SCHOOL FACILITIES MASTER PLANNING
Information on developing and implementing long range plans for school facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Transforming Philadelphia’s Public Schools. Key Findings and Recommendations
(Boston Consulting Group, Aug 2012)
A management firm has concluded that the Philadelphia school district should close between 29 and 57 schools in the next five years. 120p
School Utilization [Portland Public Schools]
(Long Range Plan, Portland Public Schools. Issue Paper 5.3, Mar 20, 2012)
This paper focuses on student assignment and building capacity components of school utilization. School utilization planning requires an understanding of space needs for the range of academic programs offered in a school, as well as classroom and common spaces available for student use and the number of students anticipated in the future. Paper examines: student assignment policies and practices that influence school enrollment; current school size target enrollment ranges to meet program goals; a new model for assessing building capacity based on instructional use, and; trends in school utilization expected in the next decade. 14p
Alternatives to Construction [Portland Public Schools]
(Long Range Plan, Portland Public Schools. Issue Paper 5.2, Mar 20, 2012)
This white paper explores program changes, the use of modular classrooms, leasing, and public/private partnerships as alternatives to new construction and major renovation of Portland, Oregon's public schools 5p
School District Master Planning: A Practical Guide to Demographics and Facilities Planning.
Carey, Kelly D.
(Rowman & Littlefield Education , Sep 2011)
Explains how facilities master planning is done. Planning tools, steps and process check lists are discussed in detail, using case studies and the planning triangle of programs, demographics and facilities. Process roles are explained for district staff, consultants, and the public at each step. Steps are clearly explained for acquiring, analyzing, and applying critical data to drive planning to redistrict, build, close, renovate or expand schools. Steps are explained for developing the comprehensive master plan and getting it implemented on time and within budget. 276p.TO ORDER: http://www.amazon.com/School-District-Master-Planning-Demographics/dp/1610485300/
Opportunity-Rich Schools and Sustainable Communities: Seven Steps to Align High-Quality Education with Innovations in City and Metropolitan Planning and Development.
McKoy, Deborah; Vincent, Jeffrey; Bierbaum, Ariel
(University of California, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Jun 2011)
Illustrates policies and strategies at all levels of government that are increasingly associating educational outcomes with community planning and housing. The research developed seven steps to link education and planning policy at the local level, drawn from a national scan of model activities, interviews with key experts and agency staff members, and the authors' experience working with local governing bodies. The report identifies practical solutions that encompass assessing the current educational environment, engaging the community, strategic planning and implementation of investment, and institutionalizing successful innovations. 63p.
Philadelphia Imagine 2014 Facilities Master Plan
(School District of Philadelphia, May 2011)
The School District of Philadelphia is engaging in a comprehensive facilities master planning process titled, "Imagine Great Schools" to provide a roadmap for the District to review its educational program offerings and facilities to determine necessary right-sizing adjustments and help guide where future investments need to be made. Inlcudes overview, policies, video, plan data, and additional resources.
Falls Church City (Virginia) Public Schools Facility Master Plan
(Falls Church City Public Schools, Mar 2011)
Includes existing conditions, education specifications, program of space needs, and detailed schemes. 364p.
An ACT Concerning Education.
(Illinois General Assembly, Springfield , 2011)
This bill requires education facilities master planning for the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). It requires the first ever 10-year facilities master plan, ground rules to ensure that school facility related decisions are made with broad public input and reflect educationally sound and fiscally responsible criteria; financial transparency; guidelines for closings, co-locations, consolidations, new schools, boundary changes; transition plans for students and schools affected by school actions; space utilization and school building performance standards; and a requirement for plan coordination with other agencies. 23p.
Educational Facilities Master Plan FY 2012
(Board of Education of Calvert County, Prince Frederick, Maryland, 2011)
This document contains a description of the programs and activities to be offered at the school building, covering the planning process, staffing ratio, organizational pattern, transportation, population trends, school site analysis, demographics, enrollment projections. Includes a facilities inventory and a summary of facility needs. 124p
Maryland State School Facility Inventory.
(State of Maryland Public School Construction Program and local Boards of Education. , 2011)
Provides a listing of every school facility owned by the local Maryland Board of Education. A user is able to search for facilities by county name or by school name. If a user is unsure of the actual name of a facility, the user can enter the part of the name that he/she is sure of and a listing of all facilities with the partial information will be displayed. The data for a specific facility is divided into six tabs. The tabs are: 1. Site Information, Grade Levels, Adjacent Schools, Square Foot History, Enrollment, and Remarks.
PK-12 Public Educational Facilities Master Plan Evaluation Guide.
(21st Century School Fund, 2011)
Proper planning of school facilities is critical for all school districts no matter how large or small. When school districts properly plan for their school facilities they have better schools, more public use and higher value for public spending. This evaluation guide was designed for superintendents and school boards that are called on to sign off on plans presented by facility professionals and consultants, but who generally do not have experience with educational facility planning. It can also be used by community members to advocate for high quality educational facility planning. 13p.
Rebuilding, Expanding, and Maintaining Our Facilities. 2011-2012 Through 2015-2016. Five Year Capital Plan.
(Miami-Dade Public Schools, FL, 2011)
Includes a summary of capital projects and work plans.
2010 Special Sector Study on Education Construction.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, Ny, 2010)
Advises on how to better understand and more effectively pursue opportunities in the $50 billion educational facilities construction market. The study delivers analysis and extensive data, in development for more than a year. It offers full analysis of construction spending and outlook for primary/junior High Schools, senior high schools, and higher education construction. Also addressed is the impact of the recession on school construction and long term drives for the sector, green building trends and incentives to sustainable construction, and notable projects and key players. This report is available for $3,900, or for $2,500 for current subscribers to MHC Analytics services.TO ORDER: 800-591-4462
DC Public Schools Master Facilities Plan 2010.
(District of Columbia Office of Public Education Facilities Modernization, Washington , 2010)
Summarizes facilities improvements made in the District of Columbia public schools since 2007, followed by a discussion of priorities, objectives, and defining modernization for the future. The document covers anticipated renovations, demolitions, new construction, swing spaces, maintenance, and programs for early childhood education, special education, charter schools, and adult education. 16p.
Rebuilding New Orleans Schools.
(Recovery School District and the Orleans Parish School Board, 2010)
Provides the School Facilities Master Plan for New Orleans schools, a joint effort of the Recovery School District and the Orleans Parish School Board. The Master Plan provides a blueprint for the school construction program that began as a result of the impact of Hurricane Katrina. Sections of the website provide building names, current school programs, building status in the Master Plan, technical information, and a photo gallery of projects. The Current Capital Construction Report provides information about every capital project currently underway, including minor projects (such as roof replacements) and demolitions. The Phase 1 Project Update provides construction status of all projects in Phase 1, a summary of the number of projects in each stage of construction, and the total cost of all projects in each stage of construction. An interactive map of the school districs is also included.
Concepts and Transferability of Contemporary Finnish School Design.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Discusses how the decentralization of the Finnish school system has proceeded so that now most decisions are made locally. This recent development has had a major impact the architecture of schools built in Finland. Today local authorities, principals, teachers and architects conceptualize school buildings in close co-operation and dialogue. Instead of applying a pre-described room layout, the community and the users develop specific learning environments that strive to best support the pedagogic idea of each individual school. Through this collaboration between stakeholders and flexibility of the planning process, spatial arrangements evolve that provide sheltered learning spaces, while supporting a large variety of different teaching methods. Though the design process might take longer to build than a standard school design, and initially be more expensive, educational and community needs are met effectively. Designing and building a new schoolhouse with neighborhood cooperation increase community pride and support for educational endeavors and help also to protect the facilities from vandalism. 5p.
Master Plan Guidelines for 2009-2011 Biennium. [Arkansas]
(Arkansas Division of Public School Facilities and Transportation, Little Rock , Sep 15, 2009)
Presents the Arkansas Division of Public School Academic Facilities and Transportation's requirements for master plans to be submitted by the state's districts. Elements detailed include: 1) a district overview that includes demographics, a community profile, educational considerations, and a master plan narrative summary; 2) facilities information that covers insurance, custodial plans, maintenance, renovation, repairs; 3) project information for new facilities or major renovations; and 4) district financial statistics. 37p.
Master Plan Update 10: K-8 Space Allocation.
(Bond Accountability Commission, Cleveland, OH , Jul 21, 2009)
Reports on a mismatching of Cleveland school construction to enrollment trends. The report describes three neighborhoods in which enrollment has fallen for years, but are planned for more students in 2015 than they have now. The report recommends that the capital plan should be adjusted before each construction segment, based on the latest student counts. It also illustrates that enrollment fell in every neighborhood of the District over the last 11 years, though a few were relatively stable last year. Planners should begin fixing inequalities by trimming the Master Plan enrollments of yet-to-be-built schools in neighborhoods scheduled for more future space than they need today. The trimmed space should be added to the plan for schools in neighborhoods where enrollments are most stable. 14p.
Master Plan 2009: Northern Kentucky University.
(Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights , 2009)
Presents this rapidly-growing institution's master plan for the years 2010-2020. The land use section details goals for a physical transportation of the campus, achieving of sustainability, promoting a sense of community, and creating memorable campus spaces. 23p.
Seattle Public Schools 2020 Facilities Master Plan.
(Seattle Public Schools, Seattle, Washington, 2009)
The primary focus of the Facilities Master Plan is to concentrate on major renovations, and building replacements while simultaneously addressing deferred maintenance projects in other school buildings. The FMP was updated following initial research, data gathering, and community input.
Planning Educational Facilities: What Educators Need to Know.
(Rowman & Littlefied, Lanham, MD , 2009)
Provides a detailed discussion of the processes involved in planning a school building, from a discussion on how to organize the local staff to the final evaluation of the building. Individual chapters address planning, educational program development, evaluation of existing facilities, enrollment projection, financial planning, development of the capital improvement program, development of educational specifications, site selection and acquisition, federal regulations, architect selection and employment, project management, commissioning, post-occupancy evaluation, technology integration, and green schools. 332p.
Centennial Campus Precinct Development and Design Guidelines.
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , Sep 2008)
Updates the 2007 North Carolina State University Physical Master Plan for exterior campus spaces and identifies findings and recommendations for design guidelines and standards, campus paths, centennial campus infrastructure systems, and the design approval process. 30p.
Still Crowded Out: School Construction Fails to Keep up with Manhattan Building Boom.
(Manhattan Borough President's Office, New York , Sep 2008)
Reports on New York City's continuing plans for residential growth, without adding school space to accommodate the occupants. New 2008 units permitted will, by the city's own estimate, produce as many as 1,100 new children, much of that growth in eighborhoods where the schools are now at or over capacity. Borough officials and the teachers union call on using the upcoming five-year capital plan to create a public/private partnership to solve the problem, assuming that mayoral control of the school system is used to the extent that it could be. City Hall oversees the various city agencies involved in school construction and has access to public and private entities across a wide spectrum. 32p.
Managing Maryland's Growth: Smart Growth, Community Planning and Public School Construction.
(Maryland Dept. of Planning, Baltimore , Jul 2008)
Provides guidance to Maryland school districts in planning schools that support smart growth. Topics covered include walkability, bicycle access, environmental protection, high performance buildings, schools as community centers, school and site size, co-location and shared use, and energy efficiency in school transportation. Case studies accompany each topic and a model approach for school planning, location, and construction is included. 42 references complete the document. 78p.Report NO: 2008-001
Bladen Community College Facilities Master Plan.
(Bladen Community College, Dublin, NC , Jun 02, 2008)
Presents this North Carolina community college's facilities master plan, with ten projects selected based on collaboration between academic departments, design professionals, and administration. The three projects to receive immediate attention are detailed, and the key implications derived from these projects are discussed. 16p.
Crowded Out: School Construction Fails to Keep up with Manhattan Building Boom.
(Manhattan Borough President's Office, New York , Apr 2008)
Reports on how Manhattan's development boom, which has led to at least 40,000 new apartments approved for construction over the past eight years, has not been matched by an increase in seats in neighborhood elementary and middle schools. Four areas of Manhattan are at especially high risk of neighborhood-wide school overcrowding, where from 2000 to 2007 the city approved enough new buildings to add up to 2300 new students to these four neighborhoods alone. During the same time period, the Department of Education added only 143 seats to just one of these four neighborhoods. A three-point plan for growth involving the Department of Education and School Construction Authority is outlined. 61p.
Closing a School Best Practices Guide.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2008)
Advises on gathering the facts on the costs of keeping a particular school open, discerning the community effect of closing it, deciding which schools to close, making the decision to close a school and announcing it, making the transition, and disposing of school property. 6p.
Construction and Modernization: Information to Assist School Districts in Addressing Construction and Modernization Needs.
(San Mateo County Office of Education, California , 2008)
Advises local school districts on how to manage construction projects. Topics covered include district leadership and staffing, procedures for selecting professional design consultants and firms, contracts, master planning, and project delivery programs. 17p.
Local Governments and Schools: A Community-Oriented Approach.
(International City/County Management Association, Washington, DC , 2008)
Provides local government managers with an understanding of the connections between school facility planning and local government management issues, with particular attention to avoiding the creation of large schools remotely sited from the community they serve. It offers multiple strategies for local governments and schools to bring their respective planning efforts together to take a more community-oriented approach to schools and reach multiple community goals--educational, environmental, economic, social, and fiscal. Eight case studies illustrate how communities across the U.S. have already succeeded in collaborating to create more community-oriented schools. Includes 95 references and an extensive list of additional online resources. 40p.Report NO: E-43527
Master Facilities Plan Evaluation Checklist.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2008)
Provides a tool to assess a master facilities plan as it relates to vision, creation of high quality public education, vibrant and safe neighborhoods, fairness, comprehensiveness, coordination with other agencies, accuracy of data, feasibility, and openness to the public. The assessment tool was created for District of Columbia input, but is general enough to be of use to any school district. 10p.
Mission College Campus Master Plan: Design Guidelines.
(Mission College, Santa Clara, CA , 2008)
Presents Mission College's design guidelines, written to help to ensure that the campus evolves over time in a manner consistent with its established vision and mission. The design guidelines emphasize integration of design to provide a cohesive identity for the institution and include siting, pedestrian and public spaces, gateways and entrances, wayfinding, landscaping, sustainability, architecture, interior design, standardization of environments, passive and active solar design, and effiencies of materials and energy. 33p.
A Guide to Planning for Change.
Norris, Don; Poulton, Nick
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI, 2008)
Highlights recent thinking on higher education campus planning and summarizes the new and emerging challenges facing leaders of colleges and universities. Chapter 7 includes information on sustainability, campus master planning, space management, and technology integration.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/pubs/books
Richmond City Public Schools Facility Master Plan Update: Executive Summary.
(Richmond City Public Schools, Virginia , Nov 05, 2007)
Updates this Virginia city's 2002 school facilities master plan with a review of facility activity (closings, consolidations, maintenance, ADA compliance) occurring since the 2002 Master Plan was submitted , an assessment of the current condition of selected priority school facilities, a description of the desired condition or standard for schools based on the 2007 District-Wide Educational Specification, a definition of what needs to be done to meet the standards and reach the desired condition, a methodology for a practical and fair way to prioritize work that needs to be done, and recommendations to the School Board the prioritization of the schools to be built or renovated. 33p.
A Campus of Neighborhoods and Paths.
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , Oct 2007)
Publishes North Carolina State University Physical Master Plan of 2007. The report covers the underlying philosophy guiding the study, the capital improvement plan with space needs analysis, the 10-year capital plan, campus design plans for neighborhoods and activities, campus paths and shared open spaces, transportation, landscape, and infrastructure. 130p.
Superintendent's Recommended Educational Facilities Master Plan Annual Update.[Frederick County, MD]
(Frederick County Public School System, Frederick, MD , Aug 01, 2007)
This school facilities master plan includes an analysis of community demographics, an inventory and evaluation of existing schools, enrollment projections, facility needs analysis, and a facilities plan. Extensive appendices provide information on funding, residential development, disposition of portable structures, analysis of potential future schools sites, and a variety of administrative policies. 171p.
Integrating Schools into Healthy Community Design.
(National Governors Association, Washington, DC , May 02, 2007)
Examines state policies on school siting, school construction financing, and Safe Routes to School programs focusing on how policies can benefit communities, improve children's health, and reduce the need for infrastructure expansion. Strategies that states are using include reducing or eliminating minimum acreage requirements for schools, revising school funding formulas to promote renovation or expansion of existing sites. requiring that schools be located in areas designated for growth that already have sufficient existing infrastructure to support school facilities; and creating, funding, promoting, and implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. 9p.TO ORDER: http://www.nga.org/
Palo Alto Unified School District Facility Master Plan.
(Palo Alto Unified School District, California , Apr 2007)
Presents the district's 20-year school facilities master plan, which details educational specifications, plans for existing campuses, and sites designated for futures schools. 350p.
Educational Facilities and the Impact of Technology, Expectations, and Competition Including the Top Ten Critical Facilities Issues.
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , 2007)
Identifies and discusses ten critical facilities issues, as determined by a panel of higher education and industry leaders. These are: improving communications, sustainability, balancing and articulating expectations, integrating with information technology, focusing on the customer, aligning facilities planning with institutional goals, making master planning more effective, implementing total cost of ownership strategies, managing maintenance and adaptive reuse, and instituting metrics for performance measurement. 36p.
Long-Range School Facility Master Plan. Community Involvement is Key. [Virginia Beach, VA]
(Virginia Beach City Public Schools, 2007)
Virginia Beach City Public Schools is committed to providing state-of-the art schools to its approximately 72,000 students. Testimony to this is the fact that 22 schools have been replaced or renovated since 1996. This describes the purpose of the Long-Range School Facility Master Plan Steering Committee and how the community will be involved.
Salt Lake Community College Comprehensive Facilities Master Plan 2008—2028.
(Salt Lake City Community College, Utah, 2007)
Presents the facilities master plan for this instituion consistint of three full-service campuses, 11 sites, an eCampus for online learning, and nearly 1,000 continuing education sites. The plan reflects existing programs and facilities; regional population, employment and transportation models for Salt Lake County; and broad models for comprehensive community colleges. It includes college-wide recommendations, as well as recommendations for individual campuses
Tacoma Community College Facilities Master Plan.
(Tacoma Community College, Tacoma, WA, 2007)
Presents this institution's 2005 long range facilities master plan, along with a 2007 update, outlining a vision of the campus and facility development for the next 20 years. The document is organized into 5 sections addressing the master planning goals and strategies, program needs analysis, existing conditions, planing and design guidelines, and developm recommendations and implementation plans.
Ten Year Facilities Plan. [Idaho]
(Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise, 2007)
Presents documents suggesting what a ten-year facility plan should include, as well as examples of the various facility plan sections and spreadsheets that can be used to calculate demographic, capacity, and building condition data.
Realizing the Dream: Providence Public School Department School Facility Master Plan.
(Dejong, Inc., Dublin, OH , Dec 2006)
Focuses on major renovations and building replacements while simultaneously addressing deferred maintenance projects in existing Providence school buildings. This master plan shifts district's building improvement efforts from a reactive repair program to a proactive renovation/replacement program. It proposes to phase in facility improvements in a manner that new and fully renovated school projects will occur throughout the City of Providence. The Plan proposes minimizing students' exposure to risk by consolidating work into a single phase while students are removed from the facility, supports redesign of buildings to enhance delivery of educational programming while providing basic "bricks and mortar" renovation of building systems; and a framework for quality and cost control that is more effective than multiple small projects at a single site. 81p.
Educational Facilities Planning: A Systems Model.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh , Dec 2006)
Proposes a systems model of public educational facilities planning. The model represents a theoretical construct from which design professionals and educators can better organize, understand, analyze, communicate, and research complex cause-effect relationships that occur when educational facilities are designed and constructed. The Systems Model for Planning of Educational Facilities attempts to: 1) identify and describe complicated social, cultural, political, and economic mechanisms at work when public schools are designed and constructed in a pluralistic democratic society, 2) make understandable the relationships between those mechanisms and educational facility planning, and 3) formalize causal inferences between social, cultural, political, and economic mechanisms, educational facility planning, and educational facilities. 315p.
Intergovernmental Collaboration and School Facility Siting.
(University of North Carolina, Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Chapel Hill , Aug 2006)
Summarizes the May 3, 2006 Summit on Intergovernmental Collaboration and School Siting, addressing communication and collaboration between school boards and local governments in selecting sites for schools. The goal of the summit was to create an open dialogue between school boards and local governments while building a model of collaboration that key stakeholders can use to coordinate local land use, school funding, and school planning. The report details the participants' plans for advancing their collaboration, organized along five themes: institutionalizing collaborative processes, creating a common goal and vision, establishing a culture of trust, improving communication and information, and changing policy. 31p.
University of Florida 2005-2015 Comprehensive Master Plan. [Gainesville, Florida]
(University of Florida, Campus Planning and Construction Management, Gainesville, FL, Mar 2006)
This master plan covers the main and satellite campuses of the University, as well as the adjacent off-campus neighborhoods. Sections of the plan address academic mission and program, urban design elements, land use, academic facilities, support facilities, housing, recreation and open space, general infrastructure, utilities, transportation, conservation, capital improvements, architectural design guidelines, landscape architectural guidelines, facilities maintenance, and coastal management.
East Haddam Public School Long Range Facilities Plan.
(East Haddam Public Schools, Moodus, CT , Jan 10, 2006)
Presents this small (less than 1500 students) district's plan to re-organize into a three-school system consisting of a preK-3, 4-8, and 9-12 grade facilities. The grades 4-8 school is to be built, the district central office is to be moved to the municipal building (which was formerly a middle school), and the elementary and high schools are to be repaired and renovated. 11p.TO ORDER: http://www.easthaddamschools.org/
Green River Community College Facilities Master Plan.
(Green River Community College, Auburn, WA, 2006)
Details the facilities master plan for this community college. The master plan incorporates future renovations, replacement, and growth projects for funding over the next several State of Washington funding cycles. In addition to planning for future development, master planning work has also established conceptual criteria for a variety of campus planning, infrastructure, and environmental topics. The primary goal of this master plan is to provide a tool that will assist GRCC with its decisions regarding ongoing and emergent facilities development issues.
Mississippi School Design Institute: A Report of Findings.
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , 2006)
Presents the findings from a workshop with four Mississippi districts whose school infrastructure was seriously damaged by Hurricane Katrina. A summary of each school district and its demographics is followed by descriptions of the damage it sustained and the particular challenges it faces in rebuilding and reconfiguring its school facilities options. 28p.
National School Design Institute: A Report of Findings.
(Ameican Architectural Foundation, Washington, DC , 2006)
Reviews school design workshops in Buffalo, New York; Carroll County, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; Natrona County, Wyoming; and Pass Christian, Mississippi, a community devastated by Hurricane Katrina. Embedded in the comments and design recommendations are best practices regarding a range of issues, such as school size, technology, trends in learning, siting and location, and public process and community-school collaboration. The document reflects the comments and recommendations of specific projects presented by the superintendents of five school districts. Each superintendent was invited to bring an educational specialist, a community representative, and the project architect to work with a team of nationally recognized architects specializing in the field of K 12 education. Two designers were assigned to each district, and a design charrette was conducted for each project during the one and one-half days of the institute. 53p.
Proposition MM: Repairing our Neighborhood Schools. [San Diego, California]
(San Diego City Schools, CA, 2006)
Provides information on and reports on the progress of San Diego's Proposition MM, a $1.51 billion bond measure that funds modernization of 161 existing schools and construction of 12 new and three rebuilt schools. Also included on the website is a history of the proposition, the long range facilities master plan, status of new/rebuilt schools, environmental impact reports, designs, maps, advice on naming a new school and planning a ribbon cutting event, and other links.
Seattle Public Schools 2010 Facilities Master Plan Update.
(Seattle Public Schools, 2006)
Includes planning assumptions, demographics, enrollment projections, capacity, analysis, list of buildings, school facilities guidelines, inventory, landmarks, community use and administrative spaces.
Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.TO ORDER: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/
Facilities Master Plan: A Holistic Approach to Improving the Relationship between Community Development and Public Spending for Chicago's Schools.
(University of Illinois at Chicago , Nov 11, 2005)
Report how a through a lack of comprehensive planning by the Chicago Public School Board and the Chicago Department of Planning and Development, coupled with a strictly market approach to community development, public schools in Chicago's West Town community have been unable to successfully meet the academic needs of the students. The report documents the efforts of low-income residents in a gentrifying community to save their schools, which are considered the centers of their community. An explanation of the need for a facilities master plan for the Chicago Public Schools is described through an analysis of similar efforts and research nationwide. Descriptions of the two agencies carrying out the facilities master plan pilot process in West Town, including a brief history of the changing demographics in the community and its affect on the neighborhood schools are included. 54p.
Educational Facility Master Planning: A 10-Point Check List for Educational Excellence.
(SchoolFacilities.com, Nov 01, 2005)
This article presents a 10-point checklist of issues to consider during the facility planning process. Issues pertain to a single school being remodeled or to an entire school district undergoing massive remodeling, new construction, and maintenance upgrades.
Long Range Facilities Planning and Design Implementation for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for New Jersey School Districts.
Lowenkron, Ruth; Ponessa, Joan
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Sep 2005)
Offers guidance to assist with inclusion of universal design in long range educational facilities plans. The guidelines recommend the assembling of a facilities advisory board and an inclusion planning board to network with experts in inclusive education. These boards should be familiar with the federal requirements for accommodation of disabled persons, the condition and accessibility of existing facilities, and should develop facility and adjacency guidelines for the district. They should be equipped with demographic data including enrollment projections and the location and distribution of special needs students, which they should synthesize and communicate to appropriate personnel. Summary guidelines for the inclusion of disabled students are included, organized by type of disability. 15p.
Sauk Valley Community College Facilities Master Plan.
Presents the ten-year facilities plan for this rural Illinois institution. An introduction is followed by six sections that discuss needs for different types of indoor and outdoor space at the college, including grounds, academic structures, accessibility, and administrative space. Section 9 summarizes and prioritizes the recommendations that are made throughout the plan, within the categories of high, medium, and low priority projects. 28p.
Development of a Methodology for Determining Future Year School Boundaries.
(Transportation Planning Services, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale, FL , Jun 2005)
Identifies various techniques for developing future year school enrollment by traffic analysis, a review of current methodologies, and by examining the processes used by school boards in the south Florida area. Analysis of existing and projected state data is included in the process. 30p.
2005 Long Range Facilities Plan Preliminary Guidelines.
(New Jersey Department of Education, Division of Finance, Office of School Facilities, Trenton , Jan 28, 2005)
Describes the New Jersey State Department of Education's reporting guidelines that districts must follow when compiling 2005 long range facilities plans. Separate sections describe requirements and recommendations from the state, along with data collection forms, facilities standards, and special requirements of Abbott districts. 52p.
Building a Vision for Chicago's Schools & Neighborhoods: A Framework for a Facilities Master Plan.
(Neighborhood Capital Budget Group, Chicago, IL , 2005)
Details this organization's recommendations concerning a facilities master plan for Chicago's schools. These include: development of a master plan by June 2006, community engagement to help shape the educational vision for Chicago's public schools, increased intergovernmental cooperation for a more coordinated approach to planning for schools and community development, adoption of policies to ensure that schools are part of efforts to revitalize Chicago neighborhoods, and issuance of a school facilities report card each year. 37p.
FMI K-12 Public School Construction Management.
(FMI, Raleigh, NC , 2005)
Presents the results of a survey of the largest 500 school systems in the U.S. that discusses top issues in construction management, trends in school construction, master planning practices, funding, project management practices, commissioning, prototype schools, and sustainability. 26p.TO ORDER: Contact Phil Warner at Pwarner@fminet.com, Tel: 919-785-9357
From Large School Buildings to Small School Campuses: Orchestrating the Shift.
(New Visions for Public Schools, New York, NY , 2005)
Describes the redesign of 21 mostly low-performing large New York City schools into smaller learning communities sharing space with each other and with the large schools they were formed out of. The background legislation that enabled the changes and the adaptive reuse of large buildings are described, and the footprint of the small schools is detailed and illustrated with individual floor plans reflecting building configuration and the instructional program and special uses of various classrooms. Also described is the participatory master planning process that involved teachers and students. 34p.
Facility Siting: Risk, Power and Identity in Land Use Planning.
Boholm, Asa; Löfstedt, Ragnar, eds.
(Earthscan Publications, London, United Kingdom, 2005)
This penetrating new edited collection examines risk, power and identity in contests over the siting of infrastructure and industrial facilities. Examines the social, political and environmental issues at stake and the acute conflicts over conflicting data, politics, perception and controversy for industry, planners and authorities and citizens. Authors from a a variety of fields bring a multi-perspective analysis to case studies from the UK, US and Europe and expose the political and cultural dimensions of siting conflicts. In the process they show how place attachment and notions of landscape and local identity play a prominent role in resistance to 'development'. 256p.TO ORDER: http://www.earthscan.co.uk/
Planning and Managing the Campus Facilities Portfolio.
Daigneau, William A., ed.
(APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, and National Association of University and College Business Officers, Washington, DC , 2005)
Discusses key elements for managing a higher education institution's facilities portfolio, with three sections presenting issues in the order in which they should be addressed. The first section discusses the importance of an institution's mission and strategic goals, estimating future demand through enrollment forecasting, and the development of a strategic vision for the campus in terms of development of its facilities. The second section reviews the elements of a comprehensive facility assessment, the importance of an "environmental scan" to determine external mandates that will affect capital decisions and the institution's resulting capital plan. The third section covers the essential components of a campus master plan, its financing issues and implementation strategies, and the organizational requirements for effective management of the facilities portfolio. 148p.TO ORDER: APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA, 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446
Paying for Schools: Does Smart Growth Matter? Growth Patterns in El Paso County and the Falcon School District.
Greenwood, Daphne; Stiedemann, Jacob
(University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Center for Colorado Policy Studies , Sep 17, 2004)
Describes how three factors have combined to create an unsustainable solution for both homeowners and school districts in some of the most rapidly growing areas in the Pikes Peak region: 1) the segregation of residential from commercial and industrial property, 2) the Gallagher Amendment effect on residential property assessments, and 3) the existence of sixteen separate school districts in El Paso County. Without sufficient commercial property, homeowners must pay higher taxes to fund infrastructure than they would in more diversified districts 13p.
The Long Term Facilities Planning Process...A Guide to Improving Education While Improving Communities.
Ponessa, Joan; Simmens, Herb
(Education Law Center and New Jersey Institute of Technology Center for Architecture and Building Science Research, Newark , Sep 2004)
Provides a framework to assist New Jersey's Abbott districts in preparing for and developing their required long range facilities plans. The document is designed to take the district from where it currently is to where it should be during the next five years, involving administrators, boards of education, and facilities advisory boards. Recommended steps for preparation include budgeting, organizing, and hiring consultants. The type and manner of information gathering is detailed, and steps in actual development of the plan are described. 33p.
Honduras School Facility Master Plan.
(Schools for the Children of the World, Dublin, OH , Apr 2004)
Presents the results of an extensive assessment of the condition of Honduras schools, detailing the age, size, and condition of the buildings and systems, as well as evaluating their educational adequacy. Present and projected enrollment is illustrated in numerous charts, as are estimated renovation and replacement costs. A description of Honduras' school funding mechanisms and recommendations for implementing the master plan are included. 65p.
Creating Communities of Learning: Schools and Smart Growth.
(Education Law Center, Trenton, NJ , Apr 2004)
Describes two projects seeded by New Jersey's Communities of Learners campaign: a national design competition for a new high school in Perth Amboy, and an effort to create large scale public engagement in a community school master planning process in Plainfield. The successes, failures, and impediments realized through this experimental collaboration are chronicled, and recommendations on how to create schools as centers of communities are offered. 58p.
The Abbott School Construction Program: Report on the NJ Department of Education Proposed Regulations on Long-Range Facilities Plans
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Feb 16, 2004)
According to findings contained in this report, Abbott districts must develop new five-year facility improvement plans next year, but lack guidance from the New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE)on how to perform this critical task. In addition, rules recently proposed by NJDOE fail to address minimal requirements for sound facilities planning, and must be completely overhauled. The proposed rules are under review by the State Board of Education. The rules fail to: 1) Direct districts to adopt a schedule and budget to ensure effective completion of the plans by the EFCFA deadline, and to maximize participation of stakeholders in the planning process; 2) Instruct districts on conducting a thorough re-assessment of their education program as a foundation for planning new or renovated facilities; 3)Provide standards for planning community centered schools; 4) Require NJDOE to maintain a reliable, public database to promote community engagement in facilities planning and State and district accountability for effective program implementation. 15p.
Creating Connections: The CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning.
(Council of Education Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Guides new and experienced school planners from the conception of educational needs through occupancy and use of the completed facilities. Chapters follow the planning, design, and occupancy processes in sequence as follows: forming the educational plan, creating community partnerships, establishing a master plan, writing educational specifications, addressing design guidelines, evaluating and selecting the site, infusing technology, integrating sustainable design, working with a design team, evaluating project delivery options, identifying cost and funding options, monitoring construction, integrating maintenance and operations, and assessing the completed project. Numerous references, photographs, drawings, figures, and a glossary are included. 386p.TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org/i4a/ams/amsstore/category.cfm?product_id=90
School Facility Plan.
August 24, 2007
(North Dakota Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck , 2004)
Presents North Dakota's collection of forms to assist school districts in the development of sophisticated, conclusive, and supportive documentation for proposed school facility projects. The plan also assists the Department of Public Instruction in facilitating the delivery of quality programs and services. 25p.
Schools as Centers of Community: A Citizens' Guide For Planning and Design. Second edition.
Bingler, Steven; Quinn, Linda; Sullivan, Kevin
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Council of Educational Facility Planners, Building Educational Success Together, Coalition for Community Schools , Dec 2003)
This publication outlines a process for planning schools that more adequately addresses the needs of the whole learning community. It explores six design principles for creating effective learning environments, provides 13 case studies that illustrate various aspects of the six design principles, and examines the facilities master planning process for getting started and organized, including developing and implementing a master plan. It provides references, sources for additional information, photographs and plans. 76p.
Incorporating GIS Technology in Educational Facility Planning: One District's Response to Growth.
Dufour, Kelly A.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners Int'l, Scottsdale, AZ , 2003)
Describes how the Mason City Schools (Ohio) used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to predict development patterns and plan schools in their high-growth community. The GIS system combined layers of data for roads, rivers, zoning, subdivisions, census and births, residential permits, and historical enrollment. This knowledge enabled the school system to take a participatory role in planning development. (Includes six references.) 4p.
District of Columbia Public Schools Facilities Master Plan Update-Fall 2003.
(District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington , Fall 2003)
Highlights the progress and challenges of implementing the District's 2000 school facilities master plan. This update continues to support the goals and general recommendations as presented in 2000. However, it has been modified to reflect recent programmatic changes, fiscal constraints, and charter school legislation. Chapters cover the planning environment, enrollment, capacity, available space, charter schools, capital funding and implementation, followed by planning recommendations for eight geographical areas of the District, school boundary maps, and profiles of existing schools. 384p.
Technology Master Plan: Charleston County School District.
(Charleston County School District, Charleston, SC , Jun 2003)
Presents the district's design, facilities, training, maintenance, and support plans for technology integration. The vision for technology and mission statement are explained, and state legislation for educational is cited. Cost estimates and a funding/implementation plan are provided. Appendices discuss E-rate and provide detailed specifications for telecommunications and server rooms, classrooms, computer labs, administrative spaces, and specialty rooms. 75p.
Education Facilities Master Plan 2003-2012. [Westminster, Maryland]
(Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, Maryland, Apr 23, 2003)
This includes a description of basic assumptions and parameters, a summary of capital project needs, and a ten-year facilities master plan calendar of capital and improvement projects. 6p.
The Economic Impact of Implementing the Cincinnati Public Schools' Facilities Master Plan on Greater Cincinnati.
(Cincinnati University, Economics Center for Education & Research, Ohio. , Apr 2003)
The construction proposed in the Cincinnati Public Schools' Facilities Master Plan will have a significant impact on the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, economy. Highlights include: (1) the Facilities Master Plan of the Cincinnati Public Schools envisions a 10-year program with $985 million in construction spending. The funding of this program includes $211 million from the State of Ohio, which increases the purchasing power of the $774 million local funding commitment; (2) the Facilities Master Plan will generate a total of $2.35 billion in economic impact, including $718 million in local household wages and salaries, meaning an average annual impact of the Facilities Master Plan for the next 10 years of $232 million, and household earnings totaling $71 million and 2,339 jobs will be generated for area residents each year; (3) the return of $718 million in wages and salaries for $774 million in local dollars is important, meaning that every $100 in local funding ultimately returns $93 in wages and salaries to the pockets of local workers; (4) business activity will especially be stimulated in the construction, business services, real estate, and retail sectors; and (5) economic benefits may result from improvements in educational quality, quality of life, and physical conditions of neighborhoods, but are not measured here. 35p.
Planning Guidelines for Facility Master Plans. [Wyoming]
(Wyoming School Facility Commission, Cheyenne, WY, 2003)
These school facility planning guidelines have been developed to assist local school district officials in complying with the planning requirements of the State of Wyoming. Sections include: community profile; district profile; community involvement; capacity and utilization analysis; enrollment projections; development of the master plan including building condition, educational suitability, ADA, site improvements, and energy efficiency; and cost estimates. 20p.
Master Planning and School Building
Bassett, Patrick F.
(National Association of Independent Schools , Dec 01, 2002)
This outlines the key steps in the planning and execution of a school or campus building plan: mission and program review; survey of constituents; building feasibility study; develpment of master plan; selection of an architect; site selection; building interiors; design testing; fund raising/capitalizing; and construction management. 2p.
If This Is Democracy, Then I Missed the Bus.
(Challenge West Virginia, Charleston , May 2002)
Relates the experiences of small school advocates who felt blocked from the school planning process after West Virginia awarded its counties planning grants in 1998. The author cites a post-planning survey that found flaws in the planning process, with parents and students typically shut out of the process. A climate of exclusion, secrecy, and conflict of interest is cited, and case studies from five counties are included. 13p.
From Academic Vision to Physical Manifestation.
Walleri, R. Dan; Becker, William E.; Linn, Christopher
(Paper presented at the Society for College and University Planning Workshop for University and Institute Planners, Sydney, Australia , Feb 20, 2002)
This paper, from Mount Hood Community College (MHCC) in Oregon, describes the complex process of preparing an educational master plan. The paper reflects on how this process involved a number of consultants and a very active strategic planning council within the institution. It discusses three approaches to master planning: (1) not preparing a formal plan, but rather responding to needs and opportunities as they arrive; (2) severely limiting stakeholder involvement by having a plan prepared primarily by a single individual; and (3) designing and executing a comprehensive and exhaustive participatory process, which is the technique MHCC used with much success. Initially, the College employed several outside firms to assist with analyses, held a community forum, conducted an employer survey, and forged partnerships with local businesses. Based on input from various campus units and the community, the president's Strategic Planning Council developed a set of priorities, which were reviewed and acted on by the board. The strength of this participatory process is that it is inclusive, both internally and with regard to the external community. It also behooves the College to secure support for the master plan at the earliest stages of the process. Weaknesses of this approach include potential pitfalls in coordination. In 2001, when a new president joined the College, the master plan was ready to be finalized, and a local bond measure to fund the facilities component was in preparation. (Contains 20 references.) 16p.
Facilities Master Plan (San Francisco, California).
(San Francisco Unified School District, San Francisco, CA , 2002)
This facilities master plan provides the framework for the facilities improvement program for the San Francisco Unified School District. The plan contains: educational goals, a demographic report, capacity studies, facilities assessments, cost models, funding sources evaluation and project recommendations. 379p.TO ORDER: San Francisco Unified School District, School Operations, 135 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102; Tel: (415) 355-6979
A Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program.
Oates, Arnold D.; Burch, A. Lee
The Model Schedule for a Capital Improvement Program described in this paper encourages school leaders to consider a more holistic view of the planning process. It is intended to assist those responsible for educational facility planning, who must assure that all important and relevant tasks are accomplished in a timely manner. The model's six phases are: (1) assessment of current facilities, programs, and community beliefs; (2) preliminary planning for facility master plan development; (3) implementing the facility master plan; (4) marketing the master plan; (5) implementation of projects in the master plan; and (6) post-occupancy evaluation. Each phase includes a list of tasks and responsible persons, and an estimated time frame.
MIT Campus Planning 1960-2000.
Simha, O. Robert
(MIT Press, Cambridge, MA , 2001)
Reviews 123 projects that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Planning Office executed in the first four decades of its existence. Projects are presented chronologically and described by the Director of Planning for those 40 years. The motivation for the projects, the decision and design processes, and the results of each endeavor are described, along with successes, problems, and unfulfilled goals. 160p.TO ORDER: The MIT Press, c/o Triliteral, 100 Maple Ridge Drive, Cumberland, RI 02864; Tel: 800-405-1619 or 401-658-4226
Planning Effective Leadership for Facility Development (for Small and Medium Size Districts).
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Feb 23, 2000)
This paper draws on the experience of the Sebastopol Union School District, a small school district in California, which formed a team to manage facilities renovation. The team was comprised of the district superintendent, the architect, a construction manager, and a facility/financial consultant; it allowed the district to succeed at the school construction "game" in a manner similar to large school districts that enjoy well-developed facility departments. The roles and responsibilities of each team member are outlined for the following phases of facility development: master planning/educational specifications, funding and finances, design, pre- construction, construction, and post-construction. It illustrates the manner in which the several consultants coordinated their roles and responsibilities in an effort to ensure the most effective leadership for successful completion of projects that support the facility master plan. 13p.
An Overview of the Facilities Master Plan Process Purpose.
(Presentation by HMC Architecture Interior Planning; Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA. , Feb 2000)
This paper provides a description of facilities master plans and the process of creating one. The plan serves as a guide for assessing the need for facility improvements and capital investments to implement them, including justification for developer fees. The facilities master plan determines the scope of repairs, modernization, upgrades, and new construction needed to serve the current and future school facilities needs of the community. It also assesses the variety of federal, state, and local funding sources and financing options available to the district and provides a prudent view of the scope of projects that may reasonably be accomplished with available funds. The paper addresses how the planning process begins; forming the teams and committees; setting the vision, mission, and goals; sample vision and mission statements and goals; initial planning activities; activities of the architect, educational planner, and demographer; and a master plan outline. 12p.
The Atlanta Public Schools Build Smart Project.
(Atlantic Public School, Facilities Planning, Design, and Construction, GA, 2000)
The Atlanta Public Schools has established a strategic plan for improving student performance, including whole school reform, annual performance targets and accountability measures. In support of this plan, the system has embarked upon a facilities plan (the Build Smart Project) for renovation/construction to all instructional facilities, with the goal of creating positive learning environments for every child in the system, either in a new or completely renovated facility. Describes community involvement, questions and answer, planning policy, planning process, and Build Smart recommendations.
The School Facilities Manual. Chapter 3 - Advanced Planning (Study & Survey).
(Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), WA, 2000)
Chapter three of the manual covers: The Advance Planning Process; Financial Assistance for Planning; Participatory Planning; Study and Survey Report; Community Analysis; Educational Plan; School Enrollment Analysis; Evaluation of Existing Facilities; Long-Range Plan; Assessing Financial Resources; Recommendations; Board Review and Approval.
Planning Educational Facilities for the Next Century.
Earthman, Glen I.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2000)
This book examines each phase in the process of planning capital projects and those individuals in the schools who make decisions about the buildings students will use. It uses the long range planning process of the school system as the vehicle for providing the proper housing for students and programs. Program development, student enrollment projections, existing facility evaluation, and financial planning are discussed. Further areas address the development of the capital improvement program, architect employment, educational specifications development, the federal regulations in planning educational facilities, design phase monitoring, construction project bidding and construction phase management, and technology planning. Appendices provide sample forms and correspondence such as the standard forms of agreement between owner and architect and between owner and contractor, a middle school appraisal form, site selection flow chart, a flow chart for developing educational specifications, job description for construction supervisor, a planning process evaluation form, and school planning checklist. 299p.
Seattle School District Facilities Master Plan Update.
(Seattle Public Schools, WA , Mar 17, 1999)
Updates the district's 1992 master plan, which corrects projected enrollment increase that were not realized, and turns instead to the accommodation of new educational programming requirements. The plan emphasizes attendance of schools closer to home, which causes capacity constraints in some areas. The plan also reflects a new methodology of funding schools in which funding is aligned with the needs of students, rather than simple numbers. 116p.
Long-Range Facilities Master Plan 1999-2013 for San Diego City Schools.
(San Diego City Schools, CA , 1999)
This document describes the steps taken by the San Diego City Schools District to determine existing and future needs, to establish guidelines and standards for the future, and to develop an implementation plan to provide the district's students with the best facilities possible in order to optimize the learning environment. This report includes an executive summary, a description of the process, and chapters on school programs, support services, existing facilities, demographics, and an implementation plan. Incorporates new standards on such items as code compliance, upgrades, technology, adequate classroom and support areas for current populations, site improvements for parking and playfields. Policies for such factors as school size, single-session kindergarten, replacement of older and permanent portable classrooms, neighborhood schools, site size, and multi-track year round education were used to evaluate the adequacy of existing facilities and forecast the need for new schools.
Handbook on Planning School Facilities. [West Virginia]
Clutter, Wayne; Elswick, Bill
(West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston, WV , 1999)
The state of West Virginia requires all its counties to develop a 10-year Comprehensive Educational Facilities Plan (CEFP), update it annually, and rewrite every 10th year. This guide addresses the development of a 10-year CEFP plan, its components and governing regulations. Chapters examine the CEFP process and requirements in the following areas: educational facilities planning; site design; common facilities necessary for school operation; facilities for primary education, and junior high and high school education; instructional areas for exceptional students; vocational educational facilities; general support facilities; facility safety; surface and other facilities such as those involving engineering and custodial services; and environmental controls. The guide's final section addresses statutes, procedures, and tasks relative to preparing and submitting the CEFP for approval, including on-site inspections by state officials and current standards for existing facilities. 250p.
Long Range Facilities Master Plan Study. Port Washington Union Free School District, Port Washington, New York.
(Prepared by KBD Planning Group, Bloomington, IN , Dec 1998)
This is the executive summary of a facilities master plan for a New York school district. This summarizes the charge, the process, and findings, as well as provides a list of recommendations. 5p
District of Columbia Public School System (DCPS) Facilities Master Plan Using GIS
Kilical, Ferhan; Kilical, Adil
(The Catholic University of America Resources, Inc., 1995)
This describes how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used in evaluating the conditions of the 164 operating public schools in the District of Columbia. GIS themes utilized include ward boundaries, school locations, attendance zones, and streets.
Developing a Master Plan for Your School. School Buildings Planning, Design, and Construction Series No 1.
Odell, John H.
(Association of Independent Schools of New South Wales, Ltd., Sydney, Australia , 1995)
School construction guide offers key personnel in school development projects with guidance on the complex task of master planning and construction of schools in Australia. This chapter of the guide provides advice on how to set up a Master Planning Team and establish a plan for quickly completing the building process. It provides an overview of the planning process, discusses the skills required in the Planning Team, explores task assignments and time allocation for each, examines how to set key targets, and reviews value management and life-cycle costing. Specific topics address such areas as the business plan development, building access, financial planning, and school and community consultation. Illustrations outlining the planning processes are included. 31p.
Planning for Master Planning.
Reeves, John; Smith, Marion
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, 1995)
This book assists facilities administrators to prepare for the master planning efforts. It is organized into the following chapters: "Defining Master Planning," "The Process," "Determining Objectives," "Where to Begin," "Master Plan Administration," and "The Selection Process." The authors of this book assume that outside architects will design the plan, but they urge in-house preparation, including eliciting support, defining the plan's needs, and collecting relevant information. 103p.Report NO: A694
TO ORDER: APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers
School Ways: The Planning and Design of America's Schools.
Graves, Ben E.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1993)
This sourcebook draws upon award-winning educational projects to examine emerging trends and new technology in educational facilities design. It presents profiles of the best designed schools of the last decade; new trends in school layouts; essential programming information on space needs, classroom size, and other design criteria; design tips for accommodating computers and audio-visual equipment; and guidance on organizing the programming and design phases of school construction. Additionally, it explains how to prepare long-range facility plans, how to inventory and evaluate existing facilities, and how to prepare educational specifications as well as providing a detailed summary and directory of information and planning resources. 237p.
Facilities Planning and Construction.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1991)
This self-assessment guide is designed to assist members of fiscal policy teams in assessing current district standards and practices in the area of school facility planning and construction in relation to the total educational program. Arranged to complement the components of a long-range master plan, the guide is divided into nine parts: (1) organization and process for planning a facility; (2) use of demographics in planning; (3) selection and acquisition of the site; (4) determination of the need for educational facilities; (5) program requirements; (6) selection of an architect; (7) financing for the facility; (8) construction of the school building; and (9) orientation and post occupancy evaluation for users. 95p.
Schools for the Twenty-First Century.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1990)
Proper planning in the design of new school facilities saves time, money, and resources. The importance of planning increases when funds are scarce, as limited dollars must be put to their best use. A dialogue should be generated in the community and among members of the school planning committee regarding how schools should look. Many questions that must be considered in the construction of new schools and building remodeling are addressed as well as issues and alternatives each district can take into account with its own resources, situation, and philosophy. The first section looks at a hypothetical school containing design elements that are described and discussed in section 2. Section 3 outlines planning steps, specification determination, and planning for quality. Design examples of nine schools, a master plan checklist, and a listing of resources in providing planning assistance are included. 81p.TO ORDER: California Department of Education Press Publications, California Department of Education, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: 916-327-7148
Guide for the Development of a Long-Range Facilities Plan.
(California School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, CA, 1986)
This guide assists school districts in the development of a comprehensive facilities master plan. The guide includes sections on educational program, how to evaluate the utilization and condition of existing facilities, how to conduct a demographic study, and how to implement and evaluate the master plan. 32p.
Wake Forest University Campus Master Plan
(Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 1986)
This master plan pays particular attention to the original environment of campus, addressing the ongoing need to preserve green space and to enhance the beauty of campus. The plan addresses the campus environment, building sites, traffic and parking, landscaping, land use, building conditions, and includes appendices covering the implementation of capital planning, a report on architectural standards, and a campus planning map.
School Facility Planning System: Final Report.
(St. Louis Resesarch Consortium, Clayton, MO , 1976)
Presents a computer-based version and a manual version of a set of techniques developed to assist in forecasting the need for primary and secondary school facilities, and in critically evaluating proposals to satisfy that need. The report is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the project organization, staffing, methodology, and final products of the system. Chapter 2 reviews the general level of school facility planning in the United States, based on a survey of literature, school district interviews, and local and state questionnaires. Chapters 3 through 6 examine the four basic components of the system. Chapter 7 summarizes different procedures for using the system, with emphasis on techniques for recognizing and appreciating "uncertainty." The final chapter summarizes initial responses to the system based on a preliminary evaluation by various school administrators. 110p.
School Facility Planning System: User's Handbook, Manual Version.
(St. Louis Resesarch Consortium, Clayton, MO , 1976)
Presents a set of techniques is presented to assist administrators in forecasting the need for primary and secondary school facilities and in critically evaluating proposals to satisfy that need. The four basic components--enrollment, facility, fiscal, and geographic are adapted for school districts without access to a computer and require only a desk calculator. Forms for manual calculation of the components are included. Two additional chapters present considerations for (1) organizing a major planning project and (2) selecting alternative plans, assembling data, and periodically rerunning the system. 220p.
Bricks and Mortarboards. A Report on College Planning and Building.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Presents discussions on the current status of the college classroom, laboratory, library, dormitory, and campus planning. Chapters by various authors emphasize that the new classroom buildings and lecture halls should enable fewer teachers to teach more students, which can be achieved only in large teaching areas or in small areas linked electronically; emphasize flexibility that can be attained by nonpermanent partitions and exposed, well-mounted utility feed lines; discuss problems libraries face in housing ever-expanding collections and accommodating the new technologies that have become part of the modern library; report on house plan, core plans, and other arrangements which provide more pleasant physical surroundings and further educational objectives by providing live or electronic aids to learning, and focus on theaters, museums, recital halls, health centers, college unions, and research facilities.
Step by Step to Better School Facilities.
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY , 1965)
Considers the improvement of school facilities in four parts: 1) development of a long-range plan including curriculum and building needs; 2) development of an individual project, covering stages from planning through occupancy; 3) planning for specifics of function, health, beauty, and economy, and 4) whether to modernize or build new. 382p.
School Building Planning.
McClurkin, W. D.
(The MacMillan Company, New York, NY , 1964)
Advises on planning school building by first examining the planning process, development of educational policy, and master planning. Subsequent chapters consider selection of design and construction services, costs, and facts and myths concerning aspects of school building and classroom design, size, and lighting. Includes 74 references. 150p.
Planning America's School Buildings.
(American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC , 1960)
Advises on school planning and construction, addressing the impact of the educational environment, space and facility needs assessment, aesthetics, the planning process, enrollment predictions, site selection, capitalization, construction costs, renovation, and maintenance. 237p.
References to Journal Articles
Systemic Approach to Building 21st Century Schools: Experiences in the Aloha State
Bingler, Steven N,; Kaneko, William M.; Oshima, Alan M.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p35-37 ; Dec 2011
Recognizing that public funds are severely limited, in 2009, the Hawaii Institute for Public Affairs (HIPA) initiated a research- and community-based effort to develop an innovative, systemic and practicable approach to school facilities upgrades, management and development. The essence of this approach is to leverage underutilized or vacant public school lands that are consistent with the educational and community needs of the school, teachers and its students. Joint-use, lease-backs, land swaps and other use of public school lands provide unique opportunities to maximize the value of public school lands.
Long-Term Education Planning
Horkey, Don; Laue, Julianne
American School and University; Nov 2011
Sustainable master planning can produce long-range benefits for education institutions. Discusses tools and strategies such as benchmarking, energy audit, commissioning, and post-commisioning. Includes case studies of Red Wing High Public School District and College of Saint Benedict in Minnesota.
Smart Planning Saves Money.
American School Board Journal; v198 n5 , p44,45 ; May 2011
Describes strategic planning initiatives that can save money in school construction and renovation. In spite of a weak economy, school systems are still required to maintain and expand their facilities as necessary. Engaging all stakeholders to prioritize projects, transparent working sessions, facility benchmarking, adherence to curriculum needs, and attention to demographics are recommended.
American School and University; v83 n9 , p16-18,20,22.23 ; May 2011
Discusses a slight overall decline in student enrollment beginning in the 2007, even while some regions still experience growth. Districts with funding available are focusing on maintenance and renovation projects, since new classrooms are not needed. In some cases, instructional space was recently constructed that is already not needed.
Planning for the Future: Do a Comprehensive Demographic Study in 2011.
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p70 ; Mar 2011
Relates the release of 2010 Census data to the critical need for school districts to conduct a 10-year Comprehensive Demograhic Study. Population trends do not occur overnight, and a study of direction of change in housing, births, ethnicity, jobs, population, and age over 10 years will help create a model of change over the next decade.
Infrastructure Master Planning at Brandeis University.
Feldman, Daniel; Conway, David
Facility Management Journal; v21 n2 , p24-27 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Discusses a capital improvement campaign at this institution, which began with a detailed inventory of existing facility conditions, prioritization of projects, funding through a bond sale, timing of projects for minimum impact on campus functions, and new buildings. A list of five key points in infrastructure management is included.
Building the Community Nexus.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p35-37 ; 2011
Advocates integration of education and community services by effective siting of the facilities that house them. These community ?nexus? centers should be planned as a whole, include housing, and be walkable. The physical, cultural, social, economic, and educational domains making up the nexus are discussed, and an example of the concept being implemented in New Orleans is included.
Analytics as a Planning Tool.
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p86,87 ; Jan 2011
Discusses contemporary map analysis to help determine appropriate school boundaries and balance attendance. Examples from Hillsborough County, Florida, and Portland, Oregon are detailed.
Master Planning in Developing Communities.
College Planning and Management; v14 n1 , p96,97 ; Jan 2011
Discusses higher education master planning in countries desiring a better quality of life and a competitive stance in the global economy. Advice on connecting a campus to its culture, making it attractive to foreign students, including users in the planning, and partnering with local entities is offered.
Planning Schools for 2050? First, Let's Get Now Right.
School Business Affairs; v76 n10 , p8-10 ; Dec 2010
Describes a method of master planning schools that considers four levels. The foundation of the scheme is fundamentals, which includes room orientation, technology, and natural light. This is followed by design around the curriculum, which is then followed by creativity that includes using the environment as a learning tool, and interdisciplinary studies. Finally, attention to globalism that emphasizes multiculturalism is promoted.
It's All about the Kids: Keys for Successful District Master Planning.
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p84-87 ; Apr 2010
Makes the case for significant community in-put on creating school facilities and for a district-wide plan that coordinates education and world-class facilities. The author believes that process is as important as the product where the master plan is concerned. With the inevitable need to accommodate new technology in the classroom, buildings must be designed with flexibility for future adaptation in mind.
School Transformation and Development Map.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p14-16 ; 2010
Introduces 21st Century Skills Initiative, which advocates interdisciplinary learning and project-based learning. This is achieved through teacher collaboration, team teaching, RTIs (response to interventions), small learning communities, student cooperative learning, multi-age instruction and student internships. Charts are incorporated to demonstrate how stakeholders can convene to provide input.
Master Planning School District Facility Needs.
Prager, Gary; Matschulat, Robert
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p33-37 ; 2010
Addressing the need for sound decisions in allocating limited resources, describes in detail the steps a school district should take to develop a Facility Master Plan (FMP), a road map from the existing physical plant to a consensus vision of educational environments that is fully aligned with the mission of the school district.
Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v82 n3 , p221--229 ; Nov 2009
Profiles seven campus master planning and landscaping projects, awarded for their adherence to the stated goal of the facility, their ability to enhance learning, functionality, and sustainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine s school design awards.)
Mastering the Plan. [Using an Educational Adequacy Assessment.]
American School Board Journal; v196 n10 , p37,38 ; Oct 2009
Discusses facilities master planning, citing the St. Paul Public Schools example of assessing all properties for physical condition and educational adequacy. Elements of an assessment are outlined, and the use of the outcome to prioritize projects is addressed.TO ORDER: http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2009/October/Using-an-Educational-Adequacy-Assessment.aspx
Integrated Sustainable Architecture.
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p44,45 ; Oct 2009
Outlines four key characteristics of a sustainable school master plan: 1) supporting learning through integration of varying spaces, furnishings, and technologies; 2) putting schools at the centers of communities; 3) creating high-performance facilities; and 4) taking a long-term view.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p140-142 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the benefits of a long range facilities plan to a school district, how to work with the community to launch and reach consensus in a plan, and the standard components of a plan.
Avoiding the Costly Mistake.
American School Board Journal; v196 n7 , p26-28 ; Jul 2009
Advises on properly projecting enrollment before building new schools. Tools for more precise projections, typical mistakes, computer mapping, and correct use of demographic data are described.
A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons.
Hill, Susan; Thomas, Edward; Keller, Lawrence
Planning for Higher Education; v37 n2 , p16-26 ; Jul 2009
Examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan development and the early stages of implementation and evaluation. The article presents the framework for this process in detail and includes a three-year timetable. The authors discuss the unexpected landmines that threatened to undermine the process and the important lessons learned.
A Good Neighbor.
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p20,22-24 ; Jun 2009
Describes how the Thomas Jefferson Medical College constructed a new building in consultation with the users and the surrounding neighborhood. The result was removal of surface parking to an underground lot and gain of 1.4 acres of green space.
A Master Plan for Facilities.
Roy, Pamela; Phillips, Jan; Klinedinst, Robert
Business Officer; v42 n11 ; May 2009
Describes how the University of Southern Maine's Lewiston-Auburn College coordinated their facilities master plan upon receiving new property that was adjacent to the existing campus. The formation of the building expansion team, setting of facilities goals through numerous meetings with all stakeholders, prioritizing projects, attention to sustainability, budgeting and sequencing of projects, financial management, and lessons learned are addressed.
A Case Study in Master Planning the Learning Landscape: Hub Concepts for the University at Buffalo.
Educause Quarterly; v32 n1 ; 2009
Describes concepts for three types of learning spaces that grew out of a learning landscape planning process. The process was part of a master plan study for the three campuses of the University at Buffalo. The three space concepts described address the needs of different sets of constituents: the Teaching Hub with experimental spaces combined with support, Learning Corridors to enrich the student realm, and the Faculty Hub as a destination for interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars and researchers. These are some of the space concepts and strategies which are currently being applied during the refinement of the draft master plan.
Decisions Need to be Based on More than Money.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p94 ; Jan 2009
Addresses the urge to consolidate small school districts, advising that increased transportation costs and time, and creation of schools that are too large. Alternatives such as sharing teachers and distance learning are proposed.
Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v81 n3 ; Nov 2008
Profiles five outstanding campus master plans and landscaping projects, selected for their contribution to the educational program, adaptability, design, technology accommodation, sustainability, and maintainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)
Expedited, Effective, and Efficient.
Glover, Troy; Watson, Robb
School Planning and Management; v47 n11 , p45-47 ; Nov 2008
Reviews an expedited school facilities master planning process in Ohios South- Western City School District. An aggressive meeting schedule, extensive community input, and attention to equity enabled the District to create a plan that normally would have taken 10 to 12 months in three.
American School and University; v81 n3 , p354-356 ; Nov 2008
Advises on achieving campus master plan goals by working on a series of short-term goals as funds become available, developing priorities, concentrating on what works, and communicating the plan.
A Moving Target. (Using Demographics in Your School Construction Plan.)
American School Board Journal; v195 n10 , p20-23 ; Oct 2008
Discusses use of demographic information in school planning, including predicting areas of growth that will need schools and areas of decline that may necessitate closing or consolidating schools. Costs of maintaining underutilized or vacant schools, the practice retaining them in case of an unforseen upswing, the negative effects of school closures on neighborhoods, and some particular issues surrounding shifts between neighborhoods within metropolitan areas are considered.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Ten Reasons Why Colleges and Universities Undertake Campus Master Planning.
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n4 , p33-41 ; Jul 2008
Details ten reasons for campus master planning, providing for each the principal advantages, challenges, and elements for implementation of the planning effort. The reasons discussed include administrative, regulatory, space, deferred maintenance, growth, and community relations requirements.
Up and Coming.
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p68-70 ; Jun 2008
Profiles the work of Alabama's Baldwin County Public Schools in creating a school facilities master plan in a rapidly growing district. Extensive community involvement and support is described.
Building for the Future.
American School Board Journal; v195 n6 , p52,53 ; Jun 2008
Advocates the creation of school buildings that can adapt to future demographics and educational practices. Concepts to include in school master planning are changing grade spans, inclusivity, non-graded education, instruction design, integration into the community, and competition for students.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Visioning Improves Educational Facilities for Large School Districts.
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n1 , p24-26 ; 2008
Discusses how to manage planning in large and typically contentious school districts. Recommendations described include developing smaller and multiplexed schools, instituting new academic standards and accountability measures, compartmentalizing the district, allowing joint use of facilities, an establishing partnerships.
American School and University; v80 n4 , p16-21 ; Dec 2007
Presents major issues that school administrators should consider in ten areas: cost, security, technology, maintenance, health, energy efficiency, impact on learning, school as center of community, flexibility, and size.
Meeting the Challenges of Facility Needs.
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p22-24 ; Dec 2007
Advises on addressing the demands of aging educational infrastructure, in an environment of shrinking state funds and demands for equity in school facilities. Planning that budgets for short- and long-term needs, alternative ways to organize capital projects, non- traditional funding schemes, and quality project teams are discussed. Includes one reference.
Room to Grow.
School Construction News; v10 n6 , p35-37 ; Sep-Oct 2007
Discusses the importance of campus master planning that includes open spaces, pathways, and outdoor common areas. Also covered are student and faculty involvement in planning, timing, challenges, sustainability, architectural considerations, and community connection of the master plan.
Why School Building Programs Go Bust.
School Business Affairs; v73 n7 , p8-11 ; Jul 2007
Provides an extensive checklist of warning signs that might indicate funding trouble for a school capital program. These involve long-range planning, management of the bond issue, construction project management, building programming, and communication and citizen involvement.
Twenty Years and Beyond: Applying Futurist Ideas to School Growth and Expansion Decisions.
School Business Affairs; v73 n7 , p24-26 ; Jul 2007
Synthesizes outlooks on education taken by several futurists into four themes that should be taken into consideration in advance of expansion plans. These are: 1) strategic and updated technology, 2) building knowledge and skills that will valuable in the future, 3) building of "hyperhuman skills" such as discovery, creativity, and influence, and 4) accommodating demographic changes. Includes six references.
The Challenges Faced by Fast-Growing School Districts.
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p16,17,19,20 ; Jul 2007
Discusses challenges faced by America's fastest-growing school districts in projecting enrollment, funding new facilities, and finding sites. Examples from three fast-growing districts illustrate the situation.
Transforming the University Campus into a Sustainable Community.
Norton, Richard; Brix, Andrew; Brydon, Trevor; Davidian, Elijah; Dinse, Keely; Vidyarthi, Sanjeev
Planning for Higher Education; v35 n4 , p22-39 ; Jul 2007
Examines the sustainability of three different land use, housing, and transportation configurations for the University of Michigan's North Campus. Scenarios comparing the current conditions, build-out under current trends, and build-out under smart growth plans are assessed for economy, social equity, and environmental impact. Includes 25 references.
Crafting the Master Plan.
Colyer, Alan; Seeger, Chuck
Planning for Higher Education; v35 n3 , p63-69 ; Apr 2007
Advises on creating a campus master plan to manage enrollment growth at community colleges. Varying planning approaches used at two institutions in California and Texas are examined, with administrative, funding, and goals compared. Essential data, techniques for consensus building, visioning the future, establishing planning principles, community relations, and sustainability are covered, as they relate to the master planning process. Includes three references.
American School and University; v79 n9 , p18-20,22,24,26 ; Apr 2007
Reviews with statistics the trend toward enrollment in schools of choice, including private schools, charter schools, and schools outside the resident's district. Voucher programs from a number of states are described, as are some of the serious drains on enrollment prompted by school choice. Facilities implications of these fluid situations are also covered.
Buildings: The Gifts That Keep on Taking.
Facilities Manager; v23 n2 , p18-23 ; Mar-Apr 2007
Reflects on the value of higher education buildings as investments. The variety of integrated decisions determining need and priority are displayed as a pyramid, and a methdology for for determining priorities proposed. Six major recommendations for an asset investment strategy are proposed.
Campus Planning Design Awards.
ArchitectureBoston; v10 n1 , p76-81 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Presents the Boston Society of Architects Campus Planning Design Awards, which were bestowed upon six institutions in recognition of their plans' clarity of goals, vigorous analysis of the site, well-articulated solutions, clear connectivity, strong image of place, persuasive phasing, strong mission statement, and evidence of urban design creativity.
Rethinking the Educational Environment.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p3-8 ; 2007
Proposes an "educational environment program" as a replacement for educational specifications. The educational environment program systematically describes the desired community environment, learning environment, and physical environment. The community environment addresses civic design, program planning and partnership development relationships. The learning environment focuses on interpersonal relationships between students, teachers, and parents. The physical environment examines the relationship of building a site to the inhabitants and greater environment. Includes two references.
The Impact of the Housing Market on School Facility Planning.
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p18-21 ; 2007
Discusses educational planning in the wake of a housing slump, advising school distircts to identify multiple resources, gather data, and seek partnerships. Districts should pay close attention to live birth counts, enrollment in elementary schools, and migration patterns as well as to new housing starts and building permits. Includes three references.
Using Demography and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in School District Planning.
McKibben, Jerome; Cropper, Matthew
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n4 , p9-13 ; 2007
Details use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) information in enrollment forecasting, long-range facility planning, and redistricting. Recent advances in this field help demographers accurately forecast small population trends and smaller attendance areas. Census data is currently available in block-sized increments that detail demographic and migration trends.
Texas Architect; v57 n1 , p42-45 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Reviews the master plan of a new San Antonio area community college, consisting of buildings clustered around plazas and a planned combination of intentionally formal and informal spaces. Photographs, plans, and a list of project participants are included.
Demographics and Facilities Planning: Perspectives from Canada and Australia.
Skinner, Hugh; Kary, Ken; Tidswell, Andrew
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 ; 2007
Describes demographic changes in Canada and Australia that affect school facilities planning. Both of these countries experienced high birth rates and immigration in the 1950's and 1960's, followed by a decline in both in subsequent decades. Particulars of demographics, enrollment projections, and facilities responses for the Ottowa Catholic School Board and South Australia are discussed.
Mapping it Out.
American School and University; v79 n4 , p34-36 ; Dec 2006
Reviews uses for geographic information systems (GIS) in predicting enrollments, planning curricula, locating new schools, and master planning. A variety of information on residential growth, ethnicity, socioeconomic conditions, boundaries, and land use can be layered within GIS programming.
2006 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture
American School and University; v79 n3 , p290-293 ; Nov 2006
Prifiles three higher education master planning and landscape architecture projects selected for outstanding innovation, image, function, flexibility, maintainability, sustainability, security, community use, balance of aesthetics and function, and "spirit." Project information and photographs are included.
Learning from the Past?
School Planning and Management; v45 10 , p78 ; Oct 2006
Recounts the effect of the "baby boom" on school construction, followed by that of the decline of births beginning in the mid 1960's. Insights on interpreting current record enrollments is offered, with some districts reporting growth and others decline. Deficiencies in the standard cohort survival method of predicting enrollment are attributed to rapidly changing local economics and housing patterns.
An Overview of Facilities Master Planning.
Abramson, Paul; Burnap, Ed
College Planning and Management; v9 n10 , p50-53,55 ; Oct 2006
Details issues in school facilities master planning, emphasizing the consideration of educational program, assessment of needs, analysis and planning issues, and then forming the plan. The plan is to be considered a living document, not a final solution.
When Enrollment Soars.
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p8,10 ; Oct 2006
Describes some measures that school districts take when enrollment rapidly outgrows available teaching space, often made even more difficult when districts operate under mandates to reduce classroom size. Emergency conversion of non-teaching space into classrooms, aggressive new building and renovation programs, and portables are discussed, as are proper communication between facilities staff and those who make enrollment projections.
Steps to Success.
School Construction News; v9 n6 , p33-35 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Presents an interview with Ed Kodet that addresses proper planning of school projects, including inventory of needs, the decision to renovate or build new, master planning, acoustics, and consensus building.
Breaking New Ground.
Jost, Bob; Peatross, Dita; Bullock, Kenneth
American School and University; v78 n13 , p154-157 ; Aug 2006
Advocates a multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach to preplanning, financing, and executing higher education capital projects. Departmental goals should be combined into a comprehensive strategic plan, which provides the foundation for master planning. Annual investment into financing the plan follows, which is most effectively put to work in a serial building program of bundled projects.
Using a Student Yield Index in Planning for Student Growth.
School Business Affairs; v72 n5 , p37-39 ; May 2006
Explains the use of student yield index, rather than the traditional cohort survival method, when projecting enrollment in districts experiencing rapid population growth. An example based on housing permits for new residences is presented, along with potential challenges to the accuracy of this method.
A Demographic Projecting Wrinkle.
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p86 ; Jan 2006
Describes projecting school enrollment by examining ethnic trends, which may help produce accurate forecasts for school districts of any size, especially when the majority population is in decline, but immigration is increasing.
Building a Vision.
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p17,18,20,21 ; Jan 2006
Outlines seven steps for creating a school facility master plan: 1) selecting executive and community steering committees, 2) development of data and documents covering enrollment, educational specifications, and facility assessments, 3) development of facility options and priorities, 4) community input, 5)development of implementation plan, 6) board presentation, and 7) board approval.
Master Planning Campuses for Today's Students.
College Planning and Management; v9 n1 , p17-19 ; Jan 2006
Discusses ten steps of campus planning, beginning with the confirmation of the institution's mission and proceeding through program, building, and needs assessment and prioritization, ending up with a campus plan.
2005 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning.
American School and University; v78 n3 , p264, 266-269 ; Nov 2005
Presents three campus master planning projects cited in this competition. Selection was based on security, innovation, cost-effectiveness, timelessness, community use, functionality, and sense of place. Project information and photographs are included.
Planning and Design.
School Planning and Management; v44 n8 , p18,20,22 ; Aug 2005
Details six essential elements of a system-wide master plan: clear and measurable goals, careful consideration of demographic data, assessment of existing facilities, development and analysis of options, selecting the preferred option, and supporting the plan.
Statewide Facility Assessments: Leaving No School Behind.
Healy, Trace; Staskiewicz, Carolyn
A statewide facility assessment provides education officials with a comprehensive overview of all education facilities so that they can develop a master plan to correct inequities. This article discusses the benefits of a facility assessment, and uses Arkansas and Ohio as examples. p38-39
A Smart Map for Schools.
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p46-50 ; Feb 2005
Disscusses the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to plan schools by combining census, land use, land ownership, transportation, housing, and student data. The importance of combining all data to make informed decisions is emphasized.
Facilities Planning: Developing the Specifications.
School Business Affairs; v71 n2 , p37-39 ; Feb 2005
Discusses five elements of effective educational specifications: 1)educational philosophy and community objectives, 2) curriculum, instruction, and other uses, 3) general architectural characteristics, 4) detailed descriptions of facilities by grade level or academic discipline, and 5) proposed budget and sources of funding.
2004 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning.
American School and University; v77 n3 , p322-326 ; Nov 2004
Presents four higher education master planning endeavors recognized by this competition. Project information and photographs are included.
Planning without Politics.
American School and University; v77 n3 , p344-347 ; Nov 2004
Describes how the usual system of planning educational facilities through user input often fails due to politics and subjective judgement. Empirical benchmarks from peer districts are recommended for building area, individual space numbers and sizes, systems and material ages, code compliance, high-impact features, site features, and operating costs. Examples of how benchmarks have led to more informed planning decisions are provided.
Calkins, David J.
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p82-89 ; Oct 2004
Community colleges are creating innovative partnerships with their surrounding communities, sharing resources and facilities more extensively than ever. Together they are developing creative approaches to financing and are working to master plan new campuses and communities that integrate both town and gown. Includes case studies of Cy-Fair College outside of Houston, Chaffey College in Rancho Cucamonga, California, American River College in Sacramento, Montgomery College in Maryland, and Portland Community College in Oregon.
Case Study: Huntington College Grows Without a Loss of Community.
Costlow, Andrew N.
College Planning and Management; v7 n10 , p22,24 ; Oct 2004
Describes the campus wide involvement in realizing a master plan for this small college that enables it to grow without losing its small-college feel. The creation of a chapel space that could accommodate the entire student body is a cornerstone of the plan.
A Feasibility Blueprint.
College Planning and Management; v7 n10 , p17,18,20 ; Oct 2004
Defines the feasibility study for the higher education building environment, emphasizing proper timing and targeted scope of the study, a clear letter of understanding between the consultant and client, and six essential steps of a building feasibility study.
Using Scenarios and Simulations to Plan Colleges.
Planning for Higher Education; v33 n1 , p18-291 ; Sep-Oct 2004
Describes a method that higher education institutions can use multiple future scenarios and simulations to strategically plan. A case study involving California's College of the Desert provides an example of the acknowledgment of uncertainty, plausibility, internal consistency, and relevancy. (Includes 19 references.)
Principles of Campus Master Planning.
Kriken, John Lund
Planning for Higher Education; v32 n4 , p23-30 ; Jun 2004
Presents a variety of lessons learned in the planning of various campuses within University of California system, and explains how they were put use in the planning of the UC Merced campus. Important considerations discussed are site selection, relating to natural features, revealing a sense of place, proper sizing, establishing a predictable development framework, organizing academic land use, creating a social heart, establishing a unifying architectural character, sustainability, and providing a sense of completion.
Cincinnati Embarks on Ten-Year Plan.
School Construction News; v7 n4 , p31,32 ; May 2004
Presents an interview with Michael L. Burson, director of facilities at Cincinnati Public Schools, in which he describes the district's 10-year master plan to renovate or replace all its schools by 2013. Middle schools are being eliminated, large high schools are being subdivided into smaller units within a facility, and elementary schools are being assembled from a "kit of parts" that can be arranged to suit the site and community.
Durham Academy Lower School.
Architectural Record; Mar 2004
Describes an extensive building and renovation project in all levels of this North Carolina pre-K-12 school, according to a comprehensive 1998 master plan. Building statistics and architect information are included.
Plan Ahead for School Housing Needs.
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p51 ; Mar 2004
Advocates an overall school housing master plan that includes demographic analysis, respects the needs and desires of the community, and considers what is ultimately in the long-term best interests of the children.
From Academic Vision to Physical Manifestation.
Walleri, R. Dan; Becker, William E.
Planning for Higher Education; v32 n3 , p15-24 ; Mar 2004
Describes how a new mission and vision adopted by the college trustees was translated into a facility master plan. The vision is designed to serve the needs of the community and facilitate economic development, especially for health occupations, biotechnology, and information/engineering technology. The facility master plan reflects the physical manifestation of the vision with flexibility to meet future changes. The unsuccessful efforts of the college to fund the facility plan via a local bond measure are described.
A New Model for Utility Operations at the University of Arkansas.
Turley, L. Scott
Facilities Manager; v20 n1 , p43-47 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Advocates an entrepreneurial approach to campus energy management. The first element is to create a utility infrastructure master plan that mirrors the campus master plan. Second, accounting processes should clearly show where utility dollars are going and the return of specific utility investments. Utility dollars are separated from general facilities budgets, and capital improvement costs are distributed to the various structures through appropriate rate scheduling.
Inform; v15 n3 , p22-27 ; 2004
Discusses the new master plan for Richmond's Virginia Commonwealth University, which intends to unify a currently disparate campus by organizing new structures in an "academic quadrangle" pattern focusing on an existing but underutilized city park.
Phasing Can Be an Effective Strategy to Accommodate Long-term Growth.
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p14-17 ; Dec 2003
Describes the advantages and disadvantages of creating a master plan for a campus that accommodates use and future growth simultaneously. Careful consideration of demographics, the educational program, land use, construction costs, and flexible interior spaces can increase the value of construction expenditures.
2003 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p265-276 ; Nov 2003
Presents ten educational campus master plans recognized in this competition. Includes project data photographs, and plans.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p327-29 ; Nov 2003
Outlines steps in creating a landscape master plan (LMP) for expanding and renovating campuses. Consideration of campus location, transportation issues, and identity are critical.
Design: The Visionary Master Plan.
Smith, Sylvia J.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p142-45 ; Aug 2003
Asserts that a well-conceived master plan is an essential tool for shaping a school's physical evolution and advancement in concert with its strategic aspirations, focusing on the master plan for the Spence School, an independent K-12 girls' school in New York City, and noting that the Spence School's master plan is applicable to other schools, including colleges and universities.
Solving the Planning Dilemma.
Jons, Tom; Olfert, Bill
College Planning and Management; v6 n6 , p44,46 ; Jun 2003
Discusses strategic planning in higher education and describes an integrated institutional planning system developed by a planning firm that guides administrators in developing, implementing, and monitoring a strategic plan. The system process uses an orderly sequence of activities assembled into five phases, from defining purpose through evaluation.
Getting around Campus.
American School and University; v75 n9 , p40-44 ; May 2003
Discusses how a well-designed transportation master plan can make a campus easier to navigate and more agreeable for area residents.
Campus Master Planning.
American School and University; 75 n3 , p297-313 ; Nov 2002
Describes the award-winning designs of 13 campus master plans. Includes construction details and photographs.
Laudolff, Paul V.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p354-56 ; Nov 2002
Discusses how to develop confident budgets for school facilities construction at the master planning stage with limited information.
Looking at the Long Range.
Rydeen, James E.; Erickson, Paul W.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p352-53 ; Nov 2002
Describes how developing a master plan can help school districts anticipate their facility needs and the problems that may arise, and help school administrators articulate their expectations to educational planners and architects.
Facility Master Plans: An Essential First Step in the Building Development Process.
Wickerham, Wendell E.
Facilities Manager; v18 n5 , p53-56 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses the importance of the facility master plan (FMP) in defining project scope and validating or challenging the work of consultants. Offers three case studies illustrating how facility master plans averted problems or led to unanticipated benefits for the colleges involved.
A New Approach to Community College Master Planning.
Demonica, Dominick; Ogurek, Douglas
College Planning and Management; v5 n6 , p42,44 ; Jun 2002
Discusses the usefulness of a well-defined master plan to community colleges and explores trends in master planning that place more emphasis on issues that attract and retain students; these include the first impression, a sense of place, a concern for the environment, student housing, parking, and partnership zones.
The Growth Equation.
American School and University; v74 n8 , p18-22,24 ; Apr 2002
Using the example of Clark County school district in Las Vegas, discusses the challenges faced by administrators of rapidly growing areas. Districts confronting rapid growth must find enough money to build needed facilities, secure appropriate sites for new schools, juggle multiple construction projects, and not let the focus on new facilities overshadow the maintenance needs of existing facilities.
Cincinnati Organizes and Trains Residents to Help Plan School Rehab Project.
Van Lier, Piet
Catalyst; Apr 2002
Cincinnati is scheduled to submit a facilities master plan to the state in 2002 to become eligible for hundreds of millions in state repair and construction funds. The 75-school district is using an extensive and ongoing community engagement process to involve residents in the planning of new schools.
Planning To Grow.
Upchurch, Thomas Hayne
Texas Architect; v52 n1 , p22-25 ; Jan-Feb 2002
Traces the master planning efforts for expanding the campus of Prairie View A & M University in Houston, Texas, through to the year 2015. The plan's framework for growth includes significantly enhancing student campus life by building privatized housing and providing improvements and enhancements for future off-campus extensions.
How Important Are Sports Master Plans for Smaller Schools?
Sgarzi, Christopher A.
College Planning and Management; v4 n8 , p31-32 ; Aug 2001
Examines the development of a sports master plan that can help an organization call attention to the need to upgrade sports facilities. Also suggests practical solutions to gain school administrative support.
Creating a Successful Facility Master Plan.
DeJong, William; Staskiewicz, Carolyn
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p21-23 ; Jul 2001
Presents the steps necessary for creating a successful facility master plan, including the purpose and use of a steering committee and the need for a comprehensive database that includes a community/school profile. Explains community involvement in plan development, and outlines the steps necessary for preparing a final facility plan for presentation to the board of education.
The Value of Comprehensive Capital Planning.
Kaiser, H. H.
Planning for Higher Education; v29 n4 , p5-15 ; 2001
An innovative approach to the capital planning process will determine the future physical character of an institution and the capability of facilities to support its programs. A synthesis of innovative approaches to traditional capital planning practices forms the basis of a recommended capital planning process model.
New Thinking Meets Old School Tradition.
Miller, Terry K.
College Planning and Management; v3 n11 , p32,34 ; Nov 2000
Discusses how Master Plan renovations can be used instead of facility replacement to help update college stadiums, accommodate more fans, and generate additional revenue. Several examples of stadium amenities to encourage fan use are highlighted.
Architecture Minnesota; v26 n4 , p28-31,52-53 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Discusses the Master Plan of the University of Minnesota (Twin Cities) that has produced two newly completed high-profile structures along with scores of renovations and new buildings in the planning stages.
Do You Need an Energy Master Plan?
College Planning and Management; v3 n7 , p39-40 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the benefits of having a comprehensive energy plan to contain costs and better serve future student populations and presents a case study on energy master planning. Included are the planning team's efforts in determining payback potentials from changes in facility operations.
Master Planning: The Never-Ending Story
Meyer, Darrell C.
College Planning and Management; v3 n5 , p27-28,30,32-33 ; May 2000
Explains how modern technology has changed college campus master planning from a one-time event to a continuous process. Explained are how the Internet allows for greater collaboration where the most recent ideas, plans, and program documents can be posted on a website and participants can use e-mail for instant communications.
Doherty, Jacqueline; Futral, Karen
American School and University; v72 n5 , p41-43 ; Jan 2000
Examines the comprehensive planning process done prior to renovating or constructing new buildings at educational facilities in order to prevent errors. Planning steps are highlighted, as is one city's experience in making more space available at its schools to meet rising enrollment needs.
Putting It All Together.
American School and University; v72 n3 , p334-37 ; Nov 1999
Discusses creating a comprehensive and flexible master plan for designing a forward-looking telecommunications infrastructure on campus. Areas where a campus can take creative advantage of new technology are highlighted.
Technology Simplifies Master Planning.
College Planning and Management; v2 n11 , p37-38, 40 ; Nov 1999
Describes the use of digital ortho photography in the master planning process conducted at the University of Alabama that made planning easy and quick to do. What the benefits are in going digital for master planning are highlighted as is a description of what hardware and software are needed.
Long-Term Planning and the Building Process
Meglis, Jr., Edward
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p14-16 ; Jul 1999
A long-range facilities plan includes anticipated large expenditures and contingencies. The plan should include an overview of existing facilities, enrollment projections, program changes, and projected capital improvements. A school-planning checklist is provided.
It's In the Plan.
Bracci, Richard L.
American School and University; v71 n11 , p36,38,40 ; Jul 1999
Examines how master planning and participatory process combines to successfully integrate technology into a school's educational system. Discussions on budget setting and environmental design are included.
Do You Need a New Campus Master Plan?
College Planning and Management; v2 n7 ; Jul 1999
Explains why school administrators should review their campus Master Plans every 5 to 10 years and highlights guidelines for developing a Master Plan. Three examples are provided of how school administrators succeeded in developing their campus Master Plans. Also included are suggestions for Master Plan development that promote positive outcomes.
A Greater Whole
Texas Architect; v49 n1 , p38-41 ; Jan 1999
Presents two examples of Texas university and college campuses considered beneficiaries of the best and most beautiful campus master plans. The campus planning processes for the University of Texas at Austin, and Southern Methodist University (Dallas) are examined. Both examples represent schools who have recently instigated new initiatives to recapture the best qualities of their earlier campus designs.
Creating a New Look.
American School and University; v71 n4 , p34b, 34c ; Dec 1998
Explores the master planning needed for adaptive reuse of college facilities when it is undertaken on a grander scale, such as when the growth of an institution necessitates an expansion beyond the boundaries of the existing campus. The elements of a reuse project master plan are described, including site evaluation, functional and spatial programs, enrollment, and campus plan. One urban college's use of this type of planning is described.
Stamford Campus of the University of Connecticut
Architectural Record; v186 n10 , p154-157 ; Oct 1998
Explains how the University of Connecticut (Stamford) moved its suburban campus to the city center where it would be closer to the students. Discussed are the master planning that assessed the move's impact on the business district, what the benefits would be for the students and the community, and the architectural design concepts used.
Master Plan and Chancellors Hall Southampton College
Architectural Record; v186 n10 ; Oct 1998
Discusses a college master plan that remodeled old buildings, added new ones, and tied roads together on a campus that had experienced a haphazard evolution. The plan included splitting large parking lots into smaller ones divided by trees and plants, moving university functions of certain buildings to other locations, and strategically locating new ones.
An Integrated Approach to Interior Master Planning: How Place Communicates and Affects Mission.
Facilities Manager; v14 n2 , p11-17 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Discusses the importance of the physical environment of colleges and universities in communicating the school's mission and promoting its academic reputation. Lists elements addressed and the objectives met by the interior master plan. Includes five illustrative charts.
Keeping the Plan Alive.
Cole, James O.; Cole, Susan D.
Facilities Manager; v13 n6 , p9-11 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Reports on ways in which college and university facilities management departments can keep a strategic plan viable throughout the intended planning time frame. Focuses on the importance of reexamining plans, staying on track, measurement and consequences, using other planning modules, scenario planning, reinventing the market, value migration, and closure.
Planning for the Long Haul.
Blackwell, John D.
American School and University; v69 n11 , p16,18,20,22 ; Jul 1997
Describes the use of a comprehensive facilities needs assessment and master plan to help school districts successfully manage increased enrollments and deteriorating facilities. An example of master planning a successful bond issue is provided.
Pellicer, Leonard O.; Stevenson, Ken
American School Board Journal; v184 n7 , p32-33,39 ; Jul 1997
Describes a technique developed over the last 15 years in conjunction with South Carolina school districts to help them set priorities when addressing school building needs. Identifies five factors that are used to measure the overall impact of an individual facilities project in relation to other projects, thereby ranking projects according to an index of needs.
Radical Strategic Planning for Tertiary Education
PEB Exchange; n30 , p20-21 ; Feb 1997
Explores how radical, strategic re-thinking in postsecondary education dormitory facility planning has been stalled because of reliance on too many assumptions. Also examines how assumptions have shaped master planning.
Blueprint for Growth
Ovard, Glen F.; And Others
Executive Educator; v13 n12 , 32-34 ; Dec 1991
A master plan for school facilities should be brought up to date at least every five years. Outlines sections of a master plan and describes ways to project future enrollment figures.
Strategic Planning--Definition, Process, and Outcomes
Stewart, G. Kent; Bailey, Gerald D.
Educational Facility Planner; v29 n6 , p4-7 ; 1991
Strategic planning provides a comprehensive, systematic, and flexible approach to charting direction. Lists an eight-step process and questions for strategic planning. Emphasizes the role of architects in strategic planning. (five references)
Master Plan for Facilities
Glass, Thomas E.
Educational Facility Planner; v26 n2 , p20-24 ; 1988
Contains a planning prospectus a consultant group might utilize in serving the planning needs of a medium size school district. Includes the types of tasks and data, which need to be performed and analyzed for the effective completion of a facility planning effort. Planning prospectus content was obtained from Tuba City School District, Arizona's master plan.