PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS
Information on how to maximize the useful life of school buildings through preventive maintenance, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.
Operational Guidelines for Educational Facilities: Custodial, third edition
Bigger, Alan S. editor
Addresses topics including: the cost of cleaning, sustainability, determining APPA Levels of Cleanliness in buildings, and scientific measurement of cleanliness. Special sections address the cleaning of residence halls and healthcare facilities. In addition to the cleaning operations of four-year institutions, solutions for public and private K-12 facilities as well as vocational, trade, and community colleges are covered. 356pTO ORDER: http://www.appa.org/bookstore
Facility Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference 2011-12
(Whitestone Research, Nov 2011)
Provides detailed maintenance and repair costs for 75 building and utility types in all major U.S., Canadian, and international areas. Data is included for over 1,600 building components, over 30 trades, and more than 4,500 maintenance tasks. 688pTO ORDER: http://www.whitestoneresearch.com/
College of Central Florida Facilities Deferred Maintenance Guide.
(College of Central Florida, Ocala , Mar 2011)
Details in a building-by-building format the current status of deferred maintenance at this College's campuses, including recent and planned upgrades, as well as deficient systems. 11p.
Addressing Inadequate Investment in School Facility Maintenance.
Bello, Mustapha; Loftness, Vivian
(Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh , May 2010)
The total deferred maintenance of schools in the United States was estimated at $254.6 billion in 2008. With over 94,000 public elementary, middle and high schools being attended by more than 50 million students, there is need to implement an effective method for estimating the adequate amount of investment for facility maintenance. Earlier methodologies were evaluated and a new plant value model was developed. The model also introduces a commensurate increase in annual budgets to address maintenance backlog, as well as strategies for setting maintenance priorities. Finally, to effectively maintain building conditions, appropriate custodial and maintenance staffing is analyzed for school facilities. Establishing appropriate annual maintenance budgets for school buildings, including the resources necessary to address accumulated maintenance backlog is critical for upgrading school facilities to adequate conditions for ensuring the health and performance of US teachers and students. 50p.
Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
Perkins, Bradford; Bordwell, Raymond
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises architects, planners, engineers, and their clients through all aspects of school facilities design. Chapters address predesign, circulation, design concerns and process, site planning, codes, sustainability, systems, technology, materials, acoustics, lighting, interiors, wayfinding, renovation, international design issues, operation and maintenance, and financing. Appendices provide sample space programs for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. The book examines technology's influence in the classroom, along with current research that shows how school buildings can impact teaching and learning. Design guidance is illustrated with school case studies, photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 350p.
(Brevard Public Schools, Rockledge, FL , 2009)
Presents the custodial standards for Florida's Brevard Public Schools. The guidelines first address the general procedures and maintenance for the school, including universal precautions for the protection of the custodial staff. It then details maintenance and cleaning requirements for each area of the school, including classrooms, restrooms, cafeterias, gymnasiums, locker rooms, and corridors. Samples of facility custodial assessment forms; emergency lighting, fire extinguisher inspection, and air conditioner maintenance/service log sheets; and monthly custodial preventative maintenance forms are included. 50p.
The Whitestone Facility Operations Cost Reference, 2009-2010.
(Whitestone Research, Santa Barbara, CA, 2009)
Profiles operations costs for 72 building and utility types in all major U.S. and Canadian areas. Alternative levels of service and costs are estimated for custodial, energy, grounds, management, pest control, refuse, road clearance, security, telecommunications, and water & sewer. 320p.TO ORDER: http://www.whitestoneresearch.com/
A Study of School Deficiency Repair Grant and Facilities Maintenance Operations in Washington School Districts.
(Washington Association of Maintenance and Operations Administrators, Port Orchard, WA , Feb 2007)
Reports on the initial year's work of Washington state's Small School Repair Grant program. 26 grants were awarded to 126 applicants who sought assistance for facilities needs that they could not address with local funds. The report catalogs the types of maintenance done to ensure student safety and health, as well as the location, size, and urban, suburban, or rural nature of the district. 44p.
Property Manager's Child Care Resource Book 2007.
(U.S. General Services Administration, PBS Office of Childcare, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 78p.
Best Practices Maintenance Plan for School Buildings. [Idaho]
(Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise , Sep 2006)
Advises schools on preventive maintenance program, detailing elements of building component inventory and condition assessment, ranking maintenance projects and evaluating their costs, planning for long- and short-term preventive maintenance, structuring a framework for a preventive maintenance program, optimizing the preventive maintenance program, advancing the competence of maintenance personnel, and involving maintenance personnel in decision making and communication. Appendices provide appropriate inspection checklists, evaluation forms, and additional resources. 96p.
Rule R277-471. Oversight of School Inspections.
(Utah Dept. of Administrative Services, Salt Lake City , Jun 2006)
Presents Utah's rules for school inspection oversight, including definitions of and responsibilities of school district building officials, as well as state requirements to develop, distribute, and maintain a resource manual, and to conduct an annual school construction conference. 3p.
Maintenance of Public School Facilities in Maryland.
(Maryland Association of Boards of Education, Annapolis , Aug 26, 2005)
Describes the current status of maintenance in Maryland public schools, and details three initiatives to assist the local districts with maintenance: 1) Improve the State's annual maintenance surveys in order to enhance its ability to monitor the maintenance of public schools. 2) Strengthen the relationship between maintenance and State funding provided through the Capital Improvement Program. 3) Develop an incentive program of State funding to assist the local school systems with their maintenance tasks. 12p.
New Mexico Preventive Maintenance Guidelines.
(New Mexico Public School Capital Outlay Council/Public School Facilities Authority, Santa Fe , Jan 2004)
Sets policy and objectives for cost-effective maintenance and repair of schools in New Mexico. The document assists districts with the maintenance plan obligations of their capital projects application process, job descriptions, staff training, industry standards, life cycle analyses, procurement, inspections, and facilities information management systems. 27p.
Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities.
(National Forum on Education Statistics, School Facilities Maintenance Task Force; Association of School Business Officials International, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
The planning guide was developed to help readers better understand why and how to develop, implement, and evaluate a school facilities maintenance plan. The guide is designed for staff at the local school district level, where most facility maintenance is planned, managed, and carried out. This audience includes school business officials, school board members, superintendents, principals, facilities maintenance planners, maintenance staff, and custodial staff. The document is also relevant to the school facilities interests of state education agency staff, community groups, vendors, and regulatory agencies. The guide focuses on: (1) school facility maintenance as a vital task in the responsible management of an education organization; (2) the needs of an education audience; (3) strategies and procedures for planning, implementing, and evaluating effective maintenance programs; (4) a process to be followed, rather than a canned set of "one size fits all" solutions; and (5) recommendations based on best practices, rather than mandates. The document offers recommendations on the following issues, which serve as chapter headings: (1) "Introduction to School Facilities Maintenance Planning"; (2) "Planning for School Facilities Maintenance"; (3) "Facilities Audits (Knowing What You Have)"; (4) "Providing a Safe Environment for Learning"; (5) "Maintaining School Facilities and Grounds"; (6) "Effectively Managing Staff and Contractors"; and (7) "Evaluating Facilities Maintenance Efforts." 184p.
Preventive Maintenance for Higher Education Facilities: A Planning & Budgeting Tool for Facilities Professionals.
(R. S. Means Company, Inc., Kingston, MA. , 2003)
This guide is designed to help higher education facilities managers, through the implementation of preventive maintenance (PM), to increase the life of facility systems and equipment, lower overall operating costs, and provide maximum responsiveness to the college/university community. Part One, "Selling the Need," is designed to address the institutional facility manager's preventive maintenance challenges and to provide necessary information to determine an appropriate direction. The tools in Part Two--models of typical campus buildings--help to answer the question, "What resources are required to implement a PM program if I could fully fund it?" Then, assuming that the budget does not allow for full funding, as is sometimes the case, it addresses what the optimal way is to allocate PM resources to achieve a successful PM program. Part Three includes PM standards and checklists for equipment priority levels, maintenance requirements, and frequencies. (Appendices contain information on return-on-investment models, rating an institution's PM program, integrating computerized maintenance management systems, and organizational resources.) 150p.TO ORDER: R. S. Means Company, Inc., Construction Plaza, 63 Smiths Ln., Kingston, MA 02364-0800; Tel: 781-422-5000
School Repair and Maintenance Handbook: Questions, Answers and Procedures.
(State of Hawaii, Dept. of Education, Honolulu , Oct 2001)
Outlines Hawaii's policies for obtaining school repairs, furniture replacement, refuse pickup, contractual maintenance for mechanical systems, community projects, and tree trimming. The document includes official forms to be used in making requests. 103p.
Preventive Maintenance Guidelines for School Facilities.
Maciha, John C.; Armstrong, James E.; Waier, Phillip R.
(R.S. Means Company, Inc., Kingston, Massachusetts , Jan 2001)
This five-part manual, intended to increase the integrity and support the longevity of school facilities, provides easy-to-use preventive maintenance(PM)system guidelines. Part 1 outlines the special considerations of school maintenance as compared to other facilities. Part 2 establishes the basic components of a PM program and provides Work Order forms to document maintenance tasks. Part 3 provides PM budgeting guidelines and suggestions for funding maintenance work that is not covered by the in-place budget. Part 4 offers guidance on how to estimate the costs of maintenance and repair tasks. This section includes sample estimates from Means Facilities Maintenance & Repair Cost Data, including labor-hour, equipment, and material costs. Part 5 contains checklists for carrying out PM tasks. The checklists break PM procedures down into recommended inspection intervals: biweekly; monthly; semiannual; annual; and every 5 years. The checklists also include detailed information about which features require close inspection and PM. The appendix contains technical reference data helpful in planning and performing PM tasks, including useful resources to contact for facility and school-related information, publications, and products. 232p.TO ORDER: R.S. Means Company, Inc. P.O. Box 800 Kingston, MA 02364-0800. Tel: 800-334-3509
Preventive Maintenance for Local Government Buildings. A Best Practice Review.
Hauer, Jody; Bombach, Valerie; Mohr, Caryn; Masse, Ann
(State of Minnesota, Office of the Legislative Audit, Program Evaluation Division , Apr 12, 2000)
This report identifies seven strategic practices for effectively managing preventive maintenance of Minnesota school district, city, and county buildings; and profiles local jurisdictions currently using them. The following best practices for preventive maintenance are examined; (1) inventory building components and assess their conditions; (2) build the capacity for ranking maintenance projects and evaluating their costs; (3) plan strategically for preventive maintenance in the long- and short-term; (4) structure a framework for operating a preventive maintenance program; (5) use tools to optimize the preventive maintenance program; (6) enhance the competence of maintenance workers and managers; and (7) involve appropriate maintenance personnel in decision making and in communicating building's needs. The report's three chapters provides background information defining preventive maintenance and its values, recommends best practices for preventive maintenance, and explains differences in local governments' use and management of preventive maintenance. Further, it describes obstacles local governments believe limit their ability to perform preventive maintenance and the state's role in local building maintenance.Report NO: OLA-00-06
Operation and Maintenance Assessments: A Best Practice for Energy-Efficient Building Operations.
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. OR, Sep 1999)
This describes what an O&M assessment is, who should perform it, the benefits of an assessment, what it costs, and the process for performing an assessment. Includes a glossary of terms and sample site-assessment forms, a request for proposal checklist, sample procedures and plan, and a sample master log of findings. 54p
Higher Education Vertical Infrastructure Maintenance Planning.
Weidner, Theodore J.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic University, Troy, NY , 1999)
To assist higher education facility officers in documenting their financial needs for renewing and renovating existing physical facilities, tools to identify vertical infrastructure maintenance needs are examined for accuracy against observed conditions at a large public university. Data developed for U.S. Army facilities is utilized in three different ways to identify whether such data will be accurate in higher education facilities. The application methods explored are selected to utilize as much data as possible that is familiar to non-technical people while still providing a reasonable reflection of changing annual needs. The selected funding needs model is accurate within 10 percent, a similar level of error when compared to the physical assessment techniques used. The model is also useful for planning purposes to identify future resource needs and documenting costs for overhead charges. Appendices contain a building maintenance database report and building evaluation form. 297p.Report NO: UMI AAG9925277
Maintenance Manual for School Buildings in the Caribbean.
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , Mar 1998)
A manual provides guidelines for school maintenance activities for schools located in the Caribbean and examines the organization of a maintenance program, the inspection process, and the maintenance plan. The assessment process is detailed and forms are provided for assessing school roofs, building exteriors and interiors, plumbing, electrical systems, and grounds. 17p.
Maintenance Matters: Maintenance and Minor Works in Primary Schools. A Manual for Boards of Management.
(Department of Education and Science, Dublin, Ireland , 1998)
This manual provides guidance in the maintenance requirements of primary education schools covering roofing; floors and walls; doors and windows; external and internal finishes; heating, plumbing, and drainage; electrical installations; paved and grassed surfaces; and furniture and loose equipment. The basic considerations are covered for each area followed by a list of the types of problems encountered, why these problems arise, and tips for maintenance surveillance. Also included is advice on work planning covering applications, appointing consultants and contractors, and key points on health and safety regulations. An appendix contains grant regulations for minor works to national schools and maintenance checklist sample forms. 213p.
Alaska School Facilities Preventive Maintenance Handbook
Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael
(Alaska Dept. of Education and Early Development, Juneau, AK , 1997)
The State of Alaska has issued preventive maintenance guidelines for educational facilities designed to prevent premature failure, or maximize or extend the useful life of a facility and its components, including roofing inspections, repainting, and door hardware adjustments. The handbook examines preventive maintenance state legislation, and the development and implementation of a preventive maintenance program that includes determining facility conditions and needs, assessing the resources needed, scheduling and assigning work, and developing reporting and feedback systems. 15p.
Development of a Model for a School Facilities Construction Program: Congruence of Building Programs Under the Ohio School Building Assistance Program with the Model.
Dubbs, Philip E.
(Dissertation, Miami University, Miami, Ohio , 1992)
This descriptive study involving interviews with school district superintendents assesses the congruence to a School Facilities Construction Model by school districts participating in the 1983 to 1990 round of Ohio School Building Assistance Projects. Chapter 1 introduces a general background on the need for studying the amount of congruence to a construction model developed from school construction literature by districts that have participated in Ohio's School Building Assistance Program. Chapter 2 reviews the literature related to planning, designing, contracting, evaluating, occupying, and establishing a preventive maintenance program for a new school facility. Chapter 3 describes the research design and methodology used and the population and interview format. Chapter 4 presents a model which identifies the key components of a building program derived from the literature review. Chapter 5 presents the results of the research and an analysis of the findings. The final chapter discusses the significance and implications of this research for future Ohio superintendents about to begin a school building program and offers suggestions for further research. 224p.Report NO: AAG9223262
TO ORDER: UMI, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: email@example.com
The Development of a Systematic Process for Enhancing the Awareness of the Potential for Indoor Air Pollution in Schools.
Liska, Roger William
(University of Georgia, Athens , 1988)
This study developed methodology to assist school principals in determining the existence of potential indoor air pollution problems and how to alleviate them, as well as a procedure for their prevention. Site visits were conducted on 10 South Carolina elementary schools: five with high potential for indoor air pollution; five with low potential. Site visits revealed the principals of all 10 schools had little knowledge about indoor air pollution problems, and little understanding of the operation and maintenance of their buildings and support systems. Study findings suggest that only when principals become aware of the causes of air pollution, the problems it can create, and its prevention, should they get involved in the diagnostic, alleviation or prevention activities. The study isolates climate control and ventilation as two primary areas of concern which need to be addressed to avoid wasting time and resources. Proper maintenance was found to be the best preventive activity for indoor air pollution problems, and the one most often cut during budgetary restrictions. 389p.
References to Journal Articles
Q&A: Maintenance and Operations, 21st-Century Style
School Construction News; , 1p ; Apr 2012
Interview with Ken Wertz, director of maintenance and operations of the Sharon Public Schools District in Massachusetts and president of the Massachusetts Facilities Administrators Associations, who discusses maintenance and operations challenges with older school buildings, energy efficiency, and preventive maintenance strategies.
A Wrench in the Works
School Planning and Management; , p26-28 ; Mar 2012
Discusses mechanical system maintenance, including conducting assessments that identify various maintenance needs such as recommissioning, carrying out inspections as well as preventive and corrective maintenance, and retraining maintenance technicians.
Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools.
American School and University; Oct 2011
To achieve sustainability in facilities, schools and universities need to establish an effective maintenance program that will help most facilities operate efficiently and last longer. Describes making a maintenance plan and collecting building data.
A Pending Disaster.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p6 ; Aug 2011
Quotes statistics on excess deferred maintenance of schools and warns against disastrous results if maintenance is not properly funded.
Toward a Philosophy of School Maintenance: Taking a Proactive Approach.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p23,24 ; Aug 2011
Emphasizes the role of school building maintenance in promoting education and protecting the community's investment. Preventive and proactive maintenance are discussed, as well as the link between properly maintained facilities and learning.
What Constitutes Maintenance?
Facilities Manager; v27 n4 , p14-17 ; Jul-Aug 2011
Documents philosophy of best use of maintenace staff and equipment to achieve goals of preventing a physical plant from becoming a liability. Building inventory must maintain ability to function as intended, remain safe and legal, and have a life perpetuated to the greatest extent possible.
Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools.
American School and University; v83 n10 , p28-31 ; Jun 2011
Introduces comprehensive monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx), a process to ensure that all building systems are "in tune." Its three components are: permanent energy information systems and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level, retro-commissioning based on the data this generates, and ongoing commissioning that ensures efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. Particular attention is given to the importance to a well-maintained chiller.
American School and University; v83 n8 , p24,26,-28 ; May 2011
Demonstrates that life-cycle cost value practices lead to reduced maintenance because of use of superior materials and the ability to anticipate a schedule and costs of major repairs and maintenance.
American School and University; v83 n9 , p16-18,20,22.23 ; May 2011
Discusses a slight overall decline in student enrollment beginning in the 2007, even while some regions still experience growth. Districts with funding available are focusing on maintenance and renovation projects, since new classrooms are not needed. In some cases, instructional space was recently constructed that is already not needed.
Security: A Matter of Performance. [Door Hardware: Focus on Security]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p27,28 ; May 2011
Advises on door maintenance, listing the parts of a door assembly in need of preventive maintenance, typical problems that prevent proper door function, lock maintenance, and electronic door access.
Cook, Richard; Stieve, Douglas
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p41,42,44,45 ; Mar 2011
Encourages and gives guidelines for proactive roof maintenance. Biannual inspections and routine maintenance will extend the life expectancy of the roofing system. A management plan is included, with topics such as use of high quality materials and adding insulation, and use of a roofing consultant.
Infrared Imaging: Tracking the Evolution.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n3 , p13,14 ; Mar 2011
Discusses the evolution of infrared detection of facilities issues, with a rapid progress to less expensive, smaller, lighter, and more technologically advanced machines. It is now possible, even advisable, to train in-house staff on the use of this technology, rather than to hire outside contractors.
Integrate Your Plans for Energy and Maintenance.
Buildings; v104 n12 , p40-44 ; Dec 2010
Advises on the collateral planning for energy conservation and HVAC maintenance. Routine HVAC maintenance procedures that can save energy are described and mandated.
Building Envelopes: A One-Two Punch. [Component Inspections and Replacement.]
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2010
Advises on inspection of building envelopes, discussing what to look for and how often. Opportunities for more efficient and more aesthetically pleasing replacements when exterior components reach the end of their lives is also addressed.
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p36,38-40 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on the maintenance of pressure washers, which can last many more years than they typically do if properly cleaned and maintained. Instrutions on rinsing out cleaning compounds, oiling, checking hoses, inspecting tires, and cleaning air filters are described, as well as winterizing during long periods of disuse.
Healthy Drains Lead to a Healthy Environment.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses sources of drain odors and clogs, with recommendations on how to remove them without the use of chemicals that are a threat to the environment or sewer system.
Maintaining Student Performance.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Jun 2010
Describes how proper maintenance of school HVAC systems contributes to educational achievement through better air quality and thermal comfort. An example of preventive maintenance on systems in the Round Rock (Texas) School District illustrates many procedures, their respective costs, and benefits.
Preserve and Conserve.
Buildings; v104 n6 , p76-78 ; Jun 2010
Discusses standards and procedures for HVAC system inspection and predictive maintenance that are designed to save energy. In-house versus outsourced work is also addressed.
American School and University; v82 n11 , p24-27 ; Jun 2010
Discusses prudent use of maintenance resources in times of strained budgets. Preventive and predictive maintenance is recommended over a run-to-failure or reactive approach, which can create expensive emergencies that may not be fundable. Elements of preventive and predictive maintenance are addressed, as is computerized maintenance management.
Self Control Is Secret to Energy Savings.
Building Operating Management; v57 n6 , p65,66,68,70,71 ; Jun 2010
Provides technical advice to make case that rigorous maintenance of existing facilities can be as effective as upgrading to new systems.
Motor Management: Powerful Benefits.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p7,8 ; Feb 2010
Discusses building motor management programs that reduce repairs and service interruptions. Elements of the program include regular testing while the motor is online, and software programs for this function are advised. Suggestions for convincing building owners to invest in such a program are provided.
Take Good Care of Building Facades.
Buildings; v104 n2 , p340,42 ; Feb 2010
Advises on attention to mortar erosion, cracking, spalling, and efflorescence, as well as deteriorating lintels and parapets, all of which contribute to the degradation of the building envelope.
A Growing Problem.
College Planning and Management; v13 n1 , p24-26 ; Jan 2010
Discusses the increase of deferred maintenance on higher education campuses. The glamour discrepancy between maintenance versus new construction, the difference between deferred maintenance and renewal of buildings, and a team approach to increasing workload and diminishing budgets are addressed.
A Worthwhile Investment.
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p26,27 ; Dec 2009
Advises on managing risks in schools to prevent accidents and costly litigation. Inspection tips for teachers and administrators are included, including the building, furnishings, and equipment.
Protect Your Investment: Don't Cut the M&O Budget.
School Construction News; v15 n7 , p18 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Cites examples of deferred school maintenance that were followed by even larger repair or replacement costs, as well as noting that many states require local districts to set aside funds for preventive maintenance.
Filter Facts: IAQ and Efficiency.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p17 ; Oct 2009
Discusses types of HVAC air filters, their respective filtering efficiencies, and resistance to air flow. Advantages and disadvantages of newer electrostatic filtering are also addressed.
Maintaining Your HVAC System.
Buildings; v103 n8 , p58,59 ; Aug 2009
Describes regular maintenance duties for HVAC systems, along with the interval at which they should be performed. These are filter replacement; coil cleaning; inspecting fans, bearings, and belts; inspecting around air intakes; repairing leaks in cabinet and supply ducts; cleaning and adjust dampers; and cleaning air ducts.
Pumps: Strategies for Savings.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p9 ; Aug 2009
Discusses improvement of pump efficiency in institutional buildings. Pump operation and performance data that should be collected, revising control systems, and right-sizing the pump's operation are addressed.
Building Envelope: Focus on Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses use of infrared technology and visual inspection to identify air leaks, wet insulation, and thermal bridging, along with suggested elements of a maintenance checklist and current products to remedy unsatisfactory conditions.
Maintaining High-Performance Schools after Construction or Renovation.
Luepke, Gary; Ronsivalli, Louis
School Business Affairs; v75 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2009
Discusses maintaining high performance schools to achieve the benefit that they were designed for. Deferred, preventive, predictive maintenance, and reliability-centered maintenance are addressed.
A Tough Balancing Act.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p6 ; Jun 2009
Stresses the importance of not sacrificing school maintenance needs when budgets are cut, balancing facility needs with instructional programs.
Test Emergency Lighting Systems: It's a Requirement.
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p32,34,36,37 ; May 2009
Discusses the codes that require regular testing of emergency lighting, the frequent neglect of these requirements in school facilities. Methods of testing are cited, noting their respective staffing and budgetary requirements.
The Predictability of Unplanned Failures.
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p62,63 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Organizes planned and unplanned maintenance into three categories each, along with the increasing severity and cost for each category. Techniques for using these categories and cost coefficientsto budget for unplanned maintenance are offered.
Infrared Imaging: Critical Tools for Critical Times.
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n3 , p12,13 ; Mar 2009
Discusses the use of infrared cameras to detect energy loss through the building envelope and moisture in unwanted places throughout the building. Types and features of infrared scanners and their implementation are discussed.
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p31,32,34 ; Feb 2009
Advises on elevator care and maintenance, noting that monitoring of the elevator's performance is critical, with special attention to waiting time and down time. Contents of typical service agreements and methods of evaluating them are discussed, as is advice to avoid bargain contracts that offer very little preventive maintenance.
Revamp Your Preventive Maintenance for 2009.
Buildings; v103 n1 , p40-42 ; Jan 2009
Advises on annual steps to take in preventive maintenance. Steps include facility and equipment inventory and assessment, organization of preventive maintenance with software, and involvement of building users as well as maintenance staff. A list of recommended annual preventive maintenance procedures for roofs, HVAC systems, plumbing, lighting, and other systems is included.
The Price of Paralysis.
Facilities Manager; v25 n1 , p43-47,52 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Addresses the consequences of "decision paralysis" in campus facilities management organizations. Small repairs turn into large ones, systems fail more frequently, the budget is strained, and morale declines both within the department and campus-wide.
Diagnostic Technology: A Closer Look.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p10 ; Dec 2008
Reviews the benefits of portable diagnostic technology for monitoring indoor air quality, and for temperature and power quality monitoring within equipment, systems, and motors.
Closing the Envelope.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p8,9 ; Dec 2008
Discusses regular maintenance procedures for doors, fire doors, and exterior masonry walls.
Maintenance is More than "Maintenance."
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p42,43 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on what constitutes planned versus reactive maintenance, and that facility departments keep track of staff time spent on expected services that are not maintenance at all.
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p20-24 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses issues critical to the evolution of facilities data integrity, being the compatibility, coordination, and timeliness of data from institutions with multiple buildings.
Motors: Defining and Improving Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2008
Defines what constitutes an energy-efficient motor, discusses what energy cost savings might be realized by using them, and advises on assessing motors for efficiency and replacement, as well as on how to prevent motor failure.
Tapping the Power of a CMMS.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p18,19 ; Sep 2008
Advises on how to take the best advantage of a computerized management maintenance system, including selecting the appropriate system, interface with other applications, staff training, and customization.
Closing the Seal on Buildings.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p28,29 ; Aug 2008
Discusses typical sources of air leaks in buildings, problems that can be caused by the moisture it carries into exterior components, particular problems caused by leaking roofs, and design and replacement options that help seal a building's exterior.
Data Loggers: Tools for Productivity.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p10,12 ; Aug 2008
Describes how portable data loggers work, the types of system problems they can help analyze, and what can be learned from the data they collect and transmit. Time and money saved from system corrections made can quickly pay back the modest expense of the loggers.
Maintaining New Facilities.
Facilities Manager; v24 n4 , p48,50,51 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the particular problems of maintaining new campus buildings, with their more sophisticated systems, and the perception that since they are new, they require less maintenance. "Extended commissioning" of new facilities is discussed, which includes correcting improper installation and reconfiguring systems, as well as extensive staff training. A better standard of care for new buildings which appear to be functioning well is advocated in order to prevent accelerated aging.
Blowing Hot and Cold.(Essential HVAC Upkeep.)
Garibay, Pat; Ronsivalli, Lou
American School Board Journal; v195 n7 , p36,37 ; Jul 2008
Reviews points of a strategic asset management program for school HVAC systems. Life-cycle cost analysis, simplifying maintenance by standardizing equipment and consolidating vendors, upgrading buildings for better efficiency, and low-cost financing through energy savings contracts are addressed.TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
Making the Grade in Summertime Efficiency.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p14,16,17 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Reviews typical Summer school maintenance procedures, as well as new construction and renovation that can improve energy efficiency and building air quality. Also covered are efficient and healthy building operations during low Summer occupancy, as well as precautions to take during construction and cleaning projects.
Spruce Up Your Facilities for Summer.
CASH Register; v29 n6 , p6,7,11 ; Jun 2008
Discusses low- and no-cost measures that can be taken to improve school facility energy performance. Performance contracting and HVAC maintenance are emphasized.
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p12 ; Jun 2008
Reviews the necessity of adequate school maintenance, citing the higher costs of repairing damaged caused by poor maintenance. Staff training to care for contemporary sophisticated systems is particularly urged.
Fire Systems Go Hand in Hand with Human Factors.
Niderfinger, Al; West, Lee
Buildings; v102, n6 , p128-130 ; Jun 2008
Emphasizes the importance of inspecting, testing, and maintaining fire prevention systems. Examples of negligence that have contributed to fires are provided, as are steps for inspection and maintenance of control valves, sprinkler systems, and water supply.
As Campuses Crumble, Budgets are Crunched.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n37 , pA1,A12-A14 ; May 23, 2008
Discusses the deferred maintenance crisis facing many higher education institutions. Maintenance of existing structures is frequently slighted in the interest of building new and more glamorous facilities. Examples of maintenance backlogs at various institutions are described, as is the facilities condition index that is used to calculate deferred maintenance.
sustainable facilities vs. Sustainable Facilities
Facilities Manager; v24 n3 , p48-51 ; May-Jun 2008
Defines what a truly sustainable facility model should look like. The article provides a compelling reason for advocating planned capital renewal of facilities as the most effective method for addressing the rising sustainable needs of facilities. It also describes the "50-year facility design" model and its 12, 25, and 38th year sub-cycles as a perfect opportunity to earmark facilities for sustainable renewal in a way that is both manageable from a budget perspective and predictable.
MRSA Prevention: A Guide for Environmental Services.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p22-24 ; May-Jun 2008
Reviews how Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus (MRSA) is spread, how it affects people, and especially how to control it. High-touch surfaces in high-traffic areas should be cleaned and disinfected more frequently and the efficacy and dilution of cleaning agents carefully considered. Training for staff with frequent turnover and possible language barriers is also discussed.
Transitioning to Planned Maintenance.
Facilities Manager; v24 n2 , p54,55 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Advises on how to transition from a pattern of reactive maintenance to one of planned and organized maintenance. Prioritization or weighting is the key coupled with segmenting larger campuses into a best practice zone by isolating a subset of facilities.
On the Right Track.
University Business; v11 n2 , p34,35 ; Feb 2008
Reviews the use of a facilities condition index to properly guide attention to the campus building conditions, illustrated with case studies from Florida State University and the University of Rochester.
Spruce Up Your Facilities for Summer.
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p40-42 ; 2008
Discusses affordable school facility upgrades that are ideally done when schools have lower occupancy. Also discussed are the advantages of an energy performance contract.
Capturing Energy Loss.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p24 ; Jan 2008
Reviews infrared thermal imaging to detect problems in electrical distribution and HVAC systems, mechanical equipment, and the building envelope.
Hot Button: Effective Boiler Maintenance.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p12,14 ; Jan 2008
Advises on boiler maintenance, including boiler types, typical causes for failure and how to prevent them, and attention to the unit heaters that utilize the boiler output.
Group Activity: Relamping Facilities.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n12 , p12,13 ; Dec 2007
Explores consideration for light bulb replacement, detailing material, storage, and labor costs as related to replacing bulbs only when they burn out, planned group replacement in an area at specified intervals, and contract relamping. Opportunities for electrical training, typical duties, and equipment involved in relamping are also covered.
Restoring the Building Envelope.
College Planning and Management; v10 n12 , p27,28 ; Dec 2007
Discusses establishing a maintenance program for college building exteriors, illustrated with an example of challenges encountered when restoring a neglected building at Gallaudet University.
Deferred Maintenance Reporting for the Have-Nots.
Facilities Manager; v23 n6 , p20-23,25 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Advises on how to present a convincing deferred maintenance scenario that will get the attention of decision makers who are not necessarily dedicated to national standards for facilities condition. Elements that a convincing presentation should contain with suggestions for charts and graphs are included.
What Is Your IAQ?
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p35,36,38 ; Nov 2007
Profiles the Iowa State University maintenance department's attention to indoor air quality in its buildings. Automation systems, preventive maintenance, handling of complaints, and staff training are addressed.
Designing with the End in Mind: Maximizing Operational Efficiency.
Dirr, Jerry; Hicks, Ron
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p31,32,34,36 ; Aug 2007
Details total cost of school building ownership in terms of initial and operating costs, the typical stages of school building design and what cost analyses occur in each, software programs for building management from design through maintenance, and elements of a successful school building maintenance plan.
Magic Vision: Campuses Strive for Leakproof Buildings.
College Planning and Management; v10 n7 , p38,40 ; Jul 2007
Reviews the use of thermal infrared imaging cameras, ultrasound, moisture meters, digital thermometers, and borescopes to find water leaks in buildings.
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p10 ; Jun 2007
Reviews myriad school-related Summer activities, including remedial instruction, advanced instruction, school-based camps, as well as building maintenance, cleaning, and upgrading.
The Importance of a Maintenance Program.
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p28,30,32-34 ; Jun 2006
Reviews statistics concerning the condition of America's schools and discusses essential capital, infrastructure, educational, preventive, deferred, cleaning maintenance. The elements of a quality plan for preservation of capacity are detailed, and advice on creating a plan is offered.
A Positive Move: American School and University 12th Annual College M&O Cost Study.
American School and University; v78 n9 , p34-36,39,40 ; Apr 2006
Presents the results of a 2005 study of two- and four-year colleges, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 11 per cent of total expenditures, which is up from 10 percent in 2004. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs and square footages per FTE student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of institutions, types of expenditures, enrollment figures, payroll data, and buildings and grounds statistics.
Coming Up Short: American School and University 35th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
American School and University; v78 n9 , p25,26,29,30,32 ; Apr 2006
Presents the results of a 2005 study of public school districts, revealing that maintenance and operations expenditures averaged 7.58 per cent of total expenditures, which is statistically even with the previous year's figure of 7.5 percent, and considered deficient when compared to the 9.59 percent expenditures of ten years ago. The survey methodology is described, with numerous tables displaying costs per student, costs per square foot, historical spending data, types of expenditures, payroll and personnel data, and buildings and grounds statistics.
Who's Maintaining What?
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p62 ; Mar 2006
Reviews types of maintenance underway in public schools, with categories of work reported as percentages of overall maintenance projects.
The 65 Percent Solution.
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p12 ; Mar 2006
Explains the "65 Percent Solution," which requires school districts to spend at least 65 percent of their operating budget on "in-classroom" expenses. The rule has become law in several states, with many others currently considering it. Potential negative impacts to school maintenance, safety, transportation, and food service are described.
Tough Choices: Effectively Planning Long-Term Investments.
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p24,25 ; Winter 2006
Proposes a frequency for campus facility assessments and explains how the facility condition index (FCI) is calculated and used to schedule repair and/or replacement of facilities.
Sealing In Energy Savings.
Maintenance Solutions; v13 n12 ; Dec 2005
New-generation insulation can enhance energy efficiency and minimize moisture problems. This article discusses roofing applications, wall insulation, duct applications, and pipe insulation.
The Why and How of Maintenance.
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p28-31 ; Jun 2005
Details reasons behind deferred maintenance, including willingness to cut maintenance and operations budgets to preserve educational program funding, lack of master planning for maintenance, lack of administrative understanding of maintenance due to insufficient communication from maintenance administrators, and lack of priority for maintenance.
Maintaining Our Schools.
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p38,40-43 ; Apr 2005
Reviews the backlog of deferred maintenance in America's schools, describes typical damage and energy loss in a school with a deteriorating building envelope, and suggests elements of a school maintenance plan.
Switching to Summer Mode.
School Planning and Management; v44 n4 , p46-50 ; Apr 2005
Advises on prevention of building problems due to excess moisture that occur when schools are closed for summer vacation. Sources of excess moisture, preparation of a written management plan, recommended inspections of the building envelope, staff training, proper HVAC levels, drying of floors after cleaning, and elimination of kitchen moisture are covered.
Preventive Maintenance: The Necessary Evil, or the Saving Grace.
Steger, Michael G.
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p24,25 ; Aug 2004
Describes elements of a successful preventive maintenance program, emphasizing adherence to manufacturer's recommendations, concentrating on tasks that yield maximum results, and tracking work carefully.
Preventing Water Woes
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2004
A building’s exterior should look good, and it should keep the exterior environment out while providing a healthy, comfortable interior environment for occupants. This article takes a closer look at the roles of exterior coatings, maintenance, and wall-system design in developing a comprehensive waterproofing strategy.
Rescue Your Campus from "Stranded" Costs.
Kadamus, David A.
Trusteeship; v11 n5 , p28-32 ; Sep-Oct 2003
Discusses how to deal with the pressures to defer maintenance on campus buildings, including the issue of accelerated cycles of obsolescence, which "stranded" costs to avoid and to accept, and specific strategies to gain control of the physical asset portfolio.
American School Board Journal; v190 n6 , p29-31 ; Jun 2003
Describes school-facility maintenance problems and benefits of preventive maintenance. Includes interviews with Reggie Teague, superintendent for the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools in North Carolina, Ohio architect Ron Fanning, and NCEF's associate director Judy Marks.
A Permanent Fix.
American School and University; v75 n8 , p42-43 ; Apr 2003
Discusses the benefits of a preventive maintenance program for a school's building envelope, especially roofing, including avoiding a crisis-management mentality and gaining greater control over time and finances.
Preventive Maintenance: Fighting Time and Elements.
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p6-10 ; Dec 2002
Describes school facilities preventive-maintenance procedures. Includes sample preventive maintenance program and suggestions for prioritizing preventive-maintenance procedures.
College Planning and Management; v5 n10 , p28-30 ; Oct 2002
Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes.
Department Reengineering Improves Service at Miami-Dade Community College.
Facilities Manager; v18 n4 , p47-48 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Details the process of reengineering Miami-Dade Community College's maintenance department to lower costs while increasing services. Changes included work flow, communications, purchasing, staffing, and technology methods.
We Can't Put It Off Forever.
Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v41 n5 , p44-47 ; May 2002
Discusses the poor maintenance of school facilities from years of under-funding, the sheer volume of tasks, and the natural preference to fund growth and development rather than maintenance. Describes the importance of preventive maintenance and skilled staff. Includes a description of facility maintenance resources.
The Asset Responsibility.
Momentum; v33 n1 , p14-17 ; Feb-Mar 2002
Offers suggestions for preventive maintenance of school facilities. Argues that Catholic schools are often allowed to crumble due to the focus on excellence in education, as well as a lack of attention to the physical elements of buildings. Asserts that complete school stewardship includes maintenance of the physical asset. Contains example of a monthly inspection sheet and a preventative maintenance worksheet and work order.
Planning Maintenance and Repairs.
American School and University; v74 n1 , p30,32,34 ; Sep 2001
Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems.
Designing Campus Landscapes for Preventive Maintenance.
College Planning and Management; v4 n3 , p52-53 ; Mar 2001
Shows how properly planned campus landscapes can generate long-term savings and help create rich natural settings. How important good landscaping is to a college campus's image is reviewed.
Preventing Plumbing Problems
Maintenance Solutions Online; Dec 2000
One strategy for managers developing a preventive or predictive maintenance program for plumbing systems is to focus on locations in facility plumbing systems that traditionally have caused problems. By identifying these components, technicians and inspectors can detect problems early and take steps to troubleshoot minor problems before they become big problems. This discusses traditional trouble spots, early warning signs, and taking quick action on leaks.
Preventive Maintenance, Part Replacement Key to Avoiding Costly Repairs
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p71-72,74,76,78,80 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the importance of avoiding costly repairs in fitness centers by keeping up on preventive maintenance and part replacement. One university's answer to weight training equipment rehabilitation is highlighted as is a solution for racquetball wall repair. Several "tricks-of-the-trade" notes are included.
An Eye on Prevention.
American School and University; v72 n9 , p65-66 ; May 2000
Discusses the types of washroom fixtures and locker room equipment that educational facilities can utilize to help minimize and discourage student mischief. Topics include controlling germs by substituting epoxy paint for tile grout, using phenolic toilet-stall partitions to reduce vandalism, and using expanded metal lockers to control locker odor.
Defeating the Drips.
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p34-36 ; Mar 2000
Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings, emphasizing the related topics of roof leaks and roof waterproofing, condensation, and HVAC design.
Maintenance Staffing Standards for Zero-Based Budgeting.
Adams, Matthew C.
Facilities Manager; v14 n4 , p18-23 ; Jul-Aug 1998
Discusses school preventive maintenance and the variables associated with maintenance staffing standards that address a zero-based budgeting environment. It explores preventive maintenance measurements for staffing requirements, defines staffing levels and job descriptions, and outlines the factors to consider when creating a maintenance program and identifying annual costs.
The Benefits of Preventive Roof Maintenance.
School Planning and Management; v37 n6 , p44-47 ; Jun 1998
Explains how to convince a school administration that a roof maintenance program can extend roof life and save money, even in the presence of roof warranties. Discusses ways to evaluate the cost benefits of roof maintenance and the importance of creating an historical file when any new roof is installed that contains such information as specifications, drawings, roof plan, details, and inspection reports.
Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.
American School and Hospital Maintenance; , p13,16,18 ; Apr 1998
Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in HVAC systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design, such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes, and ways to maintain a clean system.
American School and University; v70 n6 , p16, 18 ; Feb 1998
Investigates the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Discusses preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party damage. Emphasizes the need to keep drains clear.
Preventative Maintenance: Toward an Expanded Concept
Sharp, William L.
Educational Facility Planner; v30 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1992
Sharp suggests an expanded practice of preventative maintenance that emphasizes health and safety issues. Such a change would not only increase the safety of the educational environment, but reduce lawsuits as well. Sharp presents a real life example of how lack of preventative maintenance resulted in a student injury and a judgement of negligence against the school, and recommmends frequent walk-throughs of the facility, with the purpose of identifying potential safety risks.
Automated System Programs Preventive Maintenance
Locke, Richard C.
School Business Affairs; v53 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan 1987
A preventive maintenance system provides for the monitoring and inspection of school building elements in a programmed way through an automatic checklist. Utility cost savings are expected along with reduction of travel and wait time, and measurable standards of performance for all maintenance and repair work.