NCEF Resource List: Library and Media Center Facilities Design--K-12
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Information on the design and planning of K-12 school libraries and media centers, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

The New Learning Commons: Where Learners Win. Reinventing School Libaries and Computer Labs. Second Edition.
Loertscher, David; Koechlin, Carol and Zwaan, Sandi
(Hi Willow Research & Publishing, 2012)
Proposes a rethinking of the function and role of school libraries and computer labs in a 21st century school. Include the latest research in education, technology, and library science. 131p

Collective Intelligence. Facility's Response to the International Baccalaureate Curriculum.
Lee, Liz
(Perkins Eastman K-12 Group, Oct 2011)
Provides plans for accommodating the ideals of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program within an existing school facility, including Primary Learning Modalities, General Meeting & Collaboration, General Teaching Training, and Diploma College Preparation. Focuses on the library as a dynamic and active place for collaboration and exploration. Includes strategies to minimize costs while providing a first class 21st century educational experience. 16p

Woodland Hills High School Library Design Competition.
Christman, Robert A. and Hengelsberg, Brian B.
(YouTube, Feb 24, 2011)
Virtual tour of a high school library design created by Architectural Innovations. The design was entered in a competition.

Whole Building Design Guide: School Library.
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, DC, 2011)
Provides an overview of school library design including a description of spaces. Details the relevant codes and standards, and includes a list of major resources.

Library Security Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(Library Administration and Management Association, Security Guidelines Subcommittee of the Buildings and Equipment Section, Safety & Security of Library Buildings Committee, Chicago, IL , Jun 27, 2010)
These guidelines include an introduction and definitions, and sections covering the following topics: 1. Duty to Protect; 2.Foreseeability of Loss; 3. Adequacy of Protection; 4.Fire and Emergency Protection; 5.Physical Barrier and Lock and Key Security; 6. Security Duties and Security Staff; 7. Personal Access and Parcel Control; 8. Security Alarms and Electronics and 9. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. 29p.

The L!brary Book: Design Collaborations in the Public Schools.
Siddiqi, Anooradha Iyer
(Princeton Architectural Press , Apr 2010)
The nonprofit L!brary Initiative, created by the Robin Hood Foundation, has been working since 2001 to enhance student literacy and overall academic achievement by collaborating with school districts to design, build, equip, and staff new elementary school libraries. This book takes readers behind the scenes of fifty groundbreaking library projects to show how widely varied fields and communities—corporate underwriters, children's book publishers, architects, graphic designers, product manufacturers, library associations, teachers, and students—can join forces to make a difference in the lives of children. Based on the premise that good library design can actually inspire learning, the L!brary Initiative brings together some of the world's leading architects to reimagine the elementary school libraries in New York City. The author documents every project with beautiful photos as well as renderings and measured drawings. 176p.

Designing Libraries: Gateway to Better Library Design. The Resource for Library Planning, Design & Building.
(University of Wales Aberystwyth, UK , 2010)
This website provides links to primarily British information on the following topics: architecture and library building databases; awards and prizes; built environment; energy efficiency & sustainable building design; funding; furniture and equipment; furniture suppliers; health, safety, accessibility and security; interior design; libraries; planning, design and construction; preservation and conservation; signs; and technology.

The Once and Future Library. Adobe PDF
(Herman Miller Inc., Zeeland, MI , 2010)
Discusses the evolution of libraries away from information storage toward areas of collaboration. New expectations, types of spaces, experience, and problems are addressed, as are the interdisciplinary collaboration, and the diminishing role of the book along with its traditional library services. 13 references are included. 11p.

The School Libraries Project. .
(An Initiative of the Capitol Hill Community Foundation, 2010)
This describes a community-based, public/private partnership effort to renovate libraries at eight District of Columbia schools. The goal is to turn school libraries into first-class libraries with beautiful, inviting spaces that welcome children and provide community space after school hours. The Capitol Hill Community Foundation is working with the Washington Architectural Foundation and the architects who have been assigned to each school to develop designs.

The Not So Big High School Library....Why Build BIG? Adobe PDF
Stancil, George
(U.S. Department of Education, ERIC database , Mar 18, 2009)
Examines the role state departments of education, a professional organization, and a leading internet organization play in providing recommendations and guidelines in the construction of new high school libraries. Four state agencies were identified and specific square footage formulas noted as well as information provided by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and Eduscapes internet organizations. An overview of a small public high school library in southwest Virginia, Franklin County High School, was also included, with its collection, and first semester circulation and student use statistics noted. Results show that some state agencies and organizations provide no recommendations, while those that do show significant disparity in those recommendations. It is concluded that smaller may in fact be as effective as larger libraries and that any decision to build big should be based on a qualitative assessment. 5p.

School Library Media Center Design Considerations and Recommendations.
(South Carolina Department of Education, Columbia , 2009)
Offers guidance for school library design that includes traditional library space and flexible spaces that accommodate new technology and self-directed learning. The areas to be included in the library media center, general design and furnishing considerations, and responsibilities of the design team, architect, contractor, and district library supervisor are addressed. 23p.

Designing a School Library Media Center for the Future. Second Edition.
Erikson, Rolf; Markuson, Carolyn.
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL , 2009)
Offers guidance on building school library media centers by outlining conceptual plans from actual school libraries and explaining how to address specific planning and operational issues. The book addresses current and future technological needs of the student population, unique needs of the community library that combines school and public library services, sustainability issues, accessibility, cost control, and ways to minimize mistakes using bidding and evaluation methods. Also included are 30 illustrations, floor plans, and a glossary of technical terms. 130p.

Checklist of Library Building Design Considerations.
Sannwald, William
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL , 2009)
Provides librarians, architects, and other members of a building design team with an extensive list of questions to ask during the design phase of a new or remodeled library building project. The book s detailed checklists cover nearly every aspect of library facility space and functions, from site selection and security to shelving and groundbreaking ceremonies. Materials updated since the previous edition include a new chapter on sustainable design; new sections on wireless networking, information commons and media production and presentation labs; updated treatment of special collections and materials handling systems; and, a new section on disaster planning. Includes 151 references. 217p.

Classrooms, Library Media Centers, and New Technology.
(Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Oct 2008)
Brief list of design recommendations for library media centers as well as pitfalls to avoid. 2p.

Ideas and Designs: Creating the Environment for the Primary School Library.
Dewe, Michael
(School Library Association (UK), Oct 2007)
This British guideline takes one through the thinking and design process for creating flexible and stimulating spaces for a new build or refurbished school library. Includes a list of useful publications and websites, and case studies of schools planning and building new libraries.

Library Media Center Recommendations for the Ohio School Design Manual Adobe PDF
(Ohio Educational Library Media Association , Jul 2007)
Begins with a description of school library media center uses and activities, then provides recommendations for standard guidelines for designing new library media centers, including library size, unobstructed sight lines, lighting, flexibility, location, physical configuration, circulation desk, storage, computer lab, and more. 8p.

Visionary Spaces: Designing and Planning a Secondary School Library.
Dubber, Geoff and Lemaire, Kathy
(School Library Association (UK), Jul 2007)
British guideline provides inspiration and information to school librarians considering or directly involved with a new build or refurbished library development programme.

Managing Facilities for Results. Optimizing Space for Services.
Bryan, Cheryl
(ALA Editions, Public Library Association , Mar 2007)
Hands-on workbook discusses how to prioritize new services that need space, make plans and identify an appropriate location, present the case to funding authorities, conduct a “gap analysis,” find resources to reallocate and see what new items are needed, and identify building professionals to assist with alterations. It’s supplemented with 23 workforms to support the information and collection process. Three toolkits provide technical assistance on calculating square footage, assessing the message, and complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. With examples ranging from small to large small public libraries, the process is equally valuable for school, special, and academic librarians who are faced with similar space repurposing challenges.

Facilities Planning for School Library and Technology Centers.
Baule, Steven
(Linworth Books, Worthington, OH , 2007)
Offers step-by-step advice on how to remodel or build a new school library. The book includes a collection of case studies providing guidance from practitioners on common facilities issues, ready-to-use sample tools, and floor plans. Also covered are school facility essentials such as flexibility, planning, expendability, and security. The guide offers technological and practical information to make a functional, enduring, and accommodating library for the future, with checklists, forms, and timelines. 134p.
TO ORDER: 480 East Wilson Bridge Road, Suite L, Worthington, OH, 43085

Imagining the Future of the School Library.
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , Nov 2006)
Presents an interview with two school library experts that describes recent evolution of school library spaces. The projects deemed most successful are those that are central within the school facility; pay careful attention to staffing; incorporate and remain adaptable for technology; offer a variety of individual study, group learning and socializing areas; and are aesthetically pleasing. 10p.

Design Considerations for School Library Media Centers .
Bugher, Kathryn M.
(Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Madison, WI , Aug 28, 2006)
This delineates ideal adjacencies, layout, communication networks, television distribution, data network, electrical design, acoustics, ADA guidelines, size recommendations, and shelving calculations. 3p.

The School Library Media Facilities Planner.
Hart, Thomas
(Neal-Schuman Publishers, New York, NY , 2006)
Advises on pre-planning, planning, designing, and redesigning a school media center. Architectural styles and terminology, sample floor plans, planning documents, contracts, bid requests, organizational worksheets, and lists of references and resources are included. Factors that distinguish elementary, middle, and secondary media centers are also considered. 266p.

Designing a Facility: Making it a Place Where Every Student Succeeds. Adobe PDF
Formanack, Gail
(American Association of School Librarians, conference presentation, Pittsburgh, PA , Oct 07, 2005)
This identifies considerations and steps in designing a library media facility that is conducive to learning. 6p.
TO ORDER: American Library Association, 50 E. Huron Chicago, IL 60611; Tel: 800-545-2433

IMPACT: Guidelines for North Carolina Media and Technology Programs. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Aug 2005)
Provides the standards for K-12 library media coordinators and instructional technology facilitators in North Carolina, including tenets on programs, personnel, budgets, resources, and facilities to guide the building of a technology-rich learning environment. Guidelines are provided in the following areas: 1) teaching and learning, including collaboration for instruction, information access, staff development, and public relations; 2) information access and delivery, including making resources accessible, planning and designing facilities for learning, developing educational specifications, educational specifications for school and media/technology spaces, educational specifications for the school library media center, educational specifications for furniture and shelving, and general technology infrastructure for instruction; 3) program administration, including planning the program, staffing the program, budgeting for the program, creating and implementing policies and procedures, building support for vision and programs, and issues and myths; 4) system-level guidelines, including system-level leadership, teaching and learning, information access and delivery, and program administration; and 5) research and evaluation, including how to evaluate programs, using output measures for evaluation, a reference chart of measures and what they support, and program evaluation rubrics. Includes a glossary. Includes 295 references. 345p.

Library as Place: Rethinking Roles, Rethinking Space. Adobe PDF
Bennett, Scott; Demas, Sam; Freeman, Geoffrey; Frischer, Bernard; Oliver, Kathleen; Peterson, Christina
(Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
Presents six essays that consider the effect of online availability of research on the creation and design of library space. The authors consider the role of a library when it no longer needs to be a warehouse of books and when users can obtain information without setting foot in its doors. The authors include librarians, an architect, and a professor of art history and classics. The focus is primarily on research and academic libraries. The essays underscore the central, growing importance of the library as place, or base, for teaching, learning, and research in the digital age. They also encourage active participation of many stakeholders students, faculty, academic officers, information technologists, librarians as well as an experienced architect. 89p.
Report NO: CLIR Pub. No. 129

Planning and Building Libraries
(School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia, 2005)
This site has been created for architects, librarians, design consultants, and students interested in planning and building libraries. It contains information on architects, planning, programming, standards, interiors, lighting, automation, barrier-free design, security, health, and notable libraries.

Daylighting Design in Libraries. Adobe PDF
Dean, Edward
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
The use of natural light in libraries, or daylighting, has traditionally been a desirable building feature and a hallmark of good library design. This discusses daylight basics, as well as general principles of daylighting design in libraries, such as recommended light levels, light distribution, and daylight apertures on roofs and walls. Includes a glossary of daylighting terminology, and further sources of information.

Furniture for Libraries. Adobe PDF
Graham, Carole
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
This discusses the library furniture program, procurement methods, furniture selection, materials selection, furniture types, and furniture installation. Includes a glossary of furniture terminology and further sources of information.

Access to Libraries for Persons with Disabilities: Checklist. IFLA Professional Reports, No. 89 Adobe PDF
Irvall, Birgitta; Nielsen, Gyda Skat
(International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2005)
In many countries all over the world, access for patrons with disabilities to use libraries is not yet available or even expected. In order to provide equal opportunities for all library users, it is necessary to look with the eyes of these patron groups at the physical condition of library buildings, as well as library services and programs. This checklist--developed by the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Standing Committee of Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP)--is designed as a practical tool for all types of libraries (public, academic, school, special) to (1) assess existing levels of accessibility to buildings, services, materials and programs and to (2) enhance accessibility where needed. Accessibility needs of library staff are beyond the scope of this document. A list of related resources and useful web sites in English is also included. 18p.

Lighting for Libraries. Adobe PDF
Malman, David
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
This discusses the most important issues in lighting design for modern libraries, including light sources, lighting for bookstacks, lighting in general reading and staff areas, daylighting, exterior lighting, lighting controls, accessibility issues, and good architectural design. Includes further information.

Library Security. Adobe PDF
McComb, Mark
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services., 2005)
The goal of a library security system should be to provide a safe and secure facility for employees, resources, and patrons. At the same time, the system must perform these functions as seamlessly as possible, without interfering with the library's objective of easily and simply providing patron services. This discusses risk assessment; non-electronic physical security; electronic security includeing burglary protection, collection security, access control, and video surveillance; and security policies, procedures, and plans.

Fifty Years of Supporting Children's Learning: A History of Public School Libraries and Federal Legislation from 1953 to 2000. Adobe PDF
Michie, Joan S.; Holton, Barbara A.
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , 2005)
Drawn from more than 50 sources, this report presents descriptive data about U.S. public school libraries over a 47-year span. Data from sample surveys are presented at the national, regional, and school levels, and by state. Along with characteristics of school libraries, the report presents national and regional standards, and federal legislation affecting school library media centers. 188p.

Library Interior Finish Materials. Adobe PDF
Moris, Beverly
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
This discusses the library finishes selection process, floor finishes, ceiling finishes, wall finishes, window treatments, new versatile resins, and color. Includes a glossary of terms and references and other sources of information.

Acoustics for Libraries. Adobe PDF
Salter, Charles M.
(Libris DESIGN, funded by The Institute of Museum and Library Services , 2005)
The acoustical design issues for libraries involve the following principal issues discussed in this document: 1) site noise considerations; 2) establishing noise standards for each use space, including limitation of excessive ventilation noise; 3)room acoustics considerations; 4)sound isolation between various use spaces; 5)vibration control for mechanical equipment; and 6)audio/visual system considerations.

The Status of Public Library and Private School Library in the United States: 1999- 2000.
Tabs, E.D.
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , Mar 2004)
Examines the state of public and private school library media centers. Section one presents data illustrating the inclusion of a library media center within the school facilities by state, school type, and urban or rural setting. 119p.

Guidelines for Library Media Programs in Louisiana Schools. Adobe PDF
(Louisiana Dep't. of Education, Division of School Standards, Accountability, and Assistance, Baton Rouge, LA , 2004)
For use in planning and designing new or remodeled school libraries, this publication provides information on establishing a planning committee, design considerations, technical requirements, security , accessibility and space planning.

Status of Public and Private School Library Media Centers in the United States: 1999-2000 Adobe PDF
Holton, Barbara; Bae, Yupin; Baldridge, Susan; Brown, Michelle; Heffron, Dan
(U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics , 2004)
Examines the state of public and private school library media centers in the United States in 1999-2000. Data came from the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Composed of tables providing an overview of school library media center data. Currently, the library media center is defined as an organized collection of printed and/or audiovisual and/or computer resources that is administered as a unit, is located in a designated place or places, and makes resources and services available to students, teachers, and administrators 135p.

Combined Libraries: A Bibliography.
(American Library Association, Fact Sheet Number 20. , Nov 2003)
This is a selected list of articles, books, and web sites covering the subject of combined and joint-use libraries. It covers the two most common types of combined libraries: public libraries combined with school library media centers and public libraries combined with academic libraries.

Creating Library Spaces: Libraries 2040. Adobe PDF
Bruijnzeels, Rob
(In: Libraries for Life: Democracy, Diversity, Delivery. IFLA Council and General Conference: Conference Programme and Proceedings (68th, Glasgow, Scotland), Aug 18, 2002)
This paper suggests that by 2004, the traditional public libraries will have ceased to exist and new, attractive future libraries will have taken their place. The Libraries 2040 project of the Netherlands is initiating seven different libraries of the future. The Brabant library is the "ultimate library of the future" for the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, and the impetus behind it is that the current public library system is no longer able to cope with the enormous production of books. Hotel Alphabet views the library as a dynamic building that takes the shape of a complete biotope of a large hotel open at all times, pleasantly anonymous and welcoming. The hormone library is designed as an "emotional interface" enabling young people to use the library in ways that respond to their rapidly changing moods. The survival library comprises almost 30 publications by writers from Noord-Brabant, hidden in the town of Oisterwijk and the surrounding countryside. The main aim of the virtual library of the future is to create an environment in which the terms "structure," "chaos," and "collectivity" are given new meaning. Not the books themselves but the experience of reading is the primary focus of the "Bibliotheque d'amis." In the partisan library, hidden in the scenery around Moerdijk, children became the librarians of their own library and only children were told of its whereabouts. 8p.

Building Libraries and Library Additions. A Selected Annotated Bibliography. ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 11.
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL, 2002)
This fact sheet provides references to tools, resources, and advice to manage a library building project, whether large or small. 10p.

Library Alive! Adobe PDF
Dotten, Rose
(Ontario School Library Association, Canada , 2002)
Detailed analysis of criteria for building or re-designing a school library facility, including a discussion of welcoming entrances, learning areas, flexible spaces, traffic flow,sight lines, and integrated technology. 5p.

Libraries Designed for Users: A 21st Century Guide.
Lushington, Nolan
(Neal-Schuman Publishers, New York, NY , 2002)
Advises on planning the construction and layout of a tailored to suit the needs of its patrons. The book is organized into four major sections: "Essential Background" (history, trends, and design criteria), "The Planning Process," "Planning for Specific Functions," and "Library Design Sources." Numerous illustrations of library plans and equipment show a variety of solutions to design questions. 263p.

Building Blocks for Planning Functional Library Space.
(Scarecrow Press; ALA Library Adminstration and Management Association, Building and Equipment Section Facilities Committee, Chicago, IL. , 2001)
Provides detailed formulas to help calculate the square footage required for every conceivable element of a library building. Includes specifications for computer workstations, and visual representations of complex configurations.

School Libraries and Resource Centres = Bibliotheques scolaires et centres de documentation.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France., 2001)
This book, in French and English, addresses how the school library of the future will be designed and what role it will play as a school facility within the educational system and in society as a whole. The following papers are included: (1) "Issues" (John Mayfield); (2) "Designing Schools for the Information Society: Libraries and Resource Centres"; (3) "Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and the Quality of Learning: An International OECD/CERI Study" (Edwyn O. James); (4) "Documentation and Information Centres (CDI) and New Technologies in France" (Guy Pouzard); (5) "Regional Policy for the Development of Information and Communications Technologies in Upper Secondary Education in Ile-de-France" (Jacques Foucher); (6) "The School Library--An Endangered Species or the Heart of the Community?" (Tim Sandercock); (7) "The Learning, Information and Communication Centre in Austrian Secondary Schools" (Manfred Hinum and Johanna Hladej); (8) "The Alford Information and Technology Centre at Aberdeenshire in Scotland" (Clive Marsden); (9) "The Multimedia Centre in the Institut Notre-Dame des Champs, Brussels" (Jean-Marie Moonen); (10) "Resource Centres in the Tuscany Region" (Paolo Benesperi); and (11) "Five Examples of School Resource Centres in Portugal: The School 2001 Project in Pendao, Portugal" (Isabel Mendinhos). (Contains 401 references.) 204p.
TO ORDER: OECD Washington Center, 2001 L Street N.W., Suite 650, Washington, DC, 20036-4922. Tel: 202-785.6323.Tel: 800-456-6323.

Checklist of Library Building Design Considerations. Fourth Edition.
Sannwald, William W.
(Library Administration and Management Association, Chicago, IL , 2001)
This checklist is designed to provide librarians, architects, and other members of a building design team with a list of 1,500 questions to ask during the design phase of a new or remodeled library building project. The book's detailed checklists cover nearly every aspect of library facility space and functions, from site selection and security to shelving and groundbreaking ceremonies. The completely revised and updated fourth edition addresses design and architectural changes brought about by computer workstations and networks and includes a section on Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. The "Checklist" is an essential tool for use during the various design process stages, including needs assessment and funding agency presentation preparations. 184p.

Maine School Library Facilities Handbook.
(Maine Association of School Libraries Facilities Committee , Jun 2000)
This handbook provides guidance to school library specialists and architects for planning new or renovated library facilities that will meet the changing resource and technology needs of students and the community. An overview is provided of the essential library areas, including layout, structural, and climate control needs; the internal communication networks of the library facility; and considerations involving the Americans with Disabilities Act. The handbook also presents data tables comparing library areas for different school population sizes. It also offers detailed descriptions of essential areas, highlights expert advice from the facility planning and design field, and lists new and retrofitted school library facilities in Maine that are recommended for visits. 35p.

North Carolina Public Schools: Facilities Guidelines [Media Centers]
(North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, School Planning Section , 2000)
A section of this guide features K-12 planning information on media centers including square foot guidelines, ceiling heights, plan arrangement guidelines, equipment, hvac requirements, and lighting. p.22-24

IMPACT: Guidelines for Media and Technology Programs. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Instructional Technologies Division, Raleigh. , 2000)
This document provides the set of standards for K-12 library media coordinators and instructional technology facilitators in North Carolina, including tenets on programs, personnel, budgets, resources, and facilities to guide the building of a technology-rich learning environment. Guidelines are provided in the following areas: (1) teaching and learning, including collaboration for instruction, information access, staff development, and public relations; (2) information access and delivery, including making resources accessible, planning and designing facilities for learning, developing educational specifications, educational specifications for school and media/technology spaces, educational specifications for the school library media center, educational specifications for furniture and shelving, and general technology infrastructure for instruction; (3) program administration, including planning the program, being the change agent, advisory committee membership and responsibilities, staffing the program, budgeting for the program, creating and implementing policies and procedures, building support for vision and programs, and issues and myths; (4) system-level guidelines, including system-level leadership, teaching and learning, information access and delivery, and program administration; and (5) research and evaluation, including how to evaluate programs, using output measures for evaluation, a reference chart of measures and what they support, and program evaluation rubrics. Includes a glossary. (Contains 214 references.) 234p.

Managing InfoTech in School Library Media Centers.
Clyde, Laurel A.
(Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO, 2000)
Discusses the development of an information technology plan for a school library media center and how to effectively manage technology to achieve goals of the school. Emphasizing applications in the areas of management, services, and curriculum, this discusses issues in planning, selection of hardware and applications, budget, staffing and facilities, user education, publicity/promotion, and possible developments in the future. 290p.
TO ORDER: Libraries Unlimited, Libraries Unlimited, P.O. Box 6926, Portsmouth, NH 03802-6926; Tel: 800-225-5800.

Designing Better Libraries: Selecting and Working with Building Professionals
McCarthy, Richard
(Highsmith Press, Fort Atkinson, WI, 2000)
The author explains how to collaborate with an architect and covers site selection, remodeling, interior design, and accessiblity improvements. Includes recent changes in standards and procedures in the building professions, and checklists to keep projects on target. 124p.
TO ORDER: Highsmith Press, POB 800, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538

Design Considerations for School Library Media Centers.
Lohr, Neah
(Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Instructional Media and Technology, Madison, WI, Jul 1999)
Suggestions for planning the location and design of a library media center in a school building. 2p

School Library Media Center Long-range Planning Guide: a Workbook for Massachusetts School Library Media Centers.
(Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners, Boston , 1999)
Offers step-by-step planning advice for school library media centers. The document begins with an overview of planning, and then proceed with sections for connecting with the school's mission and community, forming a vision statement, needs assessment, mission statement, multi-year goals and objectives, action plans, approval processes, and annual updates. Workforms are provided to facilitate each step, and appendices provide regional competency documents and 17 references. 84p.

Facilities Planning for School Library Media and Technology Centers
Baule, Steven M.
(Linworth Publishing, Inc., Worthington, OH , 1999)
Increased student enrollment, collection growth, the need for multimedia workspace, and other technology changes are all reasons for embarking on a facilities project in a library media center. This book describes the keys to success for library media centers of the future, and addresses the need for developing support for the facilities plan. Guidelines are provided for building a facilities project team, including advice on team selection and leadership. This step-by-step guide includes numerous checklists of critical strategies, questions and planning components, key forms for planning and analysis, and a suggested timeline to keep the facility design plans on track. Library media center layout samples provide a base; elementary, middle school and high school designs can be modified for any type of school. In addition to the bibliography, a list of library facilities related Web sites is included. 100p.
TO ORDER: Linworth Publishing, Inc., 480 East Wilson Bridge Rd., Suite L, Worthington, OH 43085

Facilities Guidelines for Library Media Programs. [Maryland]
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1998)
These guidelines are designated to help Maryland school system personnel and architects develop educational specifications and designs for new building construction or major renovation projects that include a library media center. The task force, which developed the standards, began this effort by gathering information on the State's school library media programs, by studying the role of these programs in implementing school improvement strategies, by visiting exemplary programs, and by reviewing state and national standards for school library media programs with national and local experts. As a result, it was recommended that schools provide every student access to a functional, well-equipped information center that supports the goals outlined in the State's school improvement program. The guide provides an overview of school library media programs and looks at the school facilities planning process. Special attention is devoted to library media center spaces and design considerations for school library media centers. 59p
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Some Design Considerations When Building or Remodeling a Media Center. Adobe PDF
Johnson, Doug
(Minnesota Public Schools, Mankato, MN , Mar 10, 1998)
When building or renovating a media center, certain questions should be asked. To aid this process, a list of potential queries to be asked is offered. It opens with some general rules for planning, such as using a steering committee composed of stakeholders. Other guidelines dictate that the architect be involved as soon as is possible, that the area not be designed for future technology, that older technologies are rarely replaced by new technologies, and that those involved know how to read blueprints. Some of the questions for the planning committee include asking how the new facility will be used, near what areas of the school the media center should be located, how the center will be staffed, and whether the computers lab should have a lecture or lab type design. When dealing with the architect, he or she must be asked if the media center allows for different kinds of student use, if the design eliminates any areas which cannot be seen from a single location, whether new technologies are being accommodated, if the lighting is adequate, if security will be in place, if all areas and resources are accessible by the physically challenged, if the furniture is of high quality, and what manner of atmosphere he or she is trying to create. Some lessons learned the hard way are also provided. 5p.

Combined School and Public Libraries: Guidelines for Decision Making.
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services , 1998)
This helps communities and school districts determine whether a combined school and public library will provide the most efficient library service for all community residents. Topics covered are: planning issues; mission statements; the legal framework for combined school-public libraries in the state of Wisconsin; and a list of key issues to be considered when examining the feasibility of establishing such a library. A feasibility checklist is also included and covers planning, governance, administration and funding, access to information and materials, the physical facility, technology, and attitudinal factors. Also included are: descriptions of existing combined school and public libraries in Wisconsin; examples of alternative methods for improving library services; a selected bibliography; statutory references; and sample master agreement. 38p.

Planning for School Library Resource Centers
(Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA, 1998)
This collection of materials covers many issues and trends related to planning for school library media centers of the future. Topics covered include technology, facilities, information literacy, resource-based learning, the changing role of library media specialists, and the role of administrators. The material includes articles from professional journals, summaries of research studies, and related literature addressing issues of concern to K-12 schools.
Report NO: ERS Info-File #N2-32

TO ORDER: Educational Research Service

Evaluating the School Library Media Center. Analysis Techniques and Research Practices.
Everhart, Nancy
(Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO , 1998)
The book contains research and evaluation techniques and studies that have been conducted in school library media centers. Many study results are presented in chart format, with spaces available for data entry for comparison. Each chapter containing lists of references, recent dissertations, and web sites. Chapter 4, "Facilities" discusses results from research, suggestions from experienced professionals, state guidelines, measuring tools, and combined school-public libraries. 262p.
TO ORDER: Libraries Unlimited, P.O. Box 6633, Englewood, CO 80155-6633; Tel: 800-237-6124.

Learning Environments for Young Children : Rethinking Library Spaces and Services
Feinberg, Sandra; Kuchner, Joan F.; Feldman, Sari; Ash-Geisler, Viki
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL , 1998)
Taking a research-oriented approach to the role of the library in the education of children, this book focuses on making public libraries developmentally appropriate learning environments for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and their families. The first section covers the theories and practices for librarians to provide social and physical environments in which they, parents, administrators, and the community work together with young children. The second section describes the methodologies, strategies, and tools for an "Early Childhood Quality Review" (ECQR), a self-evaluation process. The third section gives replicable questionnaires, observation guides, and other documentation aids necessary to evaluate spaces, programs, and resources. 214p.
TO ORDER: American Library Association, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611; Tel: 800-545-2433.

Current Trends in School Libraries, Media Centers, and Performing Arts Spaces. A 1997 Slide Presentation.
(American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, D.C. , 1997)
This slide presentation and script shows jury-selected exemplary architectural designs for school libraries, media centers, and performing arts auditoriums found in selected K-12 public schools across the country. Each entry is accompanied by a photograph, the architect's statement,design features, and construction costs. An index of the architectural firms by state is also provided. 79p.

HELP! for Library Media Center Design, Construction and Renovation: A Guide for Consulting. Adobe PDF
Hauser, Judy
(Oakland Schools, Waterford, MI , 1997)
Schools that are planning to renovate, redesign, or construct a media center face many challenges. To help in these efforts, this booklet offers suggestions for planning and executing a media center project. It includes tools and resources that school personnel will need before mounting such a major project. Guidelines provided by the Library Media Program Advisory Committee are provided, featuring suggestions for basic tenets of design, location, functional considerations, library media center spaces, design considerations, communication systems, distance learning classrooms, and computer laboratories. Because technology now comprises a large part of school media resources, ideas on how to approach this concern are also presented, including numerous tips on automating a library system. Further information on various aspects of design can be obtained from a listing of web sites, Internet discussion groups, reading materials, and visitation sites, several of which are listed here. Staff support is critical in this kind of project, therefore tips on marketing the media center are given. Diagrams of 25 media center floor plans are offered and indexed according to various features, such as their audio-visual storage, classroom space, computer workstations, offices, and other designated areas. 54p.

Planning Library Interiors. The Selection of Furnishings for the 21st Century. Revised Edition.
Brown, Carol R.
(Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ , 1995)
The acquisition of library furniture and shelving includes the following steps: look at the existing library space to determine which furnishings work effectively and which ones do not; study specific service and collection plans and consider how they relate to the library interior; determine the purpose of the new furnishings; consider what furnishings can fulfill the requirements already determined; and make responsible selections and purchase the furnishings. This second edition of "Selecting Library Furniture: A Guide for Librarians, Designers, and Architects," has been completely reorganized and rewritten and includes changes that have occurred in libraries such as compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and new technologies that require special equipment. The book contains the following 11 chapters: (1) Library Planning and the Furniture Selection Process; (2) Quality Construction and Issues in Furniture Selection; (3) Shelving; (4) Service Desks; (5) Chairs; (6) Tables, Carrels, and Computer Workstations; (7) Planning and Selecting Furnishings for Children's Areas; (8) Furniture for Work Areas; (9) Sign Systems and Display; (10) The Bid Process; and (11) The Library Furniture Market. 176p.

Planning and Designing Libraries for Children and Young People.
Dewe, Michael
(Bernan Associates, Lanham, MD, 1995)
Now that fewer libraries are being built, it is particularly important to maximize space in the buildings available, and to ensure that library plans are determined by the needs of users. This book introduces the concept of space as a resource available to the library manager, along with stock, staff, and finance, which need managing in the same way as other resources. The book enables school and children's librarians to develop a critical and evaluative attitude to the utilization, layout, appearance, and environment of their libraries. The book covers the following topics: space as a resource;types of school and public library space provision; stages in the creation of the library space resource; planning the space resource; committees and teams; standards and guidelines; location of the library; the range of accommodation; policy and practical issues; spatial relationships and the library layout; furniture and equipment; and case studies of recently completed libraries in schools and for children and young people in the United Kingdom. Illustrated with library plans and photographs. Appendices include a list of information sources, and a list of major furniture and equipment suppliers from the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and Australia. (Contains 205 references.) 227p.
TO ORDER: Bernan Associates, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391; e-mail:

Facilities for School Library Media Centers: A Guide for Designing and Remodeling.
Patrick, Retta
(Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO, 1993)
The author of this book, former school librarian and past president of the American Association of School Librarians, draws on her experience to write this book containing information on a variety of issues related to school library design and renovation.

Disabilities, Children, and Libraries: Mainstreaming Services in Public Libraries and School Library Media Centers.
Walling, Linda Lucas; Karrenbrock, Marilyn H.
(Libraries Unlimited, Inc., Englewood, CO , 1993)
Written for librarians and school library media specialists, this book is designed to foster awareness and encourage confidence in serving the needs of children with disabilities. It provides practical guidelines for recognizing and understanding many disabilities, including vision, hearing, and speech impairments; emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders; and disabilities affecting mobility and dexterity. Insights and solutions that will help librarians create mainstreamed environments for library users are offered. These include guidelines for selecting and adapting library materials and facilities and minimizing the effects of physical, societal, and environmental barriers in libraries. Separate discussions focus on planning, implementing and evaluating services and assistive technologies. Sources of materials, equipment, technology and other sources of information and assistance are provided, along with contact information.

How Libraries Must Comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Foos, Donald D., Comp.; Pack, Nancy C., Comp.
(Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ, 1992)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) directs public and private libraries--academic, public, school, and special--to provide services to people with disabilities that are equal to services provided to citizens without disabilities. Six chapters in this book provide information to help library administrators and staff to fully understand the applications of the law and its regulations as they relate to their respective library situations. 168p.
TO ORDER: Oryx Press, 4041 North Central at Indian School Road, Phoenix, AZ 85012-3397

Planning the Library Media Center Facility for the 1990s and Beyond. Adobe PDF
(Texas Education Agency, Austin, TX , 1991)
This manual presents recommendations for incorporating present and future technological changes into workable, efficient, pleasant school library media facilities in two major sections: Planning the Facility and Activity Areas. The first section addresses the planning process (appointing the building committee, evaluating the library media program, writing the building/facility program, and working with the architect), as well as general considerations in planning (acoustics, carpeting, lighting, windows, climate control, handicapped access, location, remodeling, signs, and wiring). The second section highlights the process of determining space needs, addresses public areas (entrance/circulation/card catalog, reading/listening/viewing, conference/classroom, and computer laboratory), and library media center management areas (office, workroom, storage, and media. 102p.

Planning School Library Media Facilities
Anderson, Pauline H.
(The Shoe String Press, Inc.,Hamden, CT , 1990)
This manual examines the planning process for building or renovating new library media facilities. It is concerned with building programs, local building and fire codes, design, working with architects, reading blueprints,engineering and mechanical plans, budgets, bids, and change orders. It offers help with such sensitive issues as the politics of planning, the assessment of needs and options, and working with the many committees and groups who must be involved; and covers all aspects, from getting administrative commitment to completing the job. Four case studies are presented which exemplify different kinds of situations, one of which is the renovation for an audiovisual (AV) complex. The book is divided into six chapters: (1) "The Politics of Planning"; (2) "The Needs and the Options: Preplanning"; (3) "Developing the Planning Process"; (4) "From Commitment to Design"; (5) "From Design to Construction"; and (6) "From Construction to the Move." An index and the following appendixes conclude the book: (1) typical library media specialist questions and answers; (2)library media center space facilities guidelines; and (3) descriptions of the automation selection process and the online searching process. (19 selected readings) 266p.
TO ORDER: The Shoe String Press, Inc., 925 Sherman Avenue, Hamden, CT 06514

Planning Library Facilities: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography
Stephenson, Mary Sue
(Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MD, 1990)
Bibliography on the planning, design and implementation of a new library facility or the renovation of an existing one, consisting of 800 annotated entries covering 1970-88. This bibliography is arranged by type of library and by particular facility topics. 259p.
TO ORDER: Scarecrow Press, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Tel: 301-459-3366.

Planning School Library Media Center Facilities for New Hampshire and Vermont. Adobe PDF
Snider, Susan C.; Schubert, Leda
(New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.; Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier , 1989)
This booklet provides guidelines and suggestions for planning school library media facilities. The importance of helping the architect understand the school media center's unique mission and relevant educational specifications is discussed, and checklists for educational specifications and monitoring progress are provided. A detailed discussion addresses the functions and relationships of major areas within the media center, e.g., circulation, reading areas, and computer laboratories; describes New Hampshire's minimum space requirements; and presents recommended space allocations in tabular form. General aspects of design that encourage easy access to information and services are outlined. Specific design considerations are offered for acoustics, color and signage, environmental control, handicapped access, lighting, safety, security, traffic flow, technology and communications, visibility, weight, and windows. Specific types of furniture and furniture arrangements are suggested, and tips for moving a library media collection from an old facility to a new one are provided. 54p.

Media Center Facilities Design.
Hannigan, Jane; Estes, Glenn
(American Library Association, Chicago, IL , 1978)
Offers the contributions of several authors on school media center design. In successive parts, the book cover theoretical considerations, the student's perspective, the planning process, guidelines and standards, components, politics and public information, patterns of organizations, usage, and remodeling. Includes 39 references. 127p.

Design for Paperbacks. A How-To Report on Furniture for Fingertip Access. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1968)
Presents furniture designs aimed at providing physical solutions to the problems and needs generated by the use of paperbacks in education. First, they are directed toward accessibility of the books in the library, bookstores, classrooms, lounges, commons, corridors, and wherever else students may move or assemble in the school. Secondly, they are calculated to attract youngsters to reach for the books on impulse. The designs are adaptable in traditional buildings with fixed interior partitions and in buildings with increasing degrees of openness for team-teaching and non graded programs. 27p.

The Impact of Technology on the Library Building. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jul 1967)
Reports on the results of a symposium of communications and information technologists, librarians and architects held at the EFL offices in June, 1967. They explored four principal areas of relevance: 1) computer technology; 2)microform technology; 3) communications technology; and 4) the relationship of human beings to the possible changes ahead. Library planners should expect these technologies to modify, but not radically change, the library as the institution we now know it to be. 23p.

References to Journal Articles

Not to Be Shelved.
Goodale, David L.
School Planning and Management; , p48-49 ; Feb 2012
While advances in technology have caused some to predict the demise of the book, K-12 libraries are more than reading rooms. Discusses the resilience of books; a community of learning; technology, programmatic change and environmental support; and the iconic center.

The Library as a Digital Learning Space
McCrea, Bridget
THE Journal ; Jan 11, 2012
Describes the Simsbury High School in Simsbury, CT that is developing and honing a hybrid library that incorporates both traditional books and new digital technologies. Key features include a spacious entry way, two lounge seating areas, mission-style furnishings, a librarian reference desk that's positioned in a central location on the library floor, two library classroom/computer labs, 30 PCs, and 17,000 physical books.

Orchard School Library Addition
Architizer; Dec 01, 2011
Describes a library addition to the Orchard School in San Jose, California that connects the elementary and middle school areas. The library's sustainable design includes a high-performance exterior building envelope, interior day lighting, natural ventilation, photovoltaic panels, upgraded mechanical systems, green-certified interior furnishings and finishes, water-saving plumbing fixtures, and careful siting and orientation to reduce solar heat gain.

The All-Digital Library
McCrea, Bridget
THE Journal; Oct 19, 2011
Discusses the Cushing Academy of Ashburnham, MA that got rid of 40,000 books and replaced them with electronic sources, and redesigned the library with open space, new furniture, and a cafe where students and faculty could mingle and collaborate. An existing computer lab was converted into a lounge for faculty and staff, new WiFi access points were added, and new electric boxes were installed to accommodate student laptop use in the building.

iCommons: The Library Evolved
McCrea, Bridget
THE Journal; Oct 05, 2011
Discusses the Oxbridge Academy of the Palm Beaches' library where there are no physical books in the building, and certain aspects of the space mimic what you'd find in your typical Barnes & Noble cafe. iCommons serves as a center of intellectual activity and academic life.

New School of Thought: Collaborative Spaces Are Critical in Today's School Designs
Bell, Amy
Learning By Design; , p18-21 ; Fall 2011
Common multiuse spaces include cafetoriums, libraries, and general communal spaces such as corridors and atriums. With some creative thinking, any of these spaces can accomodate a variety of activities.

New Schools Are Shelving the Old Library
Mason, Craig
Daily Journal of Commerce; , 2p ; Aug 25, 2011
Active learning centers and dispersed resource programs are replacing the dusty stacks of yore. Describes several recent school library projects where an active resource center supports a more dynamic model of student learning, and library functions are dispersed across the campus.

Student-Centered Interior Design.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p33,34,37 ; Aug 2011
Discusses design of classroom, cafeteria, library, technology and other mobile equipment to accommodate aural, visual, and tactile learners. Flexibility, acoustics, lighting, connection to the outdoors, a variety of large and small learning spaces, scale, technology integration, and mobile storage are discussed.

Building Blueprints: Libraries and Media Centers.
Mason, Craig
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p54,55 ; Jul 2011
Describes a library/media center distributed across four small learning communities at Marysville Getchell High School Campus. The amenities for the students, staffing, and organization are addressed.

Innovation Among the Stacks. Bringing Sustainability to School Libraries.
Schaffer, Julie
Green Building and Design Magazine; , p86-87 ; Jul-Aug 2011
Describes a series of renovations to high-school libraries throughout the five boroughs of New York City. All of the renovations – eleven designed, eight completed – incorporate sustainable features including recycled materials, fixtures, and furniture through the spaces, and energy-efficient lighting and low-VOC or no-VOC paints and adhesives.

21st Century Learning.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n8 , p16-18,20,22 ; May 2011
Compares a 1990's concept of 21st century school improvements with the current reality of upgrades in an ailing economy. The biggest impact is on school libraries, since students no longer need to spend great amounts of time in the library because of technological advances. The savings on library capital expenses can be directed towards other uses like gymnasiums and theaters.

The School Library Space is Changing.
Wernick, Laura
American School and University; v83 n9 , p24,26,28 ; May 2011
Discusses the evolution of school libraries toward being social and "learning commons" spaces, and away from being storage for large quantities of books. The article emphasizes that this trend extends all the way down to the early learning and elementary school levels.

Divine Design: How to Create the 21st-century School Library of Your Dreams.
Sullivan, Margaret
School Library Journal ; Apr 2011
Recommends five design considerations when planning a school library: create flexible spaces; start merchandising the collection; insist on strong infrastructure; don't sacrifice livability for beauty; and create a secure environment outdoors for students to gather, read, perform, or just relax.

Library Design Showcase 2011
Landgraf, Greg
American Libraries; Mar 2011
Profiles the 2011 American Library Association Library Design Showcase winners, including libraries at the University of Wyoming, University of Akron, Seattle University, Marquette University, Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind, and Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools in Los Angeles. Discusses the award winners within the context of enhanced functionality, choice of construction materials, sustainable construction, navigation and color, children's spaces, renovations, design details, outdoor connections, and community living rooms.

Going out of Print.
Wetschler, Ed
District Administration; v47 n2 , p22-24,26,27 ; Feb 2011
Discusses the migration of school libraries from printed books to electronic books and resources. An inset article on the future of library facility design is included.

Library Design Part 2: Facilities and Programs
SchoolDesigner; Dec 2010
Profiles three public school library/media centers that exemplify the changes that are taking place in library design. New trends are discussed including the library as a teaching space, a place for learning together, and a place for producing information.

Research on Research Centers.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p54 ; Dec 2010
Makes the case that the amount of library space may now be reduced, but, at the same time, the number of librarians should be increased. More than ever, librarians are playing a key educational role. Librarians introduce children to reading, help students do research, and now how to use electronic media. This includes teaching the ethical use of material foud on the Internet.

Community Centers/Joint-Use Facilities and Modular Facilties.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p181-184 ; Nov 2010
Profiles two joint-use facilities and one modular high school honored for functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. The joint-use facilities are the Lunda Center at Wisconsin's Western Technical College and the Centennial Hills Library of the Las Vegas-Clark County Library District. The modular facility is High Tech High School in Chula Vista, California. Photographs, building statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.

The Key to Designing Specialty Spaces.
Bane, Dennis; Miller, Steven; Cordon, Andrew; Lerner, Jonathan; Aldis, Jonathan
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p20 ; Nov 2010
Dicusses specialty educational spaces by providing general design advice, illustrated with five examples from various schools. A media center, music suite, auditorium, outdoor classroom, and athletic facility are addressed.

Library Design, Part 1: New Approaches Meet Students' Needs.
DeZina, Ima
Schooldesigner; , p2-6 ; Nov 2010
Profiles four public school library/media centers that offer a comfortable place to read, research, and relax. Easy access to technology, natural light, and spaces for individual study or group collaboration are emphasized.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p100-106 ; Aug 2010
Profiles seven winning library and media center projects in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Main Winners.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p14,16-19 ; Aug 2010
Profiles the two main winners in the 2010 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors competition. The Omaha Public Schools Saddlebrook Joint-Use Library and the New York University Stern School of Business Concourse were chosen for high performance, value, safety and security, innovation, atmosphere, functionality, quality, and contextual relationship. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Embracing Change.
Tennity, Mike
American School and University; v82 n13 , p130-133 ; Aug 2010
Reviews the responsive nature of academic library architecture over the last two centuries, noting that libraries have been at the forefront of computerization and continue to provide centralized access to online resources, as well as spaces for collaborative study. Advice on positioning the library as a facility for the future is included.

Libraries with a Future: How Are Academic Library Usage and Green Demands Changing Building Designs?
College and Research Libraries; v71 n4 , p348-260 ; Jul 2010
Support for the modular system of building construction, touted in the second half of the 20th century as the best basis for academic library building design, appears to be waning. A study of "green" libraries in 2008 revealed that not only has energy conservation become important, but that spaces designed for users rather than books have become paramount. The modular system worked particularly well for housing ever-expanding book collections, but collection growth is no longer a practical goal. Users want and need a greater variety of spaces, for which purpose-built rooms are a better choice.

The Learning Center. Adobe PDF
Wernick, Laura
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p22-25 ; 2010
Describes and provides examples of the transformation of libraries from repositories of information to learning centers that provide not only access to information but also instruction on finding and accessing information. The design and use of space are key ingredients to this transformation.

12 Major Trends in Library Design.
Sens, Thomas
Building Design and Construction; v50 n12 , p38-42 ; Dec 2009
Discusses recent trends in academic library design, noting increased, rather than decreased, use since the advent of the Internet. This is largely due to a desire for social and collaborative learning space. The trends reflect this, focusing on space programming, flexibility, and technology integration.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v81 n13 , p101-106 ; Aug 2009
Profiles six library/media center projects selected for the 2009 American School and University Magazine Education Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their ability to integrate current and future technology, innovative use of materials, life-cycle cost versus first cost, timelessness, safety and security, clarity of design concept, and accommodation of an enhanced educational mission. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Color in School Libraries.
Elementary Librarian; Jul 17, 2009
The article mentions some important things to keep in mind when decorating a school library. It gives information on color, floor, and furniture. At the end of the article there is a compiled list from librarians on things that may be overlooked.

Building Blueprints: Libraries and Media Centers.
Hastings, Brad
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p46,47 ; May 2009
Advises on creating flexible libraries and media centers that are well-located within the school, respond to the learning program, provide good acoustical environments, and offer effective furnishings.

Space Matters: Designing a High School Library for Learning. Adobe PDF
Nelson, Bryce; McConachie, Lorne
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p21-24 ; 2009
Discusses elements of good high school library design, including placing space for learning above space for storing materials, support of multiple teaching and learning modes, consideration of the collection development policy, delivery of electronic content, and aesthetics. Advice on practical application of these elements is included.

Wandering Eyes and Security. Adobe PDF
Jahan, Youngmin; Verbitski, Christine
School Construction News; v11 n7 , p12,13 ; Nov 2008
Discusses library security in light of the expanding array of spaces and services that libraries provide. Glass interior walls improve supervision, and security tags on materials are recommended, especially in situations where there is more than one entrance to a library.

Impact Library Access with Bold Use of Color and Space.
Library Media Connection; v27 n2 , p16-18 ; Oct 2008
Most school libraries have little funding for books, much less for redecorating. So what can a librarian do to give his or her library a makeover? This article presents a few cost-effective ways to renovate in just a few weeks. These tips include the use of colors, rearrangement of furnitures, signages, and more.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v80 n13 , p116-123 ; Aug 2008
Profiles eight public school and higher education libraries that were recognized in the American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their sustainability, character, long-term appropriateness of materials and colors, innovation, adaptability, collaborative spaces, and safety. Photographs and project statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Robin Hood in Queens.
Weiss, Marion; Manfredi, Michael A.
Architecture Week ; Jul 23, 2008
Case study of the funding and design of a new library space in Public School 42 in Queens, New York. The Robin Hood Foundation's Library Initiative, launched in partnership with the New York City Department of Education in 2001, reverses "patterns of low literacy skills and underachievement by working with community school districts and public elementary schools to design, build, equip, and staff new elementary school libraries."

The Transformation of the Library.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p32-34 ; Jul 2008
Details elements of essential flexible library furnishings that accommodate evolving study and meeting habits, types of media that need to be stored, and desktop and laptop use.

Building Blueprints: Library/Media Centers
Smith, Stephen
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p72,73 ; Jun 2008
Reviews the evolution of educational media from print, through computers, to open access, including the impact of this evolution on media center design.

Pump up the the Library?
Powers, Jodi
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p18-20 ; Dec 2007
Profiles the North Valley Regional Library, located at Boulder Creek High School in Anthem, Arizona. This joint-use facility was created through a three-way partnership of the school district, regional library system, and the developer of the surrounding housing. Financial, architectural, programs, and amenities of the facility are described. The successful venture has served as a model for subsequent endeavors within the library district.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v79 n13 , p118-130 ; Aug 2007
Profiles 12 K-12 and higher education libraries honored in American School and University Magazine's Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selected for their high performance principles, innovation, functionality, contextual relationship, humanism, and building quality. Photographs and building statistics accompany a brief description of each project.

Designing Libraries for 21st Century Schools.
SchoolsforLife; n5 , p21-25 ; Jun 2007
Uses England's Castle Rock school library in Coalville, Leicestershire, and Jo Richardson Community School Library, Dagenham as an examples of inspirational school libraries that are beautiful, easily supervised, accommodate community use, host current technology, and are popular common areas for the secondary school pupils.

AIA's Best Libraries 2007.
Architecture Week; May 23, 2007
Describes projects chosen for the 2007 AIA/ALA Library Building Awards, including Killman Library for Lafayette College, the Fleet Library for the Rhode Island School of Design, Santa Monica College Library, and a public elementary school in Harlem, New York City. The Robin Hood Foundation commissioned Gluckman Mayner Architects to design the renovation as part of a philanthropic Initiative targeting schools in high-poverty neighborhoods.

Nine Libraries Called Out for Design Excellence.
Livingston, Heather
AIArchitect; Apr 06, 2007
The 2007 American Institute of Architects/American Library Association Awards recognized nine exceptionally planned and design projects, including a philanthropic elementary school library renovation and three higher education libraries.

Considerations on Facilities Planning.
Baule, Steven
Library Media Connection; v25 n7 , p40 ; Apr-May 2007
The first key in any building project is to ensure the library media center is included in the plan. Even if the library media center is acknowledged by all as being in need of renovation or replacement, that alone does not ensure the library media center will be included in the final scope of work. In this article, the author discusses some considerations on facilities planning.

How Physical Design Can Influence Copyright Compliance.
Harper, Meghan
Knowledge Quest; v35 n3 , p30-32 ; Jan-Feb 2007
The design of space--physical and virtual--can discourage or promote compliance, or even help police it. Placement of and access to equipment, traffic patterns, signage, and student workspace all may influence copyright-compliance behavior in a school library. Similarly, the layout of Web resources, the databases available, the presence or absence of bibliographic instructional aids, and even recommended links all affect how visitors interact, including their ethical behavior, with a virtual facility. In this article, the author discusses how physical design can influence copyright compliance and offers some tips on how to identify what changes, adaptations, or additions can be made in the facility to encourage copyright behavior.

Thinkering Spaces: A New Genre of Exploratory Environments for Kids.
Moura, Heloisa; Fahnstrom, Dale; Prygrocki, Greg
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n1 , p3-7 ; 2007
Presents concepts for development of interactive environments called "ThinkeringSpaces." These environments are proposed for content-rich sites, such as libraries, to help bridge the gap between physical and virtual learning experiences. Features of these installations are described, including "smart spaces," mutimodal technologies, sensorial objects, and activity nodes. Includes ten references.

Commons 2.0.
Sinclair, Bryan
Educause Quarterly; v30 n4 , p4-6 ; 2007
Discusses the potential of a well-designed commons for "constructivist learning," and includes major points of commons design, including modular clusters of organically shaped and movable furniture, and appropriate equipment. Basic principles of openness, freedom, comfort, inspiration, and practicality are also explored.

Looks like Teen Spirit: Libraries for Youth Are Changing--Thanks to Teen Input
Bolan, Kimberly
School Library Journal; v52 n11 , p44-49 ; Nov 2006
During the last 10 years, many libraries have transformed their young adult areas into more efficient, innovative, and inspirational spaces. Many teens have suddenly found the library warm and inviting--a place that encouraged independence, learning, socialization, and creativity. As more people learn about the positive impact of dynamic teen spaces, librarians want to know how they can make that happen in their own workplaces. This article provides a list of guidelines in making teen spaces in libraries more teen-friendly.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v78 n13 , p118-130 ; Aug 2006
Presents thirteen K-12 and higher education library/media centers selected for the American School & University 2006 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were chosen for their creative renovations and use of existing conditions, engaging and delightful spaces, use of natural light and sustainable materials, technology integration, functionality, and flexibility. Building statistics, a list of project participants, and photographs are included.

A Tie for Third Place: Teens Need Physical Spaces as well as Virtual Places.
Heeger, Paula Brehm
School Library Journal; v52 n7 , p27 ; Jul 2006
"Third places" or public and informal gathering places have declined over the years. Third places, which are "neutral ground" where people gather to discuss, interact, and enjoy the company of those they know, are important for the health of communities. It's a known fact that teens have a strong need to socialize, and their third-space options have become increasingly limited. As a result, teens are filling the void by joining various online social networking sites, such as MySpace and Friendster. In the light of this trend, librarians need to contribute to the health of their communities by providing teens with quality third-space options. This article presents ideas on how librarians may create third places inside libraries.

Building Blueprints: Libraries and Media Centers.
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p48,49 ; Mar 2006
Reviews two Orlando high school library/media centers, describing their amenities and the input of the library staff in their design.

Baltimore Firms Volunteer to Renovate School Libraries.
Ostroff, Tracy
AIA Architect; Nov 2005
The BELIEVE In Our Schools program, a Baltimore initiative, provides free library designs to Baltimore City Public Schools. Thirteen local architecture firms have teamed up with engineers and other consultants to produce innovative designs for school libraries. The firms are working on a wide variety of school types, from a 200-square-foot library for an elementary school to a 6,000-square-foot high school. Some of the schools need only aesthetic updates, whereas others involve HVAC and mechanical work. Their work is saving the city hundreds of thousands of dollars while simultaneously providing children with the best and most creative designs for their libraries.

Building Blueprints: Middle School Library.
Tressel, Mary
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p32,33 ; Nov 2005
Describes El Cerrito's Prospect Sierra Middle School library addition that created a calming and welcoming gateway to the school, which sits on a steep and difficult site.

Does the Room Make the Library Program, or Does the Library Program Make the Room?
Coatney, Sharon
Teacher Librarian; v33 n1 , p60 ; Oct 2005
Recently, the author participated in a conversation with several teacher-librarians about a school library remodeling project in which they were involved. The targeted libraries were in quite bad physical shape and needed extensive work; indeed, they were probably not safe. In these particular instances, not only were the libraries being physically remodeled, but the library programs were also being revamped, which is the ideal situation. Several years ago, the Library Power Program, sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace Foundation, also involved itself in that kind of sweeping change. It was very successful and deserving of duplication, but that kind of ideal situation is not the norm. When given the yearly opportunity to formally evaluate the library and its program, the evaluation was always about the collection and the instructional program, and comments about special events or specific actions by the library or its staff. Therefore, it is not the room that makes the library program or it is the library program that makes the room, but it is the people who makes the program.

Way Beyond Fuddy-Duddy.
Schibsted, Evantheia
Edutopia; v1 n7 , p24-28 ; Oct 2005
Describes the work of the Robin Hood Foundation in redesigning 46 New York City school libraries during the years 2002-2005. The foundation engaged local architectural firms, who redesigned existing libraries and alternative spaces into whimsical and attractive settings. The creative flourishes of their work are emphasized in text and photographs.

The Library Goes Back to School.
Kolleeny, Jane
Architectural Record; v193 n9 , p86-88,90,92 ; Sep 2005
Describes the work of the Robin Hood Foundation in redesigning 46 New York City school libraries during the years 2002-2005. The foundation engaged local architectural firms, who in turn reevaluated library function and redesigned the existing library spaces into attractive settings for collaborative learning and media access. Examples of their work are illustrated with text and photographs.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v77 n13 , p120-132 ; Aug 2005
Presents twelve library and media centers selected for the American School & University 2005 Educational Interiors Showcase. The projects were selcted for functionality, sustainability, craftsmanship, cost-effectiveness, and community connection. Building statistics, designer information, and photographs are included.

Library Buildings 2004: Spend Billions and They Will Come.
Fox, Bette-Lee
Library Journal ; Dec 15, 2004
This features 203 public library projects and 36 academic library projects. Statistics include costs, square footage, volume and seat capacity, funding sources and amounts, and the name of the architects. The 36 academic projects include joint-use facilities, plus a number of specialized schools of law, music, science, and hotel management.

Robin Hood L!brary Initiative : A Conversation with Architects Tod Williams and Billie Tsien
Allin, David
Archinect; Oct 11, 2004
With support from the New York City Mayor, corporate donors, and a team of volunteer architects, the Robin Hood Foundation and New York City Department of Education are developing a blueprint to turn elementary school libraries into vibrant centers of teaching and learning that will serve as both a resource and catalyst to improve instruction. Each library is equipped with the latest technology, a carefully selected and extensive collection of books, and flexible space to accommodate multi-purposes. To date the Robin Hood organization has built 31 libraries. This is a conversation with architects Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, and Joe Daniels and Ankur Shah of Robin Hood about the initiative.

Shelf Shifters: Thanks to a New Fiction Section, a Quiet Library Now Has a Booming Business.
Stiles, Laura
School Library Journal; v50 n9 , p32 ; Sep 2004
It is not surprising that major bookstores are always crowded. They offer big comfy chairs, warm lighting, and all kinds of coffees and treats. Staff tried to create a similar environment in the library at Cedar Valley Middle School, and even started selling mocha and hot chocolate. But the most significant part of the marketing campaign was to carve out a fiction section. This article describes the process of genrefying the fiction collection at the Cedar Valley Middle School library.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v76 n13 , p113-124 ; Aug 2004
Presents twelve K-12 and higher education library projects selected for the American School & University 2004 Educational Interiors Showcase. The awards were based on the jury's estimation of the projects' adaptability, innovation, humanism, appropriateness to site, sustainability, and timelessness. Building statistics, designers, and photographs are included.

Library or Media Center?
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n4 , p28-30 ; Apr 2004
Describes a variety of flexible furnishings available for the ever-evolving library/media center/resource room spaces in schools.

Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century
Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.
Library Media Connection; v22 n7 , p24 ; Apr 2004
The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

Perceived Restorative Components: A Scale for Children.
Bagot, Kathleen
Children, Youth and Environments; v14 n1 , p107-129 ; 2004
Reports on the development and psychometric validation of a perceived restorative components scale for children. Children aged 8 to 11 years completed an initial pool of 23 items addressing the components of a restorative environment to assess two familiar, everyday environments- their school playground and their school library. Factor analysis indicated a five-factor model (Being Away Physical, Being Away- Psychological, Fascination, Compatibility and Extent) of 15 items best fit the data. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for four of the five factors. School playgrounds had significantly higher restoration potential than school libraries, when compared with school classrooms, indicating divergent validity of the measure. Results were examined by sex and age and differences reported as a broad indicator of the measure s ability to differentiate between groups of people s reports of perceived restorativeness and possible developmental differences.

Library Buildings 2003: These Joints are Jumpin
Fox, Bette-Lee
Library Journal; Dec 2003
This features 195 public library projects and 31 academic library projects. Statistics include costs, square footage, volume and seat capacity, funding sources and amounts, and architects' names.

School Libraries: At the Center of the School.
Gisolfi, Peter
School Planning and Management; v42 n12 , p28-29 ; Dec 2003
Describes three projects where new school libraries were built within existing facilities, transferring them from the extremities to a central place, integrating them into the curriculum, and making them the focus of the school.

Mental Gymnastics.
Jarmusch, Ann
Architecture; v92 n9 , p60-64 ; Sep 2003
Describes the addition of a library and gymnasium addition to the Rose and Alex Pilibos Armenian School in Los Angeles. Significant savings were realized by using a customized Butler building for the gymnasium. Detailing reminiscent of Armenian culture was used throughout.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p116-26 ; Aug-Sep 2003
Presents K-12 and college libraries/media centers considered outstanding in a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client, total area, total cost, total cost/square foot, cost of project entry category, cost/square foot of project entry category, and completion date.

Mr. Morgan and His Class Reflect on the New School Library.
Morgan, Alex
Knowledge Quest; v31 n5 , p32-34 ; May-Jun 2003
Discussion of library stereotypes, particularly school libraries, focuses on plans at the International School of the Bahamas to build a new library that is the center of the entire school. Describes the overall environmental design, floor plans, the inclusion of an amphitheater, moveable walls, and dividing space for primary and secondary schools.

Transformations in the Secondary School Library: Morphing To Meet the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century.
Rawlings, Mildred S., Van Valkenburg, Julie J.
Knowledge Quest; v31 n5 , p42-45 ; May-Jun 2003
Describes how an independent college preparatory school library in Tennessee serving grades six through twelve has transformed its space to meet student needs. Discusses maximizing space for multipurpose use; changing library personnel duties to meet changing needs; increasing collaboration with teachers; and changes in the library collection.

Building for the Future. Annual Facilities Showcase.
American Libraries; v34 n4 , p40-62 ; Apr 2003
Through description and photographs, this annual facilities showcase features a selection of 39 library buildings, both large and small, including the seven 2003 AIA/ALA Library Building Award winners. Several college and university libraries are included, as well as the new library space in the Sojourner Truth School in New York City, the Shady Hill School Library in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the updated Denver West High School Library Media Center.

Cary Grove High School Crystal Lake, Illinois.
Architectural Record; v191 n3 ; Mar 2003
Describes the title school building by Perkins and Will, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, manufacturers/suppliers, and construction team; a general building description; and a commentary on the design. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. Renovations to the existing 1952 structure and media center addition reinvigorates the school with an architecturally significant structure, provides space for 1,200 students, and creates flexible areas for diverse learning environments. The materials of the new media center include a variegated range brick, anodized aluminum fascias, and clear glass. These extend the vocabulary of the original building, while introducing a fresh image. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

High School Libraries Chart Varied Paths to Technology.
Jones, Morgan
School Construction News; Jan-Feb 2003
Schools are demanding new library configurations that differ both from the old model and from the libraries that look to the latest technological innovations to meet their educational goals. Libraries are being built with less space, and a less typical library look, with more room for learning spaces.

Beyond LEGOs: Building Blocks of Broadcast Studios in Schools.
Sconyers, Allyeb; Mayol, Matthew R.
School Planning and Management; v41 n10 , p46-47 ; Oct 2002
Discusses the typical spaces found in a school communications department, such as a classroom/laboratory, and offline production, online production, and radio and TV broadcast studios. Briefly describes design requirements for such spaces.

Developing Bid Specifications for Facilities Projects.
Baule, Steve
Knowledge Quest; v31 n1 , p14-17 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses developing bid specifications for facilities projects. Highlights include: the four basic sections of bid specifications (general conditions, specific conditions, table of values, and information about the bidder's company); setting standards for products; determining whether the bidder is qualified to do the work; a sample timeline; and reviewing the bids.

FAQs about Facilities: Practical Tips for Planning Renovations and New School Library Media Centers.
Lenk, Mary Anne
Knowledge Quest; v31 n1 , p27-31 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Answers frequently asked questions (FAQs) related to planning for renovating or building school library media centers (SLMCs). Topics include the role of the school library media specialist, advance planning, importance of a written long-range plan, library consultants, courses on planning, design compromises, planning resources, professional movers, lessons learned, and the future of SLMCs.

School Libraries: A Design Recipe for the Future.
Myerberg, Henry
Knowledge Quest; v31 n1 , p11-13 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses design elements of a 21st century school library, including space, books and shelving, seats, tables, technology (computers, scanners, projectors), building materials (wood, metal, plastic, paint, glass, fibers), and light and color. A sidebar describes the L!BRARY initiative to creatively design, professionally staff, and technologically equip New York City's public elementary school libraries.

Libraries/Media Centers.
American School and University; v74 n12 , p124-31 ; Aug 2002
Describes the design of notable school libraries and media centers, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs.

Library Planning in the Electronic Era: Are the Stacks Necessary?
Finnerty, Chuck
Information Outlook; v6 n8 , p6-8,10,13 ; Aug 2002
Discussion of space planning for special libraries focuses on questioning the need for stacks for printed materials with the proliferation of electronic resources. Topics include considering all information resources formats; costs of space; and space-needs assessment, including a collection survey, staff, and function areas.

New Library Media Center, Santa Fe Christian School, Solana Beach, California.
Design Cost Data; v46 n4 , p50-51 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Describes the building design of the library and technology center named in the title, including the educational context and design goals. Includes a general description; information on the architect, construction team, and manufacturers and suppliers; and a case study of costs and specifications.

Reading Room.
Fredericksen, Eric
Architecture; v91 n7 , p66-67 ; Jul 2002
Describes how the Robin Hood foundation has teamed with architects to ensure that New York City's 650 schools have comprehensive and modern libraries. Offers brief descriptions of the first six library designs resulting from this public-private partnership.

Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces.
Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.
American Libraries; v33 n4 , p65-68 ; Apr 2002
Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends.

Facilities: The Tech Edge.
Farmer, Lesley S. J.
Book Report; v20 n5 , p26-28 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Examines the impact of technology on school library facilities and suggests some low-impact ways to optimize its use. Highlights include considering the role technology can play; educational goals; interior environmental factors; circulation desk needs; security; storage for hardware and software; handicapped accessibility; and future planning.

The Shape of Tomorrow
Lau, Deborah
School Library Journal; Mar 2002
A cadre of talented architects is redesigning school libraries to boost student learning.

Keep On Constructin'.
Fox, Bette-Lee
Library Journal; v126 n20 , p48-61 ; Dec 2001
This annual review of library buildings focuses on new academic and public library buildings as well as additions and renovations. Library Buildings 2001 includes costs, book capacity, seating capacity, a six-year cost summary that includes fund sources, and a list of architects.

School Library Media Facilities Planning: Physical and Philosophical Considerations.
Barron, Daniel D.
School Library Media Activities Monthly; v18 n1 , p48-50 ; Sep 2001
Discusses issues related to planning school library media facilities and suggests appropriate resources. Topics include planning with the school community and considering technology use; curriculum needs; and physical considerations such as air quality, hard wiring versus wireless, and needed space.

What's Mine is Yours...and Yours and Yours.
Neighbours, Andrea
American Planning Ass'n. Knowledge Exchange; Aug 2001
Article outlines the benefits of designing school libraries to serve members of the general public as well as students, and offers case studies, design and funding considerations.

Public/Private Libraries.
Sapp, Michael J.
School Planning and Management; v40 n7 , p40-41 ; Jul 2001
Explores how a new school facility can be important, not only as a community center, but also as a resource center for library services such as computer labs, Internet service, and current periodicals. The article also examines how one Missouri school district planned its new school library to serve the community.

Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles
Library Hi Tech; v19 n1 , p77 - 87 ; Mar 2001
This article applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. It discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of the physical space, environmental factors, and the workstations. Includes classroom layouts.

Take a Seat -- In the Library.
College Planning and Management; v4 n1 , p65-66 ; Jan 2001
Offers comments from an interior designer about purchasing school library furniture. Comments cover such areas as client preference, the most important factors to consider when buying furniture, factors administrators should consider when choosing a library furniture supplier, wire management, and library floor planning that administrators can use when designing space.

From the Outside In: Library Renovations from the Perspectives of a Project Manager, an Architect/Designer, and a Technology Consultant.
Ramos, Theresa
Journal of Youth Services in Libraries; v14 n2 , p9-13 ; 01/01/2001
Discusses partnerships that were developed with the Free Library of Philadelphia during their renovations, including perspectives from a project manager, an architect/designer, and a technology consultant. Offers tips on selecting and working with professional consultants.

Today's Media Centers/Libraries: Changing Roles, Changing Spaces.
Horner, Kirk C.
School Planning and Management; v39 n2 , p48-49 ; Feb 2000
Explains how school media centers and libraries are transforming into bustling workrooms and why they deserve serious consideration during the design process. The main factors to consider in the planning phase of a media center are reviewed.

Designing Schools for the Information Society: Libraries and Resource Centres
Mayfield, John
PEB Exchange; n39 , p9-18 ; Feb 2000
Describes the main outcomes of a seminar on designing schools for the information society and provides guidelines for those involved in designing new and existing school libraries. Implications for school and school library design identified at the seminar are discussed.

First Steps in Planning for Facilities Renovation.
Baule, Steven
Library Talk; v12 n5 , p6-7 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Discusses how to plan for a new school library media center or renovate an existing facility. Highlights include the importance of a planning team; the role of the architect; brainstorming, including instructional needs, patron services, library administration, and technology infrastructure; site visits to other media centers; and needs assessment.

Changing Perspectives: Joint Use of Facilities by Schools and Public Libraries
Sager, Don; Myers, Carolyn M.; Register, Judy; Johns, Mary; Kleiman, Allan M.
Public Libraries; v38 n6 , p355-59 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Presents the perspectives of four public library administrators on sharing facilities with local schools, including benefits and problems. Topics include physical accommodations; intellectual freedom issues; security issues; management issues; costs and budgetary considerations; staffing; collection development policies; and the need for a marketing plan to encourage public use.

Color: An Unsuspected Influence
Scargall, Hollie
Library Talk; v12 n5 , p11-12 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Discusses appropriate use of colors in school libraries and the ways that color affects learning, behavior, and mood. Also examines the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes of a space and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories.

School Libraries in the Information Society. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n38 , p11-16 ; Oct 1999
Discusses how the growing use of information technology and the move toward schools as community learning centers are affecting the demand for and use of space in educational institutions, particularly in reference to changes which promote lifelong learning and the creation of the information society. Observations from Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom are provided.

Some Considerations in Choosing Library Furnishings
Murphy, Tish
Public Libraries; v38 n4 , p244-26 ; Jul-Aug 1999
A library-furnishings consultant explains important factors to keep in mind when selecting furnishings: demographics; dimensions and budgets; how the interior should look (standard versus customized furnishings and best materials); and electrical considerations (wire management and safe electrical connections).

Countdown to a New Library: A Blueprint for Success
Woodward, Jeannette
American Libraries; v30 n4 , p44-47 ; Apr 1999
Focuses on selecting appropriate furnishings, floorings, and surfaces for a new library. Discusses appropriate color schemes; carpeting; protecting wood surfaces with polyurethane, user-friendly furniture, and flexible staff workstations.

Planning Libraries for the 21st Century
Grundborg, Mary Ann
Catholic Library World; v69 n3 , p23-25 ; Mar 1999
Discussion about planning for school libraries focuses on the first phase, called preplanning or programming, which involves determining the motivation for building or renovating; needs assessments; considering the role of the library; giving users questionnaires to solicit their opinions; workflow patterns; and cost estimates that include furniture, fixtures, and equipment.

Share and Share Alike?
American Libraries; v30 n2 , p40,42,44 ; Feb 1999
Presents an interview with two librarians who are participating in joint-use projects, one between a public library and a school library, and one between a public library and an academic library. Personnel, commingling collections, changing library roles, and governance boards are considered.

Architectural Follies
Fenton, Serena
School Library Journal; Feb 1999
An architect-turned-librarian shares a strategy for working with architects to create a great library/media center. Discusses how to be involved in the architectural process step-by-step, from the planning stage, design development, construction document stage, through the final phase of creating a punch list.

Fulfilling a Ten-Year Dream: Building a School Library Media Center
Millen, Jean; Millen, George
Knowledge Quest; v27 n3 , p18-20 ; 1999
Describes the process of building a new media center at Crestige South Elementary School in Centerview, Missouri. Discusses fund-raising efforts of the parent-teacher organization, the floor plan drawn up by the library media specialist, and the construction. Provides suggestions for rural school-library media specialists and school patrons for building a library media center without the benefit of tax dollars.

Flexible Spaces that Work: Renovating Today for Tomorrow's Needs.
Pantano, Phil
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p74-75 ; Jan 1999
Discusses one architectural design firm's answer to designing educational facilities that can grow and change with the times using technology and space planning. Design ideas for libraries/media centers and mini-labs are discussed. The concept emphasizes flexibility in giving teachers a wide range of options in conducting their classes and students a wide range of resources.

Light and Libraries.
Scherer, Jeffrey
Library Hi Tech; v17 n4 , p358-71 ; 1999
Addresses how to integrate various types of light within the context of library design. Discusses light basics; the light spectrum; light measurement; reflectance; glare and brightness ratio; daylighting; electric lighting; and computer screens and lighting. Includes a checklist for plan review.

Acoustical Considerations in Planning and Design of Library Facilities
Wrightson, Denelle; Wrightson, John M.
Library Hi Tech; v17 n4 , p349-57 ; 1999
Discusses acoustical demands in libraries to consider during the design and construction process of new or renovated library space. Topics include intrusive noises; overly reverberant spaces; lack of speech privacy; sound transmission class; noise criteria; reverberation time and noise reduction coefficient; space planning; sound systems; and external noise.

A Visit to Three Parisian School Libraries. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n35 , p17-18 ; Oct 1998
Presents brief site-visit reports of three Paris (France) public schools to study the planning and use of each school's library. Observations from an elementary, middle, and high school include the overall library design, book classification and access systems, technology use, budgeting, and librarian role.

A Place To Read
Gisolfi, Peter A.
American School Board Journal; v185 n10 , p35-37 ; Oct 1998
To integrate the library fully into the educational life of an elementary school, the following design principles are offered: (1) locate the library centrally within the school; (2) provide separate areas for different functions; (3) design the entire space so that it can be observed by one adult; and (4) incorporate computers seamlessly into the library environment.

New Technologies, New Considerations
Conklin, Nancy
Knowledge Quest; v27 n1 , p31-32 ; Sep-Oct 1998
As more and more school libraries are being built or renovated to accomodate new technologies, this discusses key components that should be considered as these new spaces are planned.

Remodeling the Media Center.
Baule, Steven M.
Book Report; v17 n1 , p24-25 ; May-Jun 1998
Discusses items that need to be considered when remodeling a school media center. Highlights include space and location for various functions, including projections of print versus electronic media; electrical and data wiring needs; lighting; security and supervision; and reuse of existing furniture and equipment.

Beyond Books: The Expanding Role of Media Centers.
Focke, John
The High School Magazine for Principals, Assistant Principals, and All High School Leaders; v5 n5 , p36-41 ; May-Jun 1998
To become interactive, it is imperative media centers provide, in addition to traditional print resources, such things as on-line information services, Internet access, cable and closed circuit television, network servers, and multimedia instructional technology. Perhaps even more importantly, they must provide substantial space for work, study, and the social interaction that is central to new learning paradigms.

The Power of Paint: Refurbishing School Libraries on a Budget
Usalis, Marian D.
School Library Journal; v44 n2 , p28-33 ; Feb 1998
Presents lessons learned in four years of renovating school libraries in Cleveland, Ohio: build a team, fund raising, design tips (layout, furniture, color, windows, floors, theme), bargain hunting, staff recruiting, and timelines. With a small amount of money, volunteers, imagination, and hard work any library media center can be transformed into a bright, exciting hub of learning.

Buildings for Learning: New Schools on the Horizon
Inform; v9 n4 ; Jan 1998
Explores several new school buildings in Virginia that attempt to address today's trends in technology, population shifts, and teaching methods. School designs discussed include a technology-rich library for an independent Norfolk school, a high school that is a model of energy efficiency and environmental responsibility, and a context-driven solution for a religious study center in Charlottesville.

Solitaire Confinement: The Impact of the Physical Environment on Computer Training.
McDermott, Irene E.
Computers in Libraries; v18 n1 , p22,24-27 ; Jan 1998
Institutions spend millions of dollars on computer training rooms yet give little thought to lighting, temperature, ambient noise, furniture arrangement, and other physical factors that affect learning. This article examines some problems and suggests remedies: changing furniture, controlling monitors, and redesigning rooms. Lists selected computer-training hardware and software suppliers and products.

Lick-Wilmerding School San Francisco, California
Fang, Eric C. Y.
Architectural Record; v185 n10 , p122-124 ; Oct 1997
Examines the design of a new library/art facility at a San Francisco high school that complemented the school's contemporary academic program and reputation for excellence. The planning and architectural strategies are discussed as are the technological and convenience additions designed to meet greater student needs.

Form Follows Function: Redesigning the School Library Media Center
Perry, Karen
North Carolina Libraries; v55 n2 , p72-74 ; Summer 1997
Discusses factors in redesigning school library media centers: electronic resources, electricity, furniture, lighting, and acoustics. Presents a case study of Wake County (North Carolina) Schools and describes the county standards for media center design and renovation for elementary, middle, and high schools.

Brooklyn Cinderella, or the True Story of Transforming P.S. 3
Dowling, Susan
School Library Journal; v43 n5 p24-28 ; May 1997
Discusses how, with support from Library Power, a national initiative that stresses collaboration between librarians and teachers, positive changes were brought about in an elementary school in a primarily lower-income section of Brooklyn. The students recreated the Cinderella story and made a multimedia presentation, and the library was renovated.

Renovate It and They Will Come: Designing A Popular High School Library.
Cochran, Sally and Gisolfi, Peter
School Library Journal; v43 n2 , p25-29 ; Feb 1997
This articles provides a detailed description of the renovation of Horace Greely High School (Chappaqua, NY) library, including: floor plan, equipment, furnishings, lighting and a checklist for goals.

Three Media Center Solutions.
Jadwin, Peggy
School Planning and Management; v35 n6 , p27-30 ; Jun 1996
School Planning and Management; v35 n6 p27-30 Jun 1996 An Illinois school district's multi-year, comprehensive plan requires the renovation of each school to accommodate state-of-the-art and future audiovisual and computer technology. A major part of each renovation is the school's media center. Five of the district's 13 schools have been renovated, with remaining schools set to be upgraded in phases over the next five years.

New World Forces Libraries To Adapt.
Sutton, Rodney K.
School Planning and Management; v35 n6 , pC1-C4 ; Jun 1996
Rapid changes in technology, media, and student needs are changing the way designers look at libraries. Examples of recently built libraries reflect five current trends in library design: (1) clustered services; (2) individualized spaces; (3) centers for collaborative learning; (4) repositories of merged media; and (5) information literacy training.

2 in 1: Designing a Combined Library That Works for Everybody.
Olson, Renee
School Library Journal; v42 n2 , p24-27 ; Feb 1996
Discusses the design of combined school/public libraries and includes the views of three high school librarians and two elementary school librarians who helped create combined libraries. Topics include physical design issues, including entrances, lighting, and location; funding; cost benefits; contracts; signage; and parking.

New Functions for New Demands.
Wrobleski, Diane
American School & University; v67 n8 , p32,34,36 ; Apr 1995
Explores areas to consider when planning and designing libraries/media centers. It examines wiring capabilities to meet future needs, ergonomics and furniture durability for workstations, and color and lighting schemes to enhance the indoor environment.

Brick by Brick: Building a School Library from the Ground Up.
Codell, Cindy Darling
School Library Journal; v41 n2 , p20-23 ; Feb 1995
This article is written by the Clark Middle School (Winchester, KY) school librarian on her experience in planning and designing a their new school library.

The Electronic School Library Resource Center: Facilities Planning for the New Information Technologies
Blodgett, Teresa; Repman, Judi
Emergency Librarian; v22 n3 , p26-30 ; Jan-Feb 1995
Addresses the necessity of incorporating new computer technologies into school library resource centers and notes some administrative challenges. An extensive checklist is provided for assessing equipment and furniture needs, physical facilities, and rewiring needs. A glossary of 20 terms and 11 additional resources is included.

Joint-Use Libraries: More Bang for Your Bucks.
Kinsey, Sally; Honig-Bear, Sharon
Wilson Library Bulletin; v69 n3 , p37-39,132 ; Nov 1994
Discussion of joint-use, or cooperative, libraries focuses on a partnership between public and school libraries in Nevada. Highlights include benefits in enhanced services, user needs, location of facilities, administration and planning, financial issues, facility maintenance, remodelling, and signage.

A Method for Measuring Collection Expansion Rates and Shelf Space Capacities
Sapp, Gregg; Suttle, George
Journal of Academic Librarianship; v20 n3 , p156-61 ; Jul 1994
Describes an effort to quantify annual collection expansion and shelf space capacities with a computer spreadsheet program. Methods used to quantify the space taken at the beginning of the project; to estimate annual rate of collection growth; and to plot stack space and usage, volume equivalents and usage, and growth capacity are covered.(Contains 11 references.)

Design for Change: How to Plan the School Library You Really Need.
Lankford, Mary D.
School Library Journal; v40 n2 , p20-24 ; Feb 1994
Examines issues that librarians need to address when remodeling or designing school libraries. Topics discussed include the librarian's role in decision making; cost considerations; evaluation of present services as well as future needs; the importance of communication; location; library technology; furniture; and the role of architects and consultants.

The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process
Cohen, Elaine
Library Trends; v42 n3 , p547-63 ; Winter-Spring 1994
Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of architects, engineers, and consultants; and a list of sample furniture prices.

A Survey of School and Public Children's Library Facilities: What Librarians Like, Dislike, and Most Want to Change about Their Libraries
Truett, Carol
School Library Media Quarterly; v22 n2 , p91-97 ; Winter 1994
Discusses results of a national survey of school library media specialists and children's librarians in public libraries about reactions to their library facilities. Complaints are addressed, including lack of space, poor design, and shelving; the most heavily used areas are ranked; accommodations for technology are examined; and further research is suggested. (Contains five references.)

Redesigning Schools for 21st Century Technologies: A Middle School with the Power to Improve
Van Dam, Janet M.
Technology and Learning; v14 n4 , p54-58,60-61 ; Jan 1994
Describes the processes involved in redesigning and renovating Power Middle School (Michigan) for current and future educational technology, particularly for the media center. Topics discussed include planning; time management; wiring infrastructure; voice and video networks; teacher and student multimedia production rooms; and communications skills between architects, contractors, and consultants

School Library Media Centers: The Human Environment.
Doll, Carol A.
School Library Media Quarterly; v20 n4 , p225-29 ; Summer 1992
Review of the literature on aspects of human behavior relevant to library media center design discusses personal space, territoriality, privacy, variety, and color. Suggestions for media center design in the areas of color, carpeting, seating, private spaces, variety in spaces, ownership, and control are offered; and research needs are identified.

New Technology Considerations for Media Facilities: Video Technologies and Space Requirements.
Knirk, Frederick G.
School Library Media Quarterly; v20 n4 , p205-210 ; Summer 1992
Presents guidelines for design of space in library media centers. Requirements for audiovisual media, including projection, distribution systems, viewing, and storage considerations are summarized; and design of spaces for people, including group and individualized instruction, library personnel, information-handling systems, and personal space requirements are discussed. (10 references)

Ergonomic Considerations for the Human Environment: Color Treatment, Lighting, and Furniture Selection
Robertson, Michelle M.
School Library Media Quarterly; v20 n4 , p211-215 ; 07/01/1992
Discusses ergonomic design considerations for library media centers. Specific variables examined include temperature, humidity, noise, illumination, color, and windows. Also presents computer workstation design requirements and related issues such as furniture and keyboard design, monitor and display features, software issues, and environmental and stress issues.

Granting Each Equal Access
Walling, Linda Lucas
School Library Media Quarterly; v20 n4 , p216-22 ; Summer 1992
Summarizes federal legislation regarding equal access for students with disabilities and discusses environmental barriers to accessibility in the library media center. Solutions to these design problems are suggested in the following areas: material formats and space requirements; the physical setting, including furniture, floor coverings, acoustics, light, and temperature, signage, ambiance, and safety. (19 references)

Students as Partners in Library Design
Brown, Robert A.
School Library Journal; v38 n2 , p31-34 ; Feb 1992
An architect discusses student input as an important part of library facilities design. Topics discussed include the uses of school and public libraries, including work and social functions; incorporating technology; effective use of space; location choices; lighting considerations; decorative treatments, including color and furnishings; and display areas.

How to Survive Library Renovation.
Lambert, Linda Stern
School Library Journal; v38 n2 , p38-39 ; Feb 1992
A school librarian’s experience managing the renovation of a school library.

By Design: It's All in the Details
School Library Journal; v36 n2 , p25-27 ; Feb 1990
Discusses the need for cooperation between architects and clients during the design process, and describes the working relationship between an architect and librarian during the design of a school library facility. Specific solutions for design requirements relating to book processing, reference services, and microform use are described.

Drawing Strength: Skillful Design...and a Little Trickery
Chase, Bill
School Library Journal; v36 n2 , p21-25 ; Feb 1990
Discusses the need for cooperation between librarians and architects during the design of library facilities. The balance between the character of a building and its ability to adequately meet actual needs is discussed, and it is suggested that librarians should concern themselves with the smallest details of the design process.

Best-Laid Plans: A Consultant's Constructive Advice
Rohlf, Robert H.
School Library Journal; v36 n2 , p28-31 ; Feb 1990
Discusses the need for cooperative planning in the design of library facilities and describes the roles of the library director, library staff, architects, engineers, and consultants in the planning process. The role of children's librarians in identifying the special needs of children is emphasized. A checklist for planning spaces for children's services is provided.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).