NCEF Resource List: School Maintenance and Operations Costs
NCEF - National Clearinghouse for Education 

MY PAGE   |  
Filter Results
Show from to present
Show from to present
Show all citations
Show Abstracts
Hide Abstracts

Information on school maintenance and operations costs and cost reduction measures for the upkeep of school buildings and grounds, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Facility Maintenance & Repair Cost Reference 2011-12
(Whitestone Books, 2012)
Provides detailed maintenance and repair costs for 75 building and utility types in all major U.S., Canadian, and international areas. Data is included for over 1,600 building components, over 30 trades, and more than 4,500 maintenance tasks. 688p

Facility Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference 2011-12
(Whitestone Research, Nov 2011)
Provides detailed maintenance and repair costs for 75 building and utility types in all major U.S., Canadian, and international areas. Data is included for over 1,600 building components, over 30 trades, and more than 4,500 maintenance tasks. 688p

Facility Needs and Costs in America's Great City Schools. Adobe PDF
Casserly, Michael; Lachlan-Hache, Jonathon; Naik, Manish
(Council of the Great City Schools, Washington, D.C. , Oct 2011)
Results of a survey of the nation's major city public school districts show substantial construction, renovation, modernization, and deferred maintenance needs because of the age and size of their buildings, and shifting populations. Results indicate that responding school districts have $15.3 billion in new construction needs; $46.7 billion in repair, renovation, and modernization needs; and $14.4 billion in deferred maintenance needs. Total facilities needs in these 50 major city public school districts amount to $76.5 billion or approximately $8.9 million per school. Includes a city-by-city chart of facility needs. 20p

Addressing Inadequate Investment in School Facility Maintenance.
Bello, Mustapha; Loftness, Vivian
(Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh , May 2010)
The total deferred maintenance of schools in the United States was estimated at $254.6 billion in 2008. With over 94,000 public elementary, middle and high schools being attended by more than 50 million students, there is need to implement an effective method for estimating the adequate amount of investment for facility maintenance. Earlier methodologies were evaluated and a new plant value model was developed. The model also introduces a commensurate increase in annual budgets to address maintenance backlog, as well as strategies for setting maintenance priorities. Finally, to effectively maintain building conditions, appropriate custodial and maintenance staffing is analyzed for school facilities. Establishing appropriate annual maintenance budgets for school buildings, including the resources necessary to address accumulated maintenance backlog is critical for upgrading school facilities to adequate conditions for ensuring the health and performance of US teachers and students. 50p.

MSBO Facilities Benchmarking Report. Adobe PDF
Moles, Robert
(Michigan School Business Officials, Lansing, MI , 2010)
Assists Michigan school business and facilities managers to compare their maintenance costs and practices to the universe of school districts in the state. The survey report addresses outsourcing, custodial staffing and compensation, square foot coverage, and per student expenditures. The report also includes comparison data from each of the previous reports illustrating effects of changes made over time. 24p.

The Whitestone Facility Operations Cost Reference, 2009-2010.
(Whitestone Research, Santa Barbara, CA, 2009)
Profiles operations costs for 72 building and utility types in all major U.S. and Canadian areas. Alternative levels of service and costs are estimated for custodial, energy, grounds, management, pest control, refuse, road clearance, security, telecommunications, and water & sewer. 320p.

Deferred Maintenance Program Handbook. Adobe PDF
(California Department of General Services, Office of Public School Construction, Sacramento , May 2008)
Provides assistance to California districts applying for funds to perform deferred maintenance work on school facilities, with two types of funding (basic and extreme hardship) available. Chapters provide an overview of the of the state program, a description of the funding mechanisms, and details on extreme hardship considerations. Appendices provide a list of typical school facilities components, frequently asked questions, deadlines, architect/engineer fee schedules, applicable education code sections, and ineligible deferred maintenance expenditures. 35p.

AASA Fuel and Energy Snapshot Survey. Adobe PDF
(American ASsociation of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 2008)
Presents the responses to an eight-question fuel and energy survey that asked school superintendents about the effect of rising fuel and energy costs on their school districts. Ninety-nine percent of respondents reported these rising costs are having an impact on their school systems. Further, they reported that conserving energy, cutting back on student field trips and consolidating bus routes are among the top steps districts are taking to minimize the impact of rising fuel and energy costs. Meanwhile, few states are stepping forward to assist school systems struggling to meet escalating these rising costs. 16p.

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Advises on simple energy saving strategies for schools. These include limiting equipment operation during unoccupied times, low-cost repairs by in-house staff, preventive maintenance, energy tracking, and performance contracts. 2p.

A Study of School Deficiency Repair Grant and Facilities Maintenance Operations in Washington School Districts. Adobe PDF
Moberly, Daniel
(Washington Association of Maintenance and Operations Administrators, Port Orchard, WA , Feb 2007)
Reports on the initial year's work of Washington state's Small School Repair Grant program. 26 grants were awarded to 126 applicants who sought assistance for facilities needs that they could not address with local funds. The report catalogs the types of maintenance done to ensure student safety and health, as well as the location, size, and urban, suburban, or rural nature of the district. 44p.

School Conditions Will Continue to Earn Failing Grades.
Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Vieira, Robin K.; Cummings, James B.
(Florida Solar Energy Center; Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, July 24-26, 2006 Orlando, FL. , Jul 2006)
This study addresses indoor air quality and general conditions problems in schools throughout the United States. Tools employed to investigate conditions include a nationwide, web-based survey, characterization of actual operating conditions in schools through field audits and diagnostic tests, and retrofits in problem schools. Survey results found temperature to be by far the greatest comfort complaint in regular classrooms, with indoor air quality (IAQ) and then humidity being the next greatest areas of complaints. Ventilation problems were found at each of eight audited schools. These problems appear to be occurring due to a combination of factors including lack of maintenance, lack of knowledge of the systems and in some cases poor system design. Four small retrofit projects were also completed. The results from this project indicate that without substantial funding for and prioritization of school maintenance, widespread significant school improvements will not be realized. [Authors' abstract] 17p.

Means Facilities Maintenance & Repair Cost Data 2006 Book
(R.S. Means Company, 2006)
This addresses the cost of all aspects of buildings and grounds maintenance and repair, preventive maintenance, general maintenance, and the cost and repair frequencies of thousands of work items. Coverage is comprehensive, including unit costs with equipment and labor productivity, bare costs, in-house costs, and much other data arranged in UNIFORMAT II numbering system. The book is a loose-leaf binder packed with unit price data, systems costs, references, tables, and illustrations. 600p.
TO ORDER: R.S. Means

Operations and Maintenance Benchmarks.
(International Facility Management Association, Houston, TX, 2006)
Provides housekeeping, maintenance and utility costs on a per-square-foot basis for a variety of facility types. Also included are temperature standards and information on energy management. The user can compare their own operational costs and practices to other facilities of similar size, type, scope, and geographical location.
TO ORDER: International Facility Management Association, 1 E. Greenway Plaza, Suite 1100, Houston, TX, 77046-0194; Tel: 281-974-5660

Maintenance of Public School Facilities in Maryland. Adobe PDF
(Maryland Association of Boards of Education, Annapolis , Aug 26, 2005)
Describes the current status of maintenance in Maryland public schools, and details three initiatives to assist the local districts with maintenance: 1) Improve the State's annual maintenance surveys in order to enhance its ability to monitor the maintenance of public schools. 2) Strengthen the relationship between maintenance and State funding provided through the Capital Improvement Program. 3) Develop an incentive program of State funding to assist the local school systems with their maintenance tasks. 12p.

Dollars and Sense II: Lessons from Good, Cost-Effective Small Schools. Adobe PDF
Lawrence, B; Abramson, P.; Bergsagel, V.; Bingler, S.; Diamond, B.; Greene, T.; Hill, B.; Howley, C.; Stephen, D.; Washor, E.
(KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH , 2005)
Argues for small schools in three ways. First, analysis of more than three thousand construction projects shows that smaller schools are no more expensive to build than much larger schools. Second, analysis of the budgets of 25 good small schools throughout the United States demonstrates that on average they spend less per student on educational program, maintenance and operations than the per-pupil expenditure in their districts, yet they achieve results that are equal to or better than schools in the same area. Third, these schools offer innovative and effective educational programs, facilities, and strategies for cost effectiveness that can serve as models to people interested in cost-effective good small schools. Appendices contain contact information, budgets, test scores, a strategies grid, a list of criteria for school selection, and 30 references. The accompanying website supplements the written report, and contains many documents from the schools and links to additional resources. 66p.

School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices for Controlling Energy Costs. Adobe PDF
(Prepared by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Rebuild America EnergySmart Schools Program, Washington, DC; Princeton Energy Resources International, Rockville, MD; HPowell Energy Associates, Westford, MA; Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2004)
Provides detailed practical guidance on how K-12 school districts can plan and implement enhancements to their current operations and maintenance programs that can successfully maintain their facilities while also reducing energy costs up to 20 percent. Most of the strategies detailed entail limited capital costs and produce rapid paybacks. In addition to technical information, the guide provides organizational information on barriers, challenges, the steps necessary to develop this type of program. Reviews successful strategies from a wide variety of American school districts and includes case studies. 114p.

School Maintenance and Renovation: Administrator Policies, Practices, and Economics.
Earthman, Glen; LeMasters, Linda
(Proactive Publications, Lancaster, PA , 2004)
Written for decision-makers in school buildings, district offices, and boards, this book outlines the major aspects of school maintenance and renovation, with a focus on cost-effectiveness. Chapters include: 1) How Schools are Funded; 2) Organization of Maintenance, Engineering, and Operations Staff; 3) School Board Policies for Maintenance and Operations; 4) Administrative Process--The Paper Chase; 5) Capital Improvement and Maintenance Planning; 6) Cost Maintenance; 7) Deferred and Preventive Maintenance; 8) Emerging Role of Technology; 9) Contract Maintenance--External Management Service; 10) Regulatory Aspects of Maintenance and Operations; 11) Cost-Effective Procurement Processes; 12) Deciding to Renovate; 13) Planning the Educational Program; 14) Selection of the Architect; 15) What the Architects Does; 16) Renovation Funding; 17) Alternative Funding Plans; 18) Bidding and Contractor Selection; 19) School Operating During a Renovation; 20) Bringing Closure to the Project; and 21) The Price of a Good Education. 200p.
TO ORDER: ProActive Publications, 1148 Elizabeth Avenue #2, Lancaster, PA 17601.

State Education Department Implementation of the RESCUE Program.
(New York State Office of the State Comptroller, Division of State Services, Albany , Sep 19, 2003)
Examines the New York State Education Department's administration of their RESCUE program, which requires school districts to develop maintenance plans for their school buildings and prepare an annual report card of building conditions. The report finds that many of the districts have not prepared maintenance plans and most have not prepared the required report cards. Another finding was that some districts are inappropriately deferring maintenance so they can claim state capital construction aid to cover their costs. The report recommends changes in reporting within RESCUE and modifications to State Building Aid to encourage compliance and decrease abuse of both programs. 24p.
Report NO: 2002-S-51

School Bus Maintenance Facility Planner.
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Sep 2003)
Advises on the planning, design, and furnishing of school bus maintenance facilities. National, international, and local building codes are cited. The appendix offers floor plans for small, medium, and large school system bus facilities. 70p.

Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance.
Lawrence, Barbara Kent
(Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC. , Jun 2003)
Describes the problem of deferred maintenance for school facilities, especially from the perspective of small rural districts. It examines the extent, causes, and consequences of deferred maintenance as well as recommendations for policy, practice, and funding that can help correct this national problem. 23p.

Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Forum on Education Statistics, School Facilities Maintenance Task Force; Association of School Business Officials International, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
The planning guide was developed to help readers better understand why and how to develop, implement, and evaluate a school facilities maintenance plan. The guide is designed for staff at the local school district level, where most facility maintenance is planned, managed, and carried out. This audience includes school business officials, school board members, superintendents, principals, facilities maintenance planners, maintenance staff, and custodial staff. The document is also relevant to the school facilities interests of state education agency staff, community groups, vendors, and regulatory agencies. The guide focuses on: (1) school facility maintenance as a vital task in the responsible management of an education organization; (2) the needs of an education audience; (3) strategies and procedures for planning, implementing, and evaluating effective maintenance programs; (4) a process to be followed, rather than a canned set of "one size fits all" solutions; and (5) recommendations based on best practices, rather than mandates. The document offers recommendations on the following issues, which serve as chapter headings: (1) "Introduction to School Facilities Maintenance Planning"; (2) "Planning for School Facilities Maintenance"; (3) "Facilities Audits (Knowing What You Have)"; (4) "Providing a Safe Environment for Learning"; (5) "Maintaining School Facilities and Grounds"; (6) "Effectively Managing Staff and Contractors"; and (7) "Evaluating Facilities Maintenance Efforts." 184p.

Preventive Maintenance for Higher Education Facilities: A Planning & Budgeting Tool for Facilities Professionals.
(R. S. Means Company, Inc., Kingston, MA. , 2003)
This guide is designed to help higher education facilities managers, through the implementation of preventive maintenance (PM), to increase the life of facility systems and equipment, lower overall operating costs, and provide maximum responsiveness to the college/university community. Part One, "Selling the Need," is designed to address the institutional facility manager's preventive maintenance challenges and to provide necessary information to determine an appropriate direction. The tools in Part Two--models of typical campus buildings--help to answer the question, "What resources are required to implement a PM program if I could fully fund it?" Then, assuming that the budget does not allow for full funding, as is sometimes the case, it addresses what the optimal way is to allocate PM resources to achieve a successful PM program. Part Three includes PM standards and checklists for equipment priority levels, maintenance requirements, and frequencies. (Appendices contain information on return-on-investment models, rating an institution's PM program, integrating computerized maintenance management systems, and organizational resources.) 150p.
TO ORDER: R. S. Means Company, Inc., Construction Plaza, 63 Smiths Ln., Kingston, MA 02364-0800; Tel: 781-422-5000

Foundation for California Community Colleges (F.C.C.C.) Facility Program: Saving Community California Community Colleges $$$ on Assessments and Bulk Purchasing. Adobe PDF
Chen, Spencer; Toy, Larry
(Foundation for California Community Colleges, Pleasant Hill. , 2003)
The Foundation for California Community Colleges (FCCC) is a non-profit foundation whose mission is to support the California Community College (CCC) system and to save the CCC money. FCCC is the official auxiliary to the Board of Governors, the Chancellor's office, and the system of 108 colleges of the CCC. This document provides details on the CCCs, FCCC, and FCCC's facilities program, "" Consistent with the CCC system priorities, the primary goals of FCCC are to (1) generate and provide substantial financial and in-kind support to the CCC system; (2) substantially reduce operational, equipment, and other costs for the CCC through establishing and maintaining a Higher Education Cooperative Purchase Consortium, facilitating private sector partnerships, and assisting in the development of partnerships between CCC colleges/districts and businesses/industries; (3) partner with and provide support to the local CCC foundations and the Network of NCCCFs; and (4) promote and support programs that increase access to and improve effectiveness of the CCCs, especially in the areas of technology, access, and competency. By pooling the negotiating and purchasing power and collective knowledge of the individual CCCs, districts, and a number of other institutions of higher education and K-12, FCCC has been able to save approximately $4 million for the CCCs during the first year of the program. 19p.

Community Guide to Understanding the School Budget. Adobe PDF
(Charlotte Advocates for Public Education, Charlotte, NC, 2002)
This guide introduces the community to the Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools budget and explains how it works. The guide is for parents, voters, taxpayers, residents, and students. The guide describes the two main types of school funding, operating and capital. It looks at where the money comes from; explains the various ways operations money is spent on staff, transportation, maintenance, food service, and special programs; tells how bond money is being used for new construction, renovation, upkeep, technology, and other projects; looks at what the budget buys; and enumerates ways to take action. Includes resources for more information. 32p.

Principles of Controlled Maintenance Management
Johnson, P. Dale
(Association of Energy Engineers , 2002)
This guide to the improvement of maintenance operations focuses on organization, inventory, continuous inspection, planning, scheduling, and program management. It provides guidelines on implementing a management system, and on customizing it to fit the needs of a particular organization. Chapters discuss the principles of controlled maintenance, history files, work classification, work input control, planning and estimating, material coordination, scheduling, work performance, buildings and grounds, predictive maintenance, and cost accounting. 137p.

How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices Series.
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2001)
This brochure shows how school facility administrators and business officials can make smart energy choices to reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation. 7p.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102001-1431.

Educational Maintenance and Operations Salary Survey, 2000-2001.
( , Jan 2001)
Only M&O directors and staff in educational facilities responded to this salary survey for FY2000-2001. Data collected from 43 states and D.C. depicts a correlation between salary and student enrollment and length on the job. Almost half of respondents had at least an associate's degree. “Small schools” paid the Director of M&O $42,327, “medium schools” paid $59,182, and “large schools” paid $67,455. Most respondents earning $50,000 per year or more had at least 10 years of experience. Directors making $80,000 or more averaged 18.6 years of experience on the job. You must be registered at to download the complete report. 18p.

Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for Educational Facilities, 1999-2000.
Glazner, Steve, Ed.
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA. , 2001)
This report presents U.S. comparative data, collected during the last quarter of 2000 from 248 educational institutions, on facility operating costs, including general information and profiles about the participating institutions. The report provides operating cost ratios for eight common functions performed in educational facilities, including comparative data for in-house labor and total utilities costs. Additionally, the report presents data on operating costs as well as staffing, salary, and union representation information. 190p.

School Maintenance & Operations Costs.
Brzezowski, Edward
(Facility Energy Services, Inc., Chester, NJ, Feb 20, 2000)
Compilation of data for elementary, secondary, and high school maintenance and operations costs in New Jersey.

Architects Design Kit For Better Building Maintenance
(International Sanitary Supply Association, Lincolnwood, IL, 2000)
Information to help reduce maintenance costs during the building design process. This kit provides architects a logical, comprehensive procedure for documenting maintenance impact throughout the design process. 94p.
TO ORDER: International Sanitary Supply Association, 7373 N. Lincoln Ave., Lincolnwood, IL 60646; Tel: 800-225-4772

Facilities Maintenance and Repair Cost Data
(R.S. Means Company, Inc., Kingston, MA , 2000)
Includes information on maintenance and repair; preventive maintenance; general maintenance; facilities audits; life cycle costing; equipment rental rates; travel cost tables; crews; city adjustments and cost indexes, and location factors. 620p.
TO ORDER: R.S. Means Company, Inc., P.O. Box 800, 63 Smiths Lane, Kingston, MA 02364; 800-334-3509

Maintenance & Operations Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of Improving School Facilities.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Facilities Project Team, Reston, VA , 2000)
This paper examines the impact current maintenance and operations (M&O)practices have on U.S. school performance and offers possible opportunities for improvement through the judicious use of technology and methodology. The paper also presents a regional comparative analysis of M&O costs across the country. A list of equipment and their service life is provided as are suggested equipment to be considered for M&O programs, the financial benefits of preventive maintenance operations, and ways of integrating new M&O into existing plans. Final sections examine the budgeting of M&O processes in new school construction projects, and the steps school officials can take to implement a proper M&O plan that can avoid excessive costs, protect assets, and increase staff productivity. (Contains 16 references.) 16p.

Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for Educational Facilities, 1997-1998.
Glazner, Steve, Ed.
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 2000)
Presents comparative data on facility management costs and staffing based on responses from 193 U.S. postsecondary educational facilities and K-12 institutions during 1997-98. Lists data from both private and public institutions, beginning with Section 1, which contains general data on the survey response tally; and institutional profile. Section 2 lists comparative data for institutional costs and staffing levels, including costs for facility operations, in-house labor, and utilities. Section 3 compares personnel data and costs, including position salaries, average annual position staffing, percent unionized, and personnel data and costs by institution series. Section 4 lists energy/utility costs and consumption, including mean electric, natural gas, fuel oil, coal, steam, and chilled water usage. 287p.

Program Evaluation: Custodians/Security. Des Moines Public Schools.
Morgan, Pat; Stokes, Tom
(Des Moines Independent Community School District, Des Moines, IA , May 05, 1998)
The Des Moines Independent Community School District (Iowa) has initiated management support services in the custodial/security areas that have reduced administrative costs, provided for more efficient use of staff time, and streamlined inventory and maintenance management. This presents data tables on the department's operating budgets; describes its computerized inventory tracking system; and details its general operational responsibilities, including staff job descriptions and staff selection, evaluation, and development. Finally, the document presents an evaluation on department adherence to standards, policies, and regulations regarding personnel, in-service/staff development, commendations, maintenance procedures, equipment replacement, supplies, budgeting, security, the establishment of regulatory committees, and areas of future planning.
TO ORDER: Des Moines Independent Community Schools, 1800 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50309; 515-242-7903.

Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for College and University Facilities, 1995-96. [3.5 inch Computer Disks].
Have van der, Pete; Rubertone, Joe
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1998)
Presents comparative data on facility management costs and staffing based on responses from 213 U.S. postsecondary educational facilities during 1995-96. Lists information from both private and public institutions, grouped in sections identical to the survey. The sections are: general data; personnel data and costs; energy/utility cost and consumption; and the custodial addendum. Additionally, the report presents statistics for each institution and raw data for all institutions.
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446; Fax: 703-549-2772

Successful Funding Strategies for Facility Renewal
Adams, Matthew C.
(APPA, Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1997)
This discussion of college and university capital renewal and deferred maintenance (CRDM) explores issues facing campus managers, presents the successful facilities maintenance strategies of eight institutions, and gives an overview of the efforts of several Canadian institutions.An introductory chapter gives background information on CRDM in U.S. colleges and universities and identifies some common characteristics of successful programs. It is found that at institutions with staying power, facilities managers garner support from a variety of senior staff, including the president and trustees, raise awareness of the seriousness of the CRDM backlog, and create positive awareness of achievements through public relations. Subsequent chapters detail the strategic planning and implementation strategies of several universities, looking at such issues as institutional funding history, support from the institution's administration and from state officials, institutional autonomy, the planning process, strategies for eliminating the deferred maintenance backlog, and capital improvement plans. (Contains 56 references.) 102p
TO ORDER: APPA, Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-2818.

Budgeting for Facilities Maintenance and Repair Activities: Report Number 131.
(Federal Facilities Council Standing Committee on Operations and Maintenance, Washington, DC, 1996)
Chapters include determining current replacement values; items appropriately included in budgets; and minimizing facilities maintenance and repair costs through structured management techniques and advanced decision support and diagnostic tools. 49p.

Quality of Life...Investing in Our Children's Future. The Case for Building and Maintaining Our Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.; American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA. , 1996)
This study examines the problem of deferred maintenance in U.S. public schools, including the repair funding required to comply with federal mandates in the next 3 years; the estimated percentage of schools needing repairs listed by state; and the changes in apportionment of state budgets from 1987 to 1994. Public school maintenance funding trends and options are discussed, including lease financing and privatization. A model for passing a bond issue as illustrated through the Coalition for Adequate School Housing (Sacramento, California) is examined. 19p.

A Foundation To Uphold: A Study of Facilities Conditions at U.S. Colleges and Universities
Kaiser, Harvey H.; Davis, Jerry S.
(Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, 1996)
This report presents the results of a study of the condition of higher education facilities in the United States and offers recommendations to improve the deteriorating state of such facilities. The 1995 survey examined statistical, financial, and operational data gathered through mailed questionnaires returned by 400 institutions. The results indicated that there is an estimated $26 billion in total costs to eliminate accumulated deferred maintenance, of which $5.7 billion are urgent needs. The report concludes that the existing large amount of deferred maintenance represents a threat to the ability of institutions of higher education to fulfill their missions, and that statewide agencies and individual institutions will have to make difficult choices for resource allocation. Three appendixes provide the survey research report, copies of the survey instruments, and a list of survey respondents. 199
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446; Fax: 703-549-2772

Comparative Costs and Staffing Report for College and University Facilities, 1993-94.
Silberman, Gil, Ed.; Glazner, Steve, Ed.
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
Presents comparative data on facility management costs and staffing based on responses from 516 U.S. postsecondary educational facilities during 1993-94. Lists statistics from both private and public institutions, beginning with statistical reductions presenting the survey response tally, institutional profiles, and mean costs per square foot. Subsequent sections detail institutional indexes, profiles, costs, staffing levels, and utilities consumption. There is additional information comparing staffing salaries, percentage unionized, chargeback rates, contract services, and full- time-equivalent staffing, as well as statistics on mean electric and gas usage, other fuel usage, and water and sewer consumption. 373p.
TO ORDER: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446

Decentralisation and Educational Building Management: The Impact of Recent Reforms.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 1992)
Examines the legislative and administrative framework within which schools are planned and built, they way in which resources are allocated for their construction and maintenance, and how they are run on a daily basis. Part 1 provides a synthesis of recent developments in five OECD countries--France, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Diagrams illustrate each country's educational structure. Part 2 presents eight papers, which deal in more detail with aspects of educational planning management, drawing particularly on the Dutch experience. The papers show how the daily operation and management of educational buildings is irrevocably linked to the initial capital investment, and why it is essential to provide adequately for maintenance. Five figures are included. The annex contains a list of issues discussed 87p.

Caring for the Campus Physical Plant. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1982)
Diagnoses causes underlying the deterioration of college and university physical plants. The fundamental problems are: 1) lack of integration of physical plant concerns with the institution's broader mission; 2) the low priority given physical plant needs; 3) the isolation of the physical plant director from institutional decision-making; 4) lack of awareness of requisite funding; 5) ineffective management of physical plant staff; and 6) inefficient use of institutional facilities. The report recommends: 1) establishing a facilities planning group; 2) conducting a thorough physical plant audit; 3) improving plant department management; 4) analyzing the fit between programs and facilities and allocating space accordingly; and 5) implementing a comprehensive energy management program. 45p.

Managing Costs Creatively: MC2 Series. Sections 1-5. Adobe PDF
(Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem , 1982)
This series of five booklets has been developed to provide Oregon public school district administrators with suggestions for cost containment and increasing productivity. The five sections focus on the following topics: (1) the problem of declining funds for schools and solution strategies; (2) cost-saving tips for district and school-level administration; (3) cost-saving tips in curriculum, instruction, vocational education, special education, student services, and media services; (4) cost-saving tips for support services (buildings and grounds, maintenance, pupil transportation, and food services); and (5) cost savings for community colleges. The fourth section features suggestions on energy conservation, use of buildings, maintenance of buildings, cleaning of buildings, grounds use and maintenance, and equipment use and maintenance. It also offers eight cost-saving ideas and two appendices. 118 (in 5 vols.)p.
Report NO: MC2 Series, V. 1-5

School Custodial Services.
Hill, Frederick; Colmey, James
(T.S. Denison, Minneapolis, MN , 1968)
Discusses school cleaning and maintenance, including organizing of custodial services, scheduling, supervision, inspection, supplies, equipment, employment, working conditions, training, cleaning standards, cleaning procedures, safety, grounds care, security, vandalism, and preventive maintenance. 294p.

Improvement in the Maintenance of Public School Buildings.
Schwartz, Harwood
(Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York City , 1926)
Maintenance and repair of school buildings as described in a 1926 Thesis. Discusses the frequency and relative importance of several types of repair jobs, and the relationship among factors of the total cost of repairs, size age and type of building. Includes refinements in rapair accounting. A 1972 reprint of the 1926 study is widely available. 80p.

References to Journal Articles

JOC Be Nimble, JOC by Quick
Schreyer, Paul R.
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p43-45 ; Jun 2012
Explores the Job Order Contracting (JOC) procurement method that allows school administrators to complete a large number of high quality maintenance projects quickly with a single, competitive bid contract.

The School Maintenance Rental Option
Schaffer, Michael
American School and University; Jan 2012
For some education facilities, renting cleaning equipment as it is needed may be preferable to purchasing it. Describes the reasons for renting and what to look for when selecting equipment.

Cutting Costs and Improving Outcomes for Janitorial Services.
Campbell, Jeffrey L.
Facilities Manager; Sep-Oct 2011
Janitorial services account for nearly 30 percent of facility budgets. Innovative approaches are being introduced that efficiently manages university janitorial services by utilizing measurable standards and up-to-date business practices.

BIM-The Intelligent Choice for O&M.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v105 n8 , p32-36 ; Aug 2011
Demonstrates use of BIM for visualization when planning facilities, including simplifying facilities mangement for ongoing maintenance and repairs, inventory and asset management, energy monitoring and forecasting, and space inventory and lease negotiation.

Maintaining Perspective in the Maintenance Department
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n10 , p32-35 ; Jun 2011
Opines that in the slow economic recovery, schools facilities managers will be forced in the short term to do less. Unappealing choices include deferred maintenance, less heating and cooling, less service, outsourcing, reduced operations, and closing schools. Greater efficiency can be achieved with a work-order system, facilities condition index, inspections, and commissioning.

Total Cost of Ownership.
O'Brien Stephanie
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p53,54,56,58,59 ; Jun 2011
Discusses total cost of ownership (TCO) when making purchasing decisions, i.e., considering all costs expnded over the life of an item, both hard and soft. Faculty desks, staff chairs, and microscopes are used as examples in considering TCO. The article highlights a new awareness of hidden costs, and "green" considerations in decisions to replace existing supplies.

A Case for Sustainability.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p6 ; Apr 2011
Advocates sustainable school design in spite of budget cuts, as "green" schools have lower operating costs. A short list of integrated sustainable features is included.

MRO Storerooms: Bottom-Line Issues.
Murphy, Frank
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p22,24 ; Apr 2011
Advises on maintaining well-organized, well-stocked, and inventoried facilities parts storerooms. Reduction of staff time spent looking for parts, consolidated inventory, and quick response to facilities situations are emphasized.

Inventory: Low-Hanging Savings.
Gager, Andrew
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p12 ; Nov 2010
Advises on computerize inventory management for facility supplies, noting the features that it can provide and the benefits to flow, economical purchasing, and a reliable supply of correct parts. Supply vending machines and radio frequency identification (RFID) of parts and personnel are also discussed.

Tracking Costs.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v82 n10 , p22-25 ; May 2010
Augments information on energy-saving construction and operations with information on measuring the cost-effectiveness.

Protect Your Investment: Don't Cut the M&O Budget.
DeJong, William
School Construction News; v15 n7 , p18 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Cites examples of deferred school maintenance that were followed by even larger repair or replacement costs, as well as noting that many states require local districts to set aside funds for preventive maintenance.

Meeting the Challenge: M & O Budgets.
O'Connor, Shannon
College Planning and Management; v12 n8 , p20,22,24 ; Aug 2009
Describes how some higher education institutions are accommodating cutbacks in maintenance and operations budgets by asking non-custodial staff to do some cleaning up after themselves, bringing outsourced services back in house, reducing cleaning and maintenance frequencies, and adjusting thermostats.

A Tough Balancing Act.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p6 ; Jun 2009
Stresses the importance of not sacrificing school maintenance needs when budgets are cut, balancing facility needs with instructional programs.

Paints and Coatings: Effective, Efficient Applications. [Paints and Coatings: Application Best Practices.]
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p13,14 ; Jun 2009
Advises on planning and executing an effective repainting project by explaining the specification of the correct paints and coatings, describing the proper tools, and suggesting how to schedule the project for minimum disruption.

38th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Colleges.
American School and University; v81 n9 , p24-27 ; Apr 2009
Presents the results of a 2008 study of two- and four-year colleges, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 10 percent of total expenditures, which is down from 11 percent in 2007. The amount of square feet maintained by full-time custodian and maintenance worker rose by 16 and 13 percent respectively. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

38th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Schools.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v81 n9 , p20-23 ; Apr 2009
Presents the results of a 2008 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 9.57 percent of total expenditures, which is higher than the previous year's figure of 8.35 percent. The square footage maintained per custodial worker rose 20 percent to 32,100. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

The Predictability of Unplanned Failures.
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p62,63 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Organizes planned and unplanned maintenance into three categories each, along with the increasing severity and cost for each category. Techniques for using these categories and cost coefficientsto budget for unplanned maintenance are offered.

Behind the Scenes: Furnishing the Maintenance Department.
Milshtein, Amy
Notes that school facility departments are often outfitted with furniture that has been discarded from elsewhere on campus. The hazards of working on improper furniture are noted, as is the negative effects on the morale of employees forced to work in a decrepit and perhaps unsafe environment.

Custodial and Maintenance Services: Examining Standards.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n11 , p20,22,24 ; Nov 2008
Examines trends in higher education institution custodial and maintenance standards, examining the categories of cleaning types and frequencies, work schedules and work order procedures, staffing, training, supervision, inspections, and necessary licensing.

School Maintenance and Operations Report.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n11 , p22,24,26,28 ; Nov 2008
Reviews two school districts' custodial and maintenance standards, examining the categories of cleaning types and frequencies, work schedules and work order procedures, staffing, training, supervision, inspections, and necessary licensing.

Motors: Defining and Improving Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2008
Defines what constitutes an energy-efficient motor, discusses what energy cost savings might be realized by using them, and advises on assessing motors for efficiency and replacement, as well as on how to prevent motor failure.

Making Equipment Rental Work.
Hounsel, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p26,27 ; Aug 2008
Advises on maintenance equipment rental, including equipment condition, availability of staff to use the equipment in a timely manner, proper training, how to obtain honest appraisals of models, and when it is time to buy rather than rent.

As Campuses Crumble, Budgets are Crunched.
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n37 , pA1,A12-A14 ; May 23, 2008
Discusses the deferred maintenance crisis facing many higher education institutions. Maintenance of existing structures is frequently slighted in the interest of building new and more glamorous facilities. Examples of maintenance backlogs at various institutions are described, as is the facilities condition index that is used to calculate deferred maintenance.

Maintenance Trades Guidelines.
Weidner, Theodore
Facilities Manager; v24 n3 , p42-47 ; May-Jun 2008
Offers an overview of the current guidelines for APPA's 2002 publication of Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities. The article discusses the development of a maintenance model, the five maintenance levels, the four campus space types and the zero-based budget (ZBB) approach that make up the publication. A case study of the application of these guidelines on the campus of the University of Nebraska- Lincoln is included.

37th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Colleges. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v80 n8 , p30,32,34,36,38 ; Apr 2008
Presents the results of a 2007 study of two- and four-year colleges, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 11 percent of total expenditures, which is down from 16.4 percent in 2006. Energy spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student rose 24 percent over 2006. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics

37th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Schools. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v80 n8 , p21,22,24,26,28 ; Apr 2008
Presents the results of a 2007 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 8.35 percent of total expenditures, which is lower than the previous year's figure of 9.19 percent. The square footage maintained per custodial worker rose 14 percent to 26,786. Rising energy costs are forcing cuts in other areas of maintenance and operations. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

Plumbing: The Repair-Replace Decision.
Van der Have, Pieter
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p27,28,30 ; Apr 2008
Advises on identifying reasons for excessive wear on plumbing fixtures and funding replacement systems.

Transitioning to Planned Maintenance.
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v24 n2 , p54,55 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Advises on how to transition from a pattern of reactive maintenance to one of planned and organized maintenance. Prioritization or weighting is the key coupled with segmenting larger campuses into a best practice zone by isolating a subset of facilities.

Deferred Maintenance Reporting for the Have-Nots. Adobe PDF
McDermott, Richard
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p20-23,25 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Advises on how to present a convincing deferred maintenance scenario that will get the attention of decision makers who are not necessarily dedicated to national standards for facilities condition. Elements that a convincing presentation should contain with suggestions for charts and graphs are included.

Efficiency by Design.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p6,7 ; Oct 2007
Profiles the cooperation of design and maintenance personnel in the Milwaukee Public Schools, resulting in buildings that are easier and less expensive to maintain.

Designing with the End in Mind: Maximizing Operational Efficiency.
Dirr, Jerry; Hicks, Ron
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p31,32,34,36 ; Aug 2007
Details total cost of school building ownership in terms of initial and operating costs, the typical stages of school building design and what cost analyses occur in each, software programs for building management from design through maintenance, and elements of a successful school building maintenance plan.

Hundreds of Vacuum Cleaners. One Purchase. How to Make the Decision.
Holmes, Jessica
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Jul 2007
Reviews potential debates over vacuum purchases, including quantity versus quality of equipment, day versus night cleaning, backpacks versus uprights, and indoor air qulaity.

Contract vs. In-House Staff: Finding the Right Souce for Custodial and Maintenance Operations.
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Reviews the pros and cons of outsourcing custodial and maintenance services at higher education institutions. Efficiency, flexible staffing, ability to concentrate on core mission, personnel management, availability of specialty services, and training are seen as benefits of outsourced services, whereas a sense of ownership, security, corporate culture, stability, and institutional knowledge are benefits of in-house staffing. Advice on selecting outsourcing services is included.

36th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Colleges
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v79 n9 , p33,34,36,38 ; Apr 2007
Presents the results of a 2006 study of two- and four-year colleges, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 16.4 percent of total expenditures, which is up from 11 percent in 2005. A significant portion of the increase can be attributed to increased energy costs. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics

36th Annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study: Schools.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v79 n9 , p27,28,30,32 ; Apr 2007
Presents the results of a 2006 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 9.19 per cent of total expenditures, compared to the previous year's figure of 7.58 percent. This represents a high since the late 1990's, but is still considerably below that of 20 years ago. Utility spending represented the largest increase, at 28 percent. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

A Common Vocabulary for Asset Investment Strategy.
Christensen, Douglas; Rose, Rodney; Ruprecht, Terry
Facilities Manager; v23 n2 , p26-30 ; Mar-Apr 2007
Details a vocabulary to organize building costs under categories of one-time and continuing costs.

Reducing the Cost of Floor Care.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n2 , p17-19 ; Mar 2007
Reviews budgeting, training, and equipment selection for floor care, as well as green trends in floor care products and equipment.

Shared Maintenance?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n12 , p46 ; Dec 2006
Advises small school districts to consider joining together to engage permanent maintenance teams that provide consistent service, rather than to individually engage local contractors who build no history with the school's facilities.

Garnering Support.
Kincaid, Douglas; Dillinger, Eric; Clayton, Michael
American School and University; v78 n12 , p36,39-41 ; Jul 2006
Reviews traditional methods that facility managers use to determine annual maintenance and operations budgets, and recommends a more accurate system of modeling costs and the effect of maintenance and operations on facility performance. Components of modeling are defined, and a multi-step approach that can be compiled and perpetuated over several budget cycles is detailed.

The Importance of a Maintenance Program.
McMilin, Edward
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p28,30,32-34 ; Jun 2006
Reviews statistics concerning the condition of America's schools and discusses essential capital, infrastructure, educational, preventive, deferred, cleaning maintenance. The elements of a quality plan for preservation of capacity are detailed, and advice on creating a plan is offered.

Budgeting Basics.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v9 n6 , p24,26,28-30 ; Jun 2006
Discusses how to budget for facility maintenance, with particular attention to budgeting in an environment where buildings are being added to the campus, and budgeting for extraordinary events like years with significant snow removal requirements or major natural disasters.

A Positive Move: American School and University 12th Annual College M&O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v78 n9 , p34-36,39,40 ; Apr 2006
Presents the results of a 2005 study of two- and four-year colleges, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 11 per cent of total expenditures, which is up from 10 percent in 2004. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

Coming Up Short: American School and University 35th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v78 n9 , p25,26,29,30,32 ; Apr 2006
Presents the results of a 2005 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 7.58 per cent of total expenditures, which is statistically even with the previous year's figure of 7.5 percent, and considered deficient when compared to the 9.59 percent expenditures of ten years ago. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

Who's Maintaining What?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p62 ; Mar 2006
Reviews types of maintenance underway in public schools, with categories of work reported as percentages of overall maintenance projects.

The 65 Percent Solution.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p12 ; Mar 2006
Explains the "65 Percent Solution," which requires school districts to spend at least 65 percent of their operating budget on "in-classroom" expenses. The rule has become law in several states, with many others currently considering it. Potential negative impacts to school maintenance, safety, transportation, and food service are described.

Campus Profile: University of British Columbia.
DiPaolo, Richard
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p16-19 ; Winter 2006
Profiles this institution's facilities maintenance program, detailing a major restructuring that began in 1999. This included updating equipment, cleaning procedures, and staff training. Awards won by the staff and plans for continued improved service are included.

Resources for Maintaining Schools.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p7 ; Jan 2006
Reviews major reports quantifying an increasing amount of deferred maintenance in schools, and highlights recent publications that can help, as well as the ongoing efforts of the Association of School Business Officials.

Ten Tips to Help Stretch Maintenance Budgets.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v44 n10 , p17-19 ; Oct 2005
Offers money-saving maintenance ideas submitted by school facility mangers, including performing routine tasks less frequently, empowering and equipping teachers and principals to investigate maintenance situations, collective purchasing, energy management, flexible scheduling, and outsourcing.

Cost-Effective Deferred Maintenance.
Aldis, Jonathan
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p35-37 ; Jul 2005
Discusses the basics of life-cycle cost analysis, the benefits of strategic planning and budgeting for deferred maintenance, and measuring the success of a deferred maintenance plan.

Facilities Performance Indicators from the Facilities Core Data Survey.
Long, Laura
Facilities Manager; v21 n4 , p40-43 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Reports preliminary findings from APPA's Facilities Core Data Survey, showing 2003-04 facilities operating costs in cost per student tables that are also broken down into overall costs, type of expenditures, type of institution, and level of education offered (K-12, baccalaureate, graduate.)

The Why and How of Maintenance.
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p28-31 ; Jun 2005
Details reasons behind deferred maintenance, including willingness to cut maintenance and operations budgets to preserve educational program funding, lack of master planning for maintenance, lack of administrative understanding of maintenance due to insufficient communication from maintenance administrators, and lack of priority for maintenance.

Challenging Times: American School and University 34th Annual School M&O Cost Study. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v77 n9 , p45-49 ; Apr 2005
Presents the results of a 2004 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 7.5 per cent of total expenditures, which is near the historic low of 7.43 per cent from 2003. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

Steady Spending: American School and University 11th Annual College M&O Cost Study. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v77 n9 , p50,52,55-57 ; Apr 2005
Presents the results of a 2004 study of higher education institutions, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 10 per cent of total expenditures, which is up from 9.5 per cent in 2003. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics.

Taking Pride.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v77 n9 , p6 ; Apr 2005
Describes the Japanese practice of students, sometimes along with teachers, cleaning their own classrooms at a prescribed time during the day. This is done not because of budget constraints, but as a means of including cleanliness in the educational program. It is suggested that a similar practice in the U.S. might mitigate the current lack of attention given to a quality school environment and help ease M&O budgetary pressures.

Maintaining Our Schools.
Gould, Deidre
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p38,40-43 ; Apr 2005
Reviews the backlog of deferred maintenance in America's schools, describes typical damage and energy loss in a school with a deteriorating building envelope, and suggests elements of a school maintenance plan.

Maintenance for Sale!
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v20 n6 , p38-39 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Proposes an "entrepreneurial" approach for central plan facility management that considers foremost the often disparate needs of the various campus "clients" and aims to deliver value just as a private firm would.

Talking Trash.
Hawkyard, Dave
American School and University; v77 n3 , p357-359 ; Nov 2004
Describes money saving trash management techniques including compaction to reduce hauler visits and cardboard baling to remove it from the waste stream and possibly sell to recyclers. The savings that can be realized will vary according to waste hauling costs in the area, and the extent to which equipment can be used by more than one facility.

Reviewing the State of Deferred Maintenance. Adobe PDF
Kaiser, Harvey
Facilities Manager; v20 n6 , p14,15,18-21 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Summarizes circumstances and liabilities of deferred maintenance, elements that should be included in estimating capital needs, and methodologies for capacity analysis, condition needs assessment, functionality needs assessment, and life cycle renewal modeling.

To Maintain or Not to Maintain: A Common Sense Approach to Facilities Management. Adobe PDF
Wagoner, Gregory
Facilities Manager; v20 n6 , p22-25 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Describes the University of Southern Indiana's approach to residence hall maintenance, which includes training residents and resident assistants to execute many of the smaller tasks.

Small Change: American School and University 33rd Annual School M & O Cost Study. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n9 , p22,24,26,29,30 ; Apr 2004
Discusses the results of a 2003 study of public school districts revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures, as a percentage of budgets, are near historic lows. Tables display costs per student and square foot, as well as worker per square foot and salary information.

Tough Times. Adobe PDF
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n9 , p46-50 ; Apr 2004
Discusses the results of a 2003 study of higher education institutions revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures, as a percentage of budgets, dropped from 10 to 9.5 percent. Tables display costs per student and square foot, as well as worker per square foot and salary information.

Health Costs Strain School Budgets.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n25 , p1,14 ; Mar 04, 2004
According to a survey conducted by the Association of School Business Officials, the rising cost of health insurance is leaving less money for school facilities maintenance, teaching positions, technology upgrades, and districts' ability to comply with the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act. Just over half of the survey respondents said they had reduced school maintenance budgets to offset the increases. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

When is "Run-to-Failure" Appropriate? Adobe PDF
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v20 n2 , p57,58 ; Mar-Apr 2004
Discusses considerations for removing systems from planned maintenance, allowing them to fail, and then replacing them. Issues of return on maintenance investment and avoidance of collateral damage from failing systems are highlighted.

The Big Squeeze.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n6 , p20-22,24,26 ; Feb 2004
Describes tightened school budget situations, where cuts and savings are occurring, and how some school systems generate revenue from use of their facilities.

From Building to Maintaining.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v43 n2 , p60,62-64 ; Feb 2004
Describes how five school districts maintain their new facilities in order to avoid deferred maintenance issues.

Searching for Savings.
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
As a result of management’s vision and the maintenance department’s expertise, the Portland School District is now reaping cost-saving benefits estimated to be about $9 million over the past eight years. In 1990, the district undertook a series of aggressive measures to enhance the energy efficiency in its 100 schools and better control its utility costs. It launched energy-efficiency programs and retrofit projects designed to maintain energy use and costs at the lowest level possible without compromising the schools’ learning environment.

Purchasing Power.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v6 n8 , p14-16 ; Nov-Dec 2003
Presents an interview with the coordinator of physical plant stores at the University of South Florida, Tampa. The interviewee worked with the univerisity's IT staff to build an effective database for tracking transactions from the physical plant store. Also discussed is the impact on the store of a campus retrofit for for energy efficiency, budgeting and the acquiring of new products.

More Than Just Maintenance.
June, Audrey Williams
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v50 n7 , pA27 ; Oct 10, 2003
As institutional budgets tighten and administrators face tough decisions about spending priorities, deferring maintenance can seem like the least painful choice. But some colleges that have deferred maintenance in the past have found that repairing leaking roofs, repaving parking lots, upgrading heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems, patching peeling plaster, or replacing campus sewer lines is a lot harder and a lot more costly than they expected.

Clean Sweep.
Rivard, Nicole
University Business; Jul 2003
How well is your campus maintained, and what is housekeeping really costing? Maybe it's time to clean up custodial service operations. This discusses whether or not to outsource and the rethinking of campus maintenance setups on several campuses.

Contracting Maintenance Services: An Easy Question, a Difficult Answer.
Geiger, Philip E.
School Planning and Management; v42 n5 , p38,40-41 ; May 2003
Discusses issues involved in outsourcing school maintenance and custodial services. There are many advantages to this approach, but it has definite drawbacks. In many instances, a combination of contract and employee services works well.

Absence of Resources. American School and University 32nd Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v75 n8 , p26-35 ; Apr 2003
An annual survey of school maintenance and operations funding concludes, among other detailed findings, that budgets continue to shrink in the face of a weak economy--the sixth year of dropping budgets and the smallest level since the survey began. M&O spending as a percentage of district net current expenditure sank to 7.4 percent in the 2002-03 school year, down from 7.8 percent the year before. The amount of square feet maintained per custodian continued to grow, increasing to 24,167 square feet from 23,985 square feet last year. Square feet maintained per maintenance worker also jumped, increasing to 95,120 square feet from 89,000 square feet last year. Acres maintained per grounds worker grew to 36 from 30 last year.

Staying the Course. American School and University 9th Annual College M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v75 n8 , p44-49 ; Apr 2003
An annual survey of college maintenance and operations (M & O) funding concludes, among other detailed findings, that college spending held steady this year, even in tough economic times.

A Worthy Investment.
King, Gord
American School and University; v75 n8 , hp8-hp11 ; Apr 2003
Discusses the benefits of a new approach to school and campus lighting, in which lighting is considered its own maintenance category and is often outsourced to companies that can handle planning, design, and maintenance, as well as offer buying discounts and inventory control.

The Deferred Maintenance Dilemma.
Medlin, E. Lander
Business Officer; v36 n9 , p35-37 ; Mar 2003
Discusses the hazards of the trend toward accumulated deferred maintenance in higher education and offers advice on tying facilities needs and issues to the core strategies and goals of the institution.

The Intrinsic Value of Campus Maintenance.
Yeatts, G. Dewey
College Planning and Management; v6 n2 , p38-40 ; Feb 2003
Discusses how an emphasis on student recruitment, combined with deferred maintenance backlogs and maintenance budget cuts, suggest that further study needs to be done on the intrinsic value of campus maintenance.

Cutting Costs.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p20-23 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to maximize their budgets: energy upgrades, security technology, maintenance management systems, partnerships, modernized washrooms, windows, facilities assessment, outsourcing, alternative fuels, and building commissioning.

Can You Really Do It Cheaper?
Edds, Daniel
School Planning and Management; v41 n10 , p20-22 ; Oct 2002
Suggests principles for making decisions about outsourcing, privatizing, or contracting school services: know your costs, specify results within the request for proposal (RFP), and face reality and focus on the mission.

Stretching Resources.
Robinson, Bob, Sr.
American School and University; v75 n1 , p26-31 ; Sep 2002
Discusses factors leading to the current problem of poorly maintained schools, such as budget and labor cuts and misdirected purchasing policies. Provides an overview of some solutions, such as innovations in cleaning supplies and equipment, and having an integrated system to clean the school district.

Department Reengineering Improves Service at Miami-Dade Community College.
Menendez, Alfredo
Facilities Manager; v18 n4 , p47-48 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Details the process of reengineering Miami-Dade Community College's maintenance department to lower costs while increasing services. Changes included work flow, communications, purchasing, staffing, and technology methods.

Concerned About Costs, Some Schools Pull Plugs From Swimming Pools.
Hurst, Marianne
Education Week; v21 n38 , p10 ; May 29, 2002
Districts around the country are pulling the plug on their swim facilities, especially aging pools that can be extremely costly to maintain and bring up to modern standards. Among the most common problems: cost cutting during initial construction that has shortened the life of the pool, design flaws, chemical damage to the pool's surface, poor filtration, and a lack of regular surface cleaning. Experts say average yearly maintenance costs run from $30,000 to $80,000. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

A Modest Pullback. American School and University 8th Annual College M & O Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v74 n8 , p50B-J ; Apr 2002
An annual survey of physical plant directors at 2-year colleges and 4-year institutions with no significant graduate programs revealed that spending on maintenance and operations (M & O) as a percentage of total budget dropped to 10 percent from 10.5 percent a year ago. Other survey findings are presented in several data tables.

That Sinking Feeling. American School and University 31st Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v74 n8 , p26-33 ; Apr 2002
An annual survey of chief business officers in U.S. public school districts revealed that spending on maintenance and operations (M & O) as a percentage of net current expenditures dropped to a 30-year low of 7.8 percent. Other survey findings are presented in several data tables.

Maintenance Business Plans.
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v18 n1 , p28-29 ; Jan-Feb 2002
Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone implementation schedule, and summarized cost/benefit table.

A New Curriculum: Energy Outsourcing Brings Cost and Energy Benefits.
Dickerman, Robert N.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p76-78 ; Jan 2002
Considers the value of colleges and universities upgrading their energy infrastructure and using outsourcing energy management functions to save money and gain greater control of energy operations without substantial investments in staff and resources.

Expenditures on O & M at America's Most Beautiful Campuses.
Ellertson, Shari L.
Facilities Manager; v17 n5 , p51-56 ; Sep-Oct 2001
Presents survey results on operations and maintenance expenditures and management comparisons among the 50 universities and colleges considered to have "works-of-art" campuses. Among the study's conclusions is the idea that what makes a campus a "work of art" or award winner does not appear to be reflected in what they spend on plant operations and maintenance.

Studyin' Trailers. Part III.
Roman, Michael
Commercial Modular Construction Magazine; Jul 2001
This focuses on actual costs for portable classrooms including operating and maintenance savings over various periods. In addition, breakeven analyses is offered under a variety of scenarios.

Dwindling Support. American School and University 30th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v73 n8 , p24,26-28,30,32 ; Apr 2001
Presents trend data of school districts fund allocation for school maintenance and operations of their facilities across the United States. Data reveal a continuing decline in funding for maintenance and operations of school facilities.

Rising to the Challenge. American School and University 7th Annual College M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v73 n8 , p50b,50d,50f,50h ; Apr 2001
Presents data on college spending for maintenance and facility operations for the 2000-01 school year. Data reveal a greater allocation of maintenance and operations being funded by colleges. Funding comparisons per student and per square foot of building maintained are provided along with data on median salaries and personnel allocation.

The ABCs of RFPs.
Rathey, Allen
College Planning and Management; v4 n2 , p51-53 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how cleaning managers at Colorado State University saved money, improved training, and reduced wasted labor by using requests for proposals (RFPs) when purchasing equipment and chemicals. RFP elements to consider are highlighted.

Performance Contracting: Meeting the Challenge of Deferred Maintenance.
Singer, Terry E.; Johnson, Mary E.
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p27-29 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Discusses the magnitude of the problem of deferred maintenance on today's university campuses and the solving this problem using performance-based energy efficiency retrofit as implemented by energy service companies (ESCO). Several case studies of ESCO designed retrofits are examined.

Maintenance Deferred.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n4 , p34b,34d,34f ; Dec 2000
Discusses how colleges and universities are scrambling to catch up on deferred maintenance before the backlog becomes overwhelming. The problems, and some solutions, for acquiring repair funding and collecting needs data are addressed.

New Tools of the Trade.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , p21-24 ; Oct 2000
Discusses computer software that can help school maintenance department cut their costs. The use of a maintenance management system is examined along with examples of how these systems can actually save operating costs.

Life Cycle Costs in Education: Operations & Maintenance Considered.
Moussatche, Helena; Languell-Urquhart, Jennifer; Woodson, Carol
Facilities Design and Management; v19 n9 , p20,22 ; Sep 2000
Discusses life cycle cost analysis when deciding on flooring finishes and examines operations and maintenance cost effectiveness relative to hard, resilient, and soft flooring. A chart of evaluated flooring materials' characteristics, appropriate maintenance procedures, and recommended frequency is included.

Do It Yourself or Don't?
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v39 n8 , p49-53 ; Aug 2000
Discusses the decision making behind whether some school district services are better to be outsourced rather than done in- house. Issues examined include calculating the cost of in-house service delivery before turning to the private sector. A list of what questions to be addressed in the decision making process is included.

It Takes a Revolution: A Case Study of Facilities Service Improvements at UCSB.
Gonzales, David
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p29-32 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Presents a case study on the successful revamping of the University of California Santa Barbara's Physical Facilities Maintenance and Operations Department. Each revamping step is discussed including issues involving morale and productivity, customer relations, outsourcing custodial services, teamwork, and the development of campus zone offices to increase maintenance and operations efficiency.

Deferred Maintenance Strategies You Must Try.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v3 n7 , p21-22,24,26,27 ; Jul 2000
Discusses how some college administrators have found "over-the- counter" cures for deferred maintenance problems resulting from budgeting shortfalls. Catch-up approaches discussed include those involving planning, prioritizing, partnering, and gift giving.

Aging Gracefully.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n9 , p20-22,24,26 ; May 2000
Addresses the national problem of deferred maintenance of educational facilities and illustrates one private school's (Chicago's St. Ignatius) fall into disrepair and successful restoration and expansion. Data are presented on the percentage of aging schools in American from pre-1950 to post 1985.

A Mixed Bag: American School and University 6th Annual College M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n8 , p34b,34d,34f,34h ; Apr 2000
Presents data from 1990 to 2000 on college and university maintenance and operations (M & O) spending showing that M & O spending per student is less, spending per square foot is up. Included are M & O median salaries levels, and the median number of full- and part-time staff by function.

Getting Little Respect: American School and University 29th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n8 , p22,24-26,28,30 ; Apr 2000
Provides data on school maintenance and operations (M & O) costs in the United States. Costs are expressed in dollars per student and per square foot. Data show school districts are spending more to maintain and operate their buildings, but M & O budgets are not rising by the same rate.

The Failing Campus Infrastructure: Is It Too Late?
Medlin, E. Lander
Facilities Manager; v16 n1 , p11-12,14 ; Jan-Feb 2000
Discusses the extent of damage being caused to colleges and universities from accumulated deferred maintenance (ADM) and why it is happening. Public policy implications are discussed along with highlights from case studies of institutions that have used practical approaches to retire their ADMs.

Gain Purchasing Power the Newfangled Way, On-Line.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v2 n10 , p39-41 ; Oct 1999
Examines how San Diego State University uses computers to cut purchasing costs and boost efficiency and whether their solution can work for other business-to-business needs. How the school developed the totally self-sustaining, on-line and on-time purchasing system is discussed, including solutions to start-up problems.

Managing Pressure Vessel Equipment as a Capital Asset.
Robinson, Glenn; Trombley, Robert; Shultes, Kenneth
Facilities Manager; v15 n5 , p36-40 ; Sep-Oct 1999
Argues the importance of treating facility pressure equipment as capital assets and discusses three steps in their management process. The following steps are discussed: understanding the condition of all major equipment; altering maintenance practices and procedures; and developing a long-term equipment strategy such as increased monitoring, reliability and life expectancy evaluation, and condition assessment.

School Renovation and the Importance of Maintenance [Interview with Charles Boney, Jr.]
Butterfield, Eric.
School Construction News; , 8p. ; Aug 1999
Architect Charles Boney offers his views on school districts building schools that have to be replaced too soon, general problems concerning renovation of older buildings, and keeping maintenance costs down. He discusses flooring materials, the types of operating costs that are negatively impacted by lower installation costs; and roofing systems. Concluding discussions address excessive use of windows and the heating and air conditioning problems they can cause, and renovation materials he considers to be long lasting and characteristically have low maintenance costs.

To Outsource or Not To Outsource?
Haertsch, Tom
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 , p29-30 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the trends towards school districts outsourcing selected support services as a means of attaining organizational efficiency and cost control. What decision makers should look for when considering outsourcing is examined.

Tragedy of the Commons: Who Owns Classroom Space?
Andrews, Sona K.; Stecker, Dennis; Weill, Don; Winstead, Wayland
Planning for Higher Education; v27 n4 , p32-38 ; Summer 1999
Describes the approach taken by the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee to budgeting for maintenance of general-assignment classrooms, noting the advantages of this straightforward and transparent model, its limitations, information needs, and the assumptions underlying the renovation model that emerged from this analysis. Technology costs are included in the model.

Making Ends Meet.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v2 n6 ; Jun 1999
Discusses how some college maintenance managers are getting the most out of their tight maintenance budgets. Examples of cost-cutting measures include comparative shopping for cleaning chemicals, eliminating duplicate maintenance services for auxilliary units, motivating maintenance staff and employing students, and saving money with equipment purchases and preventive maintenance.

A Budget Deferred.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v71 n8 , p26, 28-30, 32, 34 ; Apr 1999
Presents survey data on school maintenance and operations (M & O) budgets that show school districts nationwide are allocating, for the second year in a row, a smaller proportion of their budgets to preserve and run their facilities. M & O comparable cost data are listed on a per student and per building square footage basis for nine regions nationwide.

Making Gains.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v71 n8 , p34a-34c,34e ; Apr 1999
Presents survey data on school maintenance and operations (M & O) budgets that show colleges are addressing facilities concerns by increasing M & O funding. M & O comparative cost data are listed on a per full-time student and per building square footage basis for all colleges, and 2- and 4-year schools. M & O administrative salaries and personnel data are also provided.

Cut Next Winters Heating Bill Today.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p30,32-33 ; Apr 1999
Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and considering the human side of energy consumption.

How Educational Expenditures Relate to Student Achievement: Insights from Texas Elementary Schools
Harter, Elizabeth A.
Journal of Education Finance; v24 n3 , p281-302 ; Winter 1999
Examines detailed school spending and achievement data for over 2,800 Texas elementary schools for 1992-93. A school's student poverty rate is the most important factor influencing student performance. Results emphasize the importance of spending for exemplary teaching, basic supplies, and maintenance. Certain expenditures correlate with lower student performance. (20 footnotes)

Heating and Cooling from the Ground Up.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p32,34,36,37 ; Nov 1998
Explains why converting to geothermal heating and cooling is a good option when constructing or retrofitting schools. Reasons discussed include competitive installation costs, lower operating and maintenance costs, greater building design flexibility, and greater user satisfaction.

Smart Schools.
Beaudin, James A.; And Others
American School and University; v71 n2 , p24,26,27 ; Oct 1998
Discusses the trend in using intelligent building technologies to achieve operating efficiencies and cost savings. It explains what an intelligent building is, defines some of the terms, and discusses how the user-friendly aspects of these systems are helping schools convert to them.

Ins and Outs of Privatization.
Daneman, Kathy
American School and University; v71 n1 , p16, 18 ; Sep 1998
Discusses the pros and cons of privatization as a way of saving money while improving non-educational operations. The question of why some services should be kept in-house are addressed as well as what to look for when considering outsourcing. One school's experience with outsourcing health care services is highlighted.

Maintenance Staffing Standards for Zero-Based Budgeting.
Adams, Matthew C.
Facilities Manager; v14 n4 , p18-23 ; Jul-Aug 1998
Discusses school preventive maintenance and the variables associated with maintenance staffing standards that address a zero-based budgeting environment. It explores preventive maintenance measurements for staffing requirements, defines staffing levels and job descriptions, and outlines the factors to consider when creating a maintenance program and identifying annual costs.

Off-Balance Sheet Financing.
Adams, Matthew C.
Facilities Manager; v14 n4 , p56-57 ; Jul-Aug 1998
Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax regulatory issues.

The Benefits of Preventive Roof Maintenance.
Kalinger, Peter
School Planning and Management; v37 n6 , p44-47 ; Jun 1998
Explains how to convince a school administration that a roof maintenance program can extend roof life and save money, even in the presence of roof warranties. Discusses ways to evaluate the cost benefits of roof maintenance and the importance of creating an historical file when any new roof is installed that contains such information as specifications, drawings, roof plan, details, and inspection reports.

How To Clean Up Custodial Messes.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v37 i6 , p37-39 ; Jun 1998
Discusses the use of job screening techniques to help in custodial staff hiring process. It describes the screening techniques and explains their positive effects on cost and productivity.

Final Exam.
Coullahan, Richard
American School and University; v70 n9 , p66h-66j ; May 1998
Explains the use of a maintenance-management assessment process that educational facility managers can use to improve facility conditions while providing evidence for future capital investments in maintenance management. Questions a maintenance-management audit can answer are discussed as is how to analyze the data to gain maximum understanding of facility conditions and maintenance capabilities.

Managing. American School and University 27th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v70 n8 , p28-32 ; Apr 1998
Presents data from the American School & University's annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study for the 1997-98 school year. Data include trends in building operations staff salaries and M&O costs expressed in dollars per student and per square foot. Results indicate an underfunding of M&O that may not provide students with the best possible learning environments.

Turned On to Savings.
Salamone, Brad
American School and University; v70 n8 , p34,36 ; Apr 1998
Explains how to upgrade inefficienct lighting systems that will dramatically cut energy use and costs while simultaneously improving the learning environment. Advice for using outside consultants is offered.

Long-Term Performance.
Vanderweil, Gary
American School and University; v70 n8 , p48,50,52-56 ; Apr 1998
Examines an approach to school maintenance budgeting that can improve the ability of schools to obtain maintenance and repair funds. The approach is based on the use of the Facilities Condition Index as a budgeting tool, where maintenance is viewed as keeping the physical value of facilities as close to 100 percent of replacement cost as possible.

Upgrade Your Facilities Without a Bond Issue.
Mahoney, John; Thompson, Laura
School Planning and Management; v37 n2 , p56-60 ; Feb 1998
Discusses eliminating bond issues for facility energy management upgrades by using performance contracting. Explains that performance contracts create savings that help support financing new equipment over a specific number of years. Financing options, performance contracting tips, and an example of its use in St. Louis (Missouri) are highlighted.

Is Deferred Maintenance Putting Your College at Risk?
Abramson, Paul
College Planning & Management; v1 n1 , p32-36 ; Jan 1998
There is a national increase in the deferred maintenance of colleges and universities in the United States. The resulting deterioration represents a threat to the capability of higher education facilities to support the mission of the colleges and universities they house. A series of questions concerning what the problems are and how they can be solved are answered. Ten steps to prevent deferred maintenance are highlighted.

Facilities Management.
Bete, Tim, Ed.
School Planning & Management; v37 n1 , p48 ; Jan 1998
Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing need to install self-cleaning toilets to save costs.

Playing Hardball with Facilities Expenses
Fickes, Michael
School Planning & Management; v36 n12 , p14-18 ; Dec 1997
Describes one school district manager's tactics for successfully controlling district costs and increasing capital improvements while only marginally increasing the facilities maintenance budget. Highlights guidelines for controlling personnel requirements and cost-reduction methods. Discusses specific cost-control measures involving telephone expenses, heating and cooling, and preventive maintenance.

More Than a View.
Goyal, Raj
American School and University; v70 n4 , p16, 18 ; Dec 1997
Explains how window replacement produces significant energy and maintenance cost savings and offers an implementation process once a decision on window replacement has been made. The assessment of fuel bills, review of maintenance costs, and analysis of security features are covered.

Changing of the Guard.
Agron, Joe
American School & University; v70 n1 , p14-16,18 ; Sep 1997
Discusses privatization of noneducational services to help schools and universities cut costs, and presents survey results from public schools and colleges concerning their level and type of outsourcing. Included are reasons for and against privatization, the most common contracts involved, and indications of whether the outsourcing trend will continue.

Slash Custodial Costs with Team Cleaning.
Moore, Barry
School Planning and Management; v36 n8 , p31-32 ; Aug 1997
Examines the Syracuse School District's custodial staff's efforts to simultaneously increase revenue, lower costs, and create a more healthful school environment. Tips for successfully transforming the custodial department from old to modern, efficient methods are highlighted.

Multiple Benefits
Kreider, Beth
Roundup: Journal of the Monolithic Dome Institute; v10 n3 , p14-15 ; Summer 1997
Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle and high school multipurpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs.

Status Quo. American School and University 26th Annual School M & O Cost Study
Agron, Joe
American School & University; v69 n8 , p16-20 ; Apr 1997
Presents 1997 maintenance and operations (M&O) cost summaries from a sampling of chief business officers at public school districts across the United States. Nationally, results show 9.59% of a school district's net current expenditure was appropriated for M&O in the 1996-1997 school year, up slightly from fiscal year 1995-1996. Costs are shown to have leveled off for the past five years.

Cutting the Cost of Doing Business
O'Toole, Robert H.
School Business Affairs; v63 n1 , p58-60 ; Jan 1997
Tucson (Arizona) Unified School District involved its entire work force in generating cost-saving maintenance strategies. Savings were made in carpenter and mower repair shops, evening programs, property control, grounds maintenance, custodial operations, food services, utilities, and rental space agreements. Replacing outdated equipment and investing in a rigorous position control system has also controlled costs.

Getting with the Program.
Liscum, Curt
American School and University; v69 n2 , p22,24 ; Oct 1996
Discusses how software programs can help managers evaluate roofing options, project maintenance, and repair costs. Describes how computerized roof management can aid in budgeting, facilitate the development of a roof-management database, and help in selecting the appropriate roof system. Offers tips on shopping for software.

Facility Accounting: Hammering Out a Capital Replacement Budget
Readinger, Jay
School Business Affairs; v62 n7 , p48-51 ; Jul 1996
Most facility and finance managers cannot adequately handle school infrastructure issues because they lack the tools to describe the problem appropriately. Facility accounting gives managers accurate deferral and projected replacement costs, using nationally recognized life-cycle and cost data. Facility accounting enables proper management of physical assets, ensuring that they contribute to an institution's overall competitiveness.

Using Benchmarking to Analyze M&O Efficiency
Hughes, Jonathan T.; Jones, Helayne B.
School Business Affairs; v62 n4 p52-59 , p52-59 ; Apr 1996
This study developed efficiency indicators (grouped into price, personnel, productivity, and policy categories) as part of an ongoing internal benchmarking process to help six affluent New York school districts manage their facilities maintenance and operations processes. Based on data analysis, the greatest area for potential savings (from interdistrict cooperation) is in maintenance and operations personnel.

Privatizing Maintenance
Hounsell, Dan
School Business Affairs; v62 n2 , p16-17, 19 ; Feb 1996
Schools and other government facilities want to see whether privatization of maintenance can provide services as efficiently and at less cost than inhouse workers. Privatization proponents say that everyone will benefit the most if the bidding process involves competition. Offers examples from the Memphis City Schools and the Union Public Schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

The Deferred Maintenance Crisis: A Comparison of Smaller State-Supported and Independent Institutions.
Hackett, E. Raymond; Morgan, Thomas
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n3 , p18-23 ; 1996
Examines strategies for conducting expected and deferred maintenance of small colleges for use as a model that may be adapted to other educational settings. Investigates the relationship between total education and general expenditures and expenditures for operation of plant and maintenance, and looks at using the annual budget to meet expected and deferred maintenance needs. (Contains 4 references and 8 figures.)

Changing of the Bulbs.
Baba, Keith
American School and University; v67 n9 , p36, 38 ; May 1995
Explains how a school's use of compact fluorescents can reduce operating costs and maintain performance. It indicates that energy cost savings can repay the initial costs of buying incandescent bulbs in as short as 12 months with continuing savings thereafter. Tips for avoiding costly mistakes in lighting retrofits are highlighted.

Cleaning up Floor Care.
Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug
American School & University; v67 n8 , p40, 42, 44 ; Apr 1995
Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted.

Financing Capital Projects Through Energy Management
Zuber, Edward
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1994
Performance contracting, a flexible energy savings program, has varied definitions and applications. But, at its core, a school district is guaranteed a specific amount of savings by its local energy savings company (ESCO). The author lists the age of U.S. school facilities, the escalating results of deferred maintenance decisions, and rising energy costs due to inefficient energy equipment and practices, as problems facing many resource-poor school districts. He sees performance contracting as an effective method of addressing energy costs as school funding dwindles.

Maintenance: The Unavoidable
Pittillo, Robert A.
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1993
Since maintenance is unavoidable, a school board should include "deferred maintenance" as a regular budget item. This is not to be considered an uncovering of mismanagement but rather an improvement in the budgeting system. This ensures that the general public understands the complete ramifications of continuous underfunding of current expenses for facilities and equipment maintenance. Using a roof as an example, the author demonstrates how to calculate deferred maintenance. References are included.

Last In; First Out: Maintenance Budgets
Chick, Charles E., Smith, Patricia B. and George
Educational Facility Planner; v25 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1987
School districts often fail to prioritize facility maintenance when determining the annual budget. Consequently, the costs of deferred maintenance escalate. The authors assert that states should share some of the financial responsibility for facility maintenance with school districts.

Planning for Cost Effectiveness
Schlaebitz, William D.
CEFP Journal; v22 n3 ; May-Jun 1984
A heat pump life-cycle cost analysis is used to explain the technique. Items suggested for the life-cycle analysis approach include lighting, longer-life batteries, site maintenance, and retaining experts to inspect specific building components.

Funding of Facility Repairs and Renovation
Kaiser, Harvey H.
CEFP Journal; v22 n1 , p9-11 ; Jan-Feb 1984
Compares the life cycle approach for campus building repair and renovation to the University of California's comprehensive building maintenance formula and advises that formulas be used cautiously as a method of determining appropriate budget levels.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).