NCEF Resource List: Mold in Schools
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Information on identifying, assessing, and removing mold-contaminated materials from school facilities and preventing mold growth, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

IAQ Reference Guide. Appendix H - Mold and Moisture
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
Tips on identifying and correcting common mold and moisture issues including the following topics: Condensation, Relative Humidity, and Vapor Pressure; Taking Steps to Reduce Moisture and Mold; Vapor Pressure-Dominated Mold Growth; Surface Temperature-Dominated Mold Growth; Mold Clean Up; Identifying and Correcting Common Mold and Moisture Problems; Set-Back Thermostats; Air-Conditioned Spaces; Thermal Bridges; Window; and Concealed Condensation.

Mold and Moisture: Double Trouble for Schools [Webinar] Adobe PDF
Caruso, Peggy and Spore, Todd
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Jul 20, 2011)
Explores cost-effective solutions to prevent and control mold and moisture, and provides technical information about remediating mold or moisture intrusion

Mold and Moisture: Double Trouble for Schools. [Webinar]
Caruso, Peggy; Spore, Todd
(EPA IAQ Tools for Schools , Jul 20, 2011)
Presenters review the most common sources of mold and moisture in schools, discuss practical and cost-effective solutions to prevent and control mold and moisture, and provide in-depth technical information about remediating mold or moisture intrusion.

Mold Resources.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011)
Resources include an introduction to molds, basic mold cleanup guidelines, ten things you should know about mold, asthma and mold, floods/flooding, health and mold, homes and mold, indoor air regulations and mold, large buildings and mold, schools and mold and indoor air quality, and other mold-related resources and links.

Impacts of Building Dampness on Indoor Air Quality.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Discusses the effect of indoor humidity on mold, bacteria, and house dust mites. Thirteen recent studies are summarized. 8p.

Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC , Sep 2008)
This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities. Presents key steps for implementing a remediation plan. Provides a checklist for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary, an educational section on molds, and an explanation of how communication with building occupants aids in mold eradication efforts. 55p.

Healthy Schools: Lessons for a Clean Educational Environment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2008)
Helps school employees and parents recognize potential environmental health issues at schools, both indoors and outdoors. It includes basic information about mold, radon, VOCs, ventilation, asbestos, lead, mercury, chemicals, pesticides, PCBs, UV radiation, diesel fumes, air quality forecasts, and oil storage. Also provided are links to web sites that offer more information and guidance on how to have a healthier school environment and comply with relevant laws. 16p.

School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software. (SAVES)
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2006)
SAVES is a free software package that architects, engineers, school officials, and others can use to determine what type of ventilation equipment provides the best advantages for their unique applications. SAVES incorporates two software tools for the school design community: 1) the ERV Financial Assessment Software Tool (also referred to as ‘EFAST’) assesses the financial characteristics of energy recovery ventilation systems for school applications; and 2) the Indoor Humidity Assessment Tool (also referred to as ‘IHAT’) helps school designers assess the moisture control characteristics of ERV systems, along with other building design decisions that can impact indoor moisture levels and indoor air quality.

Humidity Control in Minnesota Schools. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Dept. of Commerce, St. Paul , Oct 2005)
Offers guidance to help school building managers and operators understand the process of moisture management. It explains why controlling humidity is important and what settings to choose. It also advises on how to operate and maintain various types of humidity control systems, minimize both occupant complaints and energy bills, improve operations and maintenance of existing equipment, and make selections for equipment replacement. 30p.

Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold
Rose, William B.
(John Wiley & Sons , 2005)
Water and moisture can greatly impact the integrity of a building's structure and ambience. This book provides valuable information on how water behaves and how its performance can be anticipated and managed in building design. It covers rainwater management, below-grade water management, foundations, wall and roof construction, mechanical systems, leak paths, and more. 256p.

Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors. Adobe PDF
Storey, Eileen; Dangman, Kenneth; Schenck, Paula; DeBernardo, Robert; Yang, Chin; Bracker, Anne; Hodgson, Michael.
(University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, Farmington , Sep 30, 2004)
Explains the current understanding of the relationship between mold exposure and illness, approaches to diagnosis, approaches to environmental assessment, and strategies for clinical management and preventive intervention. Three case studies of teachers affected by mold in their schools are provided. 120p.

Damp Indoor Spaces and Health.
(National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention., 2004)
In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention asked the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine to review the scientific literature regarding the relationship between moisture and mold in the indoor environment and adverse health effects. The final report presents a number of significant conclusions about the health impacts of moisture in homes and other buildings and makes key recommendations on how to minimize those impacts. Among the findings: damp or moldy buildings are linked to episodes of sniffles, coughing, and wheezing in otherwise healthy people and pose a potential health threat to asthmatics already allergic to mold. The panel found insufficient evidence to blame indoor mold for many other health problems - from fatigue to cancer. The panel advises that where mold is found, it ought to be cleaned up to avoid the potential health problems, and cited the need to research the best ways of getting rid of mold while protecting the workers who do the job. 281p.

Fact Sheet: Mold in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , Jan 2004)
Describes why and where mold can grow in schools, the health effects of mold, and how to manage it. Includes photographs and a list of additional resources. 2p.

Are You Building a School or a Liability? A Guide to Using Total Masonry Construction in Public Schools.
Huckabee, Christopher
(National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, VA , 2004)
Explains the value of total masonry construction in K-12 schools for the purpose of reduced life-cycle costs, safety, and mold resistance. A discussion of the importance of the building envelope, testimonials, a comparison of total masonry and tilt-up construction, and an explanation of the systems, costs, and properties of total masonry construction are provided. 58p.
TO ORDER: Mason Contractors Association of America, 33 S. Roselle Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60193; Tel: 800-536-2225.

Mold Remediation Legislation and Litigation.
Frisman, Paul
(Connecticut General Assemply, Office of Legislative Research, Hartford , Sep 16, 2003)
Describes recent mold remediation legislation in Connecticut, California, Montana, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas, including a discussion of some recent cases of mold litigation, theories of liability, and admissibility of expert testimony. 6p.

Recommended Best Practices for Mold Remediation in Minnesota Schools
(Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Division, Jun 2003)
Topics covered include communication strategies, pre-remediation assessment, determining the scope of the remediation project, use of administrative controls, contaminant removal considerations, and post-remediation evaluation. 44p.

Guide to Molds at School.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , Dec 2002)
Asserting that molds growing in schools can be harmful to children's health and learning, this guide offers information about the issue. It provides an overview of the basics, then addresses testing, types of molds, molds and health, monitoring schools for mold, mold prevention and clean-up tips for schools, and what parents should do if they suspect mold is making their child sick. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Ave., Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632

Health Effects of Mold Exposure in Public Schools.
Santilli, John
(Current Science, Inc., Philadelphia, PA , Nov 01, 2002)
This paper profiles the impact of mold exposure on the health of students, teachers, and staff in two public elementary schools in Connecticut, and explains how the air quality in each school was tested, and how the health of teachers and students was assessed. It also proposes standards for testing indoor air quality and evaluating the health impact of indoor mold exposure on students, teachers, and staff members. [Author's abstract] 8p.

Mold in My School: What Do I Do? Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Mar 2002)
This monograph provides a succinct look at the most important indoor mold-related health concerns, and it discusses how school districts can keep school facilities mold free. The mold issues examined include those described under the following headings: when to be concerned; how molds cause health problems; what are the symptoms; molds that form toxins; and who is most at risk. Under a separate section called "basic voluntary guidelines for cleanup and prevention of all molds," the authors lists the things that a school district should and should not do in response to various situations related to mold. These headings are: When school buildings get wet because of rain or a clean water spill; If buildings are flooded by dirty water or sewage; getting rid of mold growth inside a school building; preventing mold growth in schools; and communicating with parents and staff. Includes a list of resources, tools, and related websites that school administrators and school board members can use to quickly address and eliminate real or potential indoor mold problems in schools. 4p.

Mold: Cause, Effect and Response.
(Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry, Falls Church, VA, Mar 2002)
This paper offers a review of a variety of scientific, technical and medical resources to answer questions and to educate readers about the complex and often controversial issues surrounding mold growth in buildings. This discusses the who, what, why, when, and why of mold. Sections include: 1) how to tell if a mold problem exists; 2) how to get rid of mold once it's found; 3) how to keep mold from growing; and 4) risk management and insurance. Registration required for online access to document. 46p.
TO ORDER: Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industry, 803 West Broad Street, Suite 600, Falls Church, VA 22046; Tel: 703-534-8300;43;

Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments.
(New York City Dept. of Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiology, NY, Jan 2002)
This guidance document addresses mold contamination of building components (walls, ventilation systems, support beams, etc.) that are chronically moist or water damaged. Asserts that prompt remediation of contaminated material and infrastructure repair is the primary response to fungal contamination in buildings. Notes that emphasis should be placed on preventing contamination in the first place, through proper building and HVAC system maintenance and prompt repair of water damage. This document is based on a review of the literature relating to fungi and on comments obtained by a review panel of experts in the fields of microbiology and health sciences. It is intended for use by building engineers, managers, and anyone concerned about fungal contamination, such as environmental consultants, health professionals, or the general public.

Interim Report of the 2002 Fall Term Grand Jury on School Board Construction.
(Office of the State Attorney, Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL , 2002)
Reports on attempts to fix certain Broward County schools built from 1987-1996. Several school were built in rapid succession during this period, using four faulty prototype designs that were not amended before the next school was built. These designs permitted water intrusion that necessitated substantial roof and HVAC repair, redesign, or replacement, in order to remediate significant mold and mildew problems. The successes and failures of the remediation program are discussed, along with questionable lobbying of the School Board by contractors. A list of 31 recommendations concerning oversight, remediation, future construction, and administration is included. 44p.

Evaluating Effects of Moisture Damage Repairs in the Students' Health Using Questionnaires. Adobe PDF
Haverinen, U.; Pekkanen, J.; Nevalainen, A.; Husman, T.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a Finnish questionnaire study conducted among upper secondary and high school students before comprehensive repairs of moisture damage in their school, then repeated one year and three years after the repairs. The data was analyzed both cross-sectionally including all respondents, and longitudinally including paired observations for those individuals who had responded both before and after the repairs. Compared to the situation before the repairs, the situation after the repairs was significantly improved in most of the 20 symptoms studied among the whole population. However, the improvement was not so clear in the paired analysis and regression analysis among the students who had responded to all three questionnaires. (Includes six references.) 6p.

Respiratory Infections among Children in Moisture Damaged Schools. Adobe PDF
Husman, T.; Meklin, T.; Veps,l inin, A.; Vahteristo, M.; Koivisto, J.; Halla-aho, J.; Hyvrinen, A.; Koponen, V.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study of the association between respiratory infections and moisture damage in different types of school buildings. Both old and new buildings with wooden and concrete/brick frame were included. An association was found between occurrence of common colds and moisture damage in all school buildings. In addition, sinusitis, tonsillitis and bronchitis were more common in concrete/brick buildings than in buildings with wooden frame irrespective with moisture observations. Occurrence of respiratory infection was also strongly correlated with background factors such as age, female gender, smoking, atopy and moisture damage in home environment. (Includes 12 references) 4p.

Occurrence and Characteristics of Moisture Damage in School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Kovisto, J.; Haverinen, U.; Meklin, T.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on the investigation of moisture damage in 41 Finnish school buildings. 31 buildings had notable moisture damage observations and 10 buildings did not. This distinction was used in order to evaluate the effect of different building characteristics, such as age of the building, predominant building materials, and type of structural assemblies, on the occurrence of moisture damage. Moisture damage characteristics, such as location of damage, damaged structure type, and presence of mold/mold odor, were analyzed in order to assess their distribution and inter relationships. (Includes seven references.) 6p.

Indoor Air Pollutants, Limited Resource Households and Childcare Facilities. Adobe PDF
Laquatra, J.; Maxwell, L.E.; Pierce, M.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Presents findings from an indoor air quality study of homes and childcare facilities in nonmetropolitan counties of New York State. Specific pollutants examined were lead, radon, carbon monoxide, asbestos, and mold. High levels of pollutants were observed homes and childcare facilities, raising questions about constant pollutant exposure to children. Recommendations are made for lowering exposure levels in low income households and childcare facilities. (Includes eleven references.) 6p.

Effects of Moisture Damage Repair on Microbial Exposure and Health Effects in Schools. Adobe PDF
Meklin, T.; Husman, T; Pekkanen, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M-R; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports the results of an intervention study designed to show the effects of the remediation of moisture and mold damaged school building on the student health. Microbial sampling from indoor air of the school and a health questionnaire study were performed before and after renovation. The results were compared to those from a non-damaged control school. The renovated school showed decreased concentrations of airborne fungi and decreased diversity of mycoflora. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of the respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren after the renovation. (Includes ten references.) 5p.

Clearing the Air: a Model for Investigating Indoor Air Quality in Texas Schools. Adobe PDF
Petronella, S.A.; Thomas, R.; Stone, J.A.; Goldblum, R.M.; Brooks, E.G.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reviews a pilot project focused on indoor air quality assessment at a local school, utilizing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program. Findings from this approach were compared with an air-sampling program to determine if use of Tools for Schools was sufficient to identify conditions related to adverse health effects. Data were gathered for formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, particulate matter (PM10), mold, relative humidity, and temperature. Levels of ozone and PM10 and all VOC levels except formaldehyde were found to be within government standards. Mold, however, was widespread, including those associated with allergy and asthma. (Includes 19 references.) 6p.

Recommended Best Practices for Mold Investigations in Minnesota Schools. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Department of Health, Environmental Health Division, Indoor Air Unit, St.Paul, MN , Nov 2001)
The goal of this document is to assist school district staff in their initial efforts to investigate the causes and severity of indoor mold problems and to find appropriate, cost-effective solutions. This document details procedures for initial investigation, and it includes background information on mold and health effects, information on personal protection, interpretations of mold testing results, and a complete glossary of terms. 34p.

Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers, Appendix C - Moisture, Mold and Mildew. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jun 2001)
This appendix from a textbook on indoor air quality in buildings provides background on moisture-related problems deriving from relative humidity, vapor pressure, and condensation. It includes a description of steps to take to reduce moisture, and explains how to identify and correct common problems from mold and mildew. 6p.

Molds, Toxic Molds, and Indoor Air Quality. Adobe PDF
Davis, Pamela J.
(California Research Bureau, California State Library, Sacramento, Mar 2001)
This paper provides background information on molds, their potential health effects, and how they relate to indoor air quality. This discusses properties of mold that pose a threat to human health. Actions taken by state and federal agencies are described. There is also information on how mold is remediated. 19p.

Mold and Moisture.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jan 2001)
This is a chapter from the coordinator's guide that is part of the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The chapter introduces and describes the problems associated with moisture and mold and summarizes the following topics: condensation, relative humidity, and vapor pressure; taking steps to reduce moisture and mold; surface temperature; mold cleanup. The final section explains how to identify and correct common mold and moisture problems in exterior corners and walls, air-conditioned spaces, thermal bridges, windows, and places where there is concealed condensation. 5p.

Indoor Air Quality. Tools for Schools. [With Videotape].
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. , Dec 2000)
This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. Along with the IAQ coordinator’s guide, the kit contains IAQ coordinator forms; an IAQ backgrounder; and a variety of checklists for administrators, teachers, and school health workers. The checklists focus on ventilation, building maintenance, waste management, food service, renovation and repairs, and inspection. Also provided is a problem-solving wheel that assists school teachers and others in identifying indoor air problems and correcting them. A 14-minute videotape is included which explains the importance of good indoor air quality and shows how to properly operate and maintain school ventilation systems.
TO ORDER: Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 37133, Washington D.C. 20013-7133; Toll free: 800-438-4318.

IAQ Tools for Schools: Managing Asthma in the School Environment.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 2000)
This manual provides tips on improving indoor air quality within the school environment by removing the elements that trigger asthma attacks in children, and presents a list of organizations where asthma resource information can be obtained. Air quality management tips cover removing of animal and cockroach allergens, cleaning up mold and controlling moisture, eliminating secondhand smoke exposure, and reducing dust mite exposure. Additionally covered are administrative initiatives to support clean indoor air efforts such as the development of a school asthma management plan and a school-based asthma education program, and the creation and filing of student asthma action cards. A sample asthma card is included. 20p.
Report NO: EPA-402-K-00-003

Schools, Mould, and Health - An Intervention Study.
Nevalainen, Aino et al
(Finnish Research Programme on Environmental Health, 2000)
The aim of the intervention study was to find out whether the moisture and mould repairs of the school buildings have an effect on the exposure to indoor air pollutants, on the respiratory health of the school children, studied with both questionnaire and clinical methods. This intervention study had a core design around which several connected studies were carried out, and a basic characterisation of moisture damage and associated microbial growth in school buildings were performed. As a part of the clinical study the association between serum mold-specific IgG levels of schoolchildren and the microbial exposure in their school environment was measured. [Authors' abstract]

An Approach to Management of Critical Indoor Air Problems in School Buildings [Finland]
Haverinen, Ulla; Husman, Tuula; Toivola, Mika; Suonketo, Jommi; Pentii, Matti; Lindberg, Ralf; Leinonen, Jouni; Hyvarinen, Anne; Meklin, Teija
(Environmental Health Perspectives, v107, n3. Based on a presentation at the International Conference on Indoor Mold and Children. , Jun 1999)
This study was conducted in a school center that had been the focus of intense public concern over 2 years because of suspected mold and health problems. Because several attempts to find solutions to the problem within the community were not satisfactory, outside specialists were needed for support in solving the problem. The study group consisted of experts in civil engineering, indoor mycology, and epidemiology. The studies were conducted in close cooperation with the city administration. Structures at risk were opened, moisture and temperature were measured, and the causes of damage were analyzed. Microbial samples were taken from the air, surfaces, and materials. Health questionnaires were sent to the schoolchildren and personnel. Information on the measurements and their results was released regularly to school employees, students and their parents, and to the media. Repairs were designed on the basis of this information. Moisture damage was caused mainly by difficult moisture conditions at the building site, poor ventilation, and water leaks. Fungal genera typical to buildings with mold problems (e.g., Aspergillus versicolor, Eurotium) were collected from the indoor air and surfaces of the school buildings. Where moisture-prone structures were identified and visible signs of damage or elevated moisture content were recorded, the numbers of microbes also were high; thus microbial results from material samples supported the conclusions made in the structural studies. Several irritative and recurrent symptoms were common among the upper secondary and high school students. The prevalence of asthma was high (13%) among the upper secondary school students. During the last 4 years, the incidence of asthma was 3-fold that of the previous 4-year period. p509-514

Thermal and Moisture Protection Manual.
Beall, Christine
(McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, New York, NY, 1998)
This reference guide discusses design principles and methods for producing buildings that effectively deal with moisture. Discusses the physical nature of rain, snow, and ice; vapor behavior; variations in climate and their effects on the durability of building materials. Includes sections on specification, construction, and testing methods. Explains heat flow and insulation, water penetration and vapor condensation. Also discusses roofing, waterproofing, and cladding systems; joint sealants and coatings. 380p.

Mold Menace Forces School Evacuation.
Pinto, Michael A.
(Paper presented at IAQ and Energy 98 Using ASHRAE Standards 62 and 90.1 , 1998)
This paper describes IAQ investigations in a midwestern elementary school, which was closed for almost five months while remedial actions were taken.After a malfunction of the boiler system in conjunction with a steam leak, an initial IAQ investigation revealed that eye and respiratory irritation experienced by individuals exposed to the leaking steam were primarily the result of an overabundance of boiler treatment chemicals in the system.A subsequent investigation revealed that the outside air louvers to all classroom ventilators had been shut and sealed in the 1970s to conserve energy, extremely limiting the amount of outside air entering into the building. The IAQ investigation documented poor air circulation in the classrooms and recommended that the sealed unit ventilators be restored to their original operating parameters. There were also recommendations regarding control of chemicals and general cleaning. Nine months later teachers and students again complained of odors and illnesses on an intermittant basis that were believed to be related to air quality. It was decided to move all school personnel to another location so that an intensive IAQ investigation could be conducted. Subsequent recommendations were to control water infiltration into the building, clean up biological contamination in all areas, seal penetrations from service tunnels into classrooms, clean and repair the unit ventilators, remove asbestos insulation, reinsulate steam lines, and conduct intense cleaning and disinfection. After the remediation efforts, all but one of the impacted individuals were able to reoccupy the building. [Author's abstract]
TO ORDER: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings.
Lstiburek, Joseph; Carmody, John
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1996)
This reference applies moisture control and treatment techniques in a problem/solution format. Opening with an introductory explanation of the nature and causes of mold, mildew, and condensation, the volume gives specific advice on heated, cooled, and combination environments, plus a short course in the dynamics of moisture movement within buildings. Includes case studies and recommended practices for all U.S. climates. This guide is written for building contractors, architects, mechanical engineers, building product manufacturers, homeowners, and small commercial building owners. 232p.

Bugs, Mold & Rot II
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council, Washington, DC, 1994)
Proceedings from a November 1993 workshop on control of humidity for health, artifacts, and buildings. Document includes schematics, charts, and other illustrations. Topics covered include: humidity and building materials; humidity and fungal contaminants; relative humidity in museums, galleries, and archives; a search for moisture sources; crawl spaces; regulations; research and results; humidity control in the humid south; humidity control in northern climates; and energy efficient dehumidification technology. 151p.

Bugs, Mold & Rot
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council, Washington, DC, 1991)
Proceedings from a 1991 workshop on residential moisture problems, health effects, building damage, and moisture control. Issues addressed include the ideal relative humidity for the inside space, contents, people, and other living things in a house; the best strategy for controlling humidity; situations in the house that contribute to the spread of organisms that cause disease; and the relationship between humidity, construction practices, and insect infestation; effective ventilation, how a ventilation system should be designed to provide effective ventilation, the connection between humidity levels and the health of occupants, and actions the federal and state government should take. 71p.

References to Journal Articles

Mold in K-12 Schools
Romeo, Jim
School Planning and Management; , p45-46 ; Oct 2011
Facilities maintenance in combination with a robust oversight of an agenda of scheduled maintenance and inspections might be the best way to be proactive and prevent problems before they become problematic.

Mold: How to Prevent It and How to Remove It.
Gehring, Douglas
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p15-17 ; May-Jun 2010
Discussses sources of mold growth in buildings, how to remediate it when it occurs, and how to prevent it from happening.

Tips for Staying Dry.
McCurdy, Scott
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p22,23 ; May-Jun 2010
Advises how to keep building interiors dry, in order to prevent microbial growth. Examination for and elimination of mold is emphasized.

Mold: A Continuing Problem in PNW Schools.
Blake, Dave; Prill, Rich
IAQ News: Indoor Air Quality in Northwest Schools; , p5-8 ; Jan 2010
Discusses the persistent mold problem in Pacific Northwest area schools. The majority of schools inspected have water leaks from the environment and faulty plumbing. Steps and equipment for routine monitoring of water sources and ventilation are described.

Don't Let Mold Take Hold.
Van Kleeck, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p18,20,21 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Advises on totally mold-resistant wall installations. Typical areas at risk for mold growth are described, as are details of mold-resistant joint tape, joint compound, and paint.

Keep Moisture out of Your Builidngs.
Pinckney, Christopher
Buildings; v103 n3 , p42-45 ; Mar 2009
Discusses nineteen steps during building construction that should be taken to prevent moisture from entering a building.

Prescription for Mold Prevention.
Sierck, Peter
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p14,16,17 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Advises on response to water damage in buildings, emphasizing immediate action to remove water, assess moisture damage, dry or remove materials, isolate the affected area, and document all findings. Also included is advice on safe demolition and removal of contaminated materials and selection of a certified contractor.

Breathing In.
Mahoney, Daniel
American School and University; v80 n12 , p34-36 ; Jul 2008
Advises on how to keep excess moisture out of a school building, how to remediate mold if it does occur, and how to evaluate risk in cases of indoor air quality complaints.

Reducing Health Risks on Campus.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2008
Advises on handling asbestos, lead, mold, and radon risks in new and existing schools, as well as during renovations.

Identifying and Treating Environmental Hazards.
Silicato, Steve
Buildings; v102 n2 , p72,74,76 ; Feb 2008
Advises on identification, analysis, abatement, and remediation of asbestos, lead-based paint, and mold.

Water, Water Everywhere.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p34,36,37 ; Jul 2007
Discusses techniques for keeping water out of school buildings. Air spaces between exterior and interior walls, weep holes in the masonry, and waterproofing applications are described, as are new roof bonding agents and green roofs. New lining products and techniques for ductwork and plumbing are also described.

Mold Clean-Up and Prevention.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul 2007
Reviews causes of mold in buildings, identification and assessment of mold infestation, correction of the causes, and scrubbing of the air after mold remediation.

Indoor Molds, Bacteria, Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds and Plasticizers in Schools – Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Pupils.
J. L. Kim, L. Elfman, Y. Mi, G. Wieslander, G. Smedje, D. Norbäck
Indoor Air; v17 n2 ; Apr 2007

The Mold That Almost Ate the Principal
Barry, Wayne; Bishop, Chuck; Byars, Jennifer
Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership; v9 n2 , p17-22 ; 2006
This is the story of the toll new-building mold can take on school systems and their principals, especially as these mold problems might be a smokescreen or lightning rod for other things that go on in the daily life of a learning community. Griswold Elementary School’s problem with mold illustrates several phenomena for school administrators, namely, that organizations can be unwieldy and unpredictable at times, schools are highly symbolic and political structures, school reform involves the whole community, context is important for understanding and guiding organizational problem-solving efforts, effective communication is critical to effective organizational functioning, authority structures are important for accomplishing many tasks, and thankfully, organizations can learn from their own behavior.

Mold: What Science Says Now
Horner, W. Elliott; Spanos, B.J.
Building Operating Management; Dec 2005
Recent studies can help facility managers cut through the hype and understand the real risks of mold in buildings. This article discusses the findings of six scientific studies. It also recommends that facility managers not ignore mold problems or moisture and water damage, which are strong indicators that a building is prime for indoor mold growth. These problems will not go away by themselves.

Detecting Mold in School Buildings: An Exercise in Biodiversity. Adobe PDF
Farone, Anthony L.
American Biology Teacher; v67 n7 , p401-410 ; Sep 2005
A project was designed to introduce students to fungi in which students surveyed their school buildings for different types of mold. The students were able to make connections between structure and function of the fungal components and learn how these different components enhance survival in the environment.

Mold Really Is Manageable.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v8 n7 , p16,18,20 ; Jul 2005
Describes a complicated mold remediation project in two new residence halls at a North Carolina University. The breakout was attributed to leakage from steam lines that the buildings were connected to, plumbing leaks, and improperly installed air conditioning units.

HVAC Systems and Mold
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2005
A variety of factors can contribute to the growth of mold in facilities, but one all-too-common culprit is HVAC equipment. The HVAC system, including piping and drain pans, can be sources of mold growth and a transportation mode for dispersing mold spores throughout a building. Preventing mold, as well as detecting and removing it, requires an understanding of conditions that allow it to form and spread in facilities.

Protecting Against ... A Rise in Toxic Mold Litigation
Morgan, Richard; Schoenwetter, Charles
Buildings; Jun 2005
Toxic mold lawsuits are profliferating across the country. This discusses defending against these claims. The authors contend that scientific research does not yet support any causal relationship between mold and ill health.

Lessons in Curing Mold Problems.
McMillan, Hugh
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p32-34,36,37 ; May 2005
Describes the remediaton of significant recurring Summer mold outbreaks in a coastal Texas school system. Repairs and upgrades to the HVAC systems are detailed, but these were rendered less effective because year-end cleaning programs in the schools were introducing large quantities of water. Improved cleaning procedures and better training of staff were then undertaken.

Mold & the Coatings Connection
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2004
A closer look at the role of paints in mold prevention reveals challenges and opportunities for managers. This discusses setting a mold-remediation strategy, protecting surfaces with paints and coatings, and clean up considerations.

Moisture, Mold, and HVAC.
Burroughs, H.E. Barney; Thomann, Wayne R.
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p56-58,60,62,64,65 ; Oct 2004
Discusses condensation control methods and resources to prevent mold growth within HVAC systems.

Mold May Not Be a Severe Health Menace, but It Is Still a Complex Problem.
Solomon, Nancy
Architectural Record; v192 n9 , p171-174,176,178 ; Sep 2004
Cites medical and legal information on mold in the built environment, explaining its biological functions, how it grows more easily in modern building conditions and materials, how it can be prevented, and preventative steps being taken by clients who build regularly.

Evaluation and a Predictive Model of Airborne Fungal Concentrations in School Classrooms
Bartlett, Karen; Kennedy, Susan; Brauer, Michael; Van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara
Annals of Occupational Hygiene; v48 n6 , p547-554 ; Aug 09, 2004
This study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms within a defined geographic location in British Columbia, Canada, and to build a model to clarify determinants of airborne fungal concentration. All elementary schools within one school district participated in the study. Classrooms examined varied by age, construction and presence or absence of mechanical ventilation. Airborne fungal propagules were collected inside classrooms and outdoors. Variables describing characteristics of the environment, buildings and occupants were measured and used to construct a predictive model of fungal concentration. The classrooms studied were not visibly contaminated by fungal growth. Rooms ventilated by mechanical means had significantly lower geometric mean concentrations than naturally ventilated rooms. Environmental (temperature, outdoor fungal concentration), building (age) and ventilation variables accounted for 58% of the variation in the measured fungal concentrations. A methodology is proposed for the evaluation of airborne fungal concentration data which takes into account local environmental conditions as an aid in the evaluation of fungal bioaerosols in public buildings. [Authors' abstract]

Five Ways to Prevent Mold in Flooring and Carpets.
Harriman, Lew
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p26-28 ; Aug 2004
Describes these five simple ways to prevent mold: 1) Design buildings with roof overhangs. 2) Install wall board 1/4 inch off of the floor. 3) Make sure concrete is thoroughly dry before installing flooring. 4) Keep the indoor air dew point low. 5) Locate and fix water leaks quickly.

Five Ways to Prevent Mold in Flooring and Carpets.
Harriman, Lew
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF3,F5 ; Jul 2004
Discusses five simple ways to prevent mold: 1) Design roofs with overhangs. 2)Install wall board 1/4 inch above the floor. 3)Make sure all concrete is dry before installing flooring. 4) Keep indoor air dew point low. 5)Locate and fix water leaks quickly.

Preventing Water Woes
Deress, David
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2004
A building’s exterior should look good, and it should keep the exterior environment out while providing a healthy, comfortable interior environment for occupants. This article takes a closer look at the roles of exterior coatings, maintenance, and wall-system design in developing a comprehensive waterproofing strategy.

Proper Masonry Details Can Beat the Mold Menace
Beall, Christine
The Construction Specifier; v57 n4 , p94-103 ; Apr 2004
This discusses the primary means of limiting water penetration through masonry, including a good bond between units and mortar, full head and bed joints, adequate allowance for expansion and contraction, and good details and workmanship. The primary means of removing moisture from masonry walls are continuous flashing and unobstructed weep holes.

Children Symptoms Before and After Knowing About an Indoor Fungal Contamination
Handal, G.; Leiner, M.A.; Cabrera, M.; Straus, D. C.
Indoor Air; v14 n2 , p87 ; Apr 2004
To describe children symptoms before and after an indoor fungal problem was publicized. Children attending one of two elementary schools (one with indoor fungal problems and one without) were included in this study. The study included an analysis of symptoms reported by the nurses before and after the indoor fungal problem was publicized and a questionnaire responded to by the parents. Several symptoms related to exposure to mold were found to be statistically significant in the school with an indoor fungal problem before the problem was detected: the symptoms included coughing/wheezing, headaches and joint pains. After the problem was publicized the perception of symptoms increased. [Authors' abstract]

Fungi Aren't Fun: Mold Growth Needs to Be Limited in Roof Systems
Schneider, Reinhard
Professional Roofing; v34 n3 , p54-59 ; Mar 2004
Occupied buildings with interior moisture sources, such as schools, can generate water vapor, which must dissipate or be ventilated so that it does not accumulate and become a mold source. This article considers roof assembly designs and other design considerations, means, and methods, such as water vapor management and the use of inorganic material, that help restrict the growth of harmful mold and mildew.

School Mold Problems Spur Growth Of Cleanup Industry.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week ; v23 n21 , p8 ; Feb 04, 2004
As more and more schools confront the problem of mold, plenty of individuals and companies, some reputable and some not, are seeking to profit from the situation. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Your Best Resource.
Pratt, Adam J.
American School and University; v76 n6 , p38,40,41 ; Feb 2004
Advises on selection of a contractor for mold remediation and what may or may not be covered by insurance.

Avoiding Mold Growth in Schools During Humidity.
Turner, William; Caulfield, Steve M.; McKnight, Frederick
Indoor Environment Connections Online; Feb 2004
The focus of this article is on avoiding mold growth in schools during highdewpoint weather. In an unoccupied facility, the easiest means of doing this include closing the windows, heating the space above dewpoint, and monitoring indoor conditions. In an occupied or partially occupied facility that needs to be ventilated and comfortable, choices include restricting cooling set point temperatures and avoiding over-ventilation.

The Roofing-Mold Connection
Liscum, Curtis
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
Proper installation of roofs, thorough inspection, and prompt repairs can combine to help protect facilities operations and occupants from the ramifications of mold. This discusses identifying the culprit, leak response, proactive steps, clean-up considerations, and cold-weather roofing considerations.

Mold Fears.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n12 , p27-30 ; Nov 19, 2003
A case study of Lower Pottsgrove Elementary School in Pennsylvania illustrates a national debate about how to confront the perceived health hazards of mold in schools. An accompanying story, "Increasing Numbers of Schools Are Grappling With Mold Problems," discusses the rising number of school closures and cleanups. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Molds in School
Sword, Elizabeth Hauge
The CHEC Report [Newsletter of the Children's Health Environmental Coalition]; Oct 07, 2003
This article provides an excellent introduction to the issue of mold in schools, linking to definitions and further resources on the subject.

Is Mold the New Asbestos?
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v190 n10 , p14-18 ; Oct 2003
Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to school leaders and architects. Schools that evaluate their facilities systems after finding serious mold infestations usually discover that the mold problems are connected to other facilities management shortcomings. This article discusses the high-dollar risk of poor indoor air quality; claims, counterclaims, and charges; confronting the community fallout; and how districts are dealing with mold. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.

Mold-Resistant Construction.
Huckabee, Christopher
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p29-32 ; Aug 2003
Asserts that one of the surest ways to prevent indoor air quality and mold issues is to use preventive construction materials, discussing typical resistance to dealing with mold problems (usually budget-related) and describing mold-resistant construction, which uses concrete masonry, brick, and stone and is intended to withstand inevitable moisture events that destroy many modern building materials. A sidebar offers tips for preventing moisture penetration.

Mold Fix Puts Expensive End To School District Legal Battle.
Korman, Richard
ENR: Engineering News-Record; Jul 07, 2003
A long legal struggle between contractors and a school district near Fresno, Calif., has come to a costly end as an extensive mold abatement project begins at a 10-year-old high school complex. The work follows discovery of the mold in 2000 and an $8.2-million settlement last fall that roughly doubled the value of a defects claim against the contractors. The insurers for 13 contractors and suppliers subsequently decided to settle.

Solving the O&M Equation.
Flach, Robert: Dorgan, Chad B.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p40-45 ; May 2003
Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training.

Mold and Environmental Issues.
Bovard, Tim
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p16-22 ; Mar 2003
Describes the effects of improperly insulated chilled water distribution systems on mold and mildew in occupied buildings, its health risks, prevention, economic impact, and solution.

Breaking the Mold.
Huckabee, Christopher
School Construction News; v6 n3 , p18-19 ; Mar-Apr 2003
Using the example of a Texas elementary school, describes how to eliminate mold and mildew from school facilities, including discovering the problem, responding quickly, reconstructing the area, and crisis planning and prevention.

Toxic Mold. Real Risk or Legal Cash Cow.
Knowles, Mason
The Construction Specifier; v56 n3 , p58-66 ; Mar 2003
With the rise in complaints and lawsuits over mold, mold control and mitigation have become a priority in the building industry. Unfortunately, efforts at tackling the mold problem usually result in Band-Aid solution. This discusses building systems, factors affecting indoor environments, moisture, and maintenance recommendations.

The Mold Insurance Crisis: Less than It Appears.
Mangan, Joseph F.
College Planning and Management; v6 n3 , p36-37 ; Mar 2003
Discusses two different but closely related problems that must be solved when determining what insurance coverage a campus needs for mold losses: issues of property insurance and of liability insurance.

Getting Rid of Mold.
Rizzo, Dave
College Planning and Management; v6 n3 , p26-28 ; Mar 2003
Describes the professional mold remediation process that was performed at Lane Community College in Oregon.

Fungal Contamination of Elementary Schools: A New Environmental Hazard. Adobe PDF
Santilli, John; Rockwell, William
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology; v90 , p203-208 ; Feb 2003
Reports on a study testing two Connecticut public school for mold, with the standard for a healthy indoor environment being total mold spore counts lower than 1,000 spores/m3. The health impact of the mold exposure at each school was evaluated using the validated Rhinitis Outcomes Questionnaire. The testing of the first school found indoor mold counts ranging from 6,000 to 50,000 spores/m3. Eighty-five of the students and teachers reported significant allergic symptoms to the school nurse. This school is currently being demolished. The testing of the second school revealed total mold spore counts ranging between 2,000 and 9,000 spores/m3, qualifying it an unhealthy environment in need of immediate remediation. Students reported significant allergic symptoms from exposure to certain rooms that are currently being remediated. Includes 11 references.

Desiccant Dehumidification Ensures Against Mold During Construction of Schools.
Schnell, Donald; Young, Tim
HVACR News; v23 n2 , p8-10 ; Feb 2003
This article focuses on methods of mold prevention during the school construction process. Keeping materials dry, and drying those that become moist, by contolling humidity levels in the structure are critical to success. This discusses how a desiccant dehumidification system is the most efficient, productive, reliable, and faster method of moisture abatement.

The Fungus among Us.
Weidner, Robert H.
American School and University; v75 n6 , p30-35 ; Feb 2003
Offers tips for fighting mold in schools, asserting that it can contribute significantly to poor indoor air quality and sick building syndrome. Offers an overview on mold and discusses the steps of: humidity control, building inspections, condensation control or removal, and floor and carpet cleaning.

Healthy Learning.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p26-29 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs.

Effect of Building Frame and Moisture Damage on Microbiological Indoor Air Quality in School Buildings
Meklin T, Hyvarinen A, Toivola M, Reponen T, Koponen V, Husman T, Taskinen T, Korppi M, Nevalainen A.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal; v64 n1 , p108-16 ; Jan-Feb 2003
The effect of building frame and moisture damage on microbial indoor air quality was characterized in 17 wooden and 15 concrete or brick school buildings. Technical investigations to detect visible moisture and mold damage were performed according to a standardized protocol. Viable airborne microbes were determined by using a six-stage impactor (Andersen 10-800). Mean concentrations of viable airborne fungi were significantly higher in wooden schools than in concrete schools, showing that the frame material was a determinant of concentrations of airborne fungi. Moisture damage of the building did not alter the fungal concentrations in wooden school buildings. In contrast, in concrete schools the effect of moisture damage was clearly seen as higher concentrations compared with the reference schools. Aspergillus versicolor, Stachybotrys, and Acremonium were detected only in samples from moisture damaged buildings, and can be considered marker fungi of such damage in school buildings. In addition, the presence of Oidiodendron as well as elevated concentrations of Cladosporium and actinobacteria were associated with moisture damage in concrete schools. [Authors' abstract]

Mold and Schools.
Weidner, Robert H.
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p44-45 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Provides information on molds and their relation to indoor air quality and health, then offers tips on controlling moisture in school buildings, and therefore mold growth.

Investigating and Diagnosing Moisture Problems.
Lstiburek, Joseph
ASHRAE Journal; , p36-41 ; Dec 2002
Water comes in four forms: solid, liquid, vapor and adsorbed. All four forms can cause grief to building owners, designers, and contractors. When water causes building problems, investigating and diagnosing the problem can be challenging because water constantly changes it form inside a building and within its materials. The investigator must hunt down the water by thinking like water.

Commercial and Residential Water Damage: The Mold Connection.
Williams, Del
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p38-40 ; Dec 2002
Describes the problem of toxic mold in residential and commercial property resulting from excess moisture. Includes common sources of unwanted moisture, design and construction flaws, determining the presence of mold, and advice for identifying and hiring reputable mold remediators.

Solid as a Rock.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v75 n3 , p349-51 ; Nov 2002
Discusses the benefits in terms of moisture and therefore mold resistance of using masonry products for a building's envelope. Also describes maintenance steps to help combat moisture problems.

Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools.
Meklin,T. et al
Indoor Air; v12 n3 , p175 ; Sep 2002
Microbial indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms of children were studied in 24 schools with visible moisture and mold problems, and in eight non-damaged schools. School buildings of concrete/brick and wooden construction were included. The indoor environment investigations included technical building inspections for visible moisture signs and microbial sampling using six-stage impactor for viable airborne microbes. Children's health information was collected by questionnaires. The effect of moisture damage on concentrations of fungi was clearly seen in buildings of concrete/brick construction, but not in wooden school buildings. Occurrence of Cladosporium, Aspergillus versicolor, Stachybotrys, and actinobacteria showed some indicator value for moisture damage. Presence of moisture damage in school buildings was a significant risk factor for respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren. Association between moisture damage and respiratory symptoms of children was significant for buildings of concrete/brick construction but not for wooden school buildings. The highest symptom prevalence was found during spring seasons, after a long exposure period in damaged schools. The results emphasize the importance of the building frame as a determinant of exposure and symptoms. [Authors' abstract]

Uncovering Mold.
Phillips, Stephen M.
Professional Roofing; v32 n9 , p16-22 ; Sep 2002
Liability for mold growth in buildings currently is the most serious environnmental concern facing the construction industry, property managers and insurers. This article provides background on the mold issue, describes some current lawsuits, and discusses insurance coverage.

UVC Sheds New Light on School Mold Problems.
Freeman, James
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p53-55 ; Jun 2002
Describes how the LaPorte Independent School District in Texas turned to ultraviolent light devices installed within the HVAC system to combat mold and fungus after conventional approaches failed. Describes the additional benefits of energy savings from the system.

The Risks of Unwanted Exposure. Protect Buildings from Mold During Construction.
Olson, Eric; Gumpertz, Werner
The Construction Specifier; v55 n6 , p32-39 ; Jun 2002
Unwanted exposure of a building during construction constitutes a significant risk of collateral damage if the contractor's work is unexpectedly interrupted. Among the risks are those involving molds nesting on organic surfaces. Quality and properly sequenced construction, along with vigorous inspection, are proven measures for limiting damages.

Mold Charlatans.
Woody, Daniel
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p72-73 ; Jun 2002
Offers a primer on toxic mold and its removal, warning against ignorant or unethical mold remediation companies and offering five considerations (checking references, considering the big picture, sampling more than the air, considering release, and considering the source) when hiring such services.

An Unwelcome Surprise.
Williams, Del
American School and University; v75 n6 , p28-31 ; Feb 2002
Advises schools on how to identify and handle toxic mold in their buildings. Addresses the extent of the problem, offers a four-step approach toward remediation, and suggests questions to ask when mold has been identified.

The Challenges of Mold.
Commercial Modular Construction; , p22-23 ; Jan-Feb 2002
One modular building manufacturer discusses its efforts to learn about and prevent mold in portable classrooms. Understanding the ecology of mold and the life cycle or use of a portable classroom can help in developing design features.

Preventing Mold Growth in Temporary School Structures.
Stewart, Bruce
Commercial Modular Construction; , p24-25 ; Jan-Feb 2002
Any school building, permanent or temporary, can support mold growth, given the right materials being wetted for long enough. However, for a number of reasons, temporary buildings, including portable classrooms, seem to have a higher experience of mold growth. This article describes what a school board official can do to prevent mold growth in buildings.

Preventing Mold and Mildew.
Bovard, Tim
The Construction Specifier; v54 n12 , p48-49 ; Dec 2001
Improperly installed chilled water distribution systems promote the growth of mold and mildew. This article presents several examples of schools in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Michigan where mold has caused damage and economic loss, suggesting that when it comes to preventing mold and mildew on chilled water lines, cellular glass insulation is the best option.

Dry and Safe.
Weise, George
American School and University; v74 n3 , p349-50 ; Nov 2001
Explores ideas for controlling mold buildup in educational facilities. Topics addressed include source identification, prevention of standing water, carpet cleaning, and odor removal tips following water damage.

Moldy Buildings: Troubling Trend for Many Districts.
Stricherz, Mark
Education Week; v21 n4 , p1, 18 ; Sep 26, 2001
According to experts, mold in schools is no accident, but rather the legacy of cheap construction materials, poor ventilation, and sloppy maintenance, which allows leaks to go unchecked or be improperly repaired. This article discusses how school districts are grappling with the detection and removal of mold as well as growing concern over mold's health effects. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Mold and Fear Seep into a Department.
Chronicle of Higher Education; v47 n2 , pA10-A12 ; Jun 2001
Describes how professors at the University of Maryland at College Park, Maryland, say that mold growing in their offices is not only destructive to morale but detrimental to their health.

Getting the Mold Out.
Odle, R. Duane; Bieghler, Kelley
American School and University; v73 n8 , p42,44-46 ; Apr 2001
Discusses how primary air systems for school climate control can help reduce maintenance costs, offer lower initial cost, provide good indoor air quality, and work for all schools undergoing renovation. Highlights details of one community school's climate control renovation.

Mold in Schools: a Health Alert.
Mann, Arnold
USA Weekend Special Reports; Aug 2000
This article details several case studies of schools with mold problems in South Carolina, Texas, and California. A sidebar summarizes the telltale signs of mold in school buildigs. Included is a list of ten things that one needs to know about mold.

Breathe Deeply.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p31,33-34 ; May-Jun 2000
Discusses indoor air quality issues related to school gyms, locker rooms, and pools; explores ways to keep the indoor environment healthy. Includes discussions of mold and fungus control as well as air issues stemming from indoor pools.

Defeating the Drips.
Moss, Lincoln
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p34-36 ; Mar 2000
Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings, emphasizing the related topics of roof leaks and roof waterproofing, condensation, and HVAC design.

Breathe Easy.
Epstein, Barb
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 ; Jul 1999
Examines indoor air pollutants typically found in schools and presents tips for controlling them.

Toxic Mold Closes Schools.
ENR: Engineering News-Record; v242 n24 , p12 ; Jun 21, 1999
A toxic mold called stachybotrysatra has compromised health and caused two Toronto Catholic primary schools to shut down. Over $700,000 has been spent in twelve years to upgrade ventilation systems and correct roof deficiencies, to no avail. A decision is pending to fix or demolish the structures.

Microfungal Contamination of Damp Buildings--Examples of Risk Constructions and Risk Materials.
Gravesen, Suzanne; et al
Environmental Health Perspectives; v107 suppl. 3 ; Jun 1999
To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

Poor Design, Construction and Maintenance Contribute to Mould in School Portables
Fishburn, Douglas C.; Caruso, Frank
Construction Canada; , p10-13 ; Mar 1999
Due to inherant faults in the design, construction and poor maintenance practices, portable classroom buildings are a breeding ground for mould. Portables are prone to roof, wall and window leaks, and are often subject to high humidity levels due to improper ventilation, moisture evaporation from wet shoes and clothing, and wet washing of floors. Poor management of water run-off from roofs and the site is also a contributing factor. This article provides an overview of the health concerns to building occupants and how the design, construction and maintenance of portable classroom buildings has contributed to the development of this problem.

Mold: The Whole Picture. Pt. 2, Assessment of Mold Problems.
McGrady, Ellen
Abbey Newsletter; v23 n5 ; 1999
It takes a number of specialists from different fields to do an adequate assessment of a mold problem in a building. This article defines the problem, describes the detective work that must be done, explains a sampling process, and provides sources of information.

Correlation between the Prevalence of Certain Fungi and Sick Building Syndrome
Cooley, J. Danny; Wong, Wing; Jumper, Cynthia; Straus, David
Occupational Environmental Medicine; v55 , p579-584 ; Sep 1998
Presents results of a 22-month study in the of 48 schools in which there had been concerns about health and indoor air quality. Building indoor air and surface samples, as well as outdoor air samples were taken at all sites to look for the presence of fungi or their viable propagules. At 20 schools, there were significantly more colony forming units per cubic metre of propagules of Penicillium species in the air samples from complaint areas when compared with the outdoor air samples and the indoor air samples from noncomplaint areas. At five schools, there were more, although not significant Penicillium propagules in the air samples from complaint areas when compared with the outdoor air samples and the indoor air samples from noncomplaint areas. In 11 schools, the complaint area indoor air fungal ratios were similar to those in the outdoor air.

Mold and Children's Health.
Tuscano, Antoinette
Our Children; v23 n6 , p32-33 ; Mar 1998
Mold can seriously affect the health of children with asthma or allergies. Indoor air problems related to mold can be difficult to identify, but when several students who spend time in the same classroom area show allergic symptoms, it is important to consider mold and air quality. Failure to respond promptly can have serious consequences.

Respiratory Symptoms and Infections among Children in a Day-Care Center with Mold Problems.
Koskinen, Outi; Husman, Tuula; Hyvärinen, Anne; Reponen, Tiina; Nevalainen, Aino
Indoor Air; v5 n1 , p3 ; Mar 1995
The prevalence of irritative symptoms and the incidence of respiratory infections among children in a day-care center affected by mold were compared with those in a reference day-care center. A retrospective pilot study was made in the mold-problem day-care center. Analysis of absenteeism records and a one-year follow-up study were made in both day-care centers. In the pilot study, half of the exposed 41 children had prolonged or frequent symptoms and respiratory infections. In addition, the absenteeism in the mold-problem day-care center was nearly twice as high as in the reference day-care center. After cessation of the exposure, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms decreased and no lower respiratory tract infections appeared. [Authors' abstract]



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).