NCEF Resource List: Music Education Spaces in Schools
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MUSIC EDUCATION SPACES IN SCHOOLS

Information on designing and equipping middle and high school music education spaces, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1999-2000 and 2009-10
(National Center for Education Statistics at the Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education, Apr 2012)
Presents selected findings from seven congressionally mandated arts in education surveys. These surveys were designed to provide national estimates of the characteristics of arts education in public K-12 schools for the 2009-10 school year and to allow comparison to selected estimates from an earlier study done in 1999-2000. This report provides national data about arts education for public elementary and secondary schools, elementary classroom teachers, and elementary and secondary music and visual arts specialists.

Harmony In Your Classroom - Music Room Design That Sings.
(Reference and Education, Oct 2011)
Describes factors to consider when designing a school's music room: the room's function, the kind of music furniture, room acoustics, and tasteful decoration. 2p

Music Education Suites. Adobe PDF
Kemp, Wayne
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC. , 2009)
This publication describes options for designing and equipping middle and high school music education suites and suggests means of gaining community support for including full service music suites in new and renovated facilities. It covers the basic music suite, practice rooms, small ensemble rehearsal rooms, recording/MIDI studios, and electric keyboard laboratories. (Contains seven references.) 4p.

MIX Lab. Denison University.
Siddall, Scott
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Profiles this Ohio university's multimedia lab that supports the fine and performing arts programs. The vision and collaborative planning involving all five departments is described, as are the way the transformed space has transformed the curriculum through digitization. 16.1-16.6p.

Elementary Music Planning Guide. Adobe PDF
(Wenger Corporation, Owatonna, MN , 2004)
Provides an outline around which an elementary music room can be planned, with attention to details that are easily forgotten. For the music educator, the Guide provides a basic understanding of the design and construction process. The Guide also covers other areas used for music education and performance, like the gymnasium, cafetorium and auditorium. Photographs, diagrams, and schematic drawings are included, as is advice on square footage, traffic flow, ceiling heights, furniture, and storage. 40p.

Planning Guide for Secondary School Music Facilities. Version 2.2. Adobe PDF
(Wenger Corporation, Owatonna, MN. , 2001)
This planning guide focuses on the fundamental requirements for planning and designing school music suites. The guide provides brief explanations of critical factors affecting music suites so that music directors and other stakeholders can more quickly and clearly communicate music area fundamentals to architects and administrators. Topics cover the music suite layout, construction process, acoustics, floor planning, types of storage areas, and music equipment. Also included are tips for planning highly functional and successful performance areas; glossary of terms; several project worksheets, and a rule-of-thumb chart for determining music suite square footage needs. 50p.
TO ORDER: Wenger Corp., P.O. Box 448, Owatonna, MN 55060- 0448; Toll free: 800-733-0393
http://www.wengercorp.com

Arts Education Facilities Planner for Grades 9-12.
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, NC , Apr 2000)
Suggests facilities necessary to conduct instruction in four distinct subject areas: dance, music, theatre arts, and visual arts. Discusses common facilities elements, such as sound management, sound isolation, acoustical design, teacher workstations, and performance facilities. Features teaching facilities for dance, music (general, choral, and instrumental), and support facilities. Covers the theater arts, including the black box arena and the laboratory/auditorium, and the visual arts. Sample plans and additional resources are included. 85p.

Arts Education Facilities Planner. Grades K-8. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Apr 2000)
This reference document for public school facility designers addresses arts education programs and the facilities that support them. Some sections focus on concepts and features common to most or all arts education subject areas, such as sound management, acoustical design, teacher workstations, and performance facilities. Other sections describe requirements unique to the individual areas of dance, music, theater arts, and visual arts. Concluding sections provide floor plans that illustrate spaces ideal for maximum implementation of the standard state course of study in areas of general and instrumental music, dance, and theater arts. Additional resources are listed. 51p.

Music/Computer Labs: Arranging Teaching and Learning Space for Success
Peters, G. David
(Lentines Music, Akron, OH, 2000)
This article outlines a checklist for planning new or redesigned music lab space. Includes space requirements and illustrations of several common setups such as aisles, islands, rows, or perimeter.

Acoustics Primer for Music Spaces. Adobe PDF
(Wenger Corporation, Owatonna, MN , 1999)
This guide explains in simple terms the fundamental acoustical concepts that affect music areas. Useful for music educators, musicians, school administrators, architects and planners to help better understand the many variables that impact acoustical environments and establish a base-line knowledge of acoustical concepts that affect music education and performance spaces. 16p.

Music Accommodation in Secondary Schools. A Design Guide. Adobe PDF
Watson, Lucy; Wadsworth, Alison; Nichols, Helen; Daniels, Richard; Marshall, Christopher; Orlowski, Rafal
(London, England: Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, Building Bulletin 86 , 1997)
An outline is provided of the accommodation needs for music in secondary schools, concentrating on the needs of 11- to 16-year-old pupils with case studies that illustrate a range of school types including those with sixth forms. The document provides a guide to the range of teaching and non-teaching spaces likely to be required, including guidance on planning a suite of spaces with reference to the acoustic environment. It also describes the size, shape, and planning of teaching and non-teaching spaces; gives advice on furniture used in each type of space; provides a brief guide to the mechanical and electrical servicing requirements for music spaces; and outlines some of the key points of environment design. 141p.

Instrument Storage: Effective Design for Band & Orchestra Facilities.
Wellik, Jamie
(LSI Corporation of America, Minneapolis, MN , Oct 07, 1996)
A conference presentation focuses effective secondary school band and orchestra instrument and accessories storage while ensuring an environment that offers adequate security, is user-friendly, and protects the school's investments in instruments and the storage equipment itself. Guidelines for planning music instrument storage are provided covering the location of storage areas, layout of compartment storage units, and door options. Also provided is a music instrument inventory sheet for determining storage needs and two diagrams of options for locating instrument storage within band and orchestra areas. 5p.
TO ORDER: LSI Corporation of America, 2100 Xenium Lane North, Minneapolis, MN 55441 Tel: 612-559-4664
http://www.lsi-casework.com/

A User Assessment of Workspaces in Selected Music Education Computer Laboratories. Adobe PDF
Badolato, Michael Jeremy
(Doctor of Education Dissertation, Boston University, MA , May 1995)
A study of 120 students selected from the user populations of four music education computer laboratories was conducted to determine the applicability of current ergonomic and environmental design guidelines in satisfying the needs of users of education computing workspaces. Eleven categories of workspace factors were organized into a questionnaire encompassing 59 items, each representing a specific factor. Significant differences were found in user ratings across the four facilities as well as individual workspace factors. Analyses reveal a trend toward user satisfaction with workspace factors designed in accordance with ergonomic and environmental design guidelines. Included in the Appendices is a glossary of terms, student comments, and an equipment list of general workstation configurations of each lab. 297p.

Music Facilities: Building, Equipping, and Renovating.
Geerdes, Harold P.
(Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA , 1995)
This book provides guidelines for the music director, architect, and others in designing and constructing new music facilities or remodeling existing ones. It deals with music facilities at all educational levels and is concerned with the location, design, and size of the facilities; storage and auxiliary space provided; auditoriums and music shells; and equipment placed in those facilities. Additionally, it contains sample floor plans and photographs of recently completed facilities, and a bibliography of additional references. An appendix offers excerpts from "Opportunity- to-Learn Standards for Music Instruction: Grades Pre-K-12. 136p.

Tips: Improving Acoustics for Music Teaching.
Geerdes, Harold P.
(Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA , 1991)
A specifications pamphlet offers methods, ideas, and suggestions on how music educators can upgrade their existing music facilities or design new ones correctly. Guidelines address room acoustic fundamentals, how to critique a music room, hints on upgrading acoustic weaknesses, and general tips to follow when trying to maximize acoustics when performances are in other areas besides the music room. Concluding comments discuss the use of a consultant to help improve poor acoustical settings. An acoustics glossary is provided.

Acoustical Design of Music Education Facilities.
McCue, Edward, Ed.; Talaske, Richard H., Ed.
(Acoustical Society of America, Washington, DC , 1990)
This publication provides essays on the acoustical design of music education facilities and reproductions of posters describing 50 projects presented at the 117th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of American held in Syracuse, New York in May 1989. Essays are as follows: "Introduction to the Design Process" (Richard Talaske); "The Acoustical Consultant's Role" (Harold P. Geerdes); "The Architect's Perspective" (Lynn Molzan, Laurence O'Connor, and Steven Robinson); "Cost Control for Music Education Facilities" (James and Richard Vermeulen); "The Compleat Concert Hall" (R. Lawrence Kirkegaard); "Rethinking Recital Halls" (J. Christopher Jaffe); "Rehearsal Room Acoustics" (Edward McCue); "Matching the Organ to the Room" (Robert F. Mahoney); "Keeping Things Quiet" (William J. Cavanaugh); "Media Systems for Music Education" (Jim Gundlach); and "Lighting the Concert Stage" (Joshua Dachs). Project posters from Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, South America, and the United States are included. Concluding sections provide a bibliography, an index, and an appendix of notable student designs. (Contains 19 references.) 220p.
TO ORDER: Acoustical Society of America
http://acousticalsociety.org/

Sound Planning for Music Facilities. Adobe PDF
( Oregon Department of Education, Salem, OR , 1979)
This booklet is designed as a reference for Oregon music educators and administrators who are considering building or improving school music facilities. It outlines typical specifications and points out problem areas that can spoil an otherwise well-planned facility. The booklet is divided into seven parts. The areas addressed include: (1) "The Music Complex"; (2) "Elementary General Music Area"; (3) "Acoustics"; (4) "Sound Isolation"; (5) "Support Areas"; (6) "Special Considerations"; and (7) "Sample Plans for the Music Complex." 20p.

Music Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Ontario Government Publications Centre, Toronto, Ontario , 1969)
The layouts and specifications in this booklet are intended to assist those involved in planning music facilities for elementary and secondary schools. Drawings, room plans, and text illustrate specifications for location; space relationship; combined and separate instrumental and vocal rooms; practice rooms; and auxiliary areas. Particular attention is given to factors influencing the acoustical quality of the facilities. 26p.

Music Facilities. New Remodeling. Adobe PDF
(Div. of Instructional Services, Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. , 1966)
This 1966 publication provides design guidance to assist boards of education, administrators, music teachers and architects in planning adequate facilities for a music department based upon the needs of individual districts. Location and scope of facilities are discussed as are specifications for architectural elementals of rehearsal and auxilliary rooms. Brief discussions on equipment standards are given. 16p.

References to Journal Articles

Visible Music College / archimania
Ross, Kritiana
Arch Daily; Apr 25, 2012
Photos and description of the adaptive design of a music college in a mid-century bank building in downtown Memphis Tennessee.

Rose Center for the Arts, Lower Columbia College
Livegreen; Apr 2012
American studio Opsis Architecture designed the Rose Center for the Arts in Lower Columbia College, Longview, Washington, which not only meets the artists’ needs with a cutting-edge theatre and auditorium but is built with sustainability in mind. The center accommodates music, drama, painting and photography, and serves as a community centre offering a vast range of cultural programmes.

Music Rehearsal Room Acoustics: Comparisons of Objectives and Performance Measures.
Freiheit R.
Journal of Acoustical Society of America; v 131 n4 ; Apr 2012
A comparison of the acoustic performance criteria for high school music education rehearsal rooms to standard classrooms in the United States and Asia. High school music rehearsal rooms have acoustical requirements that are very different from traditional classrooms, where academic subjects are typically taught in a lecture-based setting. Due to the extended frequency range and dynamics of music rehearsals, most standard classroom acoustic treatments will not provide effective results for music rehearsal rooms. A number of acoustic measurements will be discussed - comparing rehearsal rooms and standard classrooms. Potential problems and solutions will be identified. [Author's abstract]

Optimizing Music Equipment Storage
College Planning and Management; , p32 ; Jan 2012
Outlines key considerations in music equipment storage: security, space savings, durability, traffic flow, and acoustics.

Place-based Learning: Interactive Learning and Net-Zero Design
Holser, Alec and Becker, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p52-54 ; Dec 2011
Case study of the Music and Science Building for Oregon’s Hood River Middle School where Food and conservation science curriculum, net-zero design and student-based building performance monitoring have come together. It offers a tangible demonstration of how decentralized energy and water systems, aquaculture, biological energy systems, year-round food production and performance monitoring can be incorporated in K-12 design and woven into school curriculum.

The Key to Designing Specialty Spaces.
Bane, Dennis; Miller, Steven; Cordon, Andrew; Lerner, Jonathan; Aldis, Jonathan
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p20 ; Nov 2010
Dicusses specialty educational spaces by providing general design advice, illustrated with five examples from various schools. A media center, music suite, auditorium, outdoor classroom, and athletic facility are addressed.

Science and Band Addition, Kimmons Junior High School.
Design Cost Data; v53 n1 , p18,19 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Profiles this Fort Smith, Arkansas, facility that created a spacious entrance and new administrative areas, as well as updated band, choir, and science facilities. Building statistics, a list of the project participants, cost details, a floor plan, and photographs are included.

SMARTer Music Teaching: Interactive Whiteboard Use in Music Classrooms.
Nolan, Karin K.
General Music Today; v22 n3 , p3-11 ; Jan 2009
This article presents current research on interactive whiteboard use, numerous teaching ideas for general music educators, and two full-length music lesson plans demonstrating interactive whiteboard use.
TO ORDER: http://gmt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/22/2/3

Orchestrating Storage Solutions.
Picard, Terri
The Construction Specifier; v61 n12 , p88-94 ; Dec 2008
Advises on casework for music education suites. Checking durability of a manufacturer s product by inspecting previous installations is recommended. The article describes modular and mobile units, proper ventilation for damp instruments, designing for the instruments used in the curriculum, design and arrangement of storage for quick and safe circulation, special acoustical considerations for storage units that line the rehearsal space, garment storage, and sheet music filing.

A Musical Arrangement.
Architecture Minnesota; , p38-40,56 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Profiles Minneapolis' MacPhail Center for Music, highlighting its notable modern architecture, and both formal and informal performing spaces.

Music Room.
SchoolDesigner.com; May 2008
Details and photographs of a music room at the Vanden High School in California, designed by Gelfand Partners Architecture. Includes natural light without glare, thoughtful use of space, cost effective acoustical solutions, and adequate and safe instrument storage.

New Music Building.
Amerlar, Sarah
Architectural Record; v195 n7 , p118-123 ; Jul 2007
Profiles the new music building at McGill University, a steel-clad multi-storey structure designed to compliment the ornate and historic grey limestone existing music building. The building features state-of-the-art performing, rehearsal, and recording spaces, all acoustically isolated from the busy street. Building statistics, a list of project participants, photographs, and plans are included.

You Can Always Hear the Music.
Wray, Jeff
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p68-73 ; Jun 2007
Profiles the renovated and expanded Stivers School for the Arts in Dayton, Ohio. The historic 1908 structure was preserved and reused to "wonderful advantage," and at a cost lower than demolition and construction of a new facility. Partial demolition made way for new spaces that accommodate contemporary music education, and administrative and common areas were relocated to more accessible parts of the building.

Smart Board in the Music Classroom.
Baker, Jean
Music Educators Journal; v93 n5 , p18 ; May 2007
In this brief article, the author shares her experience using a Smart Board in the music classroom. Users can easily import many types of information, including video clips, short films, and music.

What's That You Hear?
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v10 n3 , p37,38,40 ; Mar 2007
Describes flexible acoustical requirements in the various spaces of a music school. Using San Antonio's Trinity University as an example, features of concert halls, rehearsal rooms, and practice rooms are discussed.

Music with a View.
Crosbie, Michael J.
Architecture Week ; , p. D1.1 ; Sep 20, 2006
Case study of the music facility at Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut, a private boarding school, that includes new practice rooms, rehearsal and performance spaces, classrooms, faculty offices, facilities for a radio station, and a music technology studio. These new facilities support the 1970s-vintage Walker Auditorium, which was housed in the school's main building at the center of campus.

Faculty of Music.
Khoueiry, Victor
Architecture Week; Aug 16, 2006
Case study of the new building for the Faculty of Music at McGill University in Montréal, Québec, by the consortium of Menkès Shooner Dagenais LeTourneux/ Saucier + Perrotte Architectes. The eight-story, 127,000-square-foot building accommodates a library, a recital hall, state-of-the-art multimedia and practice studios, and faculty offices. The new structure is an addition to the historic Strathcona Building, which houses the faculty's main concert facilities. The buildings are linked by a glazed bridge.

Sound Solutions.
Goral, Tim
University Business; v8 n11 , p59-62 ; Nov 2005
Discusses advances in audio transmission and reproduction that make distance learning in music possible. Echo cancellation, microphones, playback equipment, and sound-controlled cameras have made great advances, but the delay that occurs in coding-decoding is still a problem.

Symphony in San Antonio.
Sellers, Doug; Carstensen, Jerry
American School Board Journal; v192 n10 , p20-22 ; Oct 2005
Describes efforts that led to the creation of new music education facilities at San Antonio's eight high schools. Parents of students enrolled in music education led the way, joined by music educators and the city's Fine Arts Council. Statistics showing a positive correlation between arts involvement and academic performance supported the cause and voters approved the $128 million bond by 85%.
TO ORDER: http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2005/October.aspx

Auditoriums/Music Rooms.
American School and University; v77 n13 , p64-69 ; Aug 2005
Presents six higher education and secondary school fine arts facilities selected for the American School & University 2005 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their functionality, sustainability, craftsmanship, cost- effectiveness, and community connection. Building statistics, designer information, and photographs are included.

Symphonic Sails.
Leisner, Hava
School Construction News; v8 n1 , p16-18 ; Jan-Feb 2005
Describes the Central Washington University's Music Education Facility and its architectural details evoking properties of music. Technical features of the acoustically superb concert hall are also described.

Musical Accompaniment.
Sturgeon, Julie.
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p44,46,47 ; Aug 2004
Discusses issues of absorption and reflection in acoustics and describes a variety of materials and installations available in rooms where acoustical considerations are paramount.

Academic Buildings.
College Planning and Management; v6 n8 , p34-35 ; Aug 2003
Describes the School of Music and Fine Arts at Palm Beach Atlantic University, Florida, which was built to be visually appealing and acoustically superb, and the Samuel H. Smith Center for Undergraduate Education at Washington State University, which was designed to reflect the latest teaching methods and features flexible spaces and a computer technology lab with a wireless computer data network.

Auditoriums/Music Rooms.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p73-76 ; Aug 2003
Presents auditoriums/music rooms considered outstanding in a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total cost, total cost/square foot, cost of project entry category, cost/square foot of project entry category, and completion date.

Building a New Music Facility: From Baton to Hardhat.
White, Skyler
School Band and Orchestra; Jun 2003
Describes the new music education facility at Chicago's York High School, detailing the collaboration between the music faculty, designers, and administrators.

Making Room for Music.
Meyer, Denny
School Band and Orchestra; Dec 2002
Discusses storage solutions for school music facilities, chiefly involving instruments, sheet music, and uniforms.

Auditoriums/Music Rooms.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p52-62 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable school auditoriums and music rooms, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

Quieting a Noisy School.
Jones, Mary
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p59-61 ; Jun 2002
Describes several methods and products to reduce excess reverberation and background noise in school areas, including music rooms, classrooms, gyms, offices, and natatoriums.

Solving Acoustic Problems in Rehearsal and Practice Spaces.
Freiheit, Ron
School Band and Orchestra; Apr 2002
Discusses pre- and post-construction means for achieving acceptable acoustics in music rehearsal and practice rooms. The four areas addressed are sound isolation, interior room acoustics, mechanical noise, and practice room acoustics.

Building Blueprints: Making Music.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p82-83 ; Jan 2002
Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building.

Building Blueprints: Room To Practice.
College Planning and Management; v4 n2 , p46-47 ; Feb 2001
Presents Millikin University's (Decatur, IL) renovated School of Music facility that includes additional practice rooms and faculty studios, a computer-assisted instruction classroom, and a recording studio. Before-and-after photos are included.

Enhancing the Sound of Music.
Sankey, Michael
American School and University; v73 n3 , p440-41 ; Nov 2000
Discusses the importance of well-designed rooms with the proper acoustics to facilitate effective music instruction. Several considerations are examined when planning or renovating music areas so that the rooms meet instructional and learning needs.

Middle School Music Facilities: Good Acoustics, Flexibility Required.
Smedstad, Mike
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , p26-27 ; Oct 2000
Explains the four critical factors needed in designing music suites for middle schools that can help achieve the music program s education goals while accommodating the specialized activities and equipment needs of the suite. Factors examined are the acoustics, floor plan, storage, and equipment needs.

Technology as the Crayon Box
Garcia, Lilia
School Administration; v56 n4 , p38-41 ; Apr 2000
While arts facilities should be equipped with computers, color scanners, MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) labs, connective video cameras, and appropriate software, music rooms still need pianos and visual art rooms need traditional art supplies. Dade County (Florida) Schools's pilot teacher assistance projects and arts-centered schools are profiled.

Let There Be Music
Clark, Nancy
Principal; v79 n2 , p43-45 ; Nov 1999
Key requirements for a successful music program include a supportive environment, constructive communication, an effective floor plan, and quality equipment. Unless music education's value is recognized, adequate resources, funding, and equipment will not be committed. Music programs require substantially more space and soundproofing than regular classrooms.

Sound Effect.
Djerf, Warren
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 ; Aug 1999
Describes one Texas high school's efforts to obtain funding for a new music facility and the planning process behind its design. Discusses acoustics and storage space considerations.

Designing a Secondary Music Suite.
Smedstad, Mike
School Planning and Management; v37 i10 , p32-34 ; Oct 1998
Discusses four factors in designing a school music room that satisfies student, teacher, and school needs. It explores acoustics in terms of cubic volume, room shape, sound isolation, acoustical treatment, and mechanical systems. It also examines the floor plan for space, traffic control, and access to related areas.

Technology-Rich Teaching
Altiere, Lauren; Bustard, Joyce; Carr, Elizabeth; Keiser, Rod; Marshall, Clinton; Rudolph, Thomas E.
Teaching Music; v5 n2 , 30-32 ; Oct 1997
Gives five examples from music teachers about how they use different types of technology, in particular the electronic keyboard, in their classrooms. Demonstrates the contrasting methods of each of these teachers, but illustrates, at the same time, how they all have met the same ends: to enhance music education through technology.

Music to Our Ears
Dressen, Ric; Smedstad, Mike
American School Board Journal; v184 n10 , p24-26 ; Oct 1997
A Waconia, Minnesota superintendent involved in constructing a new high school found that designing a successful music suite depended on building community support, understanding the music suite's special needs, and managing compromise and communication. A participative planning process allowed considerable input on decisions concerning acoustics, floor plan, storage, and equipment. The superintendent led like an orchestra conductor.

Harold P. Geerdes on Musical Facility Design
Wagner, Michael
Music Educators Journal; v83 n3 , p28-32 ; Nov 1996
Presents an interview with Dr. Harold P. Geerdes, world-renowned music facility planner, acoustician, and music professor. Dr. Geerdes discusses the different characteristics of rehearsal spaces and concert halls as well as the importance of interior materials and design. He also provides some easy and inexpensive tips for schools.

Baffling or Baffled: Improve Your Acoustics
Abdoo, Frank B.
Music Educators Journal; v67 n9 , 36-37 ; May 1981
Presents techniques for evaluating the acoustics (reverberation time, and standing waves and resonance phenomena) of a band performance room. Gives instructions for building and placing inexpensive baffles (free-standing, portable sound barriers) to correct room defects.

Rehearsal Rooms
Mills, Donn Laurence
The Instrumentalist; , p78-80 ; Apr 1979
Discusses aspects of a good rehearsal room, including acoustics, space, light, air, and decor. The seven characteristics essential to rehearsal room acoustics are: tonal warmth, the even blend of instrumental colors, separation of voices, a natural volume level, balanced frequencies, the elimination of excessive overtones and harmonic distortion, and good reverberation time.

A Music House in the Music Room
Cameron, William F.
Music Educators Journal; v59 n3 , p32-4 ; Nov 1972
Describes a "house" within a music room where children come to listen to and read some of their favorite songs, listen to musical stories, play with musical games, or practice their chorus parts with a tape recorder.


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