Information on the planning and design of indoor and outdoor lighting of school buildings and campus facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Lighting Design Basics, 2nd Edition
(Wiley, May 2012)
Authored by leading lighting designers with decades of experience, this offers straightforward coverage of lighting concepts and techniques. Contains design scenarios for more than twenty different types of spaces. 256pTO ORDER: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470474270.html
Five Questions to Answer About Sustainable School Lighting
Davis, Robert G.
This white paper answers these questions: How can lighting help reduce our environmental impact?; How can lighting help create a comfortable, productive school learning environment?; How do we verify and validate the sustainable aspects of our school?; Which types of lighting equipment are best for our school?; How can lighting controls help meet our sustainable design goals? Provides a holistic view of the impacts of lighting, both on the natural environment and on the people who work, teach and learn in schools and universities. 4p
Lighting Retrofit and Relighting: A Guide to Energy Efficient Lighting.
Benya, James R.; Leban, Donna J.
(Wiley, Apr 2011)
Discusses the recent advances in lighting equipment and retrofittable controls, for both interior and outdoor use. Explains how to do a lighting audit to identify and evaluate logical retrofit choices. Includes case studies of retrofits, illustrating improvements in the quality and efficacy of new lighting. Demonstrates how cost savings realized over time can not only pay for new equipment but produce a return on the investment. 312p.
Advanced Lighting Guidelines
(New Buildings Institute, 2011)
Authoritative all-in-one information resource covering energy-efficient lighting design, technologies, and applications for lighting designers, engineers, federal energy managers, contractors and other lighting professionals. Includes authoritative data on energy-efficient lighting practices and integration with daylighting and other green building strategies. The online edition of Advanced Lighting Guidelines is regularly updated by editors and contributors, and enhanced by commentary from visitors.
Best Practices Lighting Control Systems.
(WattStoppper, Santa Clara, CA, 2011)
Offers design, specification, and installation guidance for lighting control appropriate for K-12 educational facilities. It features applications that illustrate the best control practices for a variety of spaces, facilitating lighting control design and application. Each best practice meets the provisions of relevant energy codes, reduces lighting operation costs, saves energy, and considers the needs of the primary space occupants, teachers and students. They also include an overview with a sample floor plan showing typical lighting, controls and furniture layouts. Additional drawings include wiring and connecting drawings, mounting diagrams, sensor coverage patterns, daylighting sensor placement diagrams and more. A list of design considerations and detailed explanations of equipment sequences of operation further assist designers who want to ensure that controls will operate as expected. Additionally, each solution can be downloaded as a printable PDF.
Proper Maintenance, Removal, and Disposal of PCB-Containing Fluorescent Light Ballasts.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , 2011)
The U.S. Environmental Agency recommends removal of all pre-1979 flourescent light ballasts in schools to prevent accidental exposure of occupants to highly toxic polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB's). This web-based guide provides information to school administrators and maintenance personnel on the risks posed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in light ballasts, how to properly handle and dispose of these items, and how to properly retrofit the lighting fixtures in schools to remove potential PCB hazards.
Low - Energy School Design for Sustainability
(Douglas County School District, Colorado, Jul 29, 2010)
This video, produced by Douglas County School District along with top Colorado architecture firms that specialize in designs specific to Daylight and Learning, shows a unique prototype of school design that saves energy as well as provides an optimal learning environment for students.
Energy Efficient Lighting.
(Whole Building Design Guide, National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 23, 2010)
Discusses recently developed energy efficient lighting equipment such as compact fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps, LED lamps, "soft-start" electronic ballasts, and luminaires that can be used to help cut lighting operational costs 30% to 60% while enhancing lighting quality, reducing environmental impacts, and promoting health and work productivity.
References to Journal Articles
Overdesigned Restroom Lighting Systems Can Increase Costs
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
One of the biggest energy costs in a restroom is lighting. Systems that produce too little light give the restroom the appearance of being dingy and dirty. For that reason, most restroom lighting systems are overdesigned. But those systems not only waste energy but also can be uncomfortable for users.
Make Your School Control Itself
School Planning and Management; Apr 2012
Describes how to control energy use by integrating the mechanical, lighting, and other building systems so that each system can be scheduled and the systems can work together and monitor performance.
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
4-part series on lighting controls. Part 1: Careful Planning for Lighting Controls Can Prevent Problems; Part 2: With Lighting Controls, Facility Managers Should Understand Products, Building's Wiring; Part 3: Testing Is Key To Avoiding Lighting Control Projects Problems; and Part 4: Lighting Controls: Facility Managers Should Understand, Educate Occupants.
Buildings; , p26-30 ; Feb 2012
Discusses school lighting strategies that can cut energy use and save money, including daylighting, weighing your options, prioritizing efficiency, comparing modern lighting calculations, going by the book, and modernizing controls
Outside Light: Use Best, Not Brightest
Building Operating Management; , p30-33 ; Dec 2011
It is possible to have a safe, secure outdoor lighting strategy while also being a good environmental steward.
Education, Analysis Help When Evaluating Lighting Technologies
Building Operating Management; , p28-32 ; Nov 2011
Lighting efficiency options keep getting better, more complex, and tougher to sort out. There's a lot more to consider: new metrics, too-good-to-be-true claims, and sometimes questionable analyses, to name a few. A bit of reality checking, plus some help from a few independent data sources, may help facility managers navigate this ever-growing maze.
Center Stage. The Latest in Scoreboards and Sports Lighting.
Vence, Deborah L.
Recreation Management; Oct 2011
Discusses wireless and LED technology taking the scoreboard industry by storm, and the latest trends in sports lighting. Includes key steps to selecting a scoreboard.
Best Practice Solutions for School Lighting
Sustainable Facility; Jul 28, 2011
WattStopper has published a free set of best practice solutions for classrooms to help specifiers and facility managers quickly identify and implement energy-saving lighting control solutions for these spaces. The new online tool offers users a range of design options to meet different energy-savings goals, and provides a wealth of detailed information from wiring diagrams to equipment schedules.
Guiding Light. [Lighting Retrofits at San Diego State University]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p13,14 ; Jul 2011
Describes importance of students and physical plant staff working together to determine the best plan for lighting retrofits.
School District Introduces Full Lighting Control.
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p51-54 ; Jun 2011
Describes extraordinary challenges facing effective use of building automation systems (BAS). While HVAC requirements are usually straightforward and predictable, the need for lighting can be extremely difficult to program for regular usage. Close interaction with a building engineer in planning a BAS can lead to significant cost savings.
Enhancing Light Quality, Reducing Energy Costs.
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p60-62 ; Jun 2011
Discusses integration of direct, indirect, and natural lighting that emphasizes cost savings with use of natural light.
Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie
American School and University; v83 n9 , p36,38,39 ; May 2011
Notes the increased environmental awareness of current students, and advises on sustainable lighting systems to accommodate their awareness. Daylighting, solar power, and energy-efficient bulbs are discussed, as are the aesthetic and psychological benefits of thoughtful lighting schemes.
Seeing the Light: Debunking LED Myths. [Get the Truth on LEDs]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p10,11 ; May 2011
Discusses properties of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, addressing their appropriate applications, life cycle, energy efficiency, light output, and color rendering.
Lighting Retrofits: Seizing the Opportunity.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p14 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the phaseout of the traditional T12 fluorescent lamp, in favor of higher-efficiency T8 and T5 lamps. As production of ballasts for the T12 lamps has been discontinued, conversion will become necessary when existing ballasts fail. When considering replacing ballasts and lamps, it is worth considering replacing the entire fixture.
Spotlight on LEDs.
Building Operating Management; v58 n2 , p31,32,34,36 ; Feb 2011
Describes the rapid pace at which LED lighting systems are improving, yet cautions that LED is not always the appropriate choice. LED is most likely to be the right choice for outdoor lighting. There is careful description of what a facilities manager must consider for indoor LED lighting, especially in retrofits.
How to Minimize the Risks of Used Fluorescent Lighting.
Facility Management Journal; v20 n6 , p36,38,39 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the handling, storage, packaging, transport, and recycling of used fluorescent light bulbs, in order to keep their mercury out of the environment. Four references are included.
K-12 Energy-Lite Lighting.
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p40,42-44 ; Nov 2010
Describes the Springfield (Missouri) School Districts positive experience with upgrading their lighting for energy efficiency. With $332,000 of investment, $104,240 per year is saved, the returning the investment in about three years. Details of the use of T-8, T-5, and LED lighting are offered, citing the benefits and drawbacks of each.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p29,31-33 ; Nov 2010
Profiles the unique lighting of the University of California San Diego Sustainable Research Center. Photovoltaic panels on the roof supply the DC-DC lighting system, augmented by daylight and electricity from the campus grid after dark. Photoluminescent exit signs use no electricity at all.
Lights Out: Lamp and Ballast Phaseouts.
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p62-64 ; Oct 2010
Notes that new minimum energy efficiency standards will halt the sale of a variety of common lamps and ballasts over the next few years. Items that are affected, exemptions, advice on navigating the changes, prioritizing replacement, and financial incentives to upgrade lighting are discussed.
Intelligent Illumination. [Project Profile: Parking Structure Retrofits.]
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p11,12 ; Sep 2010
Profiles an extensive energy-saving project at the University of California-Davis. The project concentrated on upgrading parking and roadway lighting to bi-level induction and LED fixtures.
Sustainability with a Sane Tack.
The School Administrator; v67 n7 , p26-28,30,31 ; Aug 2010
Describes the Minnetonka School District's sustainability efforts, under the UPonGREEN program. Replacement and retrofit of lighting and HVAC systems are described, as is increased recycling, UPonGREEN criteria, and school environmental activism.
Taking Control of Lighting.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p6,7 ; Jul 2010
Discusses commissioning and re-commissioning of lighting systems. Commissioning scheduling and participants are discussed, as is the importance of re-commissioning as building use evolves. Five essential procedures for maintaining lighting are included.
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p40, 41 ; Jul 2010
Discusses perimeter lighting of a building, addressing code requirements, color quality, glare, light trespass and pollution, and energy efficiency.
LED Lighting Provides a Brighter Future.
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p48-51 ; Jun 2010
Describes the benefits of ambient LED lighting, including longer bulb life, lack of harmful chemicals in the bulbs, lower energy use, and lower heat output.
The Top Ten Energy Wasters in K-12 Facilities (and What to Do about Them).
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p32-34 ; May 2010
Presents the top ten sources of wasted energy and water in schools, along with suggestion for how to mitigate them. These involve HVAC systems, lighting, and plumbing.
Lighting Controls: Retrofit Roadmap.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p22,23 ; Apr 2010
Advises on selecting lighting controls in a retrofit, including sensor placement, wiring, commissioning, tax deductions, rebates, and demand response programs.
School Construction News; v16 n2 , p18,19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses maximizing daylighting and artificial lighting strategies for schools, addressing floor plans, glare, skylights, fenestration, and glass selection.
Lighting Retrofits: Putting Technology to Work.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p11,12 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the use of photosensors to control artificial lighting in daylit rooms. Light-level response, signal types, photopic correction, and application trends are addressed.
An Analysis of Energy-efficient Light Fittings and Lighting Controls.
Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; and Lam, Tony
Applied Energy; v87 n 2 , p558-567 ; Feb 2010
This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.
Lack of Short-Wavelength Light During the School Day Delays Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) in Middle School Students.
Figueiro, Mariana; Rea, Mark
Neuroendocrinology Letters; v31 n1 , p92-96 ; 2010
Reports the results of a study investigating whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. The results show that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools.TO ORDER: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150866
LED Outdoor Area Luminaries Help Schools Balance the Equation.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n1 , p6,8,9 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the advantages of LED lighting in the areas of energy savings and durability, citing examples where educational institutions have deployed them effectively.
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p46,48,50 ; Nov 2009
Advises on school lighting, urging redesigning lighting systems, rather than just relamping, when schools want to improve lighting and save energy. Trends in lighting design and energy-saving fixtures are discussed.
LEDs, easy as ABC.
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n9 ; Sep 2009
Outlines steps for replacement of campus lighting with LED fixtures. Beginning with identifying locations where improved lighting is needed, the steps include surveying and then selecting products, joining the LED University program, and evaluation of the initial installations.
American School and University; v81 n10 , p32-35 ; May 2009
Advises on energy-efficient lighting for schools, emphasizing daylighting, advanced lighting controls, dimming ballasts, and T-5 lamps.
Prevent 17 Common Lighting Mistakes.
Buildings; v103 n5 , p40-42 ; May 2009
Outlines 17 common lighting mistakes starting with selecting the wrong consultants, through careless scrutiny of proposals, product selection, installation, and inaccurate calculation of energy costs due to varying rate structures.
LED's: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology.
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p50-54 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Explores light-emitting diode (LED) technology, maintainability, and its potential for durability and efficiency. Early opinions have been mixed, as some LED products do not perform as promised. Also, with the rapid evolution of this technology, building owners are cautious about installing technology that will soon be obsolete. While LED fixtures are typically longer-lasting and consume less energy, they are still relatively expensive to buy.
Lighting the Way.
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p22,24,26,27 ; Feb 2009
Advocates for the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting in schools, with general lighting applications made possible by recent technological advances. The advantages of LED to energy consumption, lamp life, visibility of the light, color rendering, are discussed, and advice on replacing standard fixtures with LED is offered.
Lighting and Discomfort in the Classroom.
Winterbottom, Mark; Wilkins, Arnold
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v29 , p63-75 ; 2009
Examines aspects of classroom lighting and decor that can promote discomfort and impair task performance through glare, and imperceptible 100 Hz flicker from fluorescent lighting. In 90 United Kingdom classrooms, variables measured included flicker, illuminance at desks, and luminance of whiteboards. Results showed that 80% of classrooms are lit with 100 Hz fluorescent lighting that can cause headaches and impair visual performance. Mean illuminance was in excess of recommended design illuminance in 88% of classrooms, and in 84% exceeded levels beyond which visual comfort decreases. Ceiling-mounted data projectors directed at whiteboards mounted vertically on the wall resulted in specular reflection from the whiteboard, visible as a glare spot with luminance high enough to cause discomfort and disability glare. Ambient lighting, needed for close work at pupils' desks, reduced image contrast. Venetian blinds in 23% of classrooms had spatial characteristics appropriate for inducing pattern glare. There was significant variation between schools and local authorities. The findings may provide insights into small-scale reports linking pupils' attainment, behavior and learning to classroom lighting, and may also help explain some of the benefits of colored overlays for pupils' reading.TO ORDER: http://www.mendeley.com/research/lighting-discomfort-classroom/