NCEF Resource List: School Lighting
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SCHOOL LIGHTING

Information on the planning and design of indoor and outdoor lighting of school buildings and campus facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

Lighting Design Basics, 2nd Edition
Karlen, Mark
(Wiley, May 2012)
Authored by leading lighting designers with decades of experience, this offers straightforward coverage of lighting concepts and techniques. Contains design scenarios for more than twenty different types of spaces. 256p
TO ORDER: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470474270.html

Five Questions to Answer About Sustainable School Lighting Adobe PDF
Davis, Robert G.
(LiteControl.com, 2012)
This white paper answers these questions: How can lighting help reduce our environmental impact?; How can lighting help create a comfortable, productive school learning environment?; How do we verify and validate the sustainable aspects of our school?; Which types of lighting equipment are best for our school?; How can lighting controls help meet our sustainable design goals? Provides a holistic view of the impacts of lighting, both on the natural environment and on the people who work, teach and learn in schools and universities. 4p

Lighting Retrofit and Relighting: A Guide to Energy Efficient Lighting.
Benya, James R.; Leban, Donna J.
(Wiley, Apr 2011)
Discusses the recent advances in lighting equipment and retrofittable controls, for both interior and outdoor use. Explains how to do a lighting audit to identify and evaluate logical retrofit choices. Includes case studies of retrofits, illustrating improvements in the quality and efficacy of new lighting. Demonstrates how cost savings realized over time can not only pay for new equipment but produce a return on the investment. 312p.

Advanced Lighting Guidelines
(New Buildings Institute, 2011)
Authoritative all-in-one information resource covering energy-efficient lighting design, technologies, and applications for lighting designers, engineers, federal energy managers, contractors and other lighting professionals. Includes authoritative data on energy-efficient lighting practices and integration with daylighting and other green building strategies. The online edition of Advanced Lighting Guidelines is regularly updated by editors and contributors, and enhanced by commentary from visitors.

Best Practices Lighting Control Systems.
(WattStoppper, Santa Clara, CA, 2011)
Offers design, specification, and installation guidance for lighting control appropriate for K-12 educational facilities. It features applications that illustrate the best control practices for a variety of spaces, facilitating lighting control design and application. Each best practice meets the provisions of relevant energy codes, reduces lighting operation costs, saves energy, and considers the needs of the primary space occupants, teachers and students. They also include an overview with a sample floor plan showing typical lighting, controls and furniture layouts. Additional drawings include wiring and connecting drawings, mounting diagrams, sensor coverage patterns, daylighting sensor placement diagrams and more. A list of design considerations and detailed explanations of equipment sequences of operation further assist designers who want to ensure that controls will operate as expected. Additionally, each solution can be downloaded as a printable PDF.

Proper Maintenance, Removal, and Disposal of PCB-Containing Fluorescent Light Ballasts.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , 2011)
The U.S. Environmental Agency recommends removal of all pre-1979 flourescent light ballasts in schools to prevent accidental exposure of occupants to highly toxic polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB's). This web-based guide provides information to school administrators and maintenance personnel on the risks posed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in light ballasts, how to properly handle and dispose of these items, and how to properly retrofit the lighting fixtures in schools to remove potential PCB hazards.

Low - Energy School Design for Sustainability
(Douglas County School District, Colorado, Jul 29, 2010)
This video, produced by Douglas County School District along with top Colorado architecture firms that specialize in designs specific to Daylight and Learning, shows a unique prototype of school design that saves energy as well as provides an optimal learning environment for students.

Energy Efficient Lighting.
Nelson, David
(Whole Building Design Guide, National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 23, 2010)
Discusses recently developed energy efficient lighting equipment such as compact fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps, LED lamps, "soft-start" electronic ballasts, and luminaires that can be used to help cut lighting operational costs 30% to 60% while enhancing lighting quality, reducing environmental impacts, and promoting health and work productivity.

Integrated Classroom Lighting Systems: Light's Great, Less Billing. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Publicc Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento , Apr 2008)
Describes energy-efficient, flexible lighting for today's classroom needs. The integrated classroom lighting system (ICLS) consists of a combination of direct and indirect light, assisted by 96 percent reflective material in the fixtures, and easy-to-use controls. 2p.

Daylight Harvesting Made Simple. Adobe PDF
(E-Source, Boulder, CO , Jan 2008)
Explains how researchers at the California Lighting Technology Center at the University of California at Davis developed a new approach called the Simplified Daylight Harvesting system that is easy to install and provides automatic and continuous calibration. The system uses photosensor readings to set lights to on, off, or intermediate levels and gives users the ability to adjust settings. The fixtures can be cost-effectively used in daylit spaces in schools to produce energy-cost savings and reductions in peak demand charges. 2p.

A New Daylighting Strategy for a Middle School in North Carolina.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2007)
Investigates the findings of daylighting studies being conducted at the Northern Guilford Middle School in Greensboro, North Carolina. This daylighting design at this school utilizes a unique curved, translucent interior light shelf, working in combination with a highly reflective ceiling in the classroom spaces. While preventing glare, this strategy diffuses daylight in a very uniform manner and assists in reflecting daylight deeper into the classroom spaces. The daylighting glazing area is reduced by 40% compared to that used in past daylighting applications. Whole building energy analysis results indicate a 50% lighting energy reduction, a 10% cooling energy reduction, and a 11% total building energy reduction through daylighting, as compared to a code compliant base case without daylighting. 8p.

Comparison of Daylighting Strategies for Schools.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2007)
Describes the overall process and key factors considered by the author's firm during a recent whole-building analytical process to develop a new, more cost-effective daylighting strategy for classroom daylighting. The analysis evaluated the cost and efficiency impacts of key factors that impact good daylighting design for K-12 school design. Our firm has previously designed, implemented and later analyzed many classroom daylighting strategies that have employed south- and north-facing room monitor and lightshelf strategies on similar K-12 classrooms. The goal of this effort was to develop a strategy that would improve energy efficiency and reduce initial construction cost while still maintaining a high quality daylighting solution that would minimize glare and maintain reasonable light level uniformity within the classroom. 4p.

Designing Quality Learning Spaces: Lighting. Adobe PDF
(New Zealand Ministry of Education, Wellington , 2007)
Advises on school lighting, addressing the connection between lighting and learning, natural and artificial classroom lighting, specialized teaching spaces, and extra considerations for special needs students. A flow diagram for lighting assessment, lighting survey, and 6 references are included. 52p.

Learning, Lighting, and Color. Adobe PDF
Fielding, Randall
(DesignShare.com , 2006)
Reviews learning patterns and its connection to visual stimuli. Proper lighting for school entryways and science laboratories is covered, and seven myths about lighting and color in educational architecture are challenged. 7p.

Lighting for Libraries. Adobe PDF
Malman, David
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
This discusses the most important issues in lighting design for modern libraries, including light sources, lighting for bookstacks, lighting in general reading and staff areas, daylighting, exterior lighting, lighting controls, accessibility issues, and good architectural design. Includes further information.

Best Practices for Metal Halide Lighting Systems, Plus Questions and Answers about Lamp Ruptures in Metal Halide Lighting Systems.
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, VA , Dec 10, 2004)
Provides information for the selection, operation, and maintenance of metal halide lighting systesm, with specific emphasis on items pertinent to risks associated with lamp rupture. Bulbs in these fixtures can continue to function when the outer, ultraviolet-screening bulb breaks, thus exposing occupants to harmful radiation. 13p.
Report NO: LSD 25-2004


Flourescent Lamp Recycling and Mercury Recovery: Domestic and International Overview.
Domanico, Edward
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , Sep 2004)
Explains the necessity to properly recycle flourescent lamps, rather than discard them in a landfill, due to the mercury they contain. 3p.

Lighting Upgrades: A Guide for Facility Managers. 2nd edition
Wood, Damon
(Fairmont Press, 2004)
Step-by-step guidance for upgrading a lighting system, in either a retrofit or a complete redesign scenario, for the purpose of increasing both energy efficiency and productivity. Topics examined in detail include lighting quality, upgrade strategies, lighting applications, current technologies, lighting economics, effective maintenance, lighting project implementation, and strategies for assessing energy and cost saving opportunities. 364p.

Recommendations for the Care and Maintenance of High Intensity Metal Halide and Mercury Lighting in Schools.
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Rosslyn, VA , 2003)
Recommends procedures to protect occupants from skin burns and eye irritation resulting from broken high intensity metal halide or mercury bulbs, typically used in school sports facilities and assembly halls. These bulbs can continue to function when the outer, ultraviolet-screening bulb breaks, thus exposing occupants to harmful radiation. 1p.

Recommended Practice for Indoor Lighting Maintenance.
(Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, NY , 2003)
Describes typical lighting system behaviors, identifying light loss factors that can be addressed by maintenance. Discusses a recent study on luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD) that gives new recommendations on determining this factor and new information significant to the luminaire count required in contemporary designs. Details the components of an effective maintenance program, including planning, operations, methods, materials, and troubleshooting. 34p.
TO ORDER: http://www.iesna.org/

Lighting the Learning Space. Adobe PDF
Bentley, Miriam
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Briefly discusses six important components of the IESNA "Recommended Practice on Lighting for Educational Facilities." These are: 1) Provide views to the outside to allow relaxation of the eye muscles as they focus on the distance. 2) Control window luminance to avoid glare. 3) Ensure that the angle between any source of high luminance and principle sight lines is a large as possible. 4) Avoid high brightness contrasts. 5) Place sources of high brightness against a bright background to reduce visual discomfort. 6) Replace recessed parabolic or lens fixtures with pendant-mounted indirect/direct fixtures. 2p.

Be Prepared With Lighting: An Online Reading Room.
Bullough, John D.
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Lighting Research Center, Troy, NY , 2003)
Lighting is a tool that, used wisely, can increase security and safety. This is a compilation of articles, published in various trade magazines, that collectively emphasize that where, when and how lighting is used are just as important as how much lighting is used for effectively increasing security and for responding to emergencies. The articles contain guidance and principles for architects, engineers, and facility managers.

National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , 2002)
This guide was developed specifically for architects and engineers who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, and for the project managers who work with the design teams. The design strategies presented here are organized into 10 chapters covering important design disciplines and goals: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource-efficient building products. An additional chapter addresses commissioning and maintenance practices. Each chapter contains a list of related resources. 457p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1610


Classroom Lighting Knowhow. Adobe PDF
(Northern Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Inc.; Design Lights Consortium , 2002)
This guide provides some advice on how to use photocell dimming in schools to save lighting energy without creating distraction to students. It also provides guidance on what types of luminaries to use, and how best to orient and group them in order to maximize energy savings. Estimated energy savings are given for a variety of luminaire and control options. Includes general classroom layouts, computer classroom layouts, corridor layouts, and lighting fixture specifications. 8p.

Lighting Control Best Practice Guide: Schools.
(Watt Stopper, Inc., Santa Clara, CA. , 2002)
This publication offers design, specification, and installation guidance for lighting control appropriate for K-12 educational facilities. It features applications that illustrate the best control practices for a variety of spaces, facilitating lighting control design and application. Each best practice meets the provisions of relevant energy codes, reduces lighting operation costs, saves energy, and considers the needs of the primary space occupants, teachers and students. Each best practice includes a description of application, a list of control needs, a product solution, design considerations, a lighting plan sketch, installation notes, wiring and installation diagrams, and an equipment schedule. 58p.

Integrating Daylighting and Electrical Lighting for Premium Efficiency and Performance. Adobe PDF
Epstein, Gary; McGowan, Brian; Birleanu, Daniel
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2002)
Presents an approach to lighting design that integrates daylighting and artificial lighting, thereby facilitating efficiency and performance. Properly designed systems allow high performance electrical lighting and daylighting to work together to provide optimal lighting performance. Glare, uniformity, wall illumination, levels, color rendering, temperature, power density, automatic controls, lamp selection, and building design are all discussed in the context of natural and artificial light. Two case studies and five references are included. 15p.

Health, Energy and Productivity in Schools: Overview of the Research Program. Adobe PDF
Woods, J.E.; Penney, B.A.; Freitag, P.K.; Marx, G.; Hemler, B.; Sensharma, N.P.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Describes a research program that has been initiated to quantify the effects of simultaneous control of indoor exposures (i.e., thermal, indoor air quality or IAQ, lighting, and acoustics) on specific measures of human response, student and teacher performance, and productivity. The pilot study is being conducted in six elementary schools in Montgomery County Maryland. Two matched triplets of schools have been selected, each with three 3rd grade and three 4th grade classrooms. Exposure, questionnaire, and system performance data are being acquired periodically before and after interventions. (Includes five references.) 6p.

Lighting for Schools. Adobe PDF
Benya, James R.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Dec 2001)
This publication highlights some of the benefits of proper daylighting design in educational facilities, discusses energy efficient electric lighting choices schools can make that are long lasting and require little maintenance, and offers six steps for designing lighting systems that use half the energy of earlier conventional designs. Several light sources and systems are listed along with their mean lumens per watt, luminary usage, and types of school spaces where they would be used.(Contains three references). 6p.

Emergency and Security Lighting.
Honey, Gerard
(Newnes, Oct 2001)
This is a guide for identifying needs, specification and installation of emergency and security lighting systems, including the latest technical developments such as low-energy systems for extended-period lighting. 224p

Better Lighting for Healthier Students.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY., Sep 2001)
This brief highlights the problem that poor or inappropriate lighting in schools can adversely affect children's health and their ability to learn. It discusses the benefits of using daylight or full-spectrum lighting for healthier students, citing studies that reported that students had fewer cavities, gained weight and grew in height more than students in non-daylit classrooms, and demonstrated better work habits and improved academic performance. 4p
TO ORDER: http://www.healthyschools.org

Recommended Practice on Lighting for Educational Facilities.
(Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York , May 2000)
The aims of this document are: (1) to enable school and college administrators to brief their architects on appropriate provision of lighting, and (2) to enable lighting designers to check that the criteria they apply are consistent with good current practice. The scope is restricted to learning and study activities and associated circulation. Reference should be made to the current "IESNA Lighting Handbook" and to the latest versions of other "Recommended Practices" for guidance on lighting spaces in school and college campuses that provide for supplemental activities, such as administration areas, sports facilities, and residential accommodations. This document addresses all levels of education from preschool to continuing professional development. The document's sections address: (1) the role of lighting in educational facilities (support of instructional media, lighting for visual tasks, ambience, meeting the needs of the physically challenged, and lighting for safety); (2) instructional spaces and associated areas (general-purpose classrooms, specialized classrooms, resource study areas, seminar rooms, large teaching spaces, and circulation); (3) lighting design considerations (the learning environment, psychological aspects, lighting quality issues, lighting maintenance, energy management, cost considerations, and government codes); (4) the lighting system (general, the luminaire, daylighting, lighting controls, and emergency lighting); (5) life cycle cost benefit analysis (life cycle cost benefit analysis concept, equivalent annual cost method, and total present value method); and (6) measurement of lighting performance. 50p.
Report NO: ANSI/IESNA RP-3-00

TO ORDER: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005; Tel: 212-248-5000
http://www.iesna.org

Designing Smarter Schools. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , Apr 2000)
This videotape highlights the degree of school-building deterioration in America and the problems this causes for teaching and learning. It also describes the Energy Smart School campaign and details the factors needed in building an Energy Smart School. The video suggests that to build schools that last and to recoup some of the building expense, schools should be designed to be more energy efficient. Energy efficient strategies are detailed under the following energy saving categories: building envelope features; renewable energy sources; and indoor air quality. Several schools are highlighted for their energy savings features: a California school successfully addressed its Urban Heat Island problem; an elementary school in New Hampshire improved its poor indoor air quality; a Massachusetts school improved its lighting to not only be cost effective but also better meet students' learning needs. The video also examines how innovative design techniques helped a renovated school become a community center.

IESNA Lighting Handbook. 9th Edition.
(Illuminating Engineeering Society of North America, New York, NY, 2000)
This comprehensive volume incudes explanations of lighting concepts, techniques, applications, procedures and systems, as well as detailed definitions, tasks, charts and diagrams. This is an indispensable reference for industry professionals and is known as the "Bible of Lighting."
TO ORDER: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005. Tel: 212-248-5000.
http://www.iesna.org/

Influence of the School Facility on Student Achievement: Lighting; Color.
Jago, Elizabeth, Comp.; Tanner, Ken, Comp.
(University of Georgia; Dept. of Educational Leadership, Athens, GA , Apr 1999)
Examines the impact that lighting and color in classrooms have on learning and teaching. Provides excerpts from research on the roles of lighting and color in the educational environment, such as their effect on student concentration, performance, health, behavior, and attitudes. Suggests recommendations for improving lighting and color to enhance student productivity and help reduce absenteeism. 4p.

Lighting Design for Schools. Building Bulletin 90. Adobe PDF
Loe, David; Rowlands, Edward; Mansfield, Kevin; Venning, Bob; Baker, John
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Jan 1999)
This British publication guides architects and engineers through the process of lighting design in the context of the recommended constructional standards for schools and the various types of spaces and activities found in schools. It identifies the determining factors of good lighting design as architectural integration, task and activity lighting, visual amenity, cost, maintenance, and energy efficiency. Further, it describes the calculation methods and design tools that can be used at the early stages of a project and shows, using theory and examples, how to achieve a synthesis between daylight and electric light. 88p.

Compact Fluorescents: The Choice of a New Generation.
American School & Hospital Maintenance; 1999
Compact Fluorescent lamps should be on every Green Lights participant's most wanted list. The practical and aesthetic features of today's high-quality, energy-efficient compact fluorescents have created strong demand.

Fixture Replacement: Is There an Easier Way?
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1999
Given today's retrofit lighting technologies, it is possible to upgrade a fluorescent lighting system to achieve desired efficiency and visual comfort without having to replace the luminaire. However, many end-users may find that it can be more cost-effective to purchase and install new, energy-efficient luminaires rather than to "rebuild" existing luminaires. Restoring the performance of relatively old luminaires may involve removing lamps and ballasts, disconnecting and/or relocating lamp sockets, and installing a combination of new ballasts, reflectors, lamps, and lenses or louvers. Higher equipment costs for upgrading with new luminaires that yield the same efficiency and visual comfort are often offset by labor savings.

No Light at Night: Night Time Black Outs and Vandalism.
(California Energy Extension Service , 1999)
While saving energy, Battle Ground School District in Clark County has reduced vandalism to almost zero with a policy to darken campus after 10:30 p.m. Spokane School District and Riverside School District have been experiencing similar results for over six years. The article documents decreased vandalism and energy savings when school grounds are darkened after nighttime use, citing case studies in California, Texas, and Washington state.

Daylighting for Sustainable Design.
Guzowski, Mary
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1999)
Offers practical design strategies that create a brighter, greener architecture by weaving together environmental, architectonic, and humanistic factors. Sensitive land-use, energy conservation, the use of healthy materials, waste-reduction, design, technological and mechanical factors, aesthetics and quality of life issues are also addressed. Also included are color illustrations, case studies that illustrate how each principle can be implemented, checklist and design approach summaries, and guides to daylighting resources, manufacturers, and specialist firms. 448p.

Daylighting in Schools for the Future.
Ayanlola, Tayo
(TAA Group Architecture, Rockwall, TX , 1998)
Discusses daylinghting in schools, including a brief history of daylight in schools, explaining its political/critical strategies and the natural tendency for people to turn towards the source of light, or as it is called "phototropism" and its importance in the design of lighting in schools. Case studies of British schools from recent decades that address daylighting with varying degrees of success are included. 26p.

Light, Mood and Performance at School: Final Report. Adobe PDF
Samuels, R.
(Dept. of Education and Training and Dept. of Public Works and Services, Sidney, New South Wales, Australia , 1998)
Reports on how the use of full-spectrum lamps installed in eight experimental classrooms decreased anxiety, depression, and inattention due to Seasonal Affective Disorder (S.A.D.). Biological responses to light and its spectra are detailed, and earlier studies of lighting in schools are reviewed. 63p.

Dark Campus Programs Reduce Vandalism and Save Money.
(International Dark-Sky Association, Tucson, AZ, Dec 1997)
Article cites successful examples from Oregon, California, and Texas, of reductions in vandalism and increased energy savings when schools keep outdoor lights out at night after hours. So called 'Dark Campus' policies include hours for blackout, usually 11:00pm to 6:00am, notices to staff and students and local law enforcement that building is off-limits during those hours, signage, and blocked or reduced access to grounds at night. 2p.
Report NO: Information Sheet 54


Control of Outdoor Lighting at Wesleyan University.
(International Dark-Sky Association, Tucson, AZ, Feb 1997)
Discusses outdoor lighting at Wesleyan University from 1976 to 1989 and its relation to the incidence of outdoor crime at night. Empirical evidence showed no statistically significant evidence that street lighting impacted the level of crime. The data showed a trend away from outdoor nighttime crime incidents when the campus was less brightly lit, when modifications to earlier lighting to reduce glare and lighting trespass were installed. 2p.

Measured Field Performance and Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors: Three Case Studies.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , 1996)
This study determines the performance levels, energy savings, and occupant acceptance of occupancy sensors that were installed in a Florida small office building and two elementary schools. Performance data was collected in 15-minute intervals. Aggregate time-of-day lighting load profiles were compared before and after the installation and throughout the commissioning period when the sensors were tuned for optimum performance. Data reveal a 10 percent savings in energy usage in one of the two schools where sensors were installed in classrooms, the cafeteria, and administrative offices. Improper sensor installation, set-up, and faulty user operation inhibited energy performance in the other school. Also, sensor malfunctions adversely effected the energy savings in the office building; following their corrections, energy savings improvements were noted. All three case studies suggest that occupancy sensors can provide savings in a variety of building types. However, it is noted that savings will greatly vary due to occupancy patterns, and previous method of control and lighting load. It was determined that savings and user acceptance for areas selected for control by occupancy sensors are influenced by proper sensor selection, location, and controls commissioning. 15p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-309-96

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Determinants of Lighting Quality II: Research and Recommendations. Adobe PDF
Veitch, Jennifer A.; Newsham, Guy R.
(National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa Ontario , 1996)
The quality of indoor lighting can influence task performance, social interaction and communication, health and safety, visual comfort, student behavior, and aesthetic judgments. These by-products of lighting are examined in this literature review in an effort to define the conditions that are associated with good lighting quality. Lighting quality has been debated among lighting professionals for two decades but with little advancement due to a lack of reliable empirical evidence. Since economic considerations have driven much lighting research, most investigations have focused on lighting for offices. This literature review focuses on office lighting applications, although lighting in other settings, such as schools, is also considered. The review begins with research on the luminous environment, including its influence on social interaction and communication (i.e., findings reveal that higher luminance induced female students to communicate more). Other studies found that both male and female university students rated higher illuminance more favorably than low illuminance, yet such illuminance had no effect on self-reported stress, well-being, or fatigue. Other areas investigated include daylight, luminance distribution and illuminance uniformity across rooms, preference judgments, discomfort, and visual display terminals. Contains approximately 175 references. 58p.

Energy Efficiency Technology Demonstration Project for Florida Educational Facilities: Occupancy Sensors.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; McIlvaine, Janet E. R.; Sherwin, John R.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Dec 1995)
This report describe a Florida study replacing conventional light switches with passive infrared or ultrasonic sensing systems to control classroom lighting in an elementary school to determine the performance of such controls in saving energy. A before-and-after monitoring protocol was used for 33 classrooms and 7 offices in which electrical demand data were collected. Data comparing pre- and post-retrofit periods show sensors achieved an average of 10 percent savings with greater reductions to total energy due to reduced load on the air conditioning system. It is noted that the school already had considerable energy efficient use of lighting as well as having a T8 system, so the benefits are considered to be the minimum a facility can expect to achieve through sensor use. Including costs of installation and commissioning, the payback of the occupancy sensor retrofit was 5 years with a 21 percent simple rate of return from the investment. 25p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-867-95


Electric Lighting and Daylighting in Schools.
Grocoff, Paul N.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Dec 1995)
This report examines both electric lighting and daylighting, listing criteria to determine the correct equipment for a school renovation or building project. The report examines the use of prismatic lenses; parabolic louvers; and indirect lighting, including the cost savings of using indirect lighting. The report indicates that there is no clear answer about which lighting system to select; it includes a table of pros and cons of each system to aid in decision making. (Contains 2 references).

Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Jun 19, 1995)
A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due to dimming. Lower than expected dimming system performance was observed prior to effective commissioning. Difficulties encountered are discussed, as are recommendations for performance improvements. 9p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-283-95


Color and Light Effects on Learning. Adobe PDF
Grangaard, Ellen Mannel
(Paper presented at the Association for Childhood Education International Study Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC , Apr 12, 1995)
This study examined the effects of color and light on the learning of eleven six-year-old elementary school students. The students were videotaped to identify off-task behaviors and had their blood pressure measured while in a standard classroom with white walls and cool-white fluorescent lights, as well as in a classroom with light blue walls and full-spectrum lights. The study found that the students accumulated a total of 390 off-task behaviors in the standard classroom compared to 310 in the modified classroom, a decrease of 22 percent. It also found that students' mean blood pressure readings were nine percent lower in the modified classroom when compared to their readings in the standard classroom. 10p.

Security Lighting: Crime Prevention in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education, London, England , Apr 21, 1993)
Recent years have shown a rise in crimes committed in English schools necessitating the need to formulate security policies. This document examines the use of security lighting and provides guidance and technical advice on policy to assist those responsible for design, specification, purchase, installation, maintenance, operation, and management of security lighting systems for educational buildings. Concluding sections list and categorize the types of lamps and luminaries that are available, highlight case studies showing types of lighting needs of educational facilities and their associated costs, and provide a glossary of lighting terms. 27p.

Effects of Color and Light on Selected Elementary Students. Adobe PDF
Grangaard, Ellen Mannel
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nevada , 1993)
This study compared children's off-task behavior and physiological response in a normal elementary classroom setting with those in a prescribed classroom environment. In the prescribed environment, the colors of the classroom walls were changed from brown and off-white to blue, while Duro-test Vita-lite fluorescent tubes without diffusers replaced the standard cool-white fluorescent tubes with diffusers in the lighting fixtures. Eleven first-graders took part in the study, which measured their off-task behaviors, blood pressure, and pulse twice each day at the same time each day for 10-day periods in the original classroom environment, then in the prescribed environment, and back in the original environment. Results indicated that off-task behaviors, as recorded by three observers, dropped 24 percent after the change from the normal to the prescribed environment, and that systolic blood pressure readings dropped 9 percent after the change. Blood pressure readings demonstrated a gradual increase after the return to the normal environment. (Observer credentials and blood pressure and pulse readings are appended. Contains 126 references.) 183p.

A Study into the Effects of Light on Children of Elementary School-Age--A Case of Daylight Robbery.
Hathaway, Warren E.; And Others
(Policy and Planning, Branch Planning and Information Services Division, Alberta Education, Edmonton, Alberta , 1992)
This report describes a 2-year study of the effects of various lighting systems on elementary school students' dental health, attendance, growth and development, vision, and academic achievement. The four light types used were: (1) full spectrum fluorescent; (2) full spectrum fluorescent with ultraviolet light supplements; (3) cool white fluorescent; and (4) high pressure sodium vapor. Data on students were collected before and after the study. Results indicated that over a 2-year period, students who received ultraviolet light supplements had better attendance, greater gains in height and weight, and better academic performance than did students who did not receive the supplements. Students under the high pressure sodium vapor lighting had the slowest rates of growth in height and academic achievement and the lowest attendance. It was concluded that lighting systems have important nonvisual effects on students who are exposed to them over long periods of time. Implications for facility planning are considered and recommendations regarding lighting for classrooms are offered. 68p.

Color and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology. Adobe PDF
Wohlfarth, M.
(University of Alberta, Canada , May 1986)
This intensive research study utilized a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served as experimental groups and one as a control group. Independent variables were exposure to full-spectrum light or prescribed cool colors for teachers and prescribed warm colors for students or a combination of light and color treatments, ultraviolet light for a sample of grade five students, and elimination of electromagnetic radiation for a sample of grade three students. Dependent variables were primarily student academic, physiological, and affective outcomes and also included blood pressure as a teacher physiological measure. A pre-experimental static-group comparison design was used in the investigation of mood and noise. Overall results support a call for additional field-based and laboratory research into the effects of color, light, and color/light combinations. Findings regarding the beneficial effects of ultraviolet light and reduction of electromagnetic radiation in the school environment support strong recommendations for further study of these effects. An extensive literature review of research findings on light and color is included in the report, which also contains 58 tables, 12 figures, and a bibliography. 219p.

Contrast Rendition in School Lighting. Adobe PDF
Sampson, Foster K.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jan 1970)
Presents results of measuring and analyzing eighteen significantly different classroom lighting systems in order to determine how contrasts from different light sources affect the ability to see visual tasks in the school room. Using criteria and techniques established from previous lighting research, the lighting systems are evaluated according to their characteristics regarding contrast rendition of pencil handwriting. The comparisons and conclusions presented should be helpful in selecting classroom lighting systems. 105p.

Light, Vision and Learning.
Seagers, Paul
(Better Light Better Sight Bureau, New York, NY , 1963)
Addresses the role of light and sight in learning, explaining aspects of visual development in children, anatomy and physiology of the eye, eye care and protection, the physics of light, light and seeing, and environmental recommendations for schools and home study. 95p.

References to Journal Articles

Overdesigned Restroom Lighting Systems Can Increase Costs
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; Jul 2012
One of the biggest energy costs in a restroom is lighting. Systems that produce too little light give the restroom the appearance of being dingy and dirty. For that reason, most restroom lighting systems are overdesigned. But those systems not only waste energy but also can be uncomfortable for users.

Make Your School Control Itself
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; Apr 2012
Describes how to control energy use by integrating the mechanical, lighting, and other building systems so that each system can be scheduled and the systems can work together and monitor performance.

Lighting Controls
Snyder, Loren
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
4-part series on lighting controls. Part 1: Careful Planning for Lighting Controls Can Prevent Problems; Part 2: With Lighting Controls, Facility Managers Should Understand Products, Building's Wiring; Part 3: Testing Is Key To Avoiding Lighting Control Projects Problems; and Part 4: Lighting Controls: Facility Managers Should Understand, Educate Occupants.

School Lights
Penny, Jannelle
Buildings; , p26-30 ; Feb 2012
Discusses school lighting strategies that can cut energy use and save money, including daylighting, weighing your options, prioritizing efficiency, comparing modern lighting calculations, going by the book, and modernizing controls

Outside Light: Use Best, Not Brightest
Hanford, Desiree
Building Operating Management; , p30-33 ; Dec 2011
It is possible to have a safe, secure outdoor lighting strategy while also being a good environmental steward.

Education, Analysis Help When Evaluating Lighting Technologies
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; , p28-32 ; Nov 2011
Lighting efficiency options keep getting better, more complex, and tougher to sort out. There's a lot more to consider: new metrics, too-good-to-be-true claims, and sometimes questionable analyses, to name a few. A bit of reality checking, plus some help from a few independent data sources, may help facility managers navigate this ever-growing maze.

Center Stage. The Latest in Scoreboards and Sports Lighting.
Vence, Deborah L.
Recreation Management; Oct 2011
Discusses wireless and LED technology taking the scoreboard industry by storm, and the latest trends in sports lighting. Includes key steps to selecting a scoreboard.

Best Practice Solutions for School Lighting
Sustainable Facility; Jul 28, 2011
WattStopper has published a free set of best practice solutions for classrooms to help specifiers and facility managers quickly identify and implement energy-saving lighting control solutions for these spaces. The new online tool offers users a range of design options to meet different energy-savings goals, and provides a wealth of detailed information from wiring diagrams to equipment schedules.

Guiding Light. [Lighting Retrofits at San Diego State University]
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p13,14 ; Jul 2011
Describes importance of students and physical plant staff working together to determine the best plan for lighting retrofits.

School District Introduces Full Lighting Control.
Sine, Jack
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p51-54 ; Jun 2011
Describes extraordinary challenges facing effective use of building automation systems (BAS). While HVAC requirements are usually straightforward and predictable, the need for lighting can be extremely difficult to program for regular usage. Close interaction with a building engineer in planning a BAS can lead to significant cost savings.

Enhancing Light Quality, Reducing Energy Costs.
Sloane, Todd
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p60-62 ; Jun 2011
Discusses integration of direct, indirect, and natural lighting that emphasizes cost savings with use of natural light.

Lighting Demands.
Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie
American School and University; v83 n9 , p36,38,39 ; May 2011
Notes the increased environmental awareness of current students, and advises on sustainable lighting systems to accommodate their awareness. Daylighting, solar power, and energy-efficient bulbs are discussed, as are the aesthetic and psychological benefits of thoughtful lighting schemes.

Seeing the Light: Debunking LED Myths. [Get the Truth on LEDs]
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p10,11 ; May 2011
Discusses properties of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, addressing their appropriate applications, life cycle, energy efficiency, light output, and color rendering.

Lighting Retrofits: Seizing the Opportunity.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p14 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the phaseout of the traditional T12 fluorescent lamp, in favor of higher-efficiency T8 and T5 lamps. As production of ballasts for the T12 lamps has been discontinued, conversion will become necessary when existing ballasts fail. When considering replacing ballasts and lamps, it is worth considering replacing the entire fixture.

Spotlight on LEDs.
Snyder, Loren
Building Operating Management; v58 n2 , p31,32,34,36 ; Feb 2011
Describes the rapid pace at which LED lighting systems are improving, yet cautions that LED is not always the appropriate choice. LED is most likely to be the right choice for outdoor lighting. There is careful description of what a facilities manager must consider for indoor LED lighting, especially in retrofits.

How to Minimize the Risks of Used Fluorescent Lighting.
Brosseau, Lisa
Facility Management Journal; v20 n6 , p36,38,39 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the handling, storage, packaging, transport, and recycling of used fluorescent light bulbs, in order to keep their mercury out of the environment. Four references are included.

K-12 Energy-Lite Lighting.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p40,42-44 ; Nov 2010
Describes the Springfield (Missouri) School District s positive experience with upgrading their lighting for energy efficiency. With $332,000 of investment, $104,240 per year is saved, the returning the investment in about three years. Details of the use of T-8, T-5, and LED lighting are offered, citing the benefits and drawbacks of each.

Seeing the Light.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p29,31-33 ; Nov 2010
Profiles the unique lighting of the University of California San Diego Sustainable Research Center. Photovoltaic panels on the roof supply the DC-DC lighting system, augmented by daylight and electricity from the campus grid after dark. Photoluminescent exit signs use no electricity at all.

Lights Out: Lamp and Ballast Phaseouts.
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p62-64 ; Oct 2010
Notes that new minimum energy efficiency standards will halt the sale of a variety of common lamps and ballasts over the next few years. Items that are affected, exemptions, advice on navigating the changes, prioritizing replacement, and financial incentives to upgrade lighting are discussed.

Intelligent Illumination. [Project Profile: Parking Structure Retrofits.]
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p11,12 ; Sep 2010
Profiles an extensive energy-saving project at the University of California-Davis. The project concentrated on upgrading parking and roadway lighting to bi-level induction and LED fixtures.

Sustainability with a Sane Tack.
Peterson, Dennis
The School Administrator; v67 n7 , p26-28,30,31 ; Aug 2010
Describes the Minnetonka School District's sustainability efforts, under the UPonGREEN program. Replacement and retrofit of lighting and HVAC systems are described, as is increased recycling, UPonGREEN criteria, and school environmental activism.

Taking Control of Lighting.
Fong, Denise
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p6,7 ; Jul 2010
Discusses commissioning and re-commissioning of lighting systems. Commissioning scheduling and participants are discussed, as is the importance of re-commissioning as building use evolves. Five essential procedures for maintaining lighting are included.

Night Lights.
Hanford, Desiree
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p40, 41 ; Jul 2010
Discusses perimeter lighting of a building, addressing code requirements, color quality, glare, light trespass and pollution, and energy efficiency.

LED Lighting Provides a Brighter Future.
Ranieri, David
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p48-51 ; Jun 2010
Describes the benefits of ambient LED lighting, including longer bulb life, lack of harmful chemicals in the bulbs, lower energy use, and lower heat output.

The Top Ten Energy Wasters in K-12 Facilities (and What to Do about Them).
Leathers, Dave
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p32-34 ; May 2010
Presents the top ten sources of wasted energy and water in schools, along with suggestion for how to mitigate them. These involve HVAC systems, lighting, and plumbing.

Lighting Controls: Retrofit Roadmap.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p22,23 ; Apr 2010
Advises on selecting lighting controls in a retrofit, including sensor placement, wiring, commissioning, tax deductions, rebates, and demand response programs.

Solar Control.
Gille Steve
School Construction News; v16 n2 , p18,19 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Discusses maximizing daylighting and artificial lighting strategies for schools, addressing floor plans, glare, skylights, fenestration, and glass selection.

Lighting Retrofits: Putting Technology to Work.
DiLouie, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n2 , p11,12 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the use of photosensors to control artificial lighting in daylit rooms. Light-level response, signal types, photopic correction, and application trends are addressed.

An Analysis of Energy-efficient Light Fittings and Lighting Controls.
Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; and Lam, Tony
Applied Energy; v87 n 2 , p558-567 ; Feb 2010
This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.

Lack of Short-Wavelength Light During the School Day Delays Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) in Middle School Students.
Figueiro, Mariana; Rea, Mark
Neuroendocrinology Letters; v31 n1 , p92-96 ; 2010
Reports the results of a study investigating whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. The results show that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools.
TO ORDER: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150866

LED Outdoor Area Luminaries Help Schools Balance the Equation.
Orth, Kevin
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n1 , p6,8,9 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the advantages of LED lighting in the areas of energy savings and durability, citing examples where educational institutions have deployed them effectively.

School Lighting.
Mehra, Monik
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p46,48,50 ; Nov 2009
Advises on school lighting, urging redesigning lighting systems, rather than just relamping, when schools want to improve lighting and save energy. Trends in lighting design and energy-saving fixtures are discussed.

LEDs, easy as ABC.
Lovig, Deb
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n9 ; Sep 2009
Outlines steps for replacement of campus lighting with LED fixtures. Beginning with identifying locations where improved lighting is needed, the steps include surveying and then selecting products, joining the LED University program, and evaluation of the initial installations.

Efficiency Goals.
Graham, Donald
American School and University; v81 n10 , p32-35 ; May 2009
Advises on energy-efficient lighting for schools, emphasizing daylighting, advanced lighting controls, dimming ballasts, and T-5 lamps.

Prevent 17 Common Lighting Mistakes.
Laybourn, David
Buildings; v103 n5 , p40-42 ; May 2009
Outlines 17 common lighting mistakes starting with selecting the wrong consultants, through careless scrutiny of proposals, product selection, installation, and inaccurate calculation of energy costs due to varying rate structures.

LED's: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology.
Conbere, Susan
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p50-54 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Explores light-emitting diode (LED) technology, maintainability, and its potential for durability and efficiency. Early opinions have been mixed, as some LED products do not perform as promised. Also, with the rapid evolution of this technology, building owners are cautious about installing technology that will soon be obsolete. While LED fixtures are typically longer-lasting and consume less energy, they are still relatively expensive to buy.

Lighting the Way.
Orth, Kevin
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p22,24,26,27 ; Feb 2009
Advocates for the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting in schools, with general lighting applications made possible by recent technological advances. The advantages of LED to energy consumption, lamp life, visibility of the light, color rendering, are discussed, and advice on replacing standard fixtures with LED is offered.

Lighting and Discomfort in the Classroom.
Winterbottom, Mark; Wilkins, Arnold
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v29 , p63-75 ; 2009
Examines aspects of classroom lighting and decor that can promote discomfort and impair task performance through glare, and imperceptible 100 Hz flicker from fluorescent lighting. In 90 United Kingdom classrooms, variables measured included flicker, illuminance at desks, and luminance of whiteboards. Results showed that 80% of classrooms are lit with 100 Hz fluorescent lighting that can cause headaches and impair visual performance. Mean illuminance was in excess of recommended design illuminance in 88% of classrooms, and in 84% exceeded levels beyond which visual comfort decreases. Ceiling-mounted data projectors directed at whiteboards mounted vertically on the wall resulted in specular reflection from the whiteboard, visible as a glare spot with luminance high enough to cause discomfort and disability glare. Ambient lighting, needed for close work at pupils' desks, reduced image contrast. Venetian blinds in 23% of classrooms had spatial characteristics appropriate for inducing pattern glare. There was significant variation between schools and local authorities. The findings may provide insights into small-scale reports linking pupils' attainment, behavior and learning to classroom lighting, and may also help explain some of the benefits of colored overlays for pupils' reading.
TO ORDER: http://www.mendeley.com/research/lighting-discomfort-classroom/

GoinGreen.
Davis, Michelle
Education Week Digital Directions; Oct 2008
Briefly profiles sustainability efforts in schools, including recycling computers, centralized hibernation commands to computers, sophisticated HVAC systems that adjust to outdoor temperature and room occupancy, rainwater collection, and lighting that adjusts to ambient daylighting.

Lighten the Load.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v81 n2 , p29-31 ; Oct 2008
Reviews the increasing desirability for daylighting of classrooms. Old notions that windows contributed to HVAC load, lower security, and distraction of students have been replaced with those of daylighting being desirable due to the reduction of lighting costs, improvement of academic performance, and better attendance. Advice on reducing glare and six principles of good daylighting are included.

Lighting: Five Steps to Savings.
DiLouie, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p22,23 ; Sep 2008
Advises on specification and installation of appropriate occupancy sensors for lighting control. Choosing the right technology, selecting a coverage pattern, planning the layout, specifying the sensors, installing, and commissioning are addressed.

A Reintroduction to Induction Lighting.
Beitenhaus, Christine
College Planning and Management; v11 n7 , p26,28,29 ; Jul 2008
Explains how induction lighting works, its advantageous long bulb life and natural spectrum, and its high initial cost. Areas in schools for which it is particularly recommended, as well as predicted advances in the technology are also discussed.

Lighting Controls: The Next Frontier in Energy Savings.
DiLouie, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p12,13 ; Jul 2008
Discusses components of energy saving lighting controls, including intelligent relay panels, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming ballasts, and personal control devices.

Lighting the Way to Energy Efficiency.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p26,28 ; Jul 2008
Advises on reduction of school electricity costs through an audit of the lighting that identifies inefficient fixtures and bulbs, as well as unnecessary lighting in some places. An example from Wisconsin's Eau Claire Area School District illustrates the process.

Flourescent Lamps 101.
Madsen, Jana
Buildings; v102 n5 , p58-61 ; May 2008
Describes fluorescent lamp types, their maintenance considerations, light qualities, relamping strategies, and disposal or recycling of lamps.

Electronic Waste: Reuse, Recycle, or Dispose?
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p25,26 ; Apr 2008
Describes types of electronic waste, what can typically be refurbished, access to recycling, EPA designations for these wastes, and hazardous materials found in batteries, lamps, and cathode ray tubes.

Energy Management: A Strategy for HVAC Savings.
Crow, Carl
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p10,12 ; Apr 2008
Describes retro-commissioning of buildings for energy efficiency. Typical elements for scrutiny include lighting controls, HVAC systems, and the building envelope.

HIF's: Twice the Light and Half the Operating Cost.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Discusses how high-intensity fluorescent (HIF) bulbs are replacing both incandescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) bulbs in schools. Grant money is often available to facilitate this replacement. Details of the energy saved, increased light output, and better color rendering of HIF's are also included.

Sensing Successs in Lighting Controls.
Fetters, John
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p19,20 ; Jan 2008
Discusses the use of occupancy sensors to control lighting in common areas, with advice on selecting, installing, and regulating sensors.

Group Activity: Relamping Facilities.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n12 , p12,13 ; Dec 2007
Explores consideration for light bulb replacement, detailing material, storage, and labor costs as related to replacing bulbs only when they burn out, planned group replacement in an area at specified intervals, and contract relamping. Opportunities for electrical training, typical duties, and equipment involved in relamping are also covered.

Lamp Recycling, Step by Step.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p26 ; Oct 2007
Advises on inventory of fluorescent lamp purchase, use, and disposal; employee training for lamp handling and disposal; developing a purchasing and recycling plan; and choosing a lamp recycling company.

Green Lights.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n10 , p48,50,51 ; Oct 2007
Reviews LEED recommendations for school lighting that encourages daylighting coordinated with the artificial lighting system. Brief examples of successful school daylighting programs are included, as are the advantages that daylighting offers to occupant performance.

Lighting Goes to Hollywood.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v10 n10 , p48,50,52 ; Oct 2007
Reviews lighting considerations for higher education event spaces, such as theatres and arenas. Retrofitting modern fixtures into existing facilities, inexpensive effects, and spectator expectations are addressed.

Working Together.
Duda, David; Neville, Julia
American School and University; v80 n1 , pSS48,SS50-SS52 ; Sep 2007
Describes landscape and lighting features that both conserve energy and offer increased security for a school facility.

Web-Enabled Lighting Control: Energy Savings, Convenience for Schools and Hospitals.
Jordan, Scott
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p18,20,21 ; Jul 2007
Reviews some state and national incentives for improving institutional lighting control, and describes a variety of automated lighting control options, including integration of lighting and other systems via the Internet.

The Benefits of Full Spectrum Lighting?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p56,58-60 ; Jun 2007
Evaluates a variety of promotional claims from full-spectrum lighting manufacturers, including remediation of ADHD in children, improved health and learning, and improved color rendering. The author advises that the research is insufficient and the benefits are possibly overstated at this time. This, in addition to the higher purchase and energy use of the lamps, indicates caution.

Integrated Classroom Lighting System: Light's Great, Less Billing.
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , pG32,G34,G36 ; Apr 2007
Describes this system, which provides school facility designers and specifiers with lighting that cuts energy use in half while providing light when and where it is needed. The system consists of indirect/direct lighting, plug and play wiring, quiet time switches, highly reflective surfaces, and flexible, easy-to-use controls.

Lighting the Way.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n7 , p32,34-37 ; Mar 2007
Reviews the return of daylighting to schools, as well as recent advances in precision daylighting that avoids glare and has automated supplementation for overcast conditions.

An Evaluation Method for School Building Design at the Preliminary Phase with Optimisation of Aspects of Environmental Comfort for the School System of the State São Paulo in Brazil
Valéria Azzi Collet da Graçaa, Doris Catharine Cornelie Knatz Kowaltowskia, and João Roberto Diego Petreche
Building and Environment ; v42 n2 , p984-999 ; Feb 2007
This study presents a method for evaluating and optimising environmental comfort parameters of school buildings during the preliminary stages of design. In order to test the method, 39 existing public school building designs in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, had their plans analysed and characterised in relation to their influence on environmental comfort. Four aspects of comfort were considered: thermal, acoustic, natural lighting and functionality. Although conflicts between different comfort parameters are apparent, results show that multi-criteria optimisation can be applied as a design tool during the creative process. Maximisation of various aspects of comfort simultaneously was shown to be impossible, but compromise solutions could be found. [Authors' abstract]

Day In, Day Out.
Frazier, Mary
American School and University; v79 n4 , p31-33 ; Dec 2006
Reviews architectural techniques and classroom organization that properly utilize daylight without glare, as well as complementary automated lighting controls that balance the available daylight and save energy.

Bringing Learning to Light
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , p32 ; Nov 2006
Outlines findings from the Integrated Classroom Lighting System Project (ICLS) that describes the role of lighting in school energy consumption and learning.

Bring on the Night.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , p32,34,35 ; Nov 2006
Discusses proper night lighting that illuminates the intended campus area without excessive spill or glare, thus saving energy and avoiding the adverse environmental impact of a loss of night sky.

A Brighter Future for LED's.
Yoders, Jeff
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p44-46,48,51 ; Nov 2006
Describes progres in LED (light-emitting diode) illumination. These fixtures consume far less energy and last longer, but are still relatively expensive to produce and produce mixed results in quality of illumination.

The Grass is Greener on This Side.
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v42 n8 , p42-44,46,48,50 ; Aug 2006
Highlights practices within the five most popular ways to create a "green" school: lighting, indoor air quality, minimizing waste, HVAC systems, and water conservation.

High Performance School Characteristics.
Eley, Charles
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p60-63,65,66 ; May 2006
Details the properties of high performance school buildings under the categories of building envelope, lighting, and HVAC and dehumidification. Initial verses operating costs are addressed, as are the benefits to health, comfort, efficiency, maintenance, commissioning, environmental responsibility, security, and good architecture. Includes five references.

Projected Daylight
Gerfen, Katie
Architecture; v95 n4 , p65,66 ; Apr 2006
Describes and artificial skylight system Harvard's Sever Hall that uses exterior photosensors to operate an LED "skylight" and mimic the changing daylight conditions outside.

Bring It In.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v78 n9 , p47-49 ; Apr 2006
Identifies six principles to follow when developing a school daylighting design. These principles involve building orientation, windows, assessment of tasks to be performed in particular areas, and integration of daylighting with building architecture and systems. Differing requirements for sidelighting and toplighting are covered as well.

Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: A Case Study of Awareness and Participation of Users.
Bernardi, Nubia; Kowaltowski, Doris
Environment and Behavior; v38 n2 , p155-172 ; Mar 2006
This paper presents the results of an extensive post occupancy study of 15 schools in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. The learning environments were analyzed as to thermal, acoustical, visual, and functional comfort and possible simple solutions to improve the quality of the learning environment. Classrooms and recreation areas were observed and critical comfort conditions were measured with equipment. School directors, teachers, employees and students were questioned as to their perception and evaluation of the comfort conditions and given the opportunity to express their satisfaction and desires about their learning spaces. A low level of intervention toward comfort on the part of users was attributed to discipline codes that restrict student behavior.
TO ORDER: Sage Publications
http://eab.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/2/155

What They See Is What They Get: Ten Myths about Lighting and Color in Schools.
Fielding, Randall
Edutopia; v2 n2 , p28-30 ; Mar 2006
Disputes ten persistent myths concerning lighting and the use of color in learning environments. Daylighting, thoughtful lamping, and use of a wide palette of color is encouraged.

Taking Back Control...Using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs).
Hafar, Linda; Leon, Daniel
Facilities Manager; v22 n1 , p51-54 ; Jan-Feb 2006
Describes the background behind Sacramento State University's decision to switch to programmable logic controller (PLC) for its building systems, and the challenges encountered making the new and old systems compatible, reconciling the costs, and obtaining the resources and training for the conversion, and timing the changes.

The Effects of Interior Design on Communication and Impressions of a Counselor in a Counseling Room
Miwa, Yoshiko; Hanyu, Kazunori
Environment and Behavior; v38 n4 , p484-502 ; 2006
This study aimed to investigate effects of the interior design of a counseling room on participants' self-disclosure and impressions of a counselor. The authors examined the effects of lighting and decorations. It tested four conditions crossing decorations (with or without home-like decorations) and type of lighting (bright or dim). Eighty undergraduate students (clients) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions and individually underwent a structured interview with an interviewer (a counselor) and then completed a questionnaire. The results showed that dim lighting yielded more pleasant and relaxed feelings, more favorable impressions of the interviewer, and more self-disclosure than did the bright lighting. However, the authors found no predominant pattern of the decorations. Thus, the pleasant and relaxed feelings related to dim lighting may well enhance the perceived attractiveness of a counselor and self-disclosure from clients. The results imply that interior design could influence communication and other relationships in counseling rooms. {Authors' abstract]

Illuminating the Classroom Environment.
McCree, John; Hill, Timothy
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p34-36,38,39 ; Feb 2005
Discusses proper classroom illumination by direct and indirect natural, artificial, and reflected light. Suggestions for daylighting, glare reduction, flexibility, attractive installation, maintenance, and automatic controls are offered.

New Codes for Stairwell Lighting.
Hart, G. Kimball
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p43-45 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes a new standard for stairwell lighting, recently approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1), and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The standard increases the footcandle requirement ten-fold, but the use of motion sensors and timers has been allowed in order to reduce energy consumption.

The Next Frontier.
Leonard, Thomas
American School and University; v76 n9 , p39,40,42,44 ; Apr 2004
Discusses the use of dimmers, timers, occupancy sensors, and photocells to control lighting and energy use. A new Department of Energy regulation will require the inclusion of lighting controls in state building codes beginning July 15, 2004.

Lone Star Lighting.
Kobes, John Michael
Lighting Design and Application; , p36-41 ; Jul 2003
Describes a variety of lighting used to accentuate the architecture of two new Texas high schools. The fixtures were thoughtfully matched to the spaces and functions they illuminate, with certain multi-use spaces requiring a variety of applications.

Daylighting in Classrooms.
Willi, John G.
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , p30-31 ; Jul 2003
Describes how one elementary school was designed to be a flexible, innovative campus that connects learning and the learning environment. The celebration of nature is carried out in many ways within the building. Students are exposed to great vistas from every interior location. Daylighting is infused throughout the school to reinforce the desire for a warm, caring, and cheerful learning environment.

Bright Ideas.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v27 n5 , p79-84 ; May 2003
Describes trends in indoor sports lighting, including new technology that is coupling familiar looks with new energy and cost efficiencies. Offers examples of their use at various schools.

A Worthy Investment.
King, Gord
American School and University; v75 n8 , hp8-hp11 ; Apr 2003
Discusses the benefits of a new approach to school and campus lighting, in which lighting is considered its own maintenance category and is often outsourced to companies that can handle planning, design, and maintenance, as well as offer buying discounts and inventory control.

Purchasing and Selecting School Lighting.
Berman, Tim
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p21-22 ; Jan 2003
Discusses factors for schools to consider when deciding on a lighting system: purchase price, installation charges, maintenance costs, energy costs, and ensuring optimal educational environment. Presents best practices in these areas.

Impact of Design on Learning: Multimedia in the Classroom.
Hill, Franklin
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n3 , p7-10 ; 2003
Describes proper lighting and audiovisual arrangements to create learning environments where occupants can see without distortion or glare from inappropriate viewing angles.

An Insider's Guide To Saving Money on Lighting.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v5 n12 , p24-26 ; Dec 2002
Discusses tips from the Energize America Educational Institute on cost reductions and improved operations in lighting for colleges and universities.

Lamp Specification in a New Light.
Fetters, John L.
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2002
This describes lighting technology advances and lamp characteristics and specifications that can make or break lamp-buying decisions.

Improving Performance.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v75 n2 , p32-35 ; Oct 2002
Describes how using skylights and other daylighting methods can improve the efficiency of a school facility, enhancing the learning environment and simplifying maintenance.

Lighten Up.
Good, Shawn D.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p160-62 ; Aug 2002
Discusses the development of lighting master plans, which allow education institutions to provide adequate illumination and enhance campus beauty.

Control without Wires.
Hobart, Jordan
American School and University; v74 n11 , p30-32 ; Jul 2002
Describes how modern lighting systems, such as wireless lighting, which come complete with user-friendly controls and audio/video interfaces, enhance the educational process and cut costs. Discusses evaluating a building's lighting situation, lighting controls, and such systems' flexibility for future needs.

The ABCs of Lighting Controls for Lecture Halls.
Miller, Kenneth
College Planning and Management; v5 n4 , p34,36-37 ; Apr 2002
Offers advice on lecture hall lighting, providing a list of "basics" and discussing presets, lighting sources, and control systems.

Color and Light in Learning.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v41 n2 , p57-58,60-61 ; Feb 2002
Discusses studies showing that color and light have a significant influence on how students learn and retain information (for example, daylight is much more beneficial than fluorescent light). Describes how many architects and designers are now incorporating these findings into their work in schools.

Creating Ideal Facilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p30,32-33 ; Jan 2002
Reviews ways that schools can provide effective indoor learning environments by paying attention to the following areas: daylighting, acoustics, space allocation, technology implementation, ergonomics, maintenance, indoor air quality, safety, restrooms, and roofing.

Trends in Educational Lighting Systems.
Murphy, Peter
College Planning and Management; v4 n12 , p30-31 ; Dec 2001
Explores technological trends for improving campus lighting, including the use of direct-indirect suspended fluorescent lighting, suspended linear lighting, high-efficiency optical systems, and occupancy and daylight sensors.

Lighting. Deterrent to Crime.
Sowell, David
American School and University; v74 n4 , p46-47 ; Dec 2001
Explores security issues that schools should consider before deciding to reduce campus lighting in order to control energy costs. Highlights factors to consider before creating a lighting reduction action plan.

Effects of Noise, Heat, and Indoor Lighting on Cognitive Performance and Self-Reported Affect.
Hygge, Staffan; Knez, Igor
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v21 n3 , p291-299 ; Sep 2001
Reports the result of experiments that tested the effect of temperature, lighting, and noise on cognition and sense well-being in high school students. Students remembered fewer words at 27 degrees Celsius than at 21 degrees. 1500 lux illumination yielded better long-term recall than 300 lux, as did a noise level of 38 decibels versus 58 decibels.

The Coming Energy Crunch.
Drago, Bud
School Planning and Management; v40 n8 , p33-35 ; Aug 2001
Presents new observations on California's energy consumption problems and school lighting needs. Suggests that reducing lighting to save money can be costly when considering the effect on productivity, including educational productivity. Proposes tailoring lighting to optimize specific tasks as a way to maximize energy savings and productivity.

An Enlightening Experience.
Hobart, Jordan
School Planning and Management; v40 n5 , p54-58 ; May 2001
Discusses the lighting demands of today's advancements in educational technology and how wireless lighting controls are being designed to meet these demands.

Night Games.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v25 n5 , p61-67 ; May 2001
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community.

Emergency Lighting Technology Evolves To Save Lives.
Gregory, Dennis
College Planning and Management; v4 n4 , p40,42-43 ; Apr 2001
Explores the benefits of including high-brightness light-emitting diode lighting systems (LEDs) for emergency use. Examines the use of LED lighting systems in residence halls. Also highlights LED emergency lighting options and their qualifications.

Lighting Strikes Twice.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v4 n4 , p36,38 ; Apr 2001
Discusses the use of sophisticated lighting controls to help educational facilities provide adequate illumination and save energy.

Lighten Up!
Fleming, Colette
School Planning and Management; v40 n2 , p48-51 ; Feb 2001
Discusses how schools can reduce the occurances of physical injury, vandalism, and break-ins by properly lighting school areas. Several examples of lighting strategies are highlighted, including determining proper illumination levels for specific areas.

Letting Facilities See the Light
Fetters, John
Facilities Maintenance Online; Jan 2001
Suggests that lighting system audits can help managers set goals for system upgrades that will deliver quantifiable benefits. Notes that a lighting evaluation is the systematic examination and appraisal of a lighting system. The first step, a lighting audit, is important because it establishes a baseline of performance. The second step, identifying opportunities for improvements, and third step, calculating savings and potential payback, are substantially affected by the quality of the data collected during the first step. This resource includes additional information on lighting upgrades, high benefit lighting, and lighting costs.

You're Wasting Electricity!
Graham, Jennifer
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p50-51 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Provides a list of websites that promote office/desktop energy savings opportunities, and offers viewpoints on the cost of fluorescent lighting, i.e., whether it is more effective to leave a fluorescent light on or turn it off throughout the day.

Lighting for Safety and Security.
Fleming, Colette
College Planning and Management; v13 n12 , p24-25 ; Dec 2000
Discusses ways to use lighting to provide a safe environment, reduce vandalism, improve visibility, and reduce overall liability for colleges. Guidelines for outdoor, parking, and emergency lighting are discussed.

Seven Secrets Of Lamp Selection
Fetters, J.L.
Maintenance Solutions Online; Oct 2000
Reviewing key considerations can help managers plan and carry out successful lighting retrofit projects. This article discusses cost, color rendering, lumens, lamp efficacy, average rated life, lumen maintenance, and color temperature.

Lighting the Learning Environment.
Fielding, Randall
School Construction News; v3 n4 , p20-21 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Explores the benefits and pitfalls of daylighting, indirect light, and full-spectrum lamps for general illumination and accent lighting in classrooms. Discussions include lighting considerations in areas where computers are used and fixture cost factors versus efficiency.

Making Sports Facilities Brighter and More Energy-Efficient.
Kennedy, Mike
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Jul 2000)
American School and University; Jul 2000
Older sports facilities typically used inefficient incandescent lighting. But improvements in lighting fixtures and lamps have made it easier for schools to upgrade athletic facilities with lighting that provides more illumination for less money.

Lighting the Learning Environment
Fielding, Randall
(Design Share , Jun 2000)
While the benefits of full spectrum lamps remain inconclusive, there is a good deal of consensus on the value of daylight and quality lighting design.

High-Benefit Lighting.
Bachner, John Philip
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p35-36-38 ; Apr 2000
Examines high-benefit lighting for educational facilities to reduce crime and increase safety. How costs can be affected by different lighting choices is highlighted.

Shining a Light on Savings.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n8 , p32,34 ; Apr 2000
Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted.

This Way Out.
Wright, Dorothy
College Planning and Management; v3 n4 , p33-34,36 ; Apr 2000
Discusses new technology in life safety lighting and exit signs that provides safer educational facilities at reduced costs. Exit sign light source cost comparisons are highlighted.

Lighting the Gym: A Guide to Illuminating Non-Traditional Spaces.
Womack, Jennifer; Nelson, Steve
Teaching Theatre; v11 n2 , p1-9 ; Winter 2000
Covers all the steps needed to light an open, non-traditional performance space--everything from where to locate lights, support towers, and power sources, to cable and dimmer requirements. Covers safety issues, equipment costs, what students should and should not be allowed to do, and how to deal with electricians and rental companies.

Is It Time for a Switch in Lighting?
Bennorth, Greg
College Planning and Management; v2 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1999
Reviews new types of fluorescent lamp and electronic ballasts and their associated starting methods to explain the benefits of programmed start ballasts in today's lighting applications. Advice on when it is time to make a lighting retrofit is highlighted.

Lighting the School of the Future.
Clanton, Nancy
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1999
Discusses the Austin Independent School District's (Texas) school redesign efforts to allow more daylight in its schools, increase the students' comfort and productivity, and lower utility costs. Return on investment potential from savings in maintenance, replacement, and productivity of the school are highlighted.

The Basics of High-Benefit Lighting: Knowing More Means Paying Less.
Mendelsohn, Cary S.
Facilities Manager; v15 n4 , p25,27,30 ; Jul-Aug 1999
Explains how educational facility managers can create lighting upgrades that will consume less energy, produce less indoor heat, and cost less to maintain. Considerations address understanding the lighting's purpose, selecting appropriate technical assistance, evaluating the current lighting system, and making lighting decisions with respect to overall considerations and monitoring the results.

Get More from Your Lighting.
Bachner, John Philip
College Planning and Management; v2 n4 , p45-47 ; Apr 1999
Explains how improved lighting can pay for the installation of a new system or upgrading existing lighting in an educational facility. Examples explore the use of high-benefit lighting to enhance other activities and reduce crime and security patrolling costs. Also discussed is the upgrading of one school's sports arena lighting that produced additional revenue while reducing maintenance costs.

What You Need To Know About Classroom Lighting.
Murphy, Peter
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p52-55 ; Apr 1999
An expert provides advice on getting the best lighting for the least total cost. Some of the key issues to review when planning for a lighting system include: cost of ownership, installed cost, energy efficiency, maximum efficiency, heating/air conditioning loads, daylighting, long term maintenance, and safety.

Bright Ideas.
Armstrong, Phil
American School and University; v71 n6 , p34, 36-37 ; Feb 1999
Discusses how to upgrade lighting technology in schools to reduce energy consumption and cut operating costs. It explores fixture efficiency using ballast and lamp upgrades and compact fluorescent lights. Other ideas include changing exit signs to ones that use less wattage, improving luminary efficiency through use of reflectors and shielding materials, and controlling burning hours with occupancy sensors.

The ABCs of Classroom Lighting Upgrades.
American School and Hospital Maintenance ; 1999
Classroom lighting upgrades offer significant potential for reducing operating and maintenance costs. This article lists guidelines that can help protect the environment while enhancing the quality of the education experience.

Winning with LED Exit Sign Technology.
May, Charles
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1999
All across the country, America's schools and hospitals are retrofitting their lighting systems in order to conserve energy and save precious dollars. However, while facility managers have been mainly focusing on initial fixture cost, foot-candle levels, and energy rebates, one area has been completely overlooked - Exit Signs.

Light and Libraries.
Scherer, Jeffrey
Library Hi Tech; v17 n4 , p358-71 ; 1999
Addresses how to integrate various types of light within the context of library design. Discusses light basics; the light spectrum; light measurement; reflectance; glare and brightness ratio; daylighting; electric lighting; and computer screens and lighting. Includes a checklist for plan review.

Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.
Ries, Jack
School Planning and Management; v37 i12 , p34-36 ; Dec 1998
Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source.

Light 'Em Up.
Wiese, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Chuck
Athletic Business; v22 n10 , p59-60,64-66 ; Oct 1998
Provides advice on designing sports field lighting that can help balance design with cost and lighting system performance. Areas addressed include system installation, pole placement, light spillage control, and maintenance.

Case Study: An Elementary School that Saves Energy and is Visually Comfortable
Rodgers, Paula A.
Architectural Record; v186 n8 , p159-60+ ; Aug 1998
Discusses lighting solutions at Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School in Rochester, New York. The design aimed to give the school an intimate scale. The lighting designers used energy-efficient lighting products to cut lighting energy use;simplified maintenance by restricting the number of lamp types and used lamps that the school district already stocks; and supplied low-glare ambient lighting to create a visually comfortable environment for students and teachers.

Shedding Some Light.
Whitney, Tim
Athletic Business; v22 n8 ; Aug 1998
Discusses the basics of designing natural and artificial light in an indoor athletic facility. It also examines individual lighting requirements of typical rooms such as weight and fitness rooms, aerobics and multipurpose rooms, gymnasiums, field houses, pools, and racquetball and squash courts.

How to Light a Multipurpose Facility.
Ries, Jack
College Planning and Management; v1 n4 , p25-26,28 ; Jul 1998
Highlights the questions to ask when designing or retrofitting the lighting needs for a multipurpose facility. Issues addressed include the tasks the facility is expected to accommodate, the benefits of available lighting sources, the facility's layout and dimensions, aesthetics and functionality, and budgetary considerations.

Budget-Minded Renovation Lights Up Students' Learning.
McDaniel, Craig
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p38-39,42 ; Apr 1998
Provides considerations for educational facility lighting designs that support student learning while controlling costs. Lighting design decision factors include the types of classroom activities involved, the importance of properly using artificial and indirect lighting, the importance of color rendering, the positioning of windows and skylights, and the placement of light fixtures to reduce costs and enhance lighting quality.

Turned On to Savings.
Salamone, Brad
American School and University; v70 n8 , p34,36 ; Apr 1998
Explains how to upgrade inefficienct lighting systems that will dramatically cut energy use and costs while simultaneously improving the learning environment. Advice for using outside consultants is offered.

Ergonomically Correct Classrooms: Consider Students Developmental Needs When Furnishing Your Schools.
Bushweller, Kevin
Learning By Design; n7 , p18-20 ; Mar 1998
Explores the ergonomic needs of students within the classroom and the mistakes schools commonly make regarding classroom furniture. Several considerations are discussed for improving desk and chair design, particularly involving computer desks, and the proper use and placement of lighting.

Getting Pool Light Right.
Hunsaker, Scot
Athletic Business; v 22 n3 , p51,53-54,56,58-59 ; Mar 1998
Examines the use of lighting, both artificial and natural, that can enhance the aesthetic quality and functionality of areas with indoor swimming pools. It discusses glare and shadow reduction measures that aid competitive events, including lighting above and below water levels, and highlights lighting issues during televised events. Descriptions of different types of lamps are included.

Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.
Elwazanim, Salim A.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n4 , p5-8 ; 1998
Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data.

Illuminating the Way.
Murphy, Peter
American School and University; v69 n6 , p24, 26-27 ; Feb 1997
Details the dramatic changes in school lighting. Describes how lighting will be more closely integrated into the "smart" school building of tomorrow and how lighting systems will evolve with schools as technology changes. Claims that direct/indirect lighting systems will serve computer users as well as reduce energy and maintenance costs.

Illuminating Classroom Design.
Zuczek, Daniel
American School and University; v68 n11 , p40,42,44 ; Jul 1996
Discusses how modern schools require specific lighting systems to accommodate computers and other technologies. Describes special needs for direct and indirect lighting when considering visual display terminals and projectors, and the kind of lighting system best suited for distance learning. Offers ideas on classrooms' physical layout.

Light Duty.
Rogers, Jeff
Athletic Business; v20 n5 , p51-54 ; May 1996
Discusses multipurpose athletic field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spill over and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems.

Lighting up Savings.
Ryerson, Charles
American School and University; v68 n9 , p30-32 ; May 1996
Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues.

Changing of the Bulbs.
Baba, Keith
American School and University; v67 n9 , p36, 38 ; May 1995
Explains how a school's use of compact fluorescents can reduce operating costs and maintain performance. It indicates that energy cost savings can repay the initial costs of buying incandescent bulbs in as short as 12 months with continuing savings thereafter. Tips for avoiding costly mistakes in lighting retrofits are highlighted.

Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance
Hathaway, Warren E.
Journal of Educational Research; v88 n4 , p228-42 ; Mar-Apr 1995
This study collected data on the physical development, attendance, and school performance effects of four types of school lighting on elementary students over a two-year period. Results indicated that regular exposure to the lights had important nonvisual effects on students. Full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet supplements were found to be the most beneficial.

Bright Prospects.
Rogers, Jeff
Athletic Business; v18 n12 , p52-56 ; Dec 1994
Explains lighting quality, techniques, and structural considerations that will properly support football field illumination needs. Luminary assembly, pole strength and burial requirements, and the electrical support system are discussed. Thoughts on manufacturer warranties conclude the article.

Non-Visual Effects of Classroom Lighting on Children
Hathaway, Warren E.
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n3 , p12-16 ; 1994
Results from a pilot study of four different lighting systems indicate that over a two-year period, light had measurable and significant effects on students. Under full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet enhancement, students developed fewer dental cavities and had better attendance, achievement, and growth and development than students under other lights.

Conquering the Pumpkin Effect: A Lighting Alternative.
Stanley, Gary B.
School Business Affairs; v59 v12 , p35-37 ; Dec 1993
Turning off all the interior and exterior lighting when school buildings are closed saves money. In a small Illinois school district, nearly $14,000 were saved in electrical expenditures for six buildings. Another Illinois district currently has 19 of its 32 buildings blacked out at night and saves over $150,000 annually. Vandalism and loitering have both decreased.

Light Up Their Lives: A Review of Research on the Effects of Lighting on Children's Achievement and Behavior
Dunn, Rita; And Others
Reading Teacher; v38 n9 , p863-69 ; May 1985
Cites research showing individual reactions to bright and dim light in the classroom. Shows individual susceptibility to extreme negativism in inappropriate lighting conditions and suggests that students' predispositions for illumination be identified. Notes that restless, fidgety youngsters should be placed into softly lit sections, with the procedure reversed for listless, unresponsive ones.

Effects of Classroom Lighting on the Behavior of Exceptional Children
Fletcher, Donna
Exceptional Education Quarterly; v4 n2 , p75-89 ; Summer 1983
The effects of classroom lighting methods on activity level, achievement, visual acuity/fatigue, and health of nonhandicapped and handicapped students are reviewed. Effects of different levels of illumination on behavior also are discussed. Methodological deficiencies and lack of replication have resulted in few tenable conclusions.

Proper School Lighting
Strong, Everett M.
American Journal of Public Health; v 46 n5 , p619–622 ; May 1956
Report of improving of engineering and architectural contributions to adequate school lighting.


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Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (hgreen@nibs.org, 202-289-7800).