobe PDF
(Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, Washington, DC , Jan 2009)
Presents a framework of guiding principles and general steps to develop a plan to address the disaster resilient construction and retrofitting of school buildings. The guidance notes consist of four components: 1) General information and advocacy points addressing the need and rationale for safer school buildings, along with success stories and list a number of essential guiding principles and strategies for overcoming common challenges. 2) A series of suggested steps that highlight key points that should be considered when planning a safer school construction and/or retrofitting initiative. Each step describes the processes, notes important decision points, highlights key issues or potential challenges, and suggests good practices, tools to facilitate the actions, and references resources to guide the reader to more detailed and context-specific information. 3)A compilation of basic design principles to identify some basic requirements a school building must meet to provide a greater level of protection. 4) A broad list of references to resources for more detailed, technical and context-specific information. 142p.

Improving School Earthquake Safety in India.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 2009)
Discusses efforts made to seismically retrofit New Delhi's Ludlow Castle School. STructural and non-structural modifications are described, as are intentions to replicate these modifications at other government schools in Delhi. 3p.

Preparing for the Flu: Department of Education Recommendations to Ensure the Continuity of Learning for Schools (K-12) During Extended Student Absence of School Dismissal. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , 2009)
Provides recommendations to help schools maintain the continuity of learning for individual or small groups of students who are out of school for extended periods and large groups of students disrupted by school dismissals or large numbers of faculty absences. These recommendations present considerations for education stakeholders to plan for and improve their ability to provide continuous learning ranging from take?home assignments to online learning capabilities. It offers key questions for states, districts, school leaders, teachers, parents, and students, as well as provides resource opportunities and best practices. 6p.

Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes. Adobe PDF
(United Nations Centre for Regional Development School Earthquake Safety Initiative , Jan 2009)
Describes the project on "Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquakes" that took place in four countries – Uzbekistan, Fiji, India and Indonesia. The project aimed to ensure that school children living in seismic regions have earthquake resilient schools and that local communities build capacities to cope with earthquake disasters. The project had the following key components: school retrofitting; disaster education, capacity building and raising awareness. Summarizes the good practices and lessons learned from the project countries and also highlights the task ahead to up-scale from model projects to countrywide activities on school safety. 94p.

The Disaster Decade: Lessons Unlearned for the United States. Adobe PDF
(Save the Children, Westport, CT , 2009)
Reports that only seven states are meeting crucial minimum standards to ensure that schools and child-care facilities are prepared to respond to the needs of children during a disaster. The four key standards identified include evacuation and relocation, reunification and plans for special needs children at child-care facilities, as well as multi-hazard plans at schools. The study calls for action at the federal level to better protect children through a five-point plan: 1) Establish national disaster preparedness standards for child-care centers and schools. 2) Establish an Office of Children's Advocacy at FEMA. 3) Make child care centers eligible for federal disaster aid. 4) Establish a White House Commission on the effects of the recession on children. 5) Create a federal public awareness campaign to educate families about protecting children during disasters. 41,42,44p.

Disaster Prevention for Schools: Guidance for Education Sector Decision-Makers; Consultation Version. Adobe PDF
(United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland , Nov 2008)
Provides guidance to school administrators, teachers, education authorities, and school safety committees. The guide introduces disaster impacts on and prevention for schools; creating and maintaining safe learning environments; teaching and learning disaster prevention and preparedness, educational materials and teacher training, and developing a culture of safety. 58p.

Earthquakes and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses earthquake basics, preparing a school for an earthquake, reducing nonstructural hazards, and seismic upgrading. A mitigation checklist is provided, as well as appendices on nonstructural hazards, past earthquake damage to U.S. schools, and a discussion of schools as earthquake shelters. 27 additional resources are cited. 8p.

Wildfires and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses conditions that feed wildfires, how a building catches fire, determining your school's risk, creating a survivable space for the school, the importance of maintenance, the fire-resistant school, meeting code requirements, related flood and mudslide risks, and an appendix on wildfire response. 22 additional resources are cited. 6p.

School Disaster Reduction and Readiness Checklist. Adobe PDF
(Risk Reduction Education for Disasters, California , Jul 15, 2008)
Offers a brief checklist that assesses the presence or absence of 33 elements of school disaster preparedness. 2p.

Natural Disasters and School Construction. [Podcast]
(United Nations Radio, New York, NY, Jun 25, 2008)
Presents an audio inteview that reviews loss of children's lives within schools that were damaged by recent natural disasters. The design and seismolological professionals interviewed advocate for better design and construction of schools worldwide, along with better and quicker restoration of school housing after natural disasters. Improvements in school construction undertaken after lessons learned from the disasters are noted. Also urged are improved preparation and acceptance of the inevitability of natural disasters, improved training for the building profession in developing countries, recognition of the disproportionate affect of disasters on vulnerable populations.

Emergency Response Information for School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Discusses the information required for managing school buildings, grounds, occupants, and rescue and recovery personnel during and after a crisis: neighborhood maps; aerial and ground photos; campus plans; command post and staging area locations; alternative evacuation routes and sites; school floor plans; fire alarm, sprinkler, utility, and television shutoff procedures; first aid supply locations; contact information for emergency responders, staff, and outside assistance; and the provision of building keys. 3p.

Legal Preparedness for School Closures in Response to Pandemic Influenza and Other Emergencies. Adobe PDF
Hodge, James; Bhattacharya, Dhrubajyoti; Gray, Jennifer
(Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities, Center for Law and the Public's Health, Baltimore , Apr 2008)
Examines state laws to determine where authority exists to close schools in cases of pandemic or to prevent a pandemic. While 47 states identify school closure as a potential mitigation strategy in cases of pandemic, few of these plans express any authority to close schools for extended periods of time. Far fewer states allow for non-emergency closure of schools to prevent a pandemic or for the general protection of public health. The level of government authorized to close schools varies from state to state, as does the agency (health or education) authorized to do so. Significant variations in laws may result in confusion and delay over school closures. Includes 71 references. 53p.

Emergency Management Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(Eastern Kentucky University, Kentucky Center for School Safety, Richmond , 2008)
Provides a template with which a school or school district can build a customized emergency response plan. The document offers sections with checklists for mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. These are followed by advice and resources for incident command, communication, a district plan, a school plan, emergency management for specific events, recovery, and a list of references and resources. 149p.

ICC/NSSA Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.
(International Code Council, Washington, DC and Amercian National Standards Institute, New York, NY , 2008)
Provides minimum design and construction requirements for storm shelters that provide a safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The standard provides design requirements for the main wind resisting structural system and components and cladding of these shelters, and provides basic occupant life safety and health requirements for these shelters including means of egress, lighting, sanitation, ventilation, fire safety, and minimum required floor space for occupants. 42p.
Report NO: ICC 500-2008

Impact of Disasters on the Education Sector of Cambodia.
(Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Pathumanthani, Thailand , 2008)
Reports on the Cambodian effort in a three-county project to initiate mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction into secondary school curriculum, report on impacts of disasters on education sector, workshop the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction into the education sector, and stakeholder consultation as follow up to the advocacy workshop. The objectives of the project are the following were to build up evidence based rationale to raise awareness of integrating disaster risk reduction concerns into education sector policy, and to advocate for changing practices in school construction and incorporating disaster risk resilient features in school construction. 58p.

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
This NCEF publication describes a process for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds, making a hazard mitigation plan, and implementing the plan. Steps include: select an assessment tool; assemble an assessment team; look at the record; perform the assessment; write up the results; create a standing committee on hazard mitigation; prepare a hazard mitigation plan; understand risk; weigh passive vs. active safety; select security technology with care; improve school climate; calculate costs, locate funding; seek input; coordinate hazard mitigation with crisis planning; start small, think big; justify thoroughly; meet regularly, advocate continually; and benefit mutually. 4p.

NCEF School Safety Assessment Guides.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
The 25 guides found on the lower portion of this web page assist in the school safety assessment process. Each downloadable guide addresses a specific area or space within the school, presenting a series of "yes-no" questions that assess the safety and security of physical features typical for that area. 67p.

Vermont School Crisis Guide. Adobe PDF
(Vermont School Crisis Planning Team, Crittenden East Supervisory Union, Richmond , 2008)
Presents general information on school crisis management that individual schools or districts can tailor to fit local needs and capabilities. The Guide is a framework to implement local school policy and administrative procedures, which are based on a comprehensive school emergency operations plan and policies. Sections of the guide cover the crisis planning team, various committees, accidents, terrorism and criminal acts, natural disasters, medical emergencies, and additional policies and procedures. 83p.

A Holistic Approach to Mass Notification. Adobe PDF
Trumbo, Berkly
(Inova Solutions, Charlottesville, VA , Jan 2008)
Cites disadvantages to audio mass notification, and advocates strategically placed visual alerting and smart LED signage in campus high traffic and gathering areas. 4p.

Severe Weather Planning for Schools. Adobe PDF
Watson, Barbara; Strong, Chritsopher; Bunting, Bill
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2008)
Advises on understanding, preparing for, and coping with weather emergencies at schools and with bus transportation. Events covered include severe thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes and storm surge, flooding, and extreme heat and cold. Six appendices contain detailed weather information. 18p.

Pan Flu Guidance: I. Elementary and Secondary Education Issues During a Severe Influenza Pandemic.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , Nov 21, 2007)
Focuses on the implications of the type of prolonged school closure that is recommended for severe pandemics in the Interim Pre-Pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (Community Mitigation Guidance). The U.S. Department of Education expects that entities, and State and local governments currently have the flexibility to address the implications of shorter-term closures that might be associated with less severe pandemics. In addition, this document addresses severe influenza pandemics as they might affect federal guidelines for assessment and accountability, continuation of educational services, special education services, as well as higher education admissions and financial aid programs. 32p.

School Emergency Management Planning: Hazard Vulnerability Assessments.
(U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security , Oct 05, 2007)
Advocates hazard vulnerability assessments (HVAs) as essential elements of school emergency management planning. Schools can utilize HVA's to identify potential hazards and to prioritize prevention and mitigation efforts in cases of emergency. HVAs are typically conducted by risk assessment teams that include school personnel and representatives from the local emergency management community. A list of 22 resources is included. 7p.

Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics , Sep 2007)
Uses data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, bomb threats, and hazardous materials threats are included. 75p.
Report NO: NCES 2007-361

New Jersey K-12 School Security Task Force Report.
(New Jersey Office for Homeland Security and Preparedness, Newark , Sep 2007)
Presents the discussion items and final recommendations of this task force, which include: 1. Distribution of model emergency policies to the State s law enforcement agencies with the direction that they are to begin implementing these policies with current operations plans and training. 2. Distribution of "companion" model policies for school administrators & teachers. 3. Joint training for the 21 county prosecutors and county schools superintendents to review school security strategies and programs together. 4. a uniform state memorandum of agreement between education and law enforcement to include annual review of the model policies issued by the school task force. 5. Enhanced training for school resource officers to include training on the aforementioned model procedures. 6. Teacher training for school crises. 7. Local school security councils/working groups, consisting of parents, educators, and state, county, and local law enforcement, fire, and emergency management personnel to address issues of school security. 8. Regular drills & amendments to the New Jersey fire code that require that monthly fire drills should be amended to incorporate drills and exercises for bomb threats, emergency evacuation/reverse evacuation, active shooters, lockdowns, and shelter-in-place. 26p.

AIA Handbook for Disaster Assistance Programs. Adobe PDF
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , Aug 24, 2007)
This handbook offers an overview of the initiatives, structures, resources, and policy that the American Institute of Architects follows to implement, support and expand its Comprehensive Response System (CRS), a framework developed to assist its members in its continued service to society. It stresses the importance of preparedness to respond to disasters, the steps that a region and its AIA components need to take to create an emergency response plan, as well as a disaster assistance program. It also outlines initial and long term disaster assistance efforts. 30p.

Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. Adobe PDF
(United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC , Jun 2007)
Assesses the roles of federal and state governments and school districts in establishing requirements and providing resources for emergency management planning, what school districts have done to plan and prepare for emergencies, and the challenges school districts have experienced in planning for emergencies. Surveys, interviews, and document reviews were conducted at the federal, state, and district level. Most states and school districts reported having requirements for emergency planning, and federal and state governments and school districts provide financial and other resources. Thirty-two states reported having laws or other policies requiring school districts to have emergency management plans. Most school districts have developed emergency management plans, but many plans do not include federally recommended practices. The GAO estimates that over one-quarter of school districts have never trained with any first responders and over two-thirds of school districts do not regularly train with community partners on how to implement their school district emergency management plans. 74p.
Report NO: GAO-07-609

Emergency Management: Status of School Districts' Planning and Preparedness. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accountability Office, Washington, DC , May 17, 2007)
Reports on the current state of emergency preparedness in U.S. school districts, illustrating percentages of districts that have plans for intruders, bomb threats, natural disasters, terrorism, radiation, anthrax, and pandemic influenza. Some plans and school districts have taken steps to plan for a range of emergencies, as most have developed multi-hazard emergency management plans. However some plans and activities do not address federally recommended practices. In an estimated 62 percent of districts, officials cited a lack of equipment and expertise as impediments to emergency planning. Absence of door locks necessary for implementing a lockdown and a lack of two-way radios are two examples of facility and equipment deficiencies. Also noted was a shortage of expertise in both planning for and managing emergencies, as well as an inability to incorporate special needs students in emergency management planning. An estimated 39 percent of districts with emergency plans experience challenges in communicating and coordinating with local first responders, lacking partnerships with all or specific first responders, limited time or funding to collaborate with first responders on plans for emergencies, or a lack of interoperability between the equipment used by the school district and equipment used by first responders. 25p.
Report NO: GAO-07-821T

Non-pharmaceutical Disease Mitigation Strategies Schools.
(University of Missouri, Missouri Center for Safe Schools, Kansas City , May 16, 2007)
Discusses mitigation strategies for pandemics, including examples of non-pharmaceutical inteventions (NPI's) that could be employed include school distancing measures, school closure triggers, surveillance and reporting, social distancing, increased communication, heightened maintenance and sanitation, and efforts to continue academics. Includes 16 references. 13p.

Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC , Feb 2007)
Provides interim planning guidance for state, territorial, tribal and local communities that focuses on several measures other than vaccination and drug treatment that might be useful during an influenza pandemic to reduce its harm. Communities, individuals and families, employers, schools, and other organizations will be asked to plan for the use of these interventions to help limit the spread of a pandemic, prevent disease and death, lessen the impact on the economy, and keep society functioning. This interim guidance introduces a Pandemic Severity Index to characterize the severity of a pandemic, provides planning recommendations for specific interventions that communities may use for a given level of pandemic severity, and suggests when these measures should be started and how long they should be used. 39p.

Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.

Concrete Portables More Durable, Cost Effective. Full Mitigation Best Practice Story.
(U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
Discussion of the use of more durable portables in Palm Beach County, Florida. Concrete units are being explored as a safer, cost-effective, and more durable option to easily damaged traditional classroom portables. The portables feature, reinforced roofing, impact-resistant windows, and are rated to withstand winds of 187 mph. Concrete portables can be integrated into a modular design and can be configured to almost any shape or for any purpose. 3p.

Disaster Planning, Management, and Recovery Guide.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners,International, Scottsdale, AZ, 2007)
Assists school districts in the preparation of their emergency preparedness guide. This online publication takes the user through the responsibilities of essential staff, as well as providing checklists of tasks which department heads should complete before, during, and after an event, and issues to consider when creating your district's disaster preparedness guide. The guide is organized in eleven major categories that must be addressed, as they directly impact school district operations: people transportation, communications, food service, planning supplies, facilities, legal, technology, financial, and education. Each category has a short overview to explain the major objectives of the section, followed by an outline of items to consider when assembling a planning, management and recovery plan for the district.

Edwards Disaster Recovery Directory.
(Edwards Information, Ashton, MD, 2007)
Presents over 3,000 vendor listings covering 400 disaster recovery categories such as drying & dehumidification of paper & microfilm records, smoke odor counteracting services, and trauma counselors. The listings are organized under nine sections: disaster-recovery planning and assistance associations; emergency equipment replacement & repair; facilities, such as hotsites, warmsites, coldsites, mobile buildings and mobile computers; materials and publications, such as videos and journals; services, including clean-up and restoration, computer repair, consulting, and data-recovery; software for disaster-recovery and business-continuity planning, risk management, security control, disaster management, and emergency notification; specialty supplies, such as emergency food rations, fireproof containers, and personal evacuation equipment; and providers of specialty training for professionals and employees. [Registration required for free online searching.]
TO ORDER: Edwards Information, PO Box 31, Ashton,MD 20861; Tel: 301-774-5414; Toll free: 800-990-9936; Email:

Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide for Utah Schools.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , 2007)
Assists Utah schools in compliance with state regulations mandating emergency preparedness plans for schools. The guide outlines responsibilities for school officials and staff; criteria, components, and organization of an emergency preparedness plan; hazard analysis; communications and evacuation plans; and specific advice for itemized threats. Appendices include the text of the state rule, additional advice for specific age groups, sample forms, and a list of recommended first aid equipment and supplies. 93p.

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness for Schools [School Facilities Issues]
(California Department of Education, 2007)
When developing the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan, California districts are encouraged to consider how such an emergency might affect the school facilities. Issues such as school closings, accommodation of students with special needs, schools designated as contingency hospitals, establishing policies for transporting ill students, modified maintenance practices during an emergency epidemic or pandemic to reduce or slow the spread of the disease, storage of adequate supplies (food, water, cleaning supplies, soap, hand towels, etc.), and removal of trash during a break-out, etc. This links to resources to assist schools in developing these emergency plans.

Pennsylvania Office of Attorney General School Safety Project.
(Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General, Harrisburg , 2007)
This CD instructs school districts on how to create an interactive and secure website with critical information about each school in the district that only can be accessed by first responders in the case of an emergency. Information to be placed on the website includes detailed floor plans of each school, interior and exterior photographs, a complete contact list of all teachers and administrators, and a crises management response plan for the district.

Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, D.C. , Jan 2007)
School districts may be touched either directly or indirectly by a crisis of some kind at any time, including natural disasters, school shootings, or acts of terrorism. This guide is intended to give schools, districts, and communities the critical concepts and components of good crisis planning, stimulate thinking about the crisis preparedness process, and provide examples of promising practices. Sections include: 1) Mitigation/Prevention; 2) Preparedness; 3) Response; 4) Recovery; and 5) Resources. Each section contains an action checklist and action steps. 146p.

Safe School Facilities Checklist.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2007)
A checklist that combines the nation's best school facility assessment measures into one online source for assessing the safety and security of school buildings and grounds. It includes over 400 measures covering school surroundings, school grounds, buildings and facilities, communications systems, building access control and surveillance, utility systems, mechanical systems, and emergency power. The checklist is updated frequently and may be used for planning and designing new facilities or assessing existing ones.

School District (K-12) Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides a checklist to assist school districts with planning for, containing, and continuing programs through a flu pandemic. 3p.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

The Presidential Role in Disaster Planning and Response: Lessons from the Front. Adobe PDF
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2007)
Details eight "lessons learned," as synthesized from the advice of ten higher education presidents who led their respective institutions through a natural or man-made disaster. The lessons focus on leadership, communication, recovery, minimizing enrollment loss, and dealing with "matters of the heart." 12p.

With the Public's Knowledge, We Can Make Sheltering in Place Possible. Adobe PDF
(New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY , 2007)
Identifies serious and unanticipated problems that currently make it neither feasible nor safe for many people to shelter in place in case of an emergency. The report is based on two years' work gathering the insights and experiences of nearly 2,000 people who live and work in four communities around the country. Among the many gaps uncovered was the fact that while schools have been preparing for emergencies that affect the school directly, children are also at risk if their parents and other guardians need to shelter in place because of an emergency and no other adult is available to pick the children up or be at home with them after school. 62p.

Hazard Identification And Risk Assessment For Schools.
(State of Maine, Augusta , Nov 2006)
Offers a workbook to identify and assess hazards to school property and occupants in order to develop a more thorough emergency response plan. 22p.

Arizona School Site Emergency Response Plan Template.
(Arizona Dept. of Education, Arizona Division of Emergency Management, Phoenix , Sep 2006)
Provides school districts with comprehensive guidelines to follow in case of any of nineteen types of emergencies. Checklists, communication instructions, staff responsibilities, job descriptions, and a wide variety of forms for inventory, release, skills assessment, and site review are included. 79p.

Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , Sep 2006)
Advises on the difference between a pandemic flu and seasonal flu, advises on measure to limit the spread of flu, and offers a list of basic components for pandemic planning. 5p.

Guidelines for Pandemic Planning. Adobe PDF
(American College Health Association, Baltimore, MD , Jul 07, 2006)
Assists college health professionals with either leading or assisting in the development of pandemic preparedness plans on their campus. The first part of this document offers an overview of the pandemic threat, the importance of pandemic preparedness planning, and how to get started. The second part outlines the specific areas that should be included in planning, starting first with planning to meet the health care needs of students, and then, addressing planning for the broader campuswide response. 15p.

Performance of Physical Structures in Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita: A Reconnaissance Report. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD , Jun 2006)
Describes the environmental conditions (wind speed, storm surge, and flooding) that were present during the hurricanes in regions that were affected by these hurricanes. The report further documents the NIST-led team's observations of damage to major buildings, infrastructure, schools, and residential structures resulting from wind and wind-borne debris, storm surge, surge-borne debris, and surge-induced flooding. Damage reports are organized by part such as structural systems, roofs, windows, and cladding. The report concludes with 23 recommendations for: 1)improvements to practice that will have an immediate impact on the rebuilding of structures damaged or destroyed by the hurricanes; 2)improvements to standards, codes, and practice; and 3)further study or research and development. 222p.

Child Care and Preschool Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC , Mar 2006)
Provides a checklist to assist early childhood education facilities with planning for, containing, and continuing programs through a flu pandemic. 2p.

Colleges and Universities Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC , Mar 20, 2006)
Provides a checklist to assist higher education institutions with planning for, containing, and continuing programs through a flu pandemic. 3p.

Campus Public Safety Preparedness for Catastrophic Events: Lessons Learned from Hurricanes and Explosives. Adobe PDF
(International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, West Hartford, CT , 2006)
Presents the demographic information, chronology of priorities, emergency plans, command and coordination, equipment and logistics, communications, staff and critical incident stress management, recall and staffing, lessons learned, and unmet needs of fifteen higher education institutions affected by Hurricanes Katrina or Rita, or by bomb incidents. 148p.

Working with Students with Disabilities in a Disaster.
Daylin, Chris; Vincent, Ray; Ybarra, William
(Los Angeles County Office of Education, California , 2006)
Advises on the accommodation of the disabled during a disaster, covering levels and types of disabilities, special equipment and supplies to have on hand for the disabled, and procedures for working with individuals impaired in hearing, vision, learning, and mobility, as well as their service animals. Advice on evacuation planning, psychological symptoms, stress factors, and communication is included. 45p.

Secure/Safe [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Safe Committee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2005)
Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates—and then protects—the building occupants, resources, structure, and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide discusses four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: Plan for Fire Protection; Ensure Occupant Safety and Health; Resist Natural Hazards; and Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets.

Macon State College Emergency Response Plan. Adobe PDF
(Macon State College, Macon, GA , May 25, 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for explosions, aircraft crashes, fires, earthquakes, storms, snow, ice, floods, hazardous materials spills, bomb threats, violence or criminal behavior, and civil disturbances. Evacuation procedures and a bomb threat reporting form are included. 15p.

Preparing for the "Big One"--Saving Lives through Earthquake Mitigation in Los Angeles, CA: Section 3, Schools.
(The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Policy Development and Research , 2005)
Reviews the overall positive performance of school buildings during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, with no collapsed buildings. The report notes that the quake did not occur during school hours, so there were no fatalities. However, significant non-structural damage occurred, and egress from many buildings would have been blocked by debris, were the buildings occupied at the time. Recommendations for retrofitting schools for nonstructural seismic hazards, and a review of what has been done to date are addressed. Includes 31 references. 6p.

OECD Recommendation Concerning Guidelines on Earthquake Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris , 2005)
Presents the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's position on school earthquake safety guidelines, outlines the principles of school seismic safety programs, and details recommended elements of such programs, which include policy, accountability, building codes and enforcement, training, preparedness, community awareness and participation, and risk reduction. 7p.

Sinclair Community College. Adobe PDF
(Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH , 2005)
Lists this college's emergency procedures for bomb threats, civil disturbances, earthquakes, evacuations, fire, explosions, hazardous material spills, human bodily fluid spills, lockdowns, medical emergencies, power outages, suspicious packages and envelopes, an severe weather. Locations of emergency telephones are included. 30p.

Y.I.K.E.S. Your Inventory for Keeping Everyone Safe: Planning Guide for Emergency Response Planning in Child Care Planning Guide. Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Child Care and Head Start, Augusta , Jan 2005)
Serves as a tool for emergency response planning in child care programs. This guide provides basic emergency preparedness and planning information that can be customized to fit the size and needs of differing programs. It covers specific disasters such as earthquake, flood, severe weather, bomb threat, contamination, power failure, fire, hazardous materials, abduction, transportation incident, medical emergency, and building collapse. A sample emergency relocation shelter agreement and a sample emergency transportation permission agreement are appended. 28p.

Seismic Safety in California's Schools: Findings and Recommendations on Seismic Safety Policies and Requirements for Public, Private, and Charter Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seisemic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Dec 2004)
Considers situations in California where schools may fall short of typical seismic safety expectations. The report finds that private schools and charter schools, particularly those in older buildings, may not meet Field Act standards, both in structural and non-structural components. Six recommendations to reduce risk in these types of facilities are presented. 15p.

School Seismic Safety: Falling Between the Cracks? Adobe PDF
(Chapter for C. Rodrigue and E. Rovai (eds.) Earthquakes, London: Routledge, 2004, (Routledge Hazards and Disasters Series), 2004)
This explores the magnitude and urgency of the question of seismic safety in schools, estimates the order of magnitude of the challenge, and offers a series of case studies from various countries. It discusses the arguments in support of making school seismic safety a major priority, and concludes with a note on the prospects for addressing the problem and the need for further study. 56p.

OECD Programme on Educational Building (PEB) and Geohazards International (GHI) Ad Hoc Experts' Group Meeting on Earthquake Safety in Schools: Recommendations. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France , Feb 2004)
Lists the guiding principles and major elements for recommended mandatory school seismic safety programs. The major elements described are community awareness and participation, building codes and code enforcement, risk reduction for new and existing facilities, proper training for building professionals, and disaster preparedness. 10p.

Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington , Jan 2004)
Provides design guidance for the protection of school buildings and their occupants against natural hazards, concentrating on K-12 facilities. The focus is on the design of new schools, but the repair, renovation and extension of existing schools, as well as the economic losses and social disruption caused by damage from these three hazards is also addressed. Two core concepts emphasized are multihazard design, where the characteristics of hazards and how they interract are considered together with all other design demands, and performance-based design, where the specific concerns of building owners and occupants a considered over and above what is covered in the building code. Chapters 1-3 present issues common to all hazards. Chapters 4-6 cover risk management for each of the three specific hazards of the title. 361p.
Report NO: FEMA 424

Educational Facilities and Risk Management: Natural Disasters.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Programme for Educational Buildings, Paris , 2004)
Discusses the sensitivity of educational buildings to earthquakes and other natural disasters, given that they are densely occupied, and that they are often used as refuge for the general population during and after disasters. Strategies and justifications for building disaster-resistant schools and retrofitting existing schools are presented. Programs and case studies from several countries are described, along with historical accounts of recent disasters and their effects on educational infrastructure. 119p.

Keeping Schools Safe in Earthquakes.
(Organisation for Co-Operation and Economic Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2004)
Reports on a 2004 conference of international seismic and educational facility experts. Part 1 discusses the recognition of obstacles to improving seismic safety of schools in various countries. Part II defines seismic safety principles for schools. Part III discusses assessing vulnerability and risks to schools and other public buildings. Part IV identifies strategies and programs for improving school seismic safety. Part V presents the group's recommendations for improving seismic safety in schools. 242p.

Jane's Safe Schools Planning Guide for All Hazards.
Dorn, Mike; Thomas, Gregory; Wong, Marleen; Shepherd, Sonayia
(Jane's Information Group, Alexandria, VA. , 2004)
Takes the user through the planning, implementation, response, and recovery processes of a safe school. Section one describes how to organize personnel and materials around the development of an emergency plan. Section two describes mitigation and prevention procedures which involve both facilities and school climate issues. Section three details preparedness procedures for critical incidents. Section four presents strategies for recovery after a critical incident. 450p.

Earthquake Safety and Sidewalk Survey Scores in Clackamas County Schools, Clackamas County, Oregon.
Wang, Yumei; Hasenberg, Carol; Harguth, Vicki
(Oregon Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries, Portland , 2004)
Estimates through sidewalk surveys and walk-throughs that about half of the County's K-12 schools may be in need of further seismic study and potential upgrades. The surveys do not account for elements invisible from the street or interior corridors, and are intended solely as a prioritization tool for identifying structures in need of further evaluation. The data was obtained using FEMA methods. 25p.
TO ORDER: Nature of the Northwest Information Center, 800 NE Oregon St. #5, Portland, OR, 97232; Tel: 503-872-2750.

Regulations and Procedures To Comply with the Standards and Criteria of the National Flood Insurance Program.[Georgia]
(Georgia State Dept. of Education, Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta, 2003)
The state of Georgia provides the legislative rules for complying with the National Flood Insurance Program and applicable to the construction of state facilities and recipients of state grants or loans in flood plain areas. Sections present findings of fact relative to Georgia's flood plains, and the general provisions of the regulation and the provision of flood plain management and administrative services. A Floodplain Determination Request form is attached. 7

Building a Disaster-Resistant University.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 2003)
This guide is intended to support efforts by universities to reduce and manage their vulnerability to hazards. It includes a description of a disaster-resistant university; how to perform a risk assessment; developing interest and support; developing a loss reduction plan; maintaining interest; and additional information. This is both a how-to guide and a distillation of the experiences of six universities and colleges that have been working to become more disaster-resistant 55p.

Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12): Providing Protection to People and Buildings.
Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn
(Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg; U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 2003)
Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for those buildings. The manual consists of three parts. Part A, "Critical Decisions for Earthquake Safety in Schools," is for superintendents, board members, business managers, principals, and other policy makers who will decide on allocating resources for earthquake mitigation. Part B, "Managing the Process for Earthquake Risk Reduction in Existing School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, risk managers, and financial managers who will initiate and manage seismic mitigation measures. Part C, "Tools for Implementing Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation in School Buildings," is for school district facility managers, or those otherwise responsible for facility management, who will implement incremental seismic rehabilitation programs. (Appendices offer additional information on school facility management.) 73p.
Report NO: FEMA 395

TO ORDER: FEMA Publication Warehouse; Tel: 800-480-2520

The Earthquake Threat to BC's School Children: Vancouver.
Monk, Tracy
(Families for School Seismic Safety, Vancouver, BC , Jun 2003)
Reviews earthquake risk to Vancouver's school facilities, comparing the city's lack of mitigation efforts to more aggressive programs in Seattle and California. The cost of seismically upgrading Vancouver's schools is presented as a cost-effective public health intervention, a sound building management strategy, and a litigation avoidance. Includes ten references. 15p.

Flood Cleanup: Avoiding Indoor Air Quality Problems. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2003)
Discusses steps to take when cleaning and repairing a home after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for microorganisms. This fact sheet provides tips to avoid creating indoor air quality problems during cleanup. 2p.

Guide and Checklist for Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards in California Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Department of Education, Sacramento , Jan 2003)
Advises on the reduction of seismic hazards associated with the non-structural components of schools buildings, including mechanical systems, ceiling systems, partitions, light fixtures, furnishings, and other building contents. The Guide identifies potential earthquake hazards and provides recommendations for mitigating those hazards. The non-structural components and building contents identified in this publication are listed in one of the following three sections: ceiling and overhead, walls and wall-mounted, and furniture and equipment. Within each section, an information sheet is provided for each non-structural component or building content item. Each information sheet provides a description of the item, a description of the potentially hazardous condition, and recommendations to reduce the hazard. An "earthquake hazards checklist" is also provided at the back of the publication to assist district staff in conducting a non-structural hazards survey. 50p.

Recommended Emergency Supplies for Schools.
(American Red Cross, Washington, D.C.,, 2003)
Information on what emergency supplies to store, how much to budget, how much to store, and where to store supplies. Includes lists of recommended supplies for individual kits, an individual classroom, and for the whole school. Also covers search and rescue equipment. This list was developed from lists created by the California Senate Select Committee on the Northridge Earthquake, Task Force on Education, and updated by the American Red Cross. 4p.

Resources on Emergency Evacuation and Disaster Preparedness for People With Disabilities.
(The Access Board, Washington, D.C. , 2003)
This is a list of resources on emergency egress, including design criteria, and on disaster preparedness that address the needs of persons with disabilities.

Risk Watch: Natural Disasters.
(National Fire Protection Association with funding from the Home Safety Council and support from the Federal Emergency Management Administration, 2003)
This program is designed to teach effective emergency response to natural disasters, and to reinforce the importance of preparedness for natural and other disasters, including hazardous materials spills and acts of terrorism. It is designed to teach children to take actions to prepare and properly respond to disaster. The program identifies and incorporates local resources, making it possible to tailor the program to regions and communities. The program is divided into grade levels with each age-appropriate section covering seven disaster areas: general preparedness, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires and severe winter storms. Technically accurate information is combined with fun educational activities.
TO ORDER: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. Tel: 617-770-3000.

Introduction to Natural and Man-made Disasters and their Effects on Buildings.
McDonald, Roxanna
(Elsevier, Architectural Press, Burlington, MA , 2003)
Provides guidance with all types of natural and man-made disasters and their effect on buildings. The forces of various disasters are described, along with a basic technical understanding of prevention, mitigation, and management of each with a checklist of preventive design elements for each situation. Case studies accompany each disaster type, illustrating information crucial for designing buildings with disaster prevention in mind. A special emphasis is placed on re-building as an opportunity to start over. 240p.
TO ORDER: Elsevier Inc. Science & Technology, 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA, 01803; Tel: 781-221-2212, Fax: 781-313-4880

Lightning Safety for Schools--An Update. Adobe PDF
Roeder ,William P. ; Vavrek, R. James
(45th Weather Squadron, Patrick Air Force Base. , 2003)
Many school activities can put students at high risk from lightning. An effective integrated lightning safety plan requires four tiers of activities: 1) education, so people are aware of the hazard and know what actions to take when lightning threatens, 2) protection of facilities and equipment, 3) mitigation, for when protection fails, and 4) weather warnings to alert personnel to take action. 8p.

Findings and Recommendations on the Use of Non-Field Act Compliant Buildings for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Dec 2002)
Presents findings of the California Seismic Safety Commission indicating that the Division of the State Architect (DSA) can develop a regulatory process that will allow the State Architect to determine whether a building not originally constructed in compliance with the Field Act and its implementing regulations, either meets, or can be retrofitted to meet, the same equivalent pupil safety performance standard as a building constructed according to the Field Act and its implementing regulations. 18p.

Seismic Safety Inventory of California Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of General Services, Sacramento , Nov 15, 2002)
Reports on an inventory of California's K-12 schools that found 80 percent of California's kindergarten through 12th grade public school buildings meeting expected life safety performance standards, able to protect children from injury during a serious earthquake, and not requiring further seismic evaluation. The inventory also identified 7,537 school buildings, which represent 14 percent of the state's K-12 school building's square footage, that should undergo additional seismic evaluation to determine if they should be retrofitted. Additionally, the inventory identified more than 2,100 school buildings that are expected, but not guaranteed, to achieve life safety performance in future earthquakes. The inventory focused on non-wood frame public schools that were designed and built before July 1, 1978 and met certain criteria, including close proximity to an active earthquake fault. 43p.

School Seismic Evaluations Phase 3 Report for Wyoming Department of Education. Adobe PDF
(Wyoming Dept. of Education, Laramie , Nov 2002)
Presents a summary of evaluations of selected Wyoming public school buildings for potential seismic deficiencies pertaining to earthquakes. The Standard used to evaluate the school structures was the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC). For each noted deficiency in each school building a recommendation is made to strengthen, replace or supplement each deficient element to bring the overall facility into conformance to the UBC. 50p.

Protecting Children from Tornadoes. Adobe PDF
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , Aug 2002)
Reviews the construction of safe rooms in the Wichita Public School District, using FEMA mitigation funds. The shelters were created in cooperation with the local emergency management authority, and four are profiled. 14p.

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook. FEMA 154, Edition 2.
(United States Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , Mar 2002)
Presents a method to quickly identify, inventory, and rank buildings posing risk of death, injury, or severe curtailment in use following an earthquake. The procedure can be used by trained personnel to identify potentially hazardous buildings with a 15- to 30-minute exterior inspection, using a data collection form included in the handbook. A significant difference in this second edition is the need for a higher level of technical engineering expertise on the part of the users. The structural scoring system has been revised, based on new information, and the handbook has been shortened and focused to make it easier to use. 164p.
Report NO: FEMA 154, 2nd ed.

A Guide to Developing a Severe Emergency Plan for Schools.
Watson, Barbara McNaught
(National Weather Service, Eastern Region Headquarters, Bohemia, NY , Feb 15, 2002)
Assists school administrators and teachers with developing safety plans during thunderstorms and their accompanying hazards of lightning, hail, tornadoes, and flash floods. Information on designing and practicing the plan, recognizing the approach of severe weather, and school bus safety are provided. 51p.

Ensuring That Structures Built on Fill In or Near Special Flood Hazard Areas Are Reasonably Safe From Flooding.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 2001)
Provides guidance on the construction of buildings on land elevated above the base flood elevation (BFE) through the placement of fill. Several methods of construction are discussed, and those that result in the entire building being above the BFE are recommended. This bulletin gives additional guidance on how to determine that buildings with basements will be reasonably safe from flooding during the occurrence of the base flood and larger floods. 26p.

Handling Natural Disasters on Campus.
(International Assn. of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, West Hartford, CT , 2001)
Relates the experiences of campus law enforcement officers in handling specific hurricanes, floods, and blizzards, as well as planning for earthquakes and other natural disasters. 99p.
TO ORDER: 342 North Main St., West Hartford, CT, 06117-2507; Tel: 860-586-7517, Fax: 860-586-7550

School/Shelter Hazard Vulnerability Reduction Resource Page.
(Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project implemented by the Organization of American States Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment for the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Caribbean Regional Program, 2001)
Summarizes a long-term project to develop national plans to reduce vulnerability of school buildings to natural hazards in Latin America and the Caribbean. The project included a survey of existing school buildings to create vulnerability profiles and the development of school maintenance plans. In the Caribbean pilot project, a master manual of standards for the retrofitting or construction of schools/shelters and for estimating the costs was developed, as were individual reports describing results of property survey in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, and St. Kitts. Photos of selected school buildings are available for Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada and St. Kitts.

School Earthquake Safety Guidebook.
(British Columbia Ministry of Education, Victoria , Dec 2000)
Covers earthquake drills, programs for reducing seismic hazards, response plans, and individual checklists for students, teachers, principals, parents, maintenance staff, and bus drivers. 27p.
Report NO: XX 0231

Earthquake Preparedness 101: Guidelines for Colleges and Universities. Adobe PDF
(California Governor's Office of Emergency Services, Earthquake Program , Nov 2000)
Detailed information on earthquake preparedness, earthquake response, and post-disaster recovery, written for university and college emergency managers. 98p.

Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jul 2000)
This manual presents guidance to engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners concerning the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornado and hurricane events. The manual covers two types of community shelters: stand-alone shelters designed to withstand high winds and the impact of windborne debris during tornadoes, hurricanes, or other extreme-wind events; and internal shelters specially designed within an existing building to provide the same wind and missile protection. The shelters are intended to provide protection during a short-term, high-wind event, such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Shelter location, design loads, performance criteria, and human factor criteria that should be considered for the design and construction of such shelters are provided as are case studies to illustrate how to evaluate existing shelter areas, make shelter selections, and provide construction drawings, emergency operation plans, and cost estimates. Included in the appendices is a case study involving a school shelter design in Kansas. Other appendices provide site assessment checklists; a benefit-cost analysis model for tornado and hurricane shelters; another case study of a stand-alone community shelter (North Carolina); wall sections, doors, and hardware that passed the missile impact tests; and design guidance on missile impact protection levels for wood sheathing.This document is a guidance manual for engineers, architects, building officials, and prospective shelter owners about the design and construction of community shelters that will provide protection during tornadoes and hurricanes. Includes chapters that cover protection objectives; shelter types, location, and siting concepts; performance criteria for debris impact; design commentary; emergency management considerations; and cost/benefit analysis. 276p.
Report NO: FEMA 361

TO ORDER: FEMA Publications Distribution Facility, Tel: 800-480-2520.

School Facilities Manual: Nonstructural Protection Guide. Safer Schools, Earthquake Hazards, Nonstructural. Second Edition. [Washington]
Noson, Linda Lawrance; Perbix, Todd W.
(Washington Office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Seattle Public Schools , May 2000)
Addresses the strengthening of nonstructural elements of a school building to resist earthquake-induced damage and improve school building safety. Nonstructural elements include the decorative details and those functional building parts and contents which support the activities in, and the performance of, the building such as mechanical and electrical systems, furnishings and equipment, and necessary hazardous materials. The first section discusses earthquake activity in Washington, earthquake-induced damage to Washington schools, the causes of earthquake damage, the school district nonstructural protection program, and the use of school site teams. The second section presents inventory forms and inventory process for nonstructural elements. A revision of this section is included at the end of the guide. The third section provides the details for protecting nonstructural elements from earthquake-induced damage. 155p.

A Guide to Developing A Severe Weather Emergency Plan for Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington , 2000)
Provides assistance to school administrators and teachers in designing a severe weather emergency plan for their school. The majority of material focuses on thunderstorms and the hazards they produce: lightning, hail, tornadoes, and flash floods. Sections of the guide address understanding the danger of storms, designing the emergency plan, and spotting the storms. Appendices supply additional resources and a glossary of terms. 39p.

Disaster Awareness for Schools. A Resource Guide for Caribbean Teachers. Adobe PDF
(Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency; European Humanitarian Office Disaster Preparedness Programme , 2000)
This is concerned with the policies, practices, and appropriate measures that can be taken to anticipate and reduce the hazard on a community. Included are a select list of books, articles, pamphlets, brochures, posters, and other items on hazards, risks, and disasters that are held in disaster management agencies in the Caribbean. The selections take into consideration the interdisciplinary approach of developing an understanding and a greater awareness of natural hazards and disasters. It is intended for teachers to use a source to locate materials for their lessons on disasters. Many of the items are annotated and indicate the age group for which they are most appropriate. 44p.

Indiana School Safety Plan.
(Indiana Dept. of Education, Indinapolis , 2000)
Outlines the elements of a school safety plan and recommends additional resources. 2p.

Tornado Preparedness Tips for School Administrators.
Edwards, Roger
(Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK, 2000)
Notes that the most important part of tornado safety in schools is to develop a good tornado safety plan tailored to the building's design and its ability to move people. Discusses identifying safe places in a school building, flying debris, building strength, portable classrooms, and the need to run tornado drills several times yearly.

The Future of the Field Act for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Feb 11, 1999)
Summarizes the Seismic Safety Commission's efforts to evaluate the Field Act, it's findings, and recommendations. The Field Act was enacted in California in 1933 after the Long Beach Earthquake in which 70 schools were destroyed, 120 schools suffered major damage, and 300 schools received minor damage. The Field Act has been updated many times since its inception and continues to be one of the most effective risk reduction measures undertaken by California. The superior performance of public schools in modern earthquakes and their critical role in disaster relief facilities repeatedly demonstrates the Act's effectiveness. 4p.

School Earthquake Preparedness Guidebook.[Arkansas]
(University of Arkansas Little Rock, Graduate Institute of Technology, Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer , 1999)
This guidebook was created to help school personnel create, supplement, and revise their earthquake emergency procedures. Includes information on legal requirements, how to start a preparedness process, earthquake response procedures, nonstructural hazard identification and reduction, stocking supplies, conducting drills, and completing a post-earthquake damage evaluation process. 88p.

Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools. [California] Adobe PDF
Boren, Ann; Bulman, Robert E.; Bustillos, Terry; Godlstein, Jeff; Halgren, Fern; Morrison, Richard; Rodreguez, Arnold; Zwirn, Valerie
(Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project, Los Angeles, CA , 1999)
Provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation planning, nonstructural hazards to be addressed, communication system needs, and vital records protection. Also listed are emergency response actions to remember. The brochure also contains a legislative checklist of what public school administration need to do to in their schools earthquake preparedness to make sure they comply with all the provisions of state legislation. 6p.

Earthquake Education and Preparedness for Schools. [Arkansas]
(Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer, College of Science and Engineering Technology, Little Rock, AR , 1998)
The Arkansas Center for Earthquake Education and Technology Transfer has compiled educational, curriculum, and preparedness resources for teachers and administrators for preschools and kindergartens through senior high.

Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation.
(Federal Emergency Management Administration, Washington, DC , 1998)
Provides case studies highlighting the steps that some businesses have employed to reduce their risks of suffering losses due to natural hazards. The businesses that have been subjected to a natural hazard event since taking mitigation action have benefitted from substantial returns on their investment. The report reviews the types of benefits that can accrue to different segments of society from mitigative measures, the types of costs that can be incurred by undertaking the actions, and the types of analyses needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness associated with the mitigation measure. 41p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 24p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 20p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Antigua and Barbuda. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Antigua and Barbuda to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 33p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Grenada to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 37p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: St. Kitts - Nevis. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on St. Kitts and Nevis to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 36p.

Seismic Retrofitting of Non-Structural Elements: Lighting in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Report on Costs and Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, 1997)
Focuses on the seismic retrofitting or replacement of pendant lights and associated components at thousands of schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District following the 1994 Northridge earthquake in order to reduce injury risk to more than 800,000 students and meet current building code standards. (Begins on page 22 of the online anthology.)

The A.B.C. of Cyclone Rehabilitation
Macks, K.J.
(UNESCO, Architecture for Education Unit, Paris, France , Jan 1996)
This manual contains technical guidelines for the repair and rehabilitation of existing educational buildings following cyclone damage, including guidelines for reinforcing buildings to mitigate cyclone damage. The guidelines are written to be comprehensible to people who possess little technical knowledge. Includes drawings, photographs, sketches, etc. 133p.

Reducing Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide for Schools. [Videotape]
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 12, 1995)
This 13-minute videotape describes the non-structural areas within a school that can be damaged and create hazards for students, teachers, and staff during and after an earthquake; and discusses preventive measures to lower the injury potential from these hazards. It confirms that the best procedure to use during an earthquake to protect oneself from non-structural injury is to go beneath desks and tables. Preventive techniques to make interior, non-structural areas safer during an earthquake are examined such as those used for shelving, filing cabinets, gas cylinders, shelf contents, glass windows, and water heaters. Where to find additional information on non-structural hazard risk reduction is provided.
TO ORDER: FEMA,P.O. Box 2012,Jessup, MD 20794-2012. Tel: 800-480-2520.

Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities. Adobe PDF
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1995)
Provides technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. Users of the document will typically: (1)identify a maintenance/capital improvement project about to be planned or undertaken and go to the applicable matrix or matrices; (2)identify the building types in which the project will be undertaken and note all the applicable seismic retrofit opportunities; (3)review the applicable retrofit measure descriptions provided and incorporate some or all of the applicable measures; and (4)use risk analysis to help in prioritizing a large number of applicable retrofit measures. (This document has been superceded by "Incremental Siesmic Rehabilitation of School Buildings, 2003, found at 71p.

Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites. [California]
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento,CA , 1995)
This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal responsibilities to their students and communities before, during, and after a disaster. Guidelines for coordinating interagency sheltering plans and making pre-disaster agreements are offered in the third chapter. The fourth chapter describes procedures for inspecting buildings and making assessments as to their safety. Standardized Emergency Management System (SEM) regulations for sheltering are provided in chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses considerations in arranging for the resumption of school. Chapters 7 through 9 discuss plans for conducting shelter training and drills, financial considerations, and application of the law to private schools and special programs. 144p.
TO ORDER: Governor's Office of Emergency Services

Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook for Use in the Screening of School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, MD , Dec 1994)
Augments the Federal Emergency Management Agency's publication entitled "Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook" (FEMA 154). It offers additional explanatory and supportive information for school districts that own their own buildings, have significantly more information about these facilities beyond what can be gleaned from a quick review of their exteriors, and wish to conduct a more comprehensive Rapid Visual Screening effort. The guidebook requires a side-by-side reading with FEMA 154. Appendices present earthquake problems of elementary and secondary schools and modified data collection forms. 55p.

Critical Time: Earthquake Response Planning and Schools. [Videotape]
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 26, 1994)
Describes what earthquakes are and examines the disaster planning schools can develop during the first few minutes following an earthquake to assure students and staff survive. The kinds of destruction likely to happen during a damaging earthquake are highlighted. It stresses the need for children and staff to know what to do during and after an earthquake; the evacuation procedures to use; and the potential hazards to avoid, inside and outside the school building, following an earthquake. It stresses that a school's disaster preparedness plan must assume that there will be no outside help right after an earthquake and explains the important areas to address. The videotape discusses the decision making needs during the first hour right after an earthquake, including staff training for hazards such as fires and searching procedures; and explains that plans should be tested and retested as the school's conditions change.
TO ORDER: FEMA, P.O. Box 2012,Jessup, MD 20794-2012. Tel: 800-480-2520.

Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape]
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC. , 1994)
Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this 13-minute videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the community to rebuild destroyed school buildings is large, but just as important is that schools often help support the community's recovery efforts following a disaster, so the loss of the school building impedes that effort. School's can be designed to resist earthquakes and the types of design considerations needed to avoid structural collapse are examined. Both exterior and interior considerations in seismic design are explored, and the proof that seismic design works in preventing school building damage and the relative cost of incorporating this design approach are discussed.
TO ORDER: FEMA, P.O. Box 2012, Jessup, MD 20794-2012. Tel: 800-480-2520.

Facilities Management of Existing School Buildings: Two Models. Adobe PDF
(Building Technology, Inc., Silver Spring, MD; National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.; Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1994)
This document presents two models that offer ways a school district administration, regardless of size, may introduce activities into its ongoing management process that will lead to improvements in earthquake safety for its existing buildings. Model A is intended for districts where facilities planning is mainly reactive, and crisis management is practiced. Model B is for districts where facilities planning is a proactive function within their overall facilities management process. 139p.

Ready to Respond Emergency Preparedness Plan for Early Care and Education Centers.
(Bright Horizons, Watertown, MA , Jan 1994)
Assists child care directors and staff in responding to emergency situations. Overall operational crisis/emergency roles and responsibilities are described, with the following situations covered: 1) evacuation procedures and process, 2) sheltering in place, 3) medical emergencies, 4) natural disasters, 5) utility disruption, 6) fire/smoke emergencies, 7) hazardous materials, 8) bomb threat, 9) suspicious articles, 10) potentially violent situations, 11) random acts of violence, 12) disgruntled/impaired parents, 13) hostage situations, and 14) a missing child. Attachments include an emergency numbers list, an emergency evacuation plan, emergency kit supplies list, guidelines for handling medical emergencies, procedures for conducting a fire drill, bomb threat report form, and organizational roles and responsibilities. 29p.

Elevator Installation for Buildings Located in Special Flood Hazard Areas.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 1993)
Provides information on proper installation of elevators in flood hazard areas to reduce flood damage. Elevator types and their associated equipment are described, and practical methods of protecting them from flood damage are provided. Both hydraulic and traction elevators are addressed. 8p.

Flood-Resistant Materials Requirements for Buildings Located in Special Flood Hazard Areas.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 1993)
Provides guidance on what constitute flood-resistant materials, and how and when these materials must be used to improve a building's ability to withstand flooding. A flood-resistant material is defined as any building material capable of withstanding direct and prolonged contact with floodwaters without sustaining significant damage. The term "prolonged contact" means at least 72 hours, and the term "significant damage" means any damage requiring more than low-cost cosmetic repair. Charts rating the acceptability of various flooring, wall, and ceiling materials are included, as are six references. 18p.

Non-Residential Floodproofing: Requirements and Certification for Buildings Located in Special Flood Hazard Areas.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 1993)
Describes design, construction, and planning requirements for the floodproofing of non-residential buildings. The publication addresses flood warning time, uses of the building, mode of entry to and exit from the building and the site in general, floodwater velocities, and flood depths. Also discussed are flood frequency; anchoring of the building to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement; watertight closures for doors and windows; reinforcement of walls to withstand floodwater pressures and impact forces generated by floating debris; use of membranes and other sealants to reduce seepage of floodwater through walls and wall penetrations; installation of pumps to control interior water levels; installation of check valves to prevent the entrance of floodwater or sewage flows through utilities; the location of electrical, mechanical, utility, and other valuable equipment above the expected flood level; floodwalls; and small localized levees or berms around buildings. 17p.

Openings in Foundation Walls.
(Federal Emergency Management Institute, Washington, DC , 1993)
Explains requirements for openings in foundation walls that will allow the entry and exit of floodwaters, thus allowing equal pressure of floodwater on the inside and outside of the wall. These requirements also include considerations for pressure exerted by flowing floodwaters. Includes nine references. 14p.

Post-Earthquake Damage Evaluation and Reporting Procedures: A Guidebook for California Schools. [California] Adobe PDF
(California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, Office of the State Architect, Sacramento, CA, 1993)
The California Office of the State Architect, Structural Safety Division (OSA/SSS) is responsible for evaluating public school structures after an earthquake. However, final authority on whether a building should be reoccupied after damage lies with the school district. This guidebook is designed to help school officials assess earthquake damage before a qualified engineer arrives at the site and report building conditions to OAS/SSS to assist in establishing a priority list for site visits by structural engineers. 19p.

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study. Adobe PDF
(California State Office of Emergency Services,Sacramento,CA , 1993)
The PTA in Berkeley was dissatisfied with their school's earthquake preparedness and took their concerns to the district, as well as involved the larger PTA Council. The Hayward fault in Berkeley was the focus of the PTA's investigation. The School Board identified four key tasks: (1) develop a districtwide disaster-preparedness plan; (2) provide training for staff involved in the plan; (3) stockpile emergency medical supplies; and (4) conduct structural and nonstructural hazard assessment. In an assessment of the school buildings around the Hayward fault, two schools were identified as hazards if an earthquake struck. The School Board closed one school completely and the other partially. One year later six more schools were identified as unsafe. In 1992 a ballot measure that proposed to raise $158 million for school reconstruction was passed. 13p.

Tornadoes: Nature's Most Violent Storms. A Preparedness Guide Including Safety Information for Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Red Cross, Washington, DC; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD; Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , 1992)
This preparedness guide explains and describes tornadoes, and includes safety information for schools. The guide explains the cause of tornadoes, provides diagrams of how they form, describes variations of tornadoes, and classifies tornadoes by strength. Maps and statistics are given for several outbreaks across the United States. The guide shows how weather radar provides information on developing storms. Maps and charts reveal the frequency of tornadoes and number of deaths caused by tornadoes in each state. 13p.

Tornado Protection: Selecting and Designing Safe Areas in Buildings.
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 1990)
This brochure is designed to help architects design facilities which offer higher levels of protection against high winds from tornados and hurricanes. It provides the characteristics of a tornado, the intensity of damage it can cause and how it is caused, and the potentially hazardous elements that every building contains are highlighted as well as those protective elements that buildings contain which can help provide safe spaces for occupancy. Three school buildings are detailed that experienced wind damage from tornadoes resulting in their being partially or totally destroyed as a result. Each school's design relative to its hazardous and protective elements are revealed, including its damage assessment and commentary by administrators and students. The final section provides guidelines for tornado safety preparations. 31p.
Report NO: TR-83B

TO ORDER: Federal Emergency Management Agency

Guidebook for Developing a School Earthquake Safety Program. Adobe PDF
(Federal Emergancy Management Administration, Washington, DC , Jan 1990)
Provides information to assist the school community develop a self-sufficient safety program. Steps involved in the planning process are outlined in section 2. Section 3 describes how to estimate potential earthquake impact and how to identify hazards. The fourth section discusses what to expect and avoid during an earthquake, the importance of drills, and protective measures. Section 5 prepares staff to implement first aid, search and rescue, fire control, and other priority actions. The sixth section examines alternative means of communication during disruption of telephone and power services and offers suggestions for parent communication. The last section examines responsibilities of staff in the aftermath of the disaster, with a focus on short-term and extended shelter plans. 54p.

Seismic Considerations--Elementary and Secondary Schools. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series. Adobe PDF
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC , 1990)
Seismic safety provisions, when incorporated in a sound design from the very beginning, usually amount to only about l.5 percent of the cost of construction. General information concerning the seismic hazard and seismic design for elementary and secondary schools is contained in part 1 of this publication. Part 2 contains more technical considerations for school designers including basic design problems that affect the seismic performance of schools, and the ways in which the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) "Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings" can work to protect elementary and secondary schools. 102p.

School Buildings and Natural Disasters
Vickery, D.J.
(United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France, 1982)
This study was undertaken for the purpose of identifying those areas affected by cyclones and other natural disasters and classifying them according to the particular nature of the disaster. It also attempts to analyse the main problems involved in designing and constructing school buildings resistant to natural disasters. Finally documentation and other types of information available on the subject are listed and analysed. 85p.
TO ORDER: Documentation and Information, Education Sector, UNESCO, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP, France.Tel: 33-1-45-68-10-29.

References to Journal Articles

Stronger, Better, Greener. Kiowa County Schools: Greensburg, KS
Cassias, Charles S.
High Performance Buildings; , p18-29 ; Summer 2012
After a two-mile wide tornado plowed through Greensburg, Kan., in 2007, the town and school district committed to rebuilding a model green community, focusing on passive building systems and integrated design. The school also functions as a badly needed social hub for this reemerging town. Renewable electricity is provided by an on-site wind generator and off-site city wind farm. The building incorporates reclaimed cypress from another natural disaster, Hurricane Katrina. The school uses only 29.2 kBtu/ft2 per year, less than half the energy used by a school built to code.

Recovering from Tragedy
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must move forward after catastrophes to make sure students continue to learn and grow. Discusses the aftermath of tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Joplin, Missouri.

Glazing Design Beyond the Minimum. Considerations for Glass, Hurricanes, and Tornadoes
Condon, Patrick
Construction Specifier; , p50-62 ; May 2012
In order to offer true protection against hurricanes and tornadoes, a building's glazing design should include a risk assessment of options that go beyond the minimum codes and standards.

Restoring Joplin's Future
Cook, Glenn
American School Board Journal; May 2012
Examines the damage Joplin, Missouiri schools sustained after a tornado and discusses the rebuilding efforts of Joplin's schools.

After the Storm
Satterly, Stephen
School Planning and Management; , p14-18 ; May 2012
Details recovery planning for tornado strikes on schools.

Joplin High School
Gonchar, Joann
Architectural Record; Mar 2012
After a tornado dessimated Joplin, Missouri, national architecture and engineering firm DLR Group and Joplin-based architect Corner Greer & Associates directed the transformation of a 96,000-square-foot space from big-box retail to interim campus. Many of the strategies tested in the interim campus, including flexible classrooms, will be repeated in a permanent high school that DLR and Corner Greer are now designing.

Knowledge Center: School Security Crisis Communications
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Feb 2012
When a school or university is dealing with an emergency, communicating to constituents and the public is critical. To get the word out most effectively, administrators must choose methods that deliver information quickly to the greatest numbers of people who need to know. Discusses how education institutions need to be using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to communicate important news to students, staff, family members and the community at large.

Ready, Set, Emergency!
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; , p36-38 ; Feb 2012
A four-phase emergency management plan, coupled with National Incident Management System (NIMS), is a good place to begin building an emergency management plan. Includes resources to aid you on your journey.

Joplin District Rep: Don’t Use Hallways As Tornado Shelters
Burns, Davis; Grayson, James; Dorn, Michael; Gray, Robin
Campus Safety; Jan 17, 2012
Had Joplin schools used hallways during the massive May 2011 tornado that struck Joplin, Mo., many lives would have been lost. Describes how hallways act as wind tunnels, sub-par 2-Way radio systems didn't work, and phones were inoperable.

How Prepared Are America's Colleges and Universities for Major Crises?
Mitroff, Ian; Diamond, Michael; Alpasian, Murat
Change (Reprinted by SCUP); Nov 2011
Outlines a set of recommendations to college and university leaders and governing bodies on how to develop crisis-management systems to ensure that their institutions are as well prepared as possible for a wide range of crises. These recommendations are based, in part, on crisis-management programs developed for various business organizations. Results of a survey of colleges and universities to determine the general level of crisis-management preparation are also included.

Buildings, Not Drills, Hold Key to Disaster-Proof Schools.
Baily, Nancy; Welliver, Barry; Wolf, Edward
Education Week; Jul 2011
In the Mid-South, the Wasatch Front, and the Pacific Northwest, hundreds of thousands of children attend classes in buildings not designed to protect them on the day that local faults decide to slip. Describes actions taken by Utah and Oregon to gauge the risk.

Who Is In Charge?
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jul 2011
Emphasizes the necessity for a "person in charge" in higher education campus emergencies. Whether or not this is a designated position or duties assigned to an existing position is discussed, as are the duties for this position and the necessary supporting infrastructure and connections within to the community.

Designing School Safe Rooms. Adobe PDF
Orr, Brian M.; Davis, Brent M.
Ascent Magazine; , p38-42 ; Summer 2011
Creating safe havens in schools to protect against tornadoes can greatly aid communities while not blowing the budget if they are designed efficiently and early in the process. Discusses design requirements, design challenges, secondary uses, safe room costs, and availability of Federal grants.

Raising the Alarm.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p58,60,62 ; May 2011
Reviews emergency notification systems at GateWay Community College, Gettysburg College, and UCLA. The different systems of each institution is described, along with backup capabilities and requirements for emergency notification under the Clery Act.

When Parents Need to Know.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p50-52 ; May 2011
Advises on mass notification systems, describing how to determine the right capacity, suggesting wording for emergency notification messages, approaches to man-made and natural threats, and creative uses such as delivering inspirational wake-up messages to chronically absent students.

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens.
Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p8-10 ; May 2011
Discusses the National Emergency Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICD). Advice on assembling and managing an emergency response team, as well as responding to a variety of emergencies is included.

Evaluating the Viability of Cloud Computing.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p64-66 ; May 2011
Describes the pros and cons of the University of Dayton cloud computing efforts. Applications include parking management and emergency notification.

At the Ready: Planning for Business Continuity.
Sharp, Linda
School Business Affairs; v77 n5 , p12-14 ; May 2011
Advises on disaster response for school systems, detailing a 10-step recovery system developed by the Consortium for School Networking that emphasizes business continuity, inventory and documentation of damages, and re-establishment of technology.

Here Comes the Rain--Again.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the damage done by 1993 and 2010 floods to Iowa State University in Ames. The different behaviors of the floods, how buildings succumbed or survived, and plans to flood-proof vulnerable buildings are addressed.

Building Blocks: Humanitarian Design and Schools.
McKnight, Jenna
Architectural Record; v199 n1 , p116-120,122 ; Jan 2011
Profiles simple schools constructed in developing, disaster-stricken, or otherwise challenged areas. These include a prototype two-room school facility built in many Haitian locations where the 2010 earthquake had destroyed existing schools, a secondary school in Burkina Faso, and Florida child care centers that serve migrant populations. Use of readily-obtainable materials, natural light and ventilation, and economy figure significantly in every facility.

Damage Mitigation for School Buildings in Seismically Vulnerable Regions.
Miyamoto, H. Kit ; Gilani, Amir S.J.; Wada, Akira
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment; v2 n1 , p8-29 ; 2011
School buildings have suffered disproportionate damage during past and recent earthquakes. For example, during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, many school buildings collapsed, resulting in loss of life. School buildings in many other parts of the world are also susceptible to this type of widespread damage because of inadequate design, detailing, or poor construction quality. The purpose of this paper is to show how these fatal flaws can be mitigated prior to future catastrophe by using good engineering practice to retrofit vulnerable schools. [Authors' abstract]

In Case of Disaster: Emergency Operations Centers.
Berman, Scott
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p38,40-43 ; Nov 2010
Discusses higher education emergency operations centers (EOCs), addressing how they can be economically set up in existing facilities, and how they should be equipped and staffed. Examples from three institutions are included.

Disaster-No Exageration!
Timm, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p54,56,57 ; Nov 2010
Addresses the inadequacy of many school systems "boiler plate" disaster plans, and suggests contemporary and more thorough schemes for addressing the disruption of education due to disasters. The U.S. Dept. of Education s four-point concept of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery is reviewed. Creative mutual aid arrangements with emergency aid organizations, as well as continuation of educational delivery through libraries, the media, and neighboring districts are addressed as well. Collaboration and regular testing of disaster plans are encouraged.

Power Players. [UPS: Power-Management Strategies.]
Newbury, Michael
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p7,8 ; Sep 2010
Advises on testing and maintenance of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Frequent testing of batteries is emphasized, as their performance may degrade over time. Advice on specifying a UPS system is included.

Weathering the Storm.
Patterson, Valerie
College Planning and Management; v13 n7 , p44-48 ; Jul 2010
Addresses higher education disaster planning, using the University of Houston's experience with Hurricane Ike as an example. The University had ample insurance coverage, which eased the process when thermal inspection of their roofs revealed far more damage than was visible with the naked eye. Prompt and thorough inspection of all structures after a severe storm is encouraged.

Power: Ready When Needed. [Power Reliability.]
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p37-39 ; Jul 2010
Describes types of back-up power generators, the maintenance they require, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), switchgear, and common pitfalls to avoid when installing a back-up power system.

Critical Communications.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p32,34,36 ; Jun 2010
Discusses classroom-to-administration communication systems that will be effective in a variety of emergencies. Intercom systems are preferred over telephones, as they are louder and more quickly activated, including by students who might need to take over for an incapacitated teacher. Networking of intercom systems for district-wide communication is described, as is distribution to wireless devices.

Is It an Emergency if No One is Listening?
Morin, Rhonda
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p28,30,32,33 ; Jun 2010
Discusses implementation of emergency alert systems at Jackson State and Lewis and Clark College. Prudent engagement of the system during incidents and frustration with low number of students and faculty who enroll to receive alerts are addressed.

H1N1 Tests Campuses' Pandemic Plans.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v13 n1 , p21-23 ; Jan 2010
Advises on creation of a campus pandemic response plan. Creating a plan that is tailored to the institution, being flexible, abundant communication, relationships with government officials, and keeping staff healthy are discussed.

Lessons Learned from the H1N1 Pandemic.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p74-76 ; Jan 2010
Expands on six lessons learned from the H1N1 pandemic, including community involvement, details of handling ill students, having a thorough plan, staying calm, educating every group, and having confidence in the safe environment that is being created.

What Is Your Plan?
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p20-25 ; Dec 2009
Advises on comprehensive school disaster planning for natural disasters, terrorism, and epidemics. Examples of school plans successfully executed are included.

Towson University Notifies the Masses.
Kneen, Jayson
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p49-51 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the integration of emergency notification systems at this institution, which previously required activation from within separate buildings. The system is self-monitoring, can survive a catastrophic event that damages any part of it, and delivers messages with high intelligibility.

Protecting the Power. [Creating Reliable Backup Power.]
Schlattman, Paul; Weber, Robert
Building Operating Management; v56 n10 , p51,52,54,55 ; Oct 2009
Discusses uninterruptible power supply (UPS) configurations. Efficiencies, scalable design, compatibility, standby generators, sound attenuation, and exhaust are discussed.

Ready to Respond: IP-Based Emergency Mass Notification.
Pinero, Ramon
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p14,16,17 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Discusses the third generation, or network-centric mass notification systems. These systems can deliver alerts to all species of communications and computing devices, as well as to traditional sirens, radio, and television. They also accommodate response from recipients confirming their status. Examples from two universities are included.

Purposeful Redundancy.
Viel, Patrick
American School and University; v82 n1 , pSS32,SS34,SS35 ; Sep 2009
Reviews the use of sirens, text messages, e-mail blasts, outdoor voice systems, intercoms, and LED signs for campus emergency notification. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are discussed, as are potential interoperabilities.

Keeping the Community in the Know.
Dyrli, Kurt
District Administration; v45 n7 , p41-43 ; Aug 2009
Discusses mass notification systems for schools, which are more frequently being used for everyday, non-emergency communication. Internet-based services do not require hardware, software, or additional phone line installation. Some fully hosted online notification services are briefly reviewed.

NIMS/ICS: The National Incident Management System/Incident Command System.
Ahmed, Shad
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS2,S4,S6 ; Jul 2009
Describes the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS). The divisions of the systems are described, followed by a discussion of its advantages to standardization, interoperability, federal preparedness funding, and cost effectiveness. Examples of campus applications of the system and advice on training staff are included.

What Will You Do? Effective Responses Come From Great Preparation.
Dorn, Michael
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Describes how a Florida school system handled a crisis effectively through thorough planning that incorporated the National Incident Management System (NIMS).

Disaster Preparedness: Do You Know Where Your Chemicals Are?
Kelsey, John
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , pS8,S10 ; Jul 2009
Identifies typical and unexpected locations of hazardous chemicals on campuses, describes disasters that may compromise their safety, or release chemicals from places where they were not known to exist, and discusses hazardous response and recovery plans.

Road to Recovery.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n7 , p6,8 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the University of Iowa’s response to 2008 flooding, which reached the 500-year flood threshold and exceeded the existing disaster response plan. Protection of building systems where possible, restoration of minimal operations in time for Fall classes, mold control, and deployment of temporary and off-campus facilities are discussed.

Developing a Critical Mass Communication Plan.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p52-55 ; Jun 2009
Offers 11 suggestions for developing a mass communication plan, including integrating multiple forms of communication, researching and selecting the best systems, communication with first responders, staff and student awareness and training, a clear communications.

Flu Facts for Schools.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p42,44-46 ; Jun 2009
Advises on integrating pandemic flu plans with other school emergency plans, citing the necessity of educational continuity in a environment with extensive staff and student absences.

Getting the Word Out.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p48,50-52 ; Jun 2009
Cites examples of how higher education institutions alerted their entire campus when crimes were committed nearby, describing the type of systems used. Features of various systems are highlighted, and advice on selecting a mass notification system is included.

Keeping Students Safe: Introducing the Monolithic Dome.
Lanham, Carol
School Business Affairs; v75 n6 , p14-16 ; Jun 2009
Profiles a Niangua, Missouri, monolithic dome preschool facility that doubles as a community disaster shelter. The impoverished community was able to finance the structure with a federal grant, but only due to the dome,s lower than usual building cost.

Joining Forces.
Schachter, Ron
University Business; v12 n6 , p41-44 ; Jun 2009
Highlights programs at Virginia Tech, Boston University, Bryant University, Kent State University, and the University of Philadelphia, that strengthen ties and cooperation between college and university security and emergency officials and their local, regional, and state counterparts. The programs connect cell phones, land lines, computers, 400 megahertz and 800 megahertz radios, and walkie-talkies to the common denominator of an IP network, enabling system-wide with one call.

Crisis Communications. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v12 n4 , p11 ; May 2009
Presents an interview with a school security professional that discusses reactions to the recent swine flu outbreak, improvements in school security since the 1999 shooting at Columbine High School, and a short-term forecast for school security.

Is Your School Prepared?
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p12 ; May 2009
Advises on precautions that students, faculty, and staff should take to prevent the spread of influenza.

Picking up the Pieces.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v33 n4 , p72-78 ; Apr 2009
Discusses preparation for and recovery from natural disasters, citing examples of several athletic facilities that were damaged or destroyed, and how they were rebuilt. Proper preparation includes adequate insurance coverage and thorough equipment inventories. Recovery strategies included community help in cleanup and temporary relocation to other facilities.

Power When It Matters. [Emergency Power: Protect Equipment and Occupants.]
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n4 , p22,23 ; Apr 2009
Discusses emergency power systems for buildings, including emergency lighting and gasoline, propane, and diesel generators. Maintenance for these seldom-used systems is also addressed, with particular attention to lubrication, bearings, and the condition of electrical connections.

Your Attention, Please.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p46,48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews technological enhancements to school public address systems that coordinate class bells, two-way communication to classrooms, emergency communication, and wireless clocks.

Facility Survival Guide. [Emergency Planning Strategies.]
Lang, Robert
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p41,42,44 ; Mar 2009
Advises facility managers on emergency response, with eight recommendations: 1) Develop an emergency action plan, not a guidebook. 2) Don't plan to rely solely on first responders. 3) Use Department of Homeland Security mandated NIMS courses. 4) Establish tabletops, drills, and exercises. 5) Establish a working relationship with first responders. 6) Create a perimeter group. 7) Use technology. 8) Don;t rely on product sales pitches.

Communicating Safety.
Trump, Kenneth
American School Board Journal; v196 n3 , p29-31 ; Mar 2009
Advises what should and should not be said to the public in the event of a school tragedy, withmany typical messages being discouraged as being over-used or indicating a lack of recognition of the victims. A list of safety communication ideas for disaster preparation, rumor and threat management, and during and after a crisis are included.

California Wildfires Highlight Importance of Preparedness.
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p11 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews recent wildfires assaults on a southern California hospital and a college. The college responded by sheltering in the gymnasium, so while 50 percent of the campus burned, there were no injuries. Advice from college administration on managing such an event is included.

The Storm as Teacher: Lessons in Preparedness from Hurricanes Ike and Rita. Adobe PDF
Powitzky, Calvin
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p29-31 ; 2009
Describes above-code construction of two Texas schools that enabled them to be the sole neighborhood survivors of Hurricanes Ike and Rita. Advice on disaster preparedness and post-storm assessment is included.

Starting Over. (When Disaster Strikes Your Schools.)
Hardy, Lawrence
American School Board Journal; v195 n12 , p28-31 ; Dec 2008
Discusses recovery from Hurricane Ike in several coastal Texas school districts. Some schools served as storm shelters, while others were heavily damaged and their students distributed elsewhere. Class size limitations were lifted in neighboring districts that absorbed the students. Schools with disaster plans were able to recover relatively quickly, within weeks or even days after the storm. In some cases, well-built schools survived in neighborhoods that were otherwise devastated.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Villano, Matt
Campus Technology; v 22 n4 , p26-30 ; Dec 2008
Presents an interview with John Turner of Brandeis University that describes the mass notification systems and strategies used by the school. Software selection and implementation, coordination with phone systems and speakers, and some early instances when it was used for weather emergencies are described.

Lessons from the Flood of 2008: The University of Iowa.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n11 , p48-50 ; Nov 2008
Reviews flood response and damage to the University of Iowa from June 2008 flooding. An aggressive response plan limited the damage to 17 percent of the campus square footage, and half of that was restored to use in time for the Fall semester beginning on August 18.

How to Prevent a Document Disaster from Crippling Your Institution.
Hoey, Stephen
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n6 , p14,16,17 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on protection of document from disaster, including creating digital archives, especially of building blueprints that can help direct the way out of a disaster. Advice on creating a reliable archive is included.

Campus Emergency Management: It Takes a Village.
Templeton, Dennie; Ellerman, Gary; Branscome, Todd
Campus Safety; v18 n6 , p30,32-35 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Elaborates on themes of the varying nature of potential campus emergencies according to location, and the necessity of coordination of campus and community emergency response. The example of Virginia's Radford University is cited, where an office for emergency preparedness was established. The continuing work of the office in preparing an emergency response plan, and the details of its coordination with the community and neighboring higher education institutions is detailed.

This is Not a Drill!
Bermahn, Simon
College Planning and Management; v11 n10 , p33,34,36 ; Oct 2008
Discusses campus-wide emergency alert systems, using UCLA's "BruinAlert" and its successful engagement after a July 28, 2008 earthquake as an example. UCLA's selection process, along with the features and operation of the system are detailed.

Prepared for the Worst.
Lemmon, Karla
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p38,40,42 ; Oct 2008
Discusses mass notification systems for school emergencies, citing their advantages over traditional phone trees and even local television and radio stations. Examples of how mass notification systems have been used by school systems with weather, hazardous material, and suspicious persons situations are included.

Emergency Preparedness: Looking for Trouble.
Perucki, Jon
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p11,12 ; Oct 2008
Advises on preparedness for natural disasters, emphasizing development of plans to minimize impact on facilities, restoring services, and recovery.

Iowa Floods Test Mount Mercy's Emergency Management Plan.
Altorfer, Molly; Jones, Stacey
Campus Safety; v16 n5 , p52,54-56 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Reviews this college's response to 2008 flooding in Cedar Rapids, including closing the campus to regular activities so that they could host first responders and the Red Cross, who were tending to the emergency.

Get the Word Out.
Chretien, Wendy
Campus Technology; v22 n1 , p30-35,34,36,38,39 ; Sep 2008
Reviews considerations for mass notification systems on college campuses. Creating a system in-house or outourcing it, targeted alerts, contact methods, standalone or integrated systems, and examples of deployments at a variety of institutions are discussed.

When Seconds Count.
Fiel, Patrick
American School and University; v81 n1 , pSS48,SS50,SS52 ; Sep 2008
Discusses elements of an effective campus emergency plan, including widespread participation of and coordination between the occupants and local officials, practicing drills, and mass-notification systems.

The Evolution of Notification Systems.
Devoe, Jeanne
District Administration; v44 n9 , p40-44 ; Aug 2008
Reviews features of current emergency notification systems that combine text, email, and telephone communication. Examples of how various systems have been deployed are included, as are costs to institutions and to families who subscribe to them.

Do You Know the Drill?
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v44 n9 , p32-34,36-38 ; Aug 2008
Emphasizes the rehearsal of school emergency preparedness programs, and cites three districts that have noteworthy programs with drills that vary with each exercise and are complemented with follow up analysis.

Rise in Tornadoes, Floods Poses Risk to Colleges.
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n32 , pA1,A14 ; Jul 03, 2008
Discusses the effects of climate change on college facilities, with increasing incidents of severe weather and flooding. Increasing scrutiny by insurance companies, and the recent increase of damage at inland campuses that were formerly considered safe are discussed.

How to Protect Your Building from Severe Weather.
Aker, Jenna
Buildings; v102 n7 , p84-86 ; Jul 2008
Advises on preparing buildings for severe weather by knowing the facts about what types of severe weather affect your location, assessing building weaknesses, fortifying buildings, creating a disaster plan, and being alert to weather advisories.

California Community Colleges Get Prepared.
Burnett, Tod
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p50,52,53 ; Jul 2008
Profiles California's efforts to improve crisis preparedness at its community colleges. The statewide effort addressed preparedness at 109 community colleges by providing centralized assistance with disaster mitigation, prevention, planning, preparedness, response, and recovery. Wildfires and dangerous winds in 2007 offered a first test of the new preparedness, which was deemed successful.

Finding the Right Emergency Notification System.
Dorn, Michael
Campus Safety; v16 n4 , p54 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Advises on sorting through the more than sixty vendors and their various emergency notification products. Points to consider are: 1) an "apples-to-apples" comparison through a careful RFP, 2) the stability and viability of the vendor, 3) the volume of messages the system can handle, 4) foreign language messaging ability, 5) ease of use, and 6) auxiliary features.

A Safer, and Brighter, School Design.
Revkin, Andrew C.
New York Times; Jun 24, 2008
Discusses a school design that is the product of research by a structural engineer to cut losses from predicted earthquakes. The design takes conventional materials and school designs found in developing countries and adjusts the configuration just a bit in ways that can greatly strengthen a building. Includes diagrams.

Quake-Proofing Oregon Schools: Why the Wait?
Ward, Andres
The Bond Buyer; Jun 17, 2008
Reports on the delay in issuing bonds for seismic upgrades of schools, as authorized by the Oregon voters in 2002. The significant risk of earthquakes in Oregon is discussed, with particular attention to the delay in recognizing it.

CASBO Members Called to Action During Fires.
Faneldes, Julie
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p28-30 ; Jun 2008
Describes how school business officials in San Diego County responded to recent wildfires with a new mass notification system, software that matched affected areas to employee addresses, and use of schools as evacuation centers.

IT Emergency Preparedness.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p38-40,42 ; Jun 2008
Details a three-phase approach to IT emergency preparedness, consisting of identifying the assets to be protected, making a list of potential threats, and finding tools, policies, and procedures to protect them. Redundancy, remote storage of data, types of natural and human threats, and recovery are addressed.

Staying Ahead: Building a Culture of Preparedness.
Gingera, Donna; Masson, Aaron
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p8,10-12 ; Jun 2008
Discusses school emergency preparedness plans, citing established national standards, the roles of leadership structures and senior management, risk assessment, mitigation strategies, and the components of the plan. Keeping the plan current, professional development for staff, and plan testing are emphasized.

Sounding the Alarm.
Kneen, Jayson; Welch, Beth
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p68-74 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the evolution of simple fire alarm systems to emergency mass notification systems that increasingly use wireless technology and are more impervious to destruction by the event. Components of mass notification systems are discussed, as are applicable codes, and effective communication to occupants with disabilities.

Be Prepared.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p41,42,44 ; Jun 2008
Reviews how New Orleans universities modified the emergency preparedness plans after Hurricane Katrina. Steps included lengthening evacuation and return times, as well as coordination between the institutions and local authorities.

Get the Word Out-Fast and Accurate.
Zalud, Bill
Security Magazine; , p76-78 ; Jun 2008
Reviews wide-area emergency mass notification systems, addressing their components and function. Special considerations for campus systems are illustrated with an example of the system in place at The University of California, Los Angeles.

Best Practices Breakdown.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p10,12 ; May-Jun 2008
Lists ten best practices in campus emergency text messaging.

Can You Hear Me Now?
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p2-4,6,7 ; May-Jun 2008
Advises on creating campus emergency notification systems with thorough coverage. Evaluation of systems already in place and what is needed, along with features that can be added to existing systems are discussed. Examples, benefits, and disadvantages of outdoor loudspeakers, signage, paging, and e-mail alert systems are described. Charts illustrate reasons for mass notification systems deployment, reasons for non-deployment, solutions currently in use, and those soon to be deployed.

Take It from the Experts When Crafting Your Text Message.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p14,15 ; May-Jun 2008
Outlines tips on crafting campus emergency messages, including repeating audible announcements; keeping messages short, clear, originating from an authority, and location specific; and having messages approved by communications officials.

Text Message Troubleshooting: Four Challenges Your Campus Should Address.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p8,9 ; May 2008
Discusses challenges with slow transmission, low enrollment, privacy and database security, and authority to issue alerts with emergency text messaging.

Your Mass Notification Cheat Sheet.
Campus Safety; v16 n3, suppl. 1 , p16,18,20-22 ; May-Jun 2008
Presents a detailed table that outlines strengths and weakness of 17 types of audible, electronic, and visual emergency alert modalities.

It's All about Power.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; v21 n9 , p44-46,48-50 ; May 2008
Describes four higher education institutions' uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, which were designed to keep data and communications viable during a power outage.

Ready, Set, Respond.
Herrmann, Michelle
University Business; v11 n3 , p40-46 ; Apr 2008
Reviews the rapid expansion of emergency notification systems (EMS) on higher education campuses, in response to recent high-profile shootings. Multimodal alert systems include text messaging, emails, IP signage, and telephone calls. Examples of specific systems and strategies deployed at various institutions are detailed.

Emergency Power: The ABCs of UPS.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p18 ; Apr 2008
Describes three types of passive standby uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and advises on selection, proper sizing, and maintenance of UPS units.

Put Your Disaster Plan to the Test.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n3 , p46-48,50 ; Mar 2008
Discusses organization of a disaster plan drill, including scenario selection, designation of responsibilities, observations, and follow-up after the event.

Surviving Disasters.
Henke, Karen Greenwood
Technology & Learning; v28 n8 , p20 ; Mar 2008
Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. This article presents ten lessons that demonstrate how district leaders have used technology to respond to fires, hurricanes, lockdowns, and other emergencies: (1) Clean contact data is essential, for communications; (2) The network infrastructure must be ready for peak traffic; (3) Backups are not enough to rebuild critical applications; (4) Moveable systems get you back online when facilities are destroyed; (5) The essential operations of the district must continue; (6) Timely and trusted communications provide a sense of security; (7) Emergency credentials are needed by critical personnel; (8) Two data centers are better than one; (9) Students are texting, why aren't you?; and (10) People are the key to crisis management. (Contains 13 online resources.)

Planning for Battle.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
American School and University; v80 n7 , p30,32,33 ; Mar 2008
Discusses communication strategies for campus emergencies, with particular attention to electronic messaging systems (EMS). System selection, implementation, and use during a crisis are addressed.

MNS Solutions for a Changing World.
Welch, Beth
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n2 , p14-16 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews the origins of mass notification systems (MNS), criteria for these systems found in military and National Fire Protection Association codes, and current technology for marriage of fire alarms and MNS.

For the Record.
Carlisle, Van
American School and University; v80 n6 , pSS48,SS50-SS52 ; Feb 2008
Discusses protection of vital records in schools, defining which records are essential, assessing threats to records, protective strategies and storage, and recovery after a disaster.

Creating a Plan: 10 Ways to Tame the Beast.
Messler, Mark
Campus Safety; v16 n1 , p32,34-37 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Outlines ten steps in creating a campus emergency plan: 1) Designate a program coordinator. 2) Develop a known hazards and assets list. 3) Create a comprehensive all hazards list. 4) Determine campus vulnerability and risk. 5) Analyaze how hazards will impact your organization. 6) Check the laws that affect the plan. 7) Align the assets list to the hazards. 8) Define responsibilities via the incident command structure. 9) Plan mitigation activities. 10) Enhance the plan with mutual aid agreements.

Preparing for the Unthinkable. (Is Your District's Safety Plan Up To Date?)
Salmans, Gary
American School Board Journal; v194 n12 , p32,33 ; Dec 2007
Briefly reviews major points of school emergency mitigation and prevention, preparation, response, and recovery, as part of a comprehensive emergency plan.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Merry Christmas, Embry-Riddle.
Brown, Joni
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p34-36 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Narrates this aviation school's experience with a December 25, 2006 tornado. Details of the extensive damage and rebuilding are included, as are lessons learned.

Enhancing Campus Safety and Preparedness.
Giannini, Tom
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS12, S14,S16-S19 ; Nov 2007
Proposes twelve recommendations to higher education institutions as they assess existing campus life safety systems and enhance emergency preparedness. These recommendations focus on long-range thinking that considers the entire campus and even beyond, involves all stakeholders, phases in changes, seeks creative funding, and involves proper compliance, flexibility, training, and maintenance.

A Phased Approach to Campus Safety and Security Planning.
Plummer, David; Johnson, Wallace
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS3,S4,S6 ; Nov 2007
Describes a phased-in approach to campus security at South Texas College. Phase one included threat assessment based on statistics, information from campus focus groups and cooperation with local emergency responders. The second phase brought the development of various plans to deal with natural and man-made emergencies. The third phase involved implementation of the plans and emergency communications systems. The fourth phase established regular drills and regular review of the plans.

Emergency and Safety Communications.
Royal, Greg
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p21,22 ; Nov 2007
Describes a "multimodal" approach to school security notification, involving mobile and desktop phones, e-mail, and faxes. Internet-based solutions are favored, and varieties of equipment and service delivery options are discussed.

Pandemic Preparation: Hoping for the Best, Preparing for the Worst.
Van Sant, Kate; Stewart, Patricia
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p26-33 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Discusses the history of influenza pandemics and who is most at risk, as well as likelihood, potential sources, and timelines of pandemics. Advice on pandemic response includes details on creating and equipping logistics areas, safeguarding staff and students, and reductions of personnel due to illness. Eleven references are included, along with eight additional online resources for pandemic preparation and response.

After Va. Tech, Campuses Rush to Add Alert Systems.
Foster, Andrea
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n6 , pA1,A31,A32 ; Oct 05, 2007
Reviews combinations of low- and high-tech alerting techniques that are rapidly being deployed on college campuses in response to recent violent incidents. Challenges in getting students to sign up for alert services are discussed, as are the widely varying participation rates on selected campuses.

Making Schools Safe from Earthquakes Through Retrofitting, Training, and Disaster Education.
Ando, Shoichi; Pandey, Bishnu; Fujieda, Ayako
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p122-130 ; Fall 2007
Details four on-the-ground case studies in Fiji, India, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan. A useful manner of retrofitting schools while linking to wider education and capacity-building is described: in Indonesia, retrofitted structural components of schools are painted in bright colors to highlight these components’ importance for earthquke safety. Then, parents and families are encouraged to consider how they could make their houses as safe as the school because, after all, earthquakes happen outside of school hours too. Thus, the school retrofitting is completed but the community education impacts continue for long after the official opening ceremony.

Seismic Risk in Existing School Buildings in Algeria.
Benouar, Djillali; Meslem, Abdelghani
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p50-65 ; Fall 2007
Reports on seismic risk for Algerian school buildings. A review is provided of the history of the construction of Algerian school buildings, along with earthquake damage which has been experienced. To try to avoid similar destruction in the future, a method is provided and tested: to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of existing Algerian school buildings to prevent damage which may occur during future earthquakes, particularly those which are located in or around the city of Algiers.

Disaster Risk Education and School Safety in Bogota.
Coca, Claudia
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p113-119 ; Fall 2007
Examines and explains the idea behind, the implementation of, and the results from disaster risk education and school safety initiatives in Bogota.

School and Community-Based Hazards Education and Links to Disaster-Resilient Communities.
Finnis, Kirsten; Johnston, David; Becker, Julia; Ronan, Kevin; Paton, Douglas
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p99-112 ; Fall 2007
Provides a New Zealand perspective on linking schools to community resiliency. The challenges of motivation, intention, and trust are discussed in the context of people preparing for disasters. The role of schools and education is seen as particularly important, especially through using those processes to connect to the community, because “schools do not exist in isolation from the communities where they are located and which they serve.” Criteria are provided for building successful community-school links leading to successful disaster education programs. Volunteering and evaluation are important elements to ensure continued achievements. Benefits, challenges and keys to success are summarized.

Managing Disaster Recovery Centers on Campus.
Lawrence, Heather; Shafer, Duane
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p40-53 ; Oct 2007
Narrates the experience of Southeast Louisiana University's use of their facilities as shelter during Hurricane Katrina, and as a staging area for relief efforts afterward. Lessons learned, future plans, and emergency planning are covered. Includes 12 references.

Strategic and Collaborative Crisis Management: A Partnerships Approach to Large-Scale Crisis.
Mann, Timothy
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n1 , p54-64 ; Oct 2007
Proposes a framework for emergency management at higher education campuses that includes planning, response, management, and recovery. Roadblocks and program evaluation are discussed, and special emphasis and detail is given to consortium-style planning that involves cooperation between campuses. Includes two references.

School Seismic Safety in British Columbia: A Grass-roots Success Story.
Monk, Tracy
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p82-98 ; Fall 2007
Describes how a grass-roots program in British Columbia convinced the government to invest significant funds to implement school seismic safety. The need to link science and advocacy is especially poignant along with emphasizing both the risks and the possible solutions. By forging alliances and by approaching the problem systematically with solid and scientifically-backed information, the author led the founding of the grass-roots non-profit organization called Families for School Seismic Safety which convinced the government to make the necessary investment for a 15-year program in school earthquake safety.

Seismic Rehabilitation of Seismically Vulnerable School Buildings in Japan. Adobe PDF
Nakano, Yoshiaki
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p66-81 ; Fall 2007
Discusses engineering aspects of school earthquake safety for Japan. The 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in the Kobe area was a significant impetus towards assessing and trying to improve the state of vulnerability to earthquakes of school buildings. This article explains the method of analysis along with its implementation. The technical standard for seismic evaluation which was used is provided but non-technical challenges and successes are also noted, such as the subsidy program, legislation, knowledge-sharing, and public awareness. A great deal has been achived, but there is more work yet to be done in rehabilitating school buildings for which “patient and continued efforts are therefore essentail for upgrading their performance.”

Iran's School Earthquake Safety Initiative.
Parsizadeh, Parokh; Ghafory-Schtiany, Mohsen; Hesmati, Vida; Seif, Ali-Ehsan
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p35-49 ; Fall 2007
Emphasizes the importance of Iran’s school earthquake safety initiative due to the young age structure of Iran and the loss of schoolchildren during earthquakes. The authors detail the formal and informal education processes which occur in Iran for earthquake safety, including publications, school earthquake safety councils, extra-curricular activities, competitions, workshops, continuing education, school building safety, and the annual national earthquake safety drill. An assessment of these programs is included, demonstrating their effectiveness.

Disaster Risk Reduction Education Material Development, Organization, and Evaluation.
Petal, Marla
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p1-22 ; Fall 2007
Describes a vision for developing, organizing, and evaluating disaster-risk reduction education material. The author defines the purpose of disaster risk reduction education as being that everyone “comes to understand the risks of inaction, and recognizes and embraces its own role in a cooperative effort” with regards to disaster risk reduction. Then, a brief description is provided of some historical highlights in disaster-related education which helps to justify the need for a more systematic and comprehensive approach to the material already available and for developing new material. Possible indicators of success for educational initiatives along with research findings for disaster risk reduction education are summarized in order to formulate an evaluation approach for material submitted to the library. The evaluation method is designed to solicit feedback from all possible developers and users of material, including students, teachers, trainers, and disaster-affected people.

Wakeup Call.
Schultz, Corey
American School and University; v80 n2 , p38,40-42 ; Oct 2007
Addresses myths about the safety of schools during tornados, citing the inadequacy of most school buildings in respect to current codes, the need for reinforced shelters within schools that are also available as program spaces, and available resources for better tornado preparedness.

Building Community Resilience through Education: School Safety as a Route to a Culture of Prevention.
Sharma, Anshu; Gupta, Manu
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p23-34 ; Fall 2007
Details within the context of building a culture, a culture of community resilience through education and a culture of disaster prevention through school safety. Schools as “the cradle of each community” along with education as the key to building a culture of themes to set the stage for highlighting children, especially in school, as the starting point for disaster risk reduction education. Community-building through schools is described with application to India.

Safe Schools in Safe Territory.
Wilches-Chaux, Gustavo
Regional Development Dialogue; v28 n2 , p122-130 ; Fall 2007
Advocates for “Safe Schools in Safe Territory.” He proposes approaches for achieving this, most notably “co-evolution” where environments and inhabitants develop side-by-side, building on each other’s strengths rather than separating themselves to exploit each other’s weaknesses.

Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster.
O'Hanlon, Charlene
T.H.E. Journal; v39 n9 , p36-44 ; Sep 2007
An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can bring down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit in the summer of 2004. Through the foresight of Charlotte County's director of technology, Chris Bress, the school was able to resume operations only two weeks after the hurricane struck. This article provides tips on how districts may implement a disaster recovery plan, and explains several myths and realities about disaster recovery plans

Seven Best Practices for Emergency Notification.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; v20 n12 , p16-18,20,22,24-26 ; Aug 2007
Advises on communication strategies for school emergencies, recommending that institutions thoroughly assess their resources and alternatives, internalize and practice emergency plans, be able to make decisions on incomplete information, limit the number of people involved in decision-making, generate alerts in different formats, pre-define what constitutes an emergency and communicate it to the community, and layer approaches to communication.

Reaching Out.
Hall, Julie
American School and University; v70 n12 , suppl. 16,18,20,21 ; Jul 2007
Discusses high- and low-tech methods for campus emergency notification, illustrated with examples of how some institutions and districts use their systems, require appropriate redundancy, and craft the emergency messages that they send.

Get a Head Start on Mass Notification Code Regulations.
Kempel, Jim
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p23-25 ; May 2007
Reviews current and upcoming codes for mass notification systems that are coupled with fire alarm systems. These include multi-channel systems that accommodate customized messages for different areas or situations and high audio intelligibility.

Be Prepared.
Nolan, Harry
American School and University; v79 n10 , p40,42,43 ; May 2007
Discusses evacuation plans for college campuses, keeping all types of natural and man- made threats in mind. The institution's plan, to be reviewed by local emergency responders, should include a fully equipped command station, a trained early-stage response team, safety information and training for building occupants, and special considerations for high-rise buildings.

Communications Systems.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , p22-24 ; Apr 2007
Discusses school emergency communications plans and systems, illustrating these with a case from the Clark County (Nevada) School District, in which schools were locked down during a police shootout across from an elementary school. Lockdowns, parent notification, and technologies of varying sophistication are covered.

Preparing for a Pandemic.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , p19-21 ; Apr 2007
Advises on planning for pandemics in schools, covering staff and student health, continuity of business and education, and community response. Considerations for a response plan should include appropriateness for the size and demographics of the district, use of national standards, working with local health experts, a school-wide infection control plan, reduction of work force, alternative learning, involvement of the transportation department, and maintenance of the plan as a living document.

Prepared for the Worst.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , p18-20 ; Apr 2007
Advises on preparing higher education campuses for disease outbreaks. Inclusion of communicable disease experts, plans for quarantining and isolation, facilities requirements for protected areas, and plans for soft and hard campus closings are covered.

Be Prepared.
Watts, Marty
School Planning and Management; v46 n2 , p20,22,24,25 ; Feb 2007
Outlines essential features of disaster preparedness and recovery programs, as well as building design features and accessories that enhance safety and security. A list of related websites for additional information is included.

Critical Operations Power Systems: The Generator in Your Backyard.
Anthony, Michael
Facilities Manager; v23 n1 , p36-40 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Outlines new requirements for critial operations power systems that will appear in the 2008 National Electrical Code, and will impact educational facilities managers. Recommendations for compliance and the perspective of those opposed to the requirements are included, along with four references.

Nature Teaches Lessons.
Penney, Tom
School Planning and Management; v45 n12 , p28,30 ; Dec 2006
Narrates the restoration process of a Firth, Nebraska, middle school campus after a tornado. Volunteer cleanup, emergency spending authorization, the reinforcement of halls in the replacement structure, and the continuation of plans to build a new middle school on the site are described.

Lessons Learned: A Threshold Forum.
Threshold; v3 n1 , p14,15,18,19 ; Fall 2006
Presents the preparation and rebuilding experiences of three state education leaders whose systems endured recent natural disasters.

Beyond Fire Drills.
Black, Susan
Threshold; v3 n1 , p5-9 ; Fall 2006
Discusses new and complex natural and man-made threats to school safety, citing statistics indicating a widespread lack of preparedness. Tools and resources to assist with disaster mitigation and preparation are listed, and checklists to develop or revise a school emergency preparedness plan are included.

It Takes a Community.
Holland, Holly
Threshold; v3 n1 , p28-31 ; Fall 2006
Reviews Spokane's effective school emergency preparedness plan, which is coordinated with first responders, uses custom software, and has proved valuable in actual emergencies. Five steps to community-wide preparedness are also included.

In the Eye of the Storm.
Howitt, Arnold; Leonard, Herman
Threshold; v3 n1 , p10-13 ; Fall 2006
Advises school leaders on emergency preparedness, detailing four steps that they must take. These involve putting emergency preparedness on the action agenda of all school stakeholders, reaching out and coordinating with first responders, creating an emergency plan, and developing response systems.

The Server's Up!
Vogel, Carl
Threshold; v3 n1 , p24-27 ; Fall 2006
Discusses methods of protecting school IT infrastructure against natural disasters, as well as using IT systems for mass communication before and after an event.

Storm Teams.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v30 n9 , p38-40,42-44,46 ; Sep 2006
Describes the experiences of several higher education institutions whose athletic arenas became shelters during natural disasters. Preparation for future occurrences and ways to recover costs and lost revenue are also covered.

Shake, Rattle, and Roll.
White, Jeff
American School and University; v78 n13 , p158-161 ; Aug 2006
Describes the forces that earthquakes, tornadoes, and hurricanes exert on buildings and offers some school siting, design, and construction suggestions to mitigate damage from these disasters.

Reducing Risk: Mitigation vs. Management.
Mellinger, Bob
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p14,15 ; Jun 2006
Discusses mitigation of safety risk, which is typically more effective than managing incidents after they occur. Advice on risk determination, prioritizing risks to be mitigated, and effective communication as an element of mitigation is offered.

Using Technology to Connect with Parents--Instantly.
O'Brien, Tim
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p25,26 ; Jun 2006
Describes use of broadcast messaging to alert school parents to school events, changes in scheduling, and emergencies. Parents may elect to be notified by phone or email, and may vary the way they are contacted according to the urgency of the message.

Effective Crisis Communications and Emergency Notification.
Shafir, Nedda
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p6-8,10 ; Jun 2006
Advises on the elements of effective crisis communications that are brief, clearly stated in non-technical language, target only those affected, provide the official basis for the warning, indicate appropriate response, and provide a source for more detailed information. Methods of communicating with parents are also listed. Includes four references.

Wisconsin's Safe Schools.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n5 , p38,39 ; May 2006
Describes Wisconsin's program to train school personnel to in turn train district staff to assess their facilities and be better aware of school security issues.

Renovation and Repair in New Orleans.
Mangan, Katherine
Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n34 , pB4,B6 ; Apr 2006
Describes the extent of Hurricane Katrina's damage to Dillard University, as well as plans to demolish some buildings, rebuild with elevated structures, and revisit the entire campus plan.

Lessons from the Ashes: Advice after a Campus Fire.
Foster, Gary; Hendrickson, Darren; Freeland Lisa
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n25 , pB9 ; Feb 24, 2006
Lists lessons learned from a fire at Eastern Illinois University, including keeping computer backups off site, purging obsolete materials so they won t incur recovery costs, and streamlining insurance procedures so that faculty and staff can be quickly and accurately compensated for lost property.

Mass-Casualty Events at Schools: A National Preparedness Survey.
Graham, J.; Shirm, S.; Liggin, R.; Aitken, M.; Dick, R.
Pediatrics; v117 n1 , p e8-e15 ; Jan 2006
Presents the results of a survey of U.S. school superintendents assessing preparedness for prevention of and response to a mass-casualty event. From 2137 responses, 86.3% superintendents reported having a response plan, but only 57.2% have a plan for prevention. 95.6% have an evacuation plan, but 30% had never conducted a drill. 22.1% have no disaster plan provisions for children with special needs, and 25%reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. 42.8% had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures.

A Look Back at a Disaster Plan: What Went Wrong and Right.
Lawson, John
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n16 , pB20-B22 ; Dec 09, 2005
Presents an evaluation of Tulane University's disaster plan by the University's Vice President for Information Technology. The successes and failures of its information technology preparedness, continuance, and recovery program are detailed.

Protecting Vital Records in a Crisis.
Carlisle, Van
The School Administrator; v62 n11 , p47 ; Dec 2005
Advises awareness of which administrative and academic records that must be protected indefinitely and recommends Underwriters Laboratory approval for all safekeeping equipment. Products claiming to be built to UL class specification are typically not actually UL tested.

When Disaster Strikes.
Henderson, Douglas.
American School and University; v78 n4 , p29,30 ; Dec 2005
Advises on the creation and constitution of emergency management teams made up of senior school officials, which in turn establishes the emergency response team that actually carries out disaster response. A continuity of operation plan (COOP) is also recommended, which includes steps for immediate action, initial recovery, campus recovery, campus opening, and plan review.

The Preparedness of Schools to Respond to Emergencies in Children: A National Survey of School Nurses. Adobe PDF
Olympia, Robert; Wan, Eric; Avner, Jeffrey
Pediatrics; v116 n6 , p e738-e745 ; Dec 2005
Examines the preparedness of schools to respond to pediatric emergencies and potential mass disasters, using published guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. Although schools are in compliance with many of the recommendations for emergency preparedness, specific areas for improvement include practicing the medical emergency response plan several times per year, linking all areas of the school directly with emergency medical services, identifying authorized personnel to make emergency medical decisions, and increasing the availability of automated external defibrillators in schools.

All-Hazards Campus Safety: From Tornadoes to Terrorism.
Dorn, Michael
College Planning and Management; v8 n11 , pS-2,2-4,S-6 ; Nov 2005
Emphasizes the importance of a risk and vulnerability assessment before dramatic and expensive campus security measures are put in place. Four types of assessment tools are outlined, accompanied by advice on hiring consultants and how to write a plan that covers prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery.

Picking Up the Pieces.
Robelen, Erik W.
Teacher Magazine; v17 n3 , p18-21 ; Nov-Dec 2005
A school devastated by Hurricane Katrina, which struck southeastern Louisiana on August 29, reopens--but for teachers, the real work is just beginning. Heavy rains flooded halls and classrooms. Powerful winds leveled trees. Parts of the campus were under more than a foot of water. And then there was the mess left after the school was pressed into service as an evacuation center. This article describes efforts made by teachers and other staff members, cutting and hauling trees, bleaching walls, picking up things that they never, ever thought they would have to pick up, because they so highly value education, and they were committed to being there for their students. It tells the story of teachers, and administrators laboring to get Lousiana's school system back on its feet, up and running again, and helping students cope with their losses and trauma.

Disaster Recovery: The Time is Now.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; Nov 2005
Reviews the Hurricane Katrina experiences of some prepared and unprepared higher education institution technology departments, suggests steps for developing a disaster recovery plan and list items it should include, discusses concerns both unique and mundane, describes a pan-departmental disaster team, and types of backups.

Coping with Crisis: Members Respond to Hurricane Aftermath.
Thaler-Carter, Ruth
Facilities Manager; v21 n6 , p34-37 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Presents personal narratives from facility managers at New Orleans area universities citing their experiences before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. Experiences in with safeguarding the students, and assessing and recovering from damage are described.

Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2005/3 n56 , p13-24 ; Oct 2005
Examines trends, issues, and case studies in higher education facilities planning, design, and management. These were gathered from an April, 2005 conference sponsored by APPA and the OECD Programme on Educational Building. Discussions of megatrends and myths that influence facilities management, the technology-enabled learning space, and natural hazard risk mitigation are followed by three case studies from Montreal, Spain, and Veracruz.

Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools.
Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda
Journal of School Health; v75 n8 p327 , p327 ; Oct 2005
School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school districts in Arkansas have plans for responding to a mass casualty event, but less than one half have a plan for prevention or mitigation of such an event. Since this survey was conducted, Arkansas has passed a law requiring all school districts to develop such an emergency response plan. The findings highlight a need for continued planning and preparation. For example, most schools had not conducted a mass casualty drill. Most superintendents had not met with local EMS officials, and only a few have regularly scheduled meetings. Schools should continue to plan and prepare for the unwelcome prospect of a disaster at a school.

When Disaster Strikes.
Burton, John
University Business; v8 n9 , p42-46 ; Sep 2005
Describes backup procedures followed at several higher education institutions to protect their data during disasters.

The Hurricanes of 2004.
Smith, Thomas
Professional Roofing; v35 n9 , p23-27 ; Sep 2005
Presents an overview of the Federal Emergency Management Association's findings and recommendations, following evaluations of roof performance in three 2005 hurricanes. Roofing equipment, membrane systems, asphalt shingles, metal panels, and tile are covered.

Expecting the Unexpected.
Borges, Reggie
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p38-40 ; Jun 2005
Discusses the importance of communication, insurance, return to class, and raising of community morale after natural disasters, citing examples from storms that struck Nebraska and Florida.

Weathering the Storm
Goral, Tim
University Business; Nov 2004
Following the worst hurricane season in memory, some Florida universities talk about how they kept students safe, minimized damages, and provided communication channels.

Angry Skies.
Jehlen, Alain; Winans, Dave
NEA Today; v23 n3 , p38,39 ; Nov 2004
Describes how administrators, teachers, cafeteria workers, and bus drivers worked together through the four Florida hurricanes of 2004.

Seismic Analysis of Glenwood Middle School, Evansville, Indiana
Uddin, Nasim; Maurer, Tim
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction; , p147-153 ; Aug 2004
This paper describes important engineering features relating to the seismic evaluation of a school building system in southern Indiana. This evaluation is the first step in identifying deficiencies in the school's seismic force resisting system and may ultimately be a reference for retrofitting the structure to be in compliance with current design standards. This paper is intended to provide an introduction to the engineering challenges of seismic retrofitting of school structures in the Midwest, with particular reference to the Glenwood Middle School located in Evansville, Indiana. To this end, the paper presents the numerical modeling and analyses to establish a retrofitting scheme that would provide a structurally stable system under seismic loading conditions. [Authors' abstract]

Preparing for Disaster.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n11 , p16-18,21,22 ; Jun 2004
Discusses tornado and earthquake safety preparations, citing examples of damage and recovery at an Illinois middle school after a tornado, and at California State University, Northridge, after the 1994 earthquake.

California Schools Pass Up Earthquake Safety Study.; Mar 2004
Few school districts have requested results of a 2002 California survey that found 7,537 buildings that might perform poorly and imperil students in the event of a big earthquake, and even fewer have attempted to upgrade buildings. The study found that about 10 percent of the total number of school buildings in California, could fall short of "achieving life-safety performance in future earthquakes." It estimated retrofitting them to this standard would cost $4.7 billion.

Preparing for Disaster.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v7 n2 , p34,36,37 ; Feb 2004
Describes protective measures undertaken at two universities in advance of 2003's Hurricane Isabel, the minimal property damage sustained, and procedural changes that were made afterward.

Public Health Emergency Preparedness in the Setting of Child Care.
Gaines, Sherry; Leary, Janie
Community Health; v27 n3 , p260-265 ; 2004
Discusses child care emergency preparedness, offering recommendations for consultants working with child care providers. The complexity of emergency preparedness in child care calls for the involvement of community health professionals, such as child care health consultants (CCHCs), who can assist child care providers in preparing to respond to a crisis. CCHC's are uniquely positioned to address emergency plans and are aware of resources that can support child care facilities during a crisis. Plans should describe how child care fits in with the larger public health and emergency management response to a community-wide event. A list is included of recommended child care emergency supplies.

Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings in Japan. Adobe PDF
Nakano, Yoshiaki
Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering; v4 n3 , p218-229 ; 2004
Describes efforts directed toward upgrading seismic performance of vulnerable school buildings following the 1995 Hyogoken-nambu (Kobe) earthquake. Damage statistics of school buildings due to the Kobe earthquake, criteria to identify their vulnerability, the subsidy program for seismic rehabilitation, and their implementation examples, are described, together with recent efforts for further promotion of seismic rehabilitation on a nationwide basis.

Gimme Shelter.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v76 n3 , p295-97 ; Nov 2003
Describes the features of school buildings that help protect occupants during natural and man-made disasters. Masonry and concrete construction, proper roof and glass selection, and creation of safe rooms are highlighted.

Shelter from the Storm. Tornado Shelters Move to Public Buildings.
Urbaniak, Al; Farber, Yuriy
The Construction Specifier; , p84-87 ; Nov 2002
While uniform codes have yet to be established for resisting the complex combination of forces found in a tornado, some localities living under a higher threat of tornado damage have implemented various local codes or guidelines to ensure key public buildings, such as schools, can provide adequate shelter (safe rooms) from severe winds. Research into the viability of above-ground safe rooms has not only helped save lives, it has spawned a new generation of doors built to withstand tornadic winds and the missiles they hurl.

Disaster Management and Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Kenny, Grace
PEB Exchange; v2 n46 , p17-21 ; Jun 2002
Summarizes discussions from a seminar focusing on earthquakes and educational facilities, including findings related to educational buildings; partnerships; training; standards, regulations, and procedures; finance and legislation; and research and support.

Shelter from the Storm.
Urbaniak, Al; Farber, Yuriy
College Planning and Management; v5 n3 , p36-39 ; Mar 2002
Discusses how door manufacturers are introducing products designed to pass the rigorous tests needed to withstand tornadoes, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 320 and 361 directives.

Shelter from the Storm.
Schultz, Corey; Metz, John
American School and University; v74 n2 , p51-53 ; Oct 2001
Discusses why most schools need to upgrade the spaces they use to protect students and staff from tornadoes. School building areas commonly used as safe havens during tornadoes are assessed, followed by information on disaster damage reimbursements and Federal Emergency Management Agency guidelines (FEMA 361) for building tornado and hurricane shelters.

Disaster's Aftermath: Rebuilding Schools Is One Thing--Rebuilding Children's Lives Is Quite Another.
American School Board Journal; v188 n4 , p52-54,56 ; Apr 2001
Children who experience disasters such as Hurricane Andrew in southern Florida, are prone to severe and debilitating stress. Districts can prepare by designating a disaster management commander, a search-and-rescue team, and a reuniting team. Planning should include drills, recovery, and restoration elements.

What We Learned from Hurricane Floyd.
Harrell, George W.
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p23-27 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses what one university learned about disaster planning when struck with a serious and long-lasting environmental emergency. Notes that campus backup systems weren't able to sustain emergency operations over a prolonged period and that the situation called for a crisis response plan that could be changed hourly. Includes specific recommendations resulting from the experience.

Hernandez, Hildo
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p31-32 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the sizable earthquake that struck there in January 1994. Reviews the lessons learned from handling this emergency, including experiences with setting up and operating command centers, mounting search and rescue operations, procuring emergency, cleanup and renovation supplies, documenting recovery costs, and dealing with unexpected consequences such as loose asbestos.

Disaster Planning 101: Not Just Waiting for the Rainbow Sign.
Brown, Richard
Business Officer; v34 n4 , p39-42 ; Oct 2000
Recounts the experience of East Carolina University (North Carolina) in responding to the disaster of Hurricane Floyd in 1999. Identifies 10 operational lessons such as ensuring that the institution's emergency response team is prepared for quick decisions and planning with the assumption that all vital utilities will be lost for not less than a week.

Weathering the Storm.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n6 , p30,32,34 ; Feb 2000
Discusses the importance of knowing the type of climate a school is likely to endure as a decision element for selecting a school roofing system. The influence of extreme temperature shifts, wind, and excessive heat in the decision making process are discussed as are ways of improving maintenance and monitoring practices.

Paradise Built.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p26-28 ; Nov 1999
Describes the special advantages and unique problems of building a school in Hawaii as revealed in the design of Kauai's Kapaa Middle School. Using the environment to help reduce construction costs is described as are the economic tradeoffs to adapt buildings for earthquakes and hurricanes.

Surviving a Crisis.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v38 n10 , p31,32,36 ; Oct 1999
Discusses crisis management planning for college and university campuses that can contribute to effective and rapid response and wise decision making during not only natural disasters, but also those that are manmade.

A True Community School.
Cecil, Daniel; Boynton, Rodney
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p44-45, 48-50 ; Apr 1999
Discusses how one community middle school, whose creation was the result of involvement of the town it resided in, became a lifesaving facility for many of the town's residents when disaster struck. The community-wide effort in the school's construction planning and its benefits to the community after its completion are examined.

Ice Storm: Reacting to a Natural Disaster in Quebec. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n35 , p6-7 ; Oct 1998
When a severe freeze hit Quebec in January 1998, schools and universities were forced to remain closed for up to 23 days. Here is an account of how school authorities handled the crisis and the lessons they learned.

Meeting Demand.
Daneman, Kathy
American School and University; v70 n12 , p129-30 ; Aug 1998
Addresses how a school district can use temporary classroom space to meet increasing student enrollment while additional space is being built. Provides examples of using portable facilities to supplement educational sites, including how to protect students who are in portable classrooms when tornadoes appear.

Boxed-up Students Not Safe in Winds
Kunerth, Jeff
Orlando Sentinel; Jun 21, 1998
More than 100,000 Central Florida students go to school in box-like, portable classrooms that offer little protection from high winds, are often poorly inspected and in some cases are not even attached to the ground. With recent killer tornadoes focusing attention on the anchoring of mobile homes in Central Florida, the Orlando Sentinel newspaper began investigating the safety of 5,443 portable classrooms at elementary and secondary schools in six counties. This includes the results of that investigation, plus several related stories.

They've Seen Fire and They've Seen Rain
Chandler, Kurt
Education FM; v1 n2 , p18,20-22 ; May 1998
Recounts what school district facilities managers did and what they learned from the flood and fire disaster in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Examines the taxing and complex cleanup effort, which required officials to scramble to locate sufficient architectural and construction crews to meet repair demands. Identifies unforeseen problems that leaders faced, such as toxic biological growth. Also describes the damage and repair expenses.

Braving the Elements: Protecting Schools Against Weather-Related Disasters
Breighner, Mary
School Business Affairs; v63 n4 , p37-42 ; Apr 1997
Discusses common weather-related hazards (floods, windstorms, and winter storms) and provides some steps administrators can take to protect their schools. Suggests administrators periodically assess their school's commitment to loss control, housekeeping, suitable building construction and reinforcement, sprinkler systems, water supply, emergency-response teams, regular inspections, building and equipment maintenance, and special-hazards-protection system.

How Prepared Are Our Schools? Natural Disasters, School Awareness, and District Plans
Burling, Wynona K.; Hyle, Adrienne E.
Educational Planning; v11 n2 , p3-16 ; 1997
Identifies, evaluates, and ranks disaster preparedness planning in school districts nationally. Findings reveal great diversity in disaster planning from no plans whatsoever to action planning covering before, during, and in the aftermath of a disaster.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).