NCEF Resource List: Landscape Planning for School Grounds and College Campuses
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Information on school landscape planning, including site design, traffic, parking, acreage guidelines, and outdoor accessibility, safety and security, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

A Practical Guide to Planning, Constructing, and Using School Courtyards
(Maryland State Department of Education School Facilities Branch , Jul 24, 2012)
The Maryland Department of Education guideline for courtyard design is for use by local planning committees and architects in designing new schools and developing major renovation/addition projects. This guide also will be useful to school systems, school-based staff, and parent/community groups seeking to revitalize and make better use of existing courtyards. It includes recommendations for building and plant materials; safety and security; size, volume, and orientation; construction, accessibility, maintenance, and code compliance. The guide is illustrated with numerous color photographs, diagrams, and examples from Maryland and around the world. It documents the benefits of school courtyards, including: letting natural light and ventilation into classrooms; providing a safe, contained, outdoor area for instruction; supporting environmental education programs; and offering opportunities for creative, hands-on educational activities. p103

Operational Guidelines for Educational Facilities: Grounds, second edition
Bigger, Alan S. editor
(APPA, 2012)
A comprehensive guide to maintaining and managing a grounds and landscaping operation. Topics covered include: sustainable grounds operations; green fuels, vehicles, and equipment; and landscape inventory and measurement, environmental stewardship, staffing guidelines, contracting options, position descriptions benchmarking, and environmental issues and laws. The appendices feature a Quality Appearance Program Case Study and an extensive glossary. An independent chapter on snow removal is also included. 225p

Therapeutic Schoolyard: Design for Children with Autism
King, Chelsey
(Kansas State University, Jan 2012)
Needs of children with autism vary from child to child, but they all can benefit from environments that are designed with awareness of challenges and characteristics associated with autism. Schoolyards commonly contain asphalt, turf, and traditional play structures that do not take into consideration the needs of children with mental or physical disabilities. However, schoolyards can be designed to provide therapeutic benefits on these children without segregating them from the larger school community. In order to understand how a schoolyard might be designed as a therapeutic environment for children with autism the challenges, needs, and common therapies for children with autism must be understood. The characteristics of therapeutic landscapes for children must be considered in addition. After examining both therapeutic landscapes and the many facets of autism, the researcher applied lessons learned to the design of a schoolyard master plan for Amanda Arnold Elementary School in Manhattan, Kansas. [Author's abstract] 142p

Natural Environment Elevates the Learning Experience.
French, Jim; Contag, David; Sundharam, Premnath
(LandscapeOnline, Jun 2011)
DLR Group discusses ways that innovative and flexible outdoor spaces enhance the educational and social experience. Provides examples of patios, plazas, courtyards, amphitheaters, pathways, creative water and turf play environments, outdoor learning spaces, and outdoor dining. Includes case studies and photographs.

The Wheeler School. Providence, Rhode Island
Emperor, Jay
(, Jun 2011)
Case study of the campus landscape plan for the Wheeler School, founded in 1889, an independent co-educational K-12 day school in Providence, Rhode Island. The center campus comprises gathering space for upper school students; table seating/outdoor dining adjacent to the student union; open space for recreation and games; state-of-the-art play equipment; wood play structures; and a synthetic turf field for ball playing. Includes photographs.

Design Workbook.
(Boston Schoolyard Initiative, 2011)
Provides ideas, guidance and tools for making decisions on potential elements in schoolyards and outdoor classrooms. The workbook has been created with consideration for safety, budget, sustainability, maintenance, sense of place, functionality and inclusion of natural and man-made materials. Includes a recommended plant list, illustrations of best practices, and numerous checklists.

Manassas Park Elementary School Landscape
(American Society of Landscape Architects, 2011)
Describes Manassas Park Elementary in Manassas Park, Virginia, an ASLA Honor Award winning project. Includes a site plan, project statement, project narrative, site description and design, and the project resources.

Planning Workbook.
(Boston Schoolyard Initiative, 2011)
Designed for use during the Boston Schoolyard Initiative schoolyard and outdoor classroom planning phase, and contains information, worksheets and templates to support the work of the schoolyard committee, including meeting agendas, flyer templates and more. The workbook is a resource for engaging the schoolyard community in the schoolyard planning process.

Asphalt to Ecosystems: Design Ideas for Schoolyard Transformation.
Danks, Sharon
(New Village Press , Nov 2010)
Guidebook for designing and building natural schoolyard environments that enhance childhood learning and play experiences while providing connection with the natural world. Intended for parents, teachers, school administrators, designers, environmentalists, and community volunteers. Explores the ways in which landscape design, architecture, child development, and nutrition converge in the schoolyard. Profusely illustrated. 288p.

Centennial Biomedical Campus Development and Design Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , Jul 2010)
Updates the 2007 North Carolina State University Physical Master Plan for the biomedical building and campus spaces and identifies findings and recommendations for design guidelines and standards, campus paths, centennial campus infrastructure systems, and the design approval process. 33p.

The School Site Planner. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Feb 2010)
Addresses many factors that need consideration during the process of school site selection, planning, development, and use. The guide examines not only the site selection and planning processes, but also playground planning, recreation and athletic fields planning. Specific considerations include analyses of the surrounding community or territory; building access and security; the surrounding natural environment and available support services; landscaping, utilities, and vehicular traffic; and playground equipment and safety. Final sections provide athletic field layouts for track and field events; football, soccer, and baseball fields; and basketball, volleyball, and tennis courts. Fourteen references are included. 67p.

The Impact of School Fencing on Public Health and the Community.
Berry, Rory
( , Jun 12, 2009)
Reoports on the impact that placing fences around schools has on safety and public habits. While many people feel that installing fences around schools can greatly enhance safety, this concept has not been thoroughly examined. In fact, school fences may be detrimental to overall health when all elements are taken into account. The report recommends examining the effects of fencing on protecting students from outside danger, preventing truancy, traffic around the schools, and interaction with the community. Includes seven references. 6p.

Centennial Campus Precinct Development and Design Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , Sep 2008)
Updates the 2007 North Carolina State University Physical Master Plan for exterior campus spaces and identifies findings and recommendations for design guidelines and standards, campus paths, centennial campus infrastructure systems, and the design approval process. 30p.

Sidwell Friends School (Middle School renovation and addition)
(The Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2008)
Case study of the renovation and addition project at Sidwell Friends School (SFS) campus that transforms the Middle School's fifty-year-old facility into an exterior and interior teaching landscape. Designed to foster an ethic of social and environmental responsibility in each student, the facility demonstrates a responsible relationship between the natural and the built environment. Smart water management was the focus of the project design. A central courtyard with a rain garden, pond, and constructed wetland has been designed to utilize storm and wastewater for both ecological and educational purposes. More than 50 plant species, all native to the Chesapeake Bay region, were introduced in the landscape and there was extensive use of reclaimed stone for steps and walls and concrete containing recycled slag for walkways. Includes details of the site context, sustainable practices, monitoring information, maintenance, and lessons learned.

High School Landscapes and Student Performance.
Matsuoka, Rodney
(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor , 2008)
Reports on an investigation of 101 public high schools in southeastern Michigan to examine the role played by the availability of nearby natural environments in the academic achievement and behavior of high school students. The results reveal that nature exposure beneficially affects student performance. Specifically, views with greater quantities of natural features (e.g., trees, shrubs) from classroom as well as cafeteria windows were associated with higher standardized test scores, graduation rates, and percentages of students planning to attend college, and lower occurrences of criminal behavior. In addition, school policies of allowing students to eat lunch outdoors and to leave campus during lunch were related to enhanced test scores and college plans. Finally, large expanses of landscape lacking in natural features had a negative influence on test scores, intentions to attend college, and college plans. Such landscapes included large areas of lawn, parking lots, and bordering farmlands. 121p.

Transforming Learning Spaces to Personalise Learning.
Lee, Tash
(Futurelab, Harbourside, Bristol, United Kingdom , Mar 2007)
Reviews the work of Futurelab's Fountaneering project, in which elementary students collaborated on the design of a water fountain feature for their school grounds. The fountain is intended to supply drinking water as well as water for play. Through the design project, students became more intimately familiar with their school site and learned to collaborate on and take ownership of this proposed amenity. 7p.

DFES School Grounds of the Future: Final Evaluation Report. Adobe PDF
(Learning through Landscapes, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Evaluates the United Kingdom Dept. for Education and Skills' three-year School Grounds of the Future program, which encouraged schools to improve their school grounds. Evidence of best practices, value added to funding, impact on the educational program, and six recommendations for the future are detailed. 54p.

Top Ten Tips for Good Practice and the Maintenance of School Landscapes.
Esselburn, Robert K.
(, Orange, CA , Mar 07, 2006)
Grounds maintenance professionals are constantly at a crossroads as whether to provide a design for the future or maintain the status quo. Given the ever-increasing budget constraints, they are strapped with trying to maintain old tree and shrub plantings, and caught between the choice of pruning, replacement, or simply removal. This article suggests ten tips to consider when selecting and caring for landscape plants at schools. 2p.

Using Landscape Architects for Your Facility.
Jacobson, Susan
(, Orange, CA , Mar 07, 2006)
Discusses the benefits of hiring professional landscape architects for school facilities. 1p.

Water Systems on School Grounds
(EcoSchool Design , 2006)
This is a list of resources providing information about water systems on school grounds, including watershed projects, water recycling, constructed wetlands, storm drains, etc. There is also a list of case studies with examples of some of the water projects that are already working at schools around the world.

Designing Outdoor Environments for Children: Landscaping School Yards, Gardens and Playgrounds.
Tai, Lolly
(McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006)
Details the history, design process, installation, and maintenance of sustainable children's landscapes and play yards. Numerous case studies cover projects including storybook courtyards, music and barnyard gardens, nature trails, wildlife habitats, memorial, and edible gardens. 380p.

School Ground Greening Guide. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , Apr 2005)
Guides in selection, funding, purchase, placement, and planting of trees to create school ground shade for health and energy conservation. Presented in curriculum format, the guide explains the scientific justification for adding trees to the environment, then organizes the process into the following steps: 1) Establish a team, 2) Conduct a review, 3) Develop an action plan, 4) Implement the action plan, and 4) Monitor and evaluate progress. The included "toolkit" offers extensive forms and guidelines for plant and materials selections, as well as questionnaires to help guide the process. 100p.

Safe Schools Design Guidelines: Recommendations For a Safe and Secure Environment in Florida's Public Schools. CPTED Design Guidelines.
(University of South Florida, for the Florida Department of Education, Tampa, FL, 2005)
Contains CPTED guidelines (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) for Florida. The section on environs includes detailed information on location,edge conditions, and connection with the neighborhood. The section on site design covers landscaping, exterior pedestrian routes, vehicular routes and parking areas, recreational areas, signage and stormwater. Building interior spaces are also addressed. 55 p.

Campus Heritage.
Dober, Richard
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2005)
Offers ideas insights, and information about higher education campus architectural heritage. The contributions campus heritage can make to promote, strengthen, and support institutional goals and objectives are described and illustrated, and methods for incorporating campus heritage into campus plans, facility plans and campus design concepts are suggested. 102p.

Gaining Ground: The Power and Potential of School Ground Greening in the Toronto District School Board. Adobe PDF
Dyment, Janet
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , 2005)
Presents the findings of a 2003 study that investigated the influence and potential of green school grounds in the Toronto District School Board. The study explored the impacts of greening initiatives on curriculum delivery and teaching practices, as well as on student learning, behavior, play and environmental awareness. It also considers issues of social inclusion, health and safety. The report also addresses organizational and funding challenges and opportunities that must be addressed to realize the full potential of greening. 55p.

School Ground Greening Guide: Designing for Shade and Energy Conservation. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario , Aug 2004)
Guides in selection, funding, purchase, placement, and planting of trees to create shade for health and energy conservation. Presented in curriculum format, the guide explains the scientific justification for adding trees to the environment, then organizes the process into the following steps: 1)Establish an EcoTeam, 2)Conduct an EcoReview, 3)Develop an action plan, 4)Implement the action plan, and 4)Monitor and evaluate progress. 84p.

Safe Spaces: Designing for Security and Civic Values. Adobe PDF
(American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC , 2004)
Presents abstracts of papers from a 2004 conference that offer practical information and case studies demonstrating risk assessment, planning, construction methods and materials, and policy tools for determining appropriate landscape architectural responses to security. Much of the publication is devoted to reinforcing security in public spaces, such as federal buildings and parks, and includes an overview of FEMA's newly published Risk Management Series, which provides building design guidance for mitigating potential terrorist attacks. 66p.

School and Community Participation in the Design, Construction, and Stewardship of Green School Grounds.
(EcoSchool Design, 2004)
This is a list of resources providing information about increasing participation on green school ground projects. Many schools successfully involve students, teachers, school administrators, community members, design professionals, and other interested individuals and organizations. Case studies includes examples of projects around the world that include significant participatory elements. 2p.

The Role of the Landscape in Creating a Sustainable Campus. Adobe PDF
Franklin, Carol; Durkin, Teresa; Pevaroff Schuh, Sara
(University of Victoria, Canada , 2004)
Colleges and universities are expanding at unprecedented rates, creating new hazards for our increasingly fragile natural environments. Higher education administrators and planners are finding that campus development, like suburban sprawl, can disrupt functioning natural systems and destroy the natural, historical, and cultural fabric of the place. To address environmental issues and new regulations, proactive institutions of higher education are taking the lead as stewards of the land by including an environmental component in their campus master plans. An environmental approach to planning incorporates ecological information into campus master plans to ensure a sustainable campus landscape that is beautiful, durable, and distinctive. These Environmental Master Plans are best developed using a democratic process, considering each site’s unique essential environmental resources, the constraints of the regulatory environment, and a continuing education and outreach program. A case study of an Environmental Master Plan at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill illustrates how such a plan was created at one of the nation’s oldest and largest college campuses. (authors' abstract) 11p.

Where Do Our Children Play? The Importance and Design of Schoolyards.
Iltus, Selim; Steinhagen, Renee
(New Jersey Appleseed Public Interest Law Center, Newark, NJ , 2003)
The construction of new school facilities throughout New Jersey creates an enormous opportunity to address the need for outdoor facilities in New Jersey's poorest districts. This document summarizes some of the most relevant research on the need for outdoor educational facilities. It provides design guidelines for outdoor spaces for both preschool and elementary schools, and basic principles for design of outdoor facilities for athletics and environmental education for middle and high school students. 74p.
TO ORDER: New Jersey Appleseed Public Interest Law Center, 744 Broad Street, Suite 1600, Newark, NJ 07102. Tel: 973-735-0523.

Open Space for the Public: An Evaluation of Designed Open Spaces on Urban University Campuses. Adobe PDF
Neil, Elizabeth
(Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge , Aug 2002)
Evaluates two types of higher education open spaces: entrances/gateways and park-like spaces. Nine characteristics were established, from site visits and readings, as a framework in which to evaluate the accessibility and usability of each space for the public. The methods for this thesis were established to observe, evaluate, and understand outdoor spaces using literature, site visits, and personal interviews. The nine characteristics were applied to each space and were then evaluated their effectiveness in creating an accessible space. Each campus space was analyzed as to why or why not the space is perceived as accessible to the public. 79p.

Shade Planning for America's Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2002)
Assists schools in creating and maintaining a physical environment that supports sun safety by ensuring that school grounds have adequate shade. Information on planning and designing solid roof and fabric shade structures, as well as creating natural shade on school grounds is included. The effect of excessive sun exposure, the formation of the school shade design team, a shade audit, and funding are also described. 70p.

Schoolyard Habitats: A How-to Guide for K-12 School Communities.
(National Wildlife Federation, Reston, VA, 2001)
Three-ring binder that provides clear directions for those seeking to establish schoolyard habitats in new or renovated schools. Brief background and lists of further resources are provided on gardening for wildlife, teaching with schoolyard habitat sites, gathering information, assembling the elements and monitoring and maintaining projects once established. Includes a glossary, application for membership into the National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) Schoolyard Habitat program and NWF contact information. 217p.

Your School Grounds Handbook.
(Schoolscapes, Farnham, Surrey, England , 2001)
This handbook discusses the process of planning school grounds. It presents ideas for creating good educational landscapes and provides step-by-step procedures to achieve this goal. The steps include ground surveying and analysis, establishing community and school needs and wants, planning changes and preparing the design process, publicizing and consulting to get feedback on the proposals, selecting and establishing fundraising sources, implementing the plan and building its momentum, and incorporating maintenance and sustainability features in the planning. A checklist is offered to help planners assess whether the project addresses sustainability principles. Appendices focus on planning play areas. Topics discussed include play equipment, safety, surfacing, topography, and plants. Organizations are listed for addition information and support. 28p.

School Gardens: Raising Environmental Awareness in Children. Adobe PDF
Brynjegard, Shira
This paper explores the reasons for gardens and natural spaces on school campuses and the effects that such exposure to the natural world has on the students. Blending case studies, observational data, and personal experience, the paper discusses the impacts a garden has on the students who participate in it. During the evolution from rough landscape drawing to fully functioning educational environment, the balance of administrative, teacher, parent, and student involvement is used to determine the lasting effects the garden has on student attitudes toward environmental concerns. Elements of what makes a garden particularly effective at bridging the gap between the children and nature is highlighted and evidence of increased environmental awareness in the students is discussed. (Contains 17 references.) 30p.

Safer Schools through Environmental Design. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Tod
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR , Jan 2001)
Describes key elements of an approach to security called crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Core CPTED elements include: natural surveillance, in which the entire environment can be viewed; natural access control to determine who can and cannot enter a facility; and territoriality, in which an established control is exerted over the environment. A CPTED analysis of a school evaluates crime rates, office-referral data, school cohesiveness and stability, as well as shortcomings in school design. School grounds, parking lots, playgrounds and fields are considered prime areas for practicing CPTED. When considering a CPTED analysis, school officials should look to professionals for an assessment. These assessments include crime mapping; reports from local police and medical centers; surveys of parents, teachers, and students; inspection of the campus and its surroundings, and an analysis of the surrounding neighborhood. 3p.

U.S. Access Board, Play Area Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Access Board, Washington, DC , Oct 18, 2000)
The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board has issued guidelines to serve as the basis for enforceable standards to be adopted by the Department of Justice for new construction and alterations of play areas covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The guidelines include scoping and technical provisions for ground level and elevated play components, accessible routes, ramps and transfer systems, ground surfaces, and soft contained play structures. Included is an amendment, dated November 20, 2000, which clarifies a potential "double-counting" problem involving the minimum number of ground and elevated level play components that must be located on an accessible route. Also included are tables of equipment and ground surface costs, typical maintenance frequencies and costs, and the number of small entities affected by the guidelines. 33p.

Developing an Earth-bound Culture Through Design of Childhood Habitats. Adobe PDF
Moore, Robin; Cosco, Nilda G.
(Paper presented at Conference on People, Land, and Sustainability: A Global View of Community Gardening, University of Nottingham, UK. , Sep 2000)
A small but growing body of research indicates that daily experience of nature, spending time outdoors in the fresh air and sunlight, in touch with plants and animals, has a measurable impact on healthy child development. Nature must be seen as an essential component of the experiential world of childhood, designed into every childhood habitat, providing daily immersion in nature, putting children in close touch with the biosphere. Landscape designers should intervene in children's environments, involve children in the process, and create the necessary diversity of experience of the natural world to empower children as individuals to create a new, biologically wise society. 7p.

Magnuson Community Garden.
(Barker Landscape Architects, Seattle, WA, Aug 2000)
Documents the community involvement process undertaken to establish designs for a community garden adjacent to a school and community center in Seattle. Design alternatives are provided, as well as a project budget.

Campus Landscape: Functions, Forms, Features.
Dober, Richard P.
(John Wiley and Sons, New York , 2000)
This guide provides information, instruction, and ideas on planning and designing every aspect of the campus landscape, from parking lots to playing fields. Using real-world examples of classic and contemporary campus landscapes, it features coverage of landscape restoration and regeneration; provides an assessment matrix for consistent, effective evaluation of existing and proposed plans; offers more than 175 photographs and drawings of campus landscapes; presents detailed captions, citations, and design guidelines for significant features; and includes discussions on security, maintenance, and the environment. 288p.
TO ORDER: John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158-0012; Tel: 212-850-6011

Design for Learning: Values, Qualities and Processes of Enriching School Landscapes. Adobe PDF
Johnson, Julie M.
(American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC , 2000)
This paper presents learning values of school landscapes, as well as design qualities and processes that may enrich these landscapes for children and community. Concepts and issues are introduced with references and examples. These concepts are used as a lens to view three Seattle, Washington, case studies that illustrate varied contexts of school landscapes. Conclusions focus on conditons that are needed to make enriched school landscapes an integral part of childrens' learning and community life. 83p.
TO ORDER: American Society of Landscape Architects, 636 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-3736; Tel: 202-898-2444, Toll free: 888-999-2752, Fax: 202-898-1185, Email:

Conserving and Enhancing the Natural Environment. A Guide for Planning, Design, Construction, and Maintenance on New & Existing School Sites. [Maryland]
Bice, Barbara; And Others
(Maryland State Department of Education, Baltimore , 1999)
Natural environments on school sites provide considerable multi-disciplinary educational opportunities, many of which are "hands-on" experiences that stimulate learning. This document presents guidelines on conserving and enhancing the natural environment on school sites. It provides guidance for developing the site requirements in education specifications and designs for new building construction and major renovation and/or addition projects for existing schools. Appendices address funding sources available to Maryland educators to support school site habitat projects; and Maryland organizations that can offer assistance such as the forestry service, soil conservation district offices; and a list of data about Maryland native plants. (Contains 55 references.) 80p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Sports Fields: A Manual for Design Construction and Maintenance.
Puhalla, Jim; Krans, Jeff; Goatley, Mike
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY , 1999)
Comprehensive technical reference information is provided for those responsible for the design, construction, renovation, or maintenance of sports grounds. Chapters illustrate specific design elements of all popular sports facilities and explain how those elements are integrated in a successful project; explore commonly encountered sports field problems, and suggest appropriate solutions; follow the sequence of steps for construction or renovation of facilities; and provide practical guidance for continuing maintenance programs. The manual is divided into three general growing zones in North America to account for the different growing climates and characteristics of turfgrass needs. Also included are a review of procedures and equipment currently in use to evaluate the quality and safety of a sports field; and miscellaneous related topics that include stadium management, sand fields, turf paints and covers, and research that is likely to have a substantial impact on the future of sports fields. 480p.

Educational Landscapes: Developing School Grounds as Learning Places Adobe PDF
Takahashi, Nancy
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville, VA , 1999)
In response to today's concern for the environment and growing curricular demands to teach about the natural world, educators are discovering the power of a school's surrounding outdoors area as a teaching tool. This book presents an overview of educational landscapes and examines the pervasive attitudes and practices that have led to the undervaluing of the schoolyard environment, identifies specific steps to create successful educational landscapes, provides insights for integrating the schoolyard more fully into the school culture and pedagogy, and discusses how to sustain educational landscape programs over time. Examples of built educational landscapes from the United States and Britain are provided to illustrate the range of possibilities for school grounds. 63p.

The School Site Planner. Land for Learning. Site Selection, Site Planning, Playgrounds, Recreation, and Athletic Fields. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Jun 1998)
The report examines not only the site selection and planning processes, but also playground planning, recreation and athletic fields planning, and the North Carolina agencies and statutes that are involved. Specific considerations include analyses of the surrounding community or territory; of building access and security; of the surrounding natural environment and available support services; of landscaping, utilities, and vehicular traffic; and of playground equipment and safety. Final sections provide athletic field layouts for track and field events; football, soccer, and baseball fields; and basketball, volleyball, and tennis courts. 75p.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture.
Harris, Charles; Dines, Nicholas
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 1998)
This landscape architecture reference provides a range of design and construction data on: site layout, grading and drainage; pedestrian, bicycle and vehicular circulation; retaining walls and devices, dams, surfacing and paving, fences and screens, wood decks and boardwalks, and pedestrian bridges; site furniture and features, recreation and athletic facilities, pools and fountains, outdoor lighting, plants and planting; roof, deck, interior and historic landscapes; water supply, sewage disposal, stormwater management and water resources protection, recreational waterbodies and irrigation; soils and aggregates, asphalt, concrete, masonry, wood, metals, glass, plastics, fabrics and geotextiles; paving and more. 928p.
TO ORDER: McGraw Hill Professional

School Grounds: A Guide to Good Practice. Adobe PDF
Funnell, Keith; Alford, Valerie; Denegri, Don; Johns, Sally; Young, Bob
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1997)
Limited financial resources and increasing pressures of competing claims on school outdoor grounds have created the need for greater quality enhancement of these areas to ensure they are used efficiently. This document addresses the issues and principles affecting school grounds, provides an analysis of the benefits of using and developing these areas, and outlines the processes necessary for successful school ground management as advocated by Learning through Landscapes. Chapters examine why ground surveying is important; how the National Curriculum provides a framework for the need to teach in the outdoor classroom; and why schools should develop a clear justification for their management of breaks and lunch times, as well as the special nature of this experience and its connection with student behavior. Additionally explored are recent research on the hidden curriculum and how school ground design influences behavior, different options and their contractual arrangements for school ground maintenance, and resources for planning grounds changes. It discusses the importance of the process of developing school grounds and of student involvement. 140p.
TO ORDER: The Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT; Tel: 0171-873-9090; Fax: 0171-873-8200

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture: Design and Construction Data
Dines, Nicholas; Harris, Charles; Brown Kyle
(McGraw Hill , 1997)
Featuring large numbers of tables, diagrams, and illustrations, this comprehensive guide offers descriptions of standards and techniques in landscape design that take into account the trifold needs of: interaction with existing natural and cultural systems, site- and equipment-specific design and construction techniques, and the use of a wide range of materials and devices. The volume covers 41 topics arranged in sections on: construction processes; standards and guidelines including spatial standards, resource conservation, and natural hazards; techniques of site grading, stormwater management, and traffic circulation; structures such as walls, dams, paving, and pedestrian bridges; improvements including athletic facilities, fountains, lighting, and plantings; sewage and water utilities; and asphalt, concrete, masonry, wood, geotextiles and other materials.

Special Planning for Special Spaces. Selected Articles from "Planning for Higher Education." Adobe PDF
Rickes, Persis, Ed.
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 1997)
Presents articles from the journal "Planning for Higher Education" organized around four core spaces commonly found on a college or university campus: cultural spaces, instructional spaces, student spaces, and outdoor spaces. Each article contains references. 143p.

Designing Landscapes for Learning: Transforming School Grounds Into "Special Places". Adobe PDF
Stine, Sharon
(American Society of Landscape Architects Annual Meeting Proceedings, Washington, DC , 1997)
Research on playground design in Japan and England offers challenges to the logic behind how playgrounds in the United States are designed. This paper presents observations of outdoor environments for children and youth in Japan and England where the space is not only useful and safe but also contributes to learning and play that reflects the regional and cultural elements of the surrounding community. It describes the educational, aesthetic, and environmental values embodied in these playgrounds and discusses the implications for school-ground design in the United States. Observations from both countries reveal a close connection between the inside and outside areas in playground design, but also show a very different attitude towards child privacy and socialization needs. 7p.

The Challenge of the Urban School Site Adobe PDF
Martin, Deborah, Ed.; Lucas, Bill, Ed.; Titman, Wendy, Ed.; Hayward, Siobhan, Ed.
(Learning Through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
This guidebook provides information on improving urban school grounds to enhance children's lives. Chapters provide the experiences from other schools on the topics of greening the urban school grounds; the multi-cultural aspects of developing urban school grounds; organization of limited space; issues involving seating, shelter, and raised structures; and playground art. The unique difficulties involved in secondary school ground development are addressed in the areas of curriculum linkage, social needs, and the management and organization of change. Additionally discussed are areas of special consideration in urban school grounds development, such as vandalism prevention, school security, tarmac removal, and new surface installation. Resource information is provided along with a list of schools and their locations which have created winning grounds development schemes. 110p.

Thinking about Seating in Your School Grounds.
Russell, Liz
(Learning Through Landscapes Trust, Winchester, England , 1996)
The Learning Through Landscape Trust's CD-ROM explores the issues connected with choosing, developing, locating, and using seating in school grounds. Designed to be used by teachers with pupils of all ages, the computer program includes sections on resources, maintenance, history, and pupil activities.
TO ORDER: The Green Brick Road, 429 Danforth Ave., Ste. #408, Toronto, ON, Canada M4K 1P1; Tel: 800-473-3638 or 416-421-9816.

Generic School Grounds Design Brief. Adobe PDF
(Dorset Education Authority, United Kingdom , Jan 1995)
The Dorset County Education and Planning Department created this document to provide architects with a tool to work with school teachers and staff in determining the requirements for new school landscapes. Covers building configuration, site boundaries and enclosures, hard play areas and surfaces, parking, site furniture, access and circulation, sports and recreation areas and information on the sequence of design. 18p.

Natural and Artificial Playing Fields: Characteristics and Safety Features.
Schmidt, Roger C., Ed.; Hoerner, Earl F., Ed.; Milner, Edward M., Ed.; Morehouse, C. A., Ed.
(ASTM International, Conshohocken, PA , 1990)
Papers are presented on the subjects of playing field standards, surface traction, testing and correlation to actual field experience, and state-of-the-art natural and artificial surfaces. The papers, presented at the Symposium on the Characteristics and Safety of Playing Surfaces (Artificial and Natural) for Field Sports in 1998, cover the interaction of a sport with the playing field by offering views of designers, administrators, athlete, and sport researchers. 196p.
Report NO: STP-1073

Pedagogical Site Policy and Neighborhood Quality.
Thiel, Frank William; Grube, Karl William
(Woodlands Research Group, Inc., Dexter, MI , 1980)
The Thiel Model for school site planning exemplifies a multidisciplinary approach to school site planning theory and a historical synthesis of seven decades of public school site planning research. The model relates the cause and effect relationships of the educational policy-making variables of economic, political, and social pressures to the school site variables of selection, planning and construction, and environment. The interaction of these variables has contributed to the current standards of public school site policy. Analyses of these current standards yielded 21 concepts of school site planning. Further extrapolation produced 10 principles of future school site policy. A flow chart schematic and outline description of the model is presented. 41p.

Economics/Environment/Educational Outcomes of Site Planning.
Grube, Karl W.; Bewley, Mary
Few school leaders and school architects have recognized or comprehended the potential symbiosis between school site resources and the enrichment of the instructional program, the urgency of repairing and improving the biosphere, the broadening of community life onto school sites, and the recognition of the responsibility role of stewardship of public lands. Accordingly, the authors present 21 site planning concepts that can be the basis for public site policy formulation. The concepts are divided into three sections: economics, environment, and educational outcomes of school site planning. The sections each contain seven planning concepts that utilize research and case studies. The section on economics discusses public tax expenditures for school land as investments not costs and claims that because people value school park sites with natural landscape features, this stabilizes or increases neighborhood property values. The environment section discusses land use, microclimate enhancement, biosphere improvement, unit of design, land form scale modeling, water resources, and aesthetics. The section on educational outcomes of school site planning presents guidelines for school-community land resources and discusses outdoor classrooms on school sites, and children's play environments designed for optimal potential growth. 140p.

References to Journal Articles

Sustainable Landscapes: Blowin' in the Wind
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; , p20-21 ; Jul 2012
Broward College's South Campus picked up the pieces after Hurricane Wilma and rebuilt the landscapes with sustainability in mind.

From Gray to Green at Angelo State University
Rush, Trent
Today's Campus; , p44-45 ; May-Jun 2012
The campus master plan called for demolishing utilitarian parking and an ugly roadway to make room for an eco-friendly, multifaceted recreational hub, now the vibrant heart of the campus.

Landscape Design: Education Facilities
Thorton, Dean
Architecture Source; Apr 12, 2012
Landscape fulfils two essential roles in children’s lives and education; as a place of play and as a place to experience nature. In today’s society, both roles are diminishing or being challenged. This article raises two questions: why is this happening, and why is it a problem?

Green School Grounds: A Collaborative Development and Research Project in Malmö, Sweden
Märit Jansson and Fredrika Mårtensson
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p260-269 ; Spring 2012
School ground greening projects may result in a multitude of benefits for pupils, schools and entire communities. This field report describes a project called “Green school grounds” in Malmö, Sweden and an interdisciplinary research project investigating vegetation establishment and management as well as the effects of the project for children. The project consulted researchers and involved teachers and children at the schools during the process of planning and construction. This field report presents the first results from a pretest evaluation of school ground activity at two schools, part of a larger intervention study. [Authors' abstract]

Take It Outside
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; , p24-26 ; Jan 2012
Describes how a college or university's outdoor spaces bring value to the institution in numerous ways.

Transforming Outdoor Spaces
Beitenhaus, Christine
College Planning and Management; , p35-39 ; Nov 2011
When a campus expands, reshaping outdoor spaces can help bring a sense of community to the space. Discusses landscape renovation projects at MIT and Lakeland College in Sheboygan, Wisconsin.

Facility Focus: Outdoor Areas.
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p88-91 ; Apr 2011
Profiles higher education landscapes at the University of Oregon, Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus, Western Technical College, and Sam Houston State College. They emphasize native plants, stormwater management, and a welcoming social space.

Water, Water Everywhere.
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p48,50,52,54 ; Apr 2011
Describes the underground water retention system at Georgia's LaGrange High School+, necessitated by the lack of available space for an above-ground system. Careful detailing by the producer of the pipes is described, as is the configuration and installation of the system.

Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning.
Bruce, Jeffrey
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p179-189 ; Apr 2011
Advocates restorative campus landscapes that contribute more to the environment than they consume. Attention to the original native landscape is recommended, as is a return to natural environmental systems. Examples from the University of Kansas and University of Iowa are detailed with abundant diagrams, photographs, and plans.

The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change.
Martin, Frank
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p167-178 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the difficulty of campus landscape preservation, when landscapes change naturally and many current environmental practices violate historical accuracy. The article encourages definition of a campus's essential character and periods of historical significance. Advice on introducing sustainable practices, balancing the change of landscapes without losing character, and examples of notable urban campus landscapes are included.

Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p199-206 ; Nov 2010
Profiles five campuses honored for their planning and landscape architecture, based on functionality, frugality, design features and balance, ability to inspire learning, and flexibility. Photographs, statistics, and a list of project participants accompany the text.

Adaptive Landscapes for the Long Term.
Hanson, David
Facility Management Journal; v20 n6 , p32,34,35 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advocates the creation of "adaptive" landscapes in situations where native plantings are not universally suitable. Adaptive landscapes utilize non-native plants that are native in growing situations that are similar to the landscape under consideration. Issues to consider when evaluating the conditions, selecting plants, and the benefits of adaptive landscapes to labor costs, water efficiency, and support of wildlife are also addressed.

Respecting the Elements.
Henry, Carol
American School and University; v83 n3 , p229-231 ; Nov 2010
Discusses sustainable school landscape design and maintenance. Promotion of low-maintenance plantings, green roofs, LED landscape lighting, synthetic athletic turf, reducing impermeable surfaces, and water conservation are addressed.

Cover Ups: Selecting the Right Shade Structure for Your Needs.
Anderson, Kelli
Recreation Management; v11 n10 , p20-27 ; Oct 2010
Discusses shade structures for athletic and recreational facilities, noting attention to climate, potential vandalism, aesthetics, self-installation, water resistance or porosity, and orientation toward the sun are discussed.

The American Society for Landscape Architecture 2010 Professional Awards.
Gordon, Douglas
These awards for landscape architecture planning, design, execution, research, and communication include citations for four higher education institutions.

School Pilot Project Could Affect County Stormwater Rules.
Kruger, Keith
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Jul 22, 2010
Describes the stomwater retention scheme at the Finn Hill Junior High School in Kirkland, Washington. Concerns from the county were addressed in this pilot project, which will likely lead to a revision of county codes for rainwater management that allows regular use of the plan.

Strategies for Stormwater.
Benazzi, Robert; Olson, Chris
Buildings; v104 n7 , p36-38 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the difference between detention and retention of stormwater, design techniques for both, and potential uses for retained stormwater.

Public Outcry Increasingly Becoming Safeguard of University Forests.
Straka, Thomas
Planning for Higher Education; v38 n4 , p52--60 ; Jul 2010
Examines the quantity of forestland owned by universities, and how they are used for field instruction, research, demonstration, and minimally, timber production. Public outcry against generating revenue from timber production is discussed, as is the conflict between using the forests for recreation versus keeping them pristine, either by preservation or restoration. Thirteen references are included.

Graduating to Green.
Hough, Mark
Landscape Architecture; v100 n5 , p66,68-77 ; May 2010
Discusses the prevalence of lawns on higher education campuses, and the complicated environmental and aesthetic issues they present. Many lawns are part of historic campus landscapes, more and more of them are being irrigated with reclaimed water, and they invariably serve as important common areas that host a variety of uses. Sustainable responses to lawn care are discussed, as are cases where less integral lawns have been replaced by low-maintenance landscapes.

Campus Crossroads.
Jost, Daniel
Landscape Architecture; v100 n1 , p84,86-93 ; Jan 2010
Details the design, construction, and materials of Cornell University's Bailey Plaza, an admired space that replaced an obstacle course of automobile and pedestrian conflict.

Drowning in the Desert.
Sorvig, Kim
Landscape Architecture; v100 n1 , p26,28-30,32,34,36 ; Jan 2010
Profiles the University of Arizona's Underwood Garden, a lush plaza that uses collected rainwater and water reclaimed from HVAC systems. After the budget for the project was eliminated, non-profit and business donations underwrote its construction.

Water Conservation for Your Landscaping.
Santos, Eric
Buildings; v103 n12 , p34-36 ; Dec 2009
Discusses incorporation of landscape management into building operation plans, illustrated by examples of conservation techniques using low-water plantings, turf area reduction, mulching in place, and drip irrigation.

Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v82 n3 , p221--229 ; Nov 2009
Profiles seven campus master planning and landscaping projects, awarded for their adherence to the stated goal of the facility, their ability to enhance learning, functionality, and sustainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine s school design awards.)

Grounded in Service.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n11 , p6,7 ; Nov 2009
Profiles Michigan State University's Landscape Services department, which operates like an on-campus contractor. Examples of large and small projects executed by the department, how they work with the facilities staff and building contractors, and how they organize and maintain their inventory of flora are described.

A Tribute to Achievement and Excellence.
Planning for Higher Education; v38 n1 , p51-81 ; Oct 2009
Presents the 20 winners of the Society for College and University Planning s award programs, including those to individual achievers and to various institutions for excellence in campus planning, architectural and landscape design, and restoration and preservation.

Into the Wild: Campus Site Furnishings.
O Connor, Shannon
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , pF8,F10,F12,F14,F16 ; Oct 2009
Discusses selection of outdoor campus furniture, emphasizing durability, low-maintenance, immobility, ADA compliance, standardizing furnishings across a campus, and warranties.

Creating Sacred Space on Your Campus.
Brouusard, Earl
Buildings; v103 n9 , p62,64,66 ; Sep 2009
Defines five types of higher education "sacred spaces," with advice on how to create them, how to identify those that already exist, and how to maintain them.

2009 ASLA Awards.
Landscape Architecture; , p78-103 ; Aug 2009
These landscape architecture awards from the American Society of Landscape Architects cite projects at Arizona State University, The University of Virginia, and Mills College.

Smart Landscaping for Your Facility.
Hanson, Dave
Facility Management Journal; v19 n4 , p52-55 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Advises on replacing high-maintenance landscapes with those that use less water, heartier plants, sophisticated and properly zoned water delivery systems. Updating landscaping when buildings are renovated is recommended.

Give Me Liberty or Give Me Brick. Adobe PDF
Gratto, Fred
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p50-54 ; May 2009
Discusses higher education students expectations of convenience on campus, along with the facility managers need to direct traffic and maintain aesthetics. The University of Florida's use of brick walkways and seating walls are offered as a successful solution. Includes five references.

Restorative School Landscaping.
Rinck, Robert
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p20,22,24,25 ; May 2009
Describes how to restore a school landscape through consultation with a design professional, collection of data on existing conditions and vegetation, analysis of traffic patterns, and use of space. Replacement of expansive traditional lawns with "no-mow" lawns and low maintenance plantings, use of materials that look best during the school year, and using the landscape as a teaching tool are among the recommendations.

Paradise Put in Place of a Parking Lot.
Latane, Claire
Landscape Architecture; v99 n4 , p42,44,46,48-52,54,56,57 ; Apr 2009
Profiles the University of California Santa Barbara's transformation of a parking lot already under construction into a restored coastal wetland. The extensive collaboration of university officials, landscape architects, and biologists is described, as is the resulting much-admired natural landscape.

Going Green by Thinking Blue.
Womack, Jack
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p38,40-42,44 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the use of rainwater as a teaching tool, by creating rain gardens bioswales, permeable pavers, and green roofs at school facilities. Explanations of these four features and advice on how to create them are offered, along with advantages of retaining rainwater onsite and use of native plant species.

Design Intentions and Users Responses: Assessing Outdoor Spaces of Qatar University Campus.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p82-93 ; Mar 2009
Explores the issue of design intentions versus users' reactions by conducting a post- occupancy evaluation study of Qatar University's outdoor spaces from the users' perspective, after it has been used and occupied for over 20 years. The assessment aimed at understanding the mutual interaction process between the built environment exemplified by the campus outdoor spaces, and the needs of the university community exemplified by students, faculty, and staff. The methodology incorporated walk-through evaluation, direct observation, behavioral mapping, and survey questionnaires. The investigation reveals a number of problems that may hinder the performance of different types of QU campus users.

Grounds Care: A Case Study in Sustainability.
Walker, Cathy
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p16,17 ; Dec 2008
Profiles Illinois State University's use of pervious concrete, resurfacing of asphalt with cooler and longer-lasting concrete, recycling of wood waste into mulch, modification of landscaping vehicles to use a biodiesel mix, and integrated pest management.

Inspired Landscapes.
American School and University; v81 n3 , p360-362 ; Nov 2008
Advises on improving campus landscapes by creating agreeable outdoor social spaces, well-planned circulation, separation of vehicle and pedestrian traffic, and clear access to buildings.

Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v81 n3 ; Nov 2008
Profiles five outstanding campus master plans and landscaping projects, selected for their contribution to the educational program, adaptability, design, technology accommodation, sustainability, and maintainability. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Planning Ideas to Consider Prior to Construction and Renovation.
Releford, Devin
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n5 , p14,16,18 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Profiles thoughtful new landscaping and renovations at Atlanta's Lovett School, where scattered parking was consolidated into a new deck, creating room for LEED-certified new and renovated buildings and athletic fields, as well as a more sustainable landscape that includes stormwater retention and an outdoor learning environment.

Sights Unseen.
Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur
American School and University; v80 n13 , p171-174 ; Aug 2008
Addresses design features that remove unattractive campus materials management functions from plain sight. Underground tunnels and creative landscaping are covered, as are thoughtful campus circulation plans that minimize vehicle use and staff costs.

Making Hydrology Visible.
McIntyre, Linda
Landscape Architecture; v98 n8 , p92-99 ; Aug 2008
Profiles a University of Virginia landscaping project that restored a meandering stream and native plantings, as well as creating a stormwater retention pond that serves as a recreational space and has alleviated persistent flooding downstream.

Nature's Classroom.
Beuttell, Kevin
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p22-25 ; Jul 2008
Describes the advantages of natural landscaping on school grounds, including lower maintenance costs, environmental friendliness, and opportunities for outdoor learning. Advice on site selection and preparation, plant selection, and maintenance is included.

The Benefits of a Campus Arboretum.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n7 , p22-25 ; Jul 2008
Discusses the benefits of a campus arboretum to beautification, student and employee recruitment and retention, education, donor cultivation, school-community relations, historic preservation, and even food production. Advice on planning, funding, and maintaining an arboretum is also included.

Welcome Mat.
Chodikoff, Ian
Canadian Architect; v53 n6 , p38-40 ; Jun 2008
Profiles a courtyard at Toronto's Trinity College that emulates the gothic detailing of the surrounding buildings.

Sustainable Outdoor Lighting.
Preston, George
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p102-109 ; Jun 2008
Details elements of sustainable outdoor lighting, including efficient sources of light, energy-effective light application, and environmentally responsible suppliers. Types of bulbs, price comparisons, proper focus of the illumination, and items to check when evaluating a supplier are addressed.

Designing Clay Brick Pavements.
Trimble, Brian
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p118-126 ; Jun 2008
Advises on specification, installation, and maintenance of walkways made with brick pavers. Rigid and flexible systems are described, and advice on section design, design flexibility, durability, sustainability, and accessibility is included. Case studies from a variety of campus installations are provided.

Assessing the Learning Value of Campus Open Spaces Through Post-Occupancy Evaluations.
Spooner, David
Planning for Higher Education; v36 n3 , p44-55 ; Apr 2008
Uses the University of Georgia's Memorial Garden as a case study to examine how the composition and configuration of campus landscape elements affect behavior. The research examines how specific landscape elements did allow certain types of both individual and group studying behaviors, and that the overall arrangement of these elements either supported or limited these activities. This study also demonstrates that a post-occupancy evaluation can be a useful assessment tool that allows both designers and administration officials to determine the outcomes of built projects on an academic campus. Includes 22 references.

Look to the Landscape.
Weesner, John
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p52,54,56,58 ; Apr 2008
Reviews landscaping considerations that can improve campus sustainability. These include creating a master plan, using native plants, encouraging walkability, compact development, stormwater management and re-use, and minimization of impervious surfaces.

Are You Sitting Down?
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v11 n2 , p44-48 ; Feb 2008
Discusses outdoor furniture selection, including selection of materials appropriate to the environment, matching furniture to the landscape and surrounding architecture, sustainability, color, and accessories.

2007 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p301 ; Nov 2007
Profiles four outstanding campus master plans and two outstanding campus landscapes. These were selected for their innovation, sustainability, security, aesthetics, and life-cycle costs. Project information and photographs are included. (The URL for this citation links to the searchable database of American School and University Magazine's school design awards.)

Landscape to Educate.
Jacobson, John
School Planning and Management; v46 n10 , p20,22,24,25,27 ; Oct 2007
Reviews opportunities for community use and outdoor learning through thoughtful design of the school facility landscape. Examples of how three Maine schools provide outdoor learning and community access to athletic fields are included.

Working Together.
Duda, David; Neville, Julia
American School and University; v80 n1 , pSS48,SS50-SS52 ; Sep 2007
Describes landscape and lighting features that both conserve energy and offer increased security for a school facility.

Academic Achievement: A school expansion in our nation's capitol introduces a wetland to a dense urban site.
Malin, Nadav
GreenSource; v2 n3 , p78-83 ; Jul 2007
Profiles Washington D.C.'s Sidwell Friends Middle School, a LEED Platinum-certified facility featuring onsite wastewater management, a wetland, extensive use of natural and recycled materials, and sophisticated passive and active energy-saving features.

Learning Landscapes.
Martin, Edgerton
Landscape Architecture; v97 n7 , p82,84,86-91 ; Jul 2007
Profiles the work of the Getty Foundation's Campus Heritage Initiative in documenting, preserving, and revitilizing higher education campus landscapes. Elements and challenges of a landscape preservation plan are addressed, and several campus projects are profiled. Includes four references.

California Mission.
McIntyre, Linda
Landscape Architecture; v97 n7 , p68 78,80,81 ; Jul 2007
Profiles the Audubon Center at Debs Park, a Los Angeles environmental education center that received the country's first LEED Platinum rating. Electricity is generated on site from photovoltaic panels, storm- and wastewater are treated and reused, the paving is porous, and native vegetation was restored to the site.

Facility Focus: Outdoor Areas.
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p85-87 ; Jun 2007
Reviews landscape projects at Kent State University, The University of Virginia, and Arizona State University. These projects were selected for their handling of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, attention to the environment, and water management.

The Value of Curb Appeal.
Sechler, Peter
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p59-63 ; Jun 2007
Discusses landscape master plans for college campuses, organized under the categories of campus frameworks, future growth, campus outdoor places, circulation and wayfinding, conservation, operations and materials standards, and connecting campus and people.

Designing a Unified Campus.
Geller, Joseph; Corning, Robert
University Business; v10 n5 , p68-71 ; May 2007
Discusses elements that contribute to a unified campus, including architecture, landscaping, signage, paving, circulation systems, outdoor furnishings and accessories, fencing, and lighting. Motivation and timing for undertaking a campus unification plan are discussed, with particular emphasis on inclusion of campus unification in the institution's master plan.

Let It Rain.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 ; Apr 2007
Reviews the value of quality campus grounds to student recruitment and retention, with attention to sustainable landscape design and maintenance, including use of native plants, organic practices, conservation during construction, and use of the landscape to control run-off.

For a Desert Campus, More Than Rocks and Cactus.
Blumenstyk, Goldie
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v53 n25 , pB16,B17 ; Feb 23, 2007
Describes the conversion of most of the University of Las Vegas' grounds from lawns to xeriscapes, citing the use of diverse native flora and subsidies from the county water authority.

Campus Cloister.
Ulam, Alex
Landscape Architecture; v97 n2 , p104-109 ; Feb 2007
Reviews a new and controversial landscape among landmark and infill modern dormitory buildings at the University of California, Berkeley. The new and more open design replaces a notable, but overly dense and difficult to maintain landscape. It is resented by many of the neighborhood's residents as being too austere, and an unwanted feature of increased student housing density in their neighborhood.

UC Berkeley Furnishes A Classical Campus Landscape.
College Planning and Management; v9 n12 , pF16-F19 ; Dec 2006
Describes the outdoor lighting fixtures, benches, recycling containers, picnic tables, bicycle racks, and drinking fountains used at the University of California, Berkeley. A sidebar refers to five other universities' furniture and equipment recycling programs.

Touching the Good Earth.
Padua, Mary
Landscape Architecture; v96 n12 , p100-107 ; Dec 2006
Profiles China's Shenyang Architectural University, which includes agricultural fields within the campus that help maintain a connection between the students and the land and to help boost respect for agriculture in a rapidly industrializing society. Local farmers manage the crops, with help from students and faculty.

2006 Architectural Portfolio: Campus Master Planning/Landscape Architecture
American School and University; v79 n3 , p290-293 ; Nov 2006
Prifiles three higher education master planning and landscape architecture projects selected for outstanding innovation, image, function, flexibility, maintainability, sustainability, security, community use, balance of aesthetics and function, and "spirit." Project information and photographs are included.

Old School, New Space.
Freeman, Alan
Landscape Architecture; v96 n10 , p42,44,45,46,48-51 ; Oct 2006
Details the conversion of a vast parking lot at Wellesley College into a landscaped valley that included removing fill that had accumulated over the years, building a parking garage, removal of contaminated soil, and creation of catchment ponds that reduce toxic runoff into the adjacent lake.

Why Outdoor Spaces for Children Matter So Much.
Wike, James
Child Care Exchange; Sep-Oct 2006
Describes principles learned by a team of landscape architects and educators working together to provide outdoor settings for child care centers and schools. Case study of a demonstration outdoor classroom in Nebraska City, Nebraska, that serves children from ages 2 to 10.

Setting Your Sites.
Benz, Stephen
American School and University; v78 n13 , p169-171 ; Aug 2006
Discusses elements of sustainable site design, emphasizing management, retention, and reuse of stormwater, as well as construction of natural environments that improve water and air quality.

A Sustainable Approach.
del Monte, Betsy
American School and University; v78 n12 , p19,20,22 ; Jul 2006
Describes elements of sustainable school design in the areas of HVAC efficiency, windows, insulation, roofing, landscaping, and recycling.

Facility Focus: Outdoor Areas.
College Planning and Management; v9 n6 , p60-63 ; Jun 2006
Describes biomimicry landscaping at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's new Stata Center, conversion of a road and open area into a pedestrian mall at Pennsylvania State University, and a labyrinth memorial at Boston College.

King David High School.
Weder, Adele
Canadian Architect; v51 n6 , p31-35 ; Jun 2006
Profiles this Vancouver private Jewish high school, citing its open plan and natural interior finishes. Referencing various plantings found in the Bible, the overall landscape strategy is designed to cultivate an awareness of plants while creating a sense of ceremony. Plans, photographs, building statistics, and a listing of project participants are included.

Designing for Security: Controlling Access with Barriers and Plants.
Atlas, Randall
The Construction Specifier; v59 n4 , p83-92 ; Apr 2006
Examines the use of streetscape elements, barriers, and plantings for building access control. Types of barriers and their relative costs, strengths, weaknesses, and aesthetic properties are covered, as are useful flora along with planting advice.

The Value of First Impressions.
Kautz, John; Rayburn, Kevin
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , p10-15 ; Apr 2006
Profiles two institutions that have learned the value of the campus itself as a recruiting tool. Campus improvement and beautification projects at Southeastern University in Lakeland, Florida, and the Belknap Campus of the University of Louisville have brought both schools many benefits, including an improved image, growing student pride and involvement, and increasing enrollments.

How Green Can You Go?
Conroy, Jeffrey
American School and University; v78 n7 , HP30-32,HP34 ; Mar 2006
Discusses site planning that can enhance campus environmental sensitivity, including care in street configuration, parking, stormwater and graywater reuse, indigenous plantings, geo-exchange systems, proper site lighting, careful orientation of buildings.

2005 Architectural Portfolio: Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v78 n3 , p270-275 ; Nov 2005
Presents four projects cited in this competition. Selection was based on security, innovation, cost-effectiveness, timelessness, community use, functionality, and sense of place. Project information and photographs are included.

School Grounds in Austria. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2005/3 n56 , p10,11 ; Oct 2005
Describes the work of the Austrian Institute for School and Sport Facilities, which provides the country's guidelines for schools and school grounds. The Institute's seven organizational requirements, 11 design principles, and 6 ecological objectives are provided.

Reweaving a Campus Tapestry.
Viani, Lisa
Landscape Architecture; v95 n9 , p92,94-96,98 ; Sep 2005
Describes the latest campus landscaping plan for the University of California at Berkeley. The successive historic landscaping visions for the campus, representing aesthetic layers from bucolic to urbane, are taken into consideration. New plantings, surfacings, and restoration of important Beaux Arts landscape details are described, with a list of project participants included.

Environment 101.
Pryor, Philip
American School and University; v77 n13 , p161-163 ; Aug 2005
Discusses environmentally sound landscaping practices, such as native plantings, allowing grass to go dormant during drought, tree planting designed to reduce air conditioning demands, composting, decreasing the amount of impervious surface area, and recycling.

Morgan Creek Elementary School-Dry Creek Joint Unified School District. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v26 n6 , p7 ; Jun 2005
Profiles this California school that includes the creation of a creek that will collect runoff and serve as an outdoor laboratory.

The New Quadrangle.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v8 n5 , p22-24 ; May 2005
Describes emerging features of higher education "quads," including wireless networking, native plantings, movable furniture, ADA compliance, and the creation of plazas out of former streets.

Landscaping Schools.
Schab, Jennifer
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p25-27 ; May 2005
Describes several outdoor school spaces that are thoughtfully connected to the school as outdoor learning and social spaces. Examples are typically urban schools where protected, but not fortified and hostile, spaces have been created. Use of patterns and game markings on hardscape is particularly encouraged.

Going Green.
Simpson, Scott; Leary, Chris
College Planning and Management; v8 n5 , pGB3,GB4 ; May 2005
Describes the early planning required to achieve LEED certification points for site selection and landscaping. The way this process was undertaken in a higher education science facility and also a residence hall/campus center is included.

Big Dots, Little Dumpsters.
Freeman, Allen
Landscape Architecture; v95 n2 , p22,24-29 ; Feb 2005
Reviews the design of the "learning garden" at New York City's largest elementary school, PS 19 in Queens. The existing corrugated metal classrooms were painted with colorful random dots, corresponding circles were cut out of the asphalt schoolyard and planted, and many small dumpsters were installed as planters that are tended by individual classrooms.

Using Behavioral Research to Assist in the Redesign of University Plazas.
Amsden, Daniel
Planning for Higher Education; v33 n2 , p31-38 ; Dec 2004
Reports on behavioral research that was conducted at California Polytechnic State University's University Union Plaza in anticipation of a redesign. The space is currently considered unattractive and underutilized. Videotaping to determine usage patterns and surveys of users to determine preferences revealed positive and negative aspects of the space which will be retained or changed accordingly.

2004 Architectural Portfolio: Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v77 n3 , p327-331 ; Nov 2004
Presents one K-12 and two higher education landscaping projects recognized by this competition. Project information and photographs are included.

Enticing Prospective Students through Landscaping.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v7 n11 , p14,16 ; Nov 2004
Offers landscaping strategies that help create an inviting sense of place for prospective students. These include the creation of edges and boundaries, large- and small-scale spaces, and interesting features.

Looking Good.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p25,26 ; Nov 2004
Describes various school districts' approach to maintenance of the exterior elements of walls, roofs, windows, stairs, and landscaping.

Interstitial Practices.
Castro, Ricardo
Canadian Architect; v49 n10 , p24-27 ; Oct 2004
Describes McGill University's transformation of a service lane into Tomlinson Square, an interstitial courtyard that physically and symbolically links science, medicine, engineering, and information technology buildings. Project statistics, plans, photographs, and an axonometric view are included.

Environment 101: Green Site Development Practices that Make the Grade.
Pryor, Philip E.
School Planning and Management; v43 n4 , pGB22,GB24-GB27 ; Apr 2004
Explains a variety of environmentally beneficial landscaping design and maintenance practices. Emphasizes native plants and natural beauty over high maintenance, decorative plantings and vast green lawns.

At That Age, You Just Accept What You Have...You Never Question Things": Student Participation in School Ground Greening.
Dyment, Janet
Children, Youth and Environments; v14 n1 , p130-152 ; 2004
Reports on a study of student participation in greening projects at a school board district level, based on two methods: 1) 149 questionnaires completed by administrators, teachers, and parents associated with 45 school ground greening initiatives; and 2) 21 follow-up interviews with administrators, teachers, and parents at five of the schools. Respondents and interviewees reported that students were involved in selected aspects of the greening projects, notably the designing, planting and maintenance. Much room exists, however, for more authentic and meaningful student participation, particularly in the problem identification and visioning phases. Recommendations as to how school board administrators might facilitate such participation are offered. Includes 45 references.

Landscape as Playscape: The Effects of Natural Environments on Children's Play and Motor Development.
Fjoertoft, Ingunn
Children, Youth and Environments; v14 n2 , p21-44 ; 2004
Reports on an investigation of the impacts of playing in a natural environment on motor development in children. Methods from landscape ecology were applied for landscape analysis and entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Localization of play habitats was done by use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). A quasi-experimental study was conducted on five-, six-, and seven- year old children with an experimental group playing in a natural environment and a control group playing in a more traditional playground. When provided with a natural landscape in which to play, children showed a statistically significant increase in motor fitness. There were also significant differences between the two groups in balance and co-ordination in favor of the experimental group. Includes 60 references.

The Idea of Campus.
Gisolfi, Peter A.
Learning By Design; n13 , p16-18 ; 2004
Discusses the difference between a school and a campus, and advises ways to take a campus point of view which considers the indoor and outdoor spaces of a school together. Steps toward realizing a campus point of view with existing facilities are described, and examples of three public schools that realized this goal are offered.
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Landscaping for Safety and Security.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v6 n12 , p18,20 ; Dec 2003
Advises incorporation of landscaping design for safety within campus master plans. Discusses plantings that preserve sight lines and enhance safety, as well as ways to separate pedestrians and vehicles.

2003 Architectural Portfolio: Landscape.
American School and University; v76 n3 , p277-281 ; Nov 2003
Presents four examples of campus landscaping that were recognized in this competition. Includes project data photographs and plans.

Campus Configurations.
Garcia, Richard
American School and University; v76 n3 , p327-29 ; Nov 2003
Outlines steps in creating a landscape master plan (LMP) for expanding and renovating campuses. Consideration of campus location, transportation issues, and identity are critical.

Design for Learning.
Martin, Frank Edgerton
Landscape Architecture; v93 n7 , p92-94 ; Jul 2003
Describes how Richard Macias, a landscape architect and the university planner at San Jose State University, has learned to push the boundaries of how landscape architects coordinate the many disciplines involved in managing a modern campus that must constantly adapt to change. Offers lessons learned over the course of a career spanning the private and public sectors and many countries.

Using a Building's Site To Maximize Accessibility.
Barraza, Douglas A.
College Planning and Management; v6 n6 , p52, 54 ; Jun 2003
Describes a new basketball arena at the University of Missouri that meet the accessibility requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act through careful use of the site to take advantage of site grading and provide multiple accessible entries while ensuring visibility and circulation.

Children's Environmental Learning and the Use, Design and Management of Schoolgrounds.
Malone, Karen; Tranter, Paul
Children, Youth and Environments; v13 n2 ; 2003
Examines school grounds as sites for play and environmental learning. It is based on a three-year project that involved 50 eight- to ten-year-old children at five Australian primary schools. Data collection occurred through multiple methods, including behavior mapping of children's play, interviews with children and teachers, and analysis of children's drawings of their school grounds. The findings show large variations between the schools, particularly in the types of play and environmental learning in which children engage. These variations are related to variations in the physical qualities of the schoolground, but the school philosophies concerning the use and management of the outdoor school environment are equally or more important. Includes 62 references.

Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v75 n3 , p314-17 ; Nov 2002
Describes the award-winning design of three school landscapes. Includes construction details and photographs.

Choosing Wisely.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v75 n3 , p376-77 ; Nov 2002
Discusses the skills and qualifications to look for when choosing a landscape architect for educational facilities.

Campus on the Hill.
Martin, Frank Edgerton
Landscape Architecture; v92 n10; v92 n10 , p118-27, 144-45 ; Oct 2002
Details the University of Cincinnati's campus master plan, designed to overcome deans' "fiefdoms" and make the best use of the limited remaining open space. Three imperatives shaped the plan: siting new buildings to infill the campus fabric rather than taking open space, siting buildings to shape outdoor spaces, and weaving open spaces as a connective tissue.

Creating Aesthetic Unity on the College Campus.
Geller, Jospeh
School Construction News; v5 n6 , p18-20 ; Sep-Oct 2002
This article discusses how landscape architecture and master planning can makeover the most eclectic of campuses. The benefits of creating a unified campus, developing a landscape master plan, and using a landscape architect are explored. Includes a case study and photographs of the Boston College Campus in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.

Assignment: Eco-Friendly Campuses.
Calkins, Meg
Landsape Architecture; v92 n7 , p38,40,42,43,90,91 ; Jul 2002
Discusses how institutions of higher education can use their campus environments as a teaching tool and laboratory for finding solutions to environmental dilemmas and ensure that their campus operations, including the landscape, are exemplary models of environmental practice--even if it means far fewer expanses of lawn. Includes a list of resources.

Living Willow Structures Enhance Children's Play Environments
Danks, Sharon
Landscape Architecture; , 2p. ; Jun 2002
Many landscape architects and restoration ecologists in the United States are familiar with the use of living willow whips for creek restoration, bank stabilization, and related environmental remediation projects. Not as common is the use of freshly cut willow branches to create living fences, archways, domes, and other outdoor structures to enhance children's play environments on school grounds and parks.

Curbside Critique: A Technique to Maintain a Positive School Yard Image.
Strickland, Jessie Shields; Chan, T.C.
School Business Affairs; v68 n5 , p24-27 ; May 2002
Describes use of a "curbside critique," a weekly assessment by community volunteers and school leaders to maintain an appealing appearance of the schoolyard and building exterior.

Landscape Solutions to School Problems.
Spitz, Katherine
School Planning and Management; v41 n4 , p18,20,22 ; Apr 2002
Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as practical assets for their neighborhoods.

Courtyard Oases: Ecology at the Heart of the School.
Danks, Sharon Gamson
Landscape Architecture; v92 n1 , p36,38-41 ; Jan 2002
Explores ecologically planned school yards that provide students with places of wonder and exciting things to study, play with, and explore. The article describes three school courtyards that illustrate how schools can transform asphalt playgrounds and paved staff parking lots into stimulating play and learning areas for students.

Architectural Portfolio 2001: Landscape.
American School and University; v74 n3 , p313-17 ; Nov 2001
Presents descriptions and photographs of school landscaping design winners for the 2001 American School and University Architectural Portfolio Contest. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.
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On Solid Ground.
Loes, Mark
American School and University; v74 n3 , p370-71 ; Nov 2001
Discusses using geotechnical construction services to ensure that educational facility foundations last. Explains the five steps of geotechnical services. Also highlights the importance of proper subgrades in planning school parking lots.

Another Paper Landscape?
Radlak, Ted
Landscape Architecture; v91 n10 , p74-81 ; Oct 2001
Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included.

Declaring War on the Ivory Tower.
Martin, Frank Edgerton
Landscape Architecture; v91 n7 , p48,50-52 ; Jul 2001
Discusses how an historic military base, Ft. Ord in California, became future-oriented California State University- Monterey Bay. Campus planning and design are examined, including the preservation of rare open spaces and the creation of a campus forum for entrepreneurship and interaction between active learning space, service, and study.

Designing Campus Landscapes for Preventive Maintenance.
Spitz, Katherine
College Planning and Management; v4 n3 , p52-53 ; Mar 2001
Shows how properly planned campus landscapes can generate long-term savings and help create rich natural settings. How important good landscaping is to a college campus's image is reviewed.

Campus Orientation.
Martin, Frank Edgerton
Landscape Architecture; v91 n2 , p84-85 ; Feb 2001
Discusses one architect's success in college campus forest management through use of a pragmatic and cost-effective maintenance strategy.

American School & University Architectural Portfolio 2000 Awards: Landscape Architecture.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p357-79 ; Nov 2000
Presents photographs and basic information on architectural design, costs, square footage, and principle designers of the award winning school landscaping projects that competed in the American School & University Architectural Portfolio 2000.

Ecological Schoolyards.
Danks, Sharon Gamson
Landscape Architecture; v90 n11 , p42,44-47 ; Nov 2000
Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described.

Stormwater, Students, and Swamp.
Leeds, Charles W.
Facilities Manager; v16 n5 , p40-41 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses Villanova University's (Pennsylvania) development of a stormwater wetland area to help collect water from small storms, remove sediment and pollutants, and return the water into a local stream.

What Should Stay Put? Campus Landscape Planning for the Long Term.
Yahres, Mike Van
Facilities Manager; v16 n5 , p35-38 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses campus landscape long-term planning and design decision making during campus alterations and upgrades. Those campus landscape elements that tend to remain in place and planning for their continued existence are discussed.

Mission Possible.
Welsh, William E.
Landscape Architecture; v90 n8 , p44,46,48-49 ; Aug 2000
Describes how Wellesley College (Massachusetts) used landscape architects to restore pedestrian sovereignty to its campus away from the dominance of automobiles. Master planning and the elements of three major proposals are discussed.

Minimal, Not Simple
Bennett, Paul
Landscape Architecture; v90 n6 , p22,24,26-27 ; Jun 2000
This article features a courtyard design for the Thomas Prince Elementary School in Princeton Center, Massachusetts, winner of a 1999 design award from the American Society of Landscape Architects. Design decisions, plant selections, financing and construction, and the involvement of volunteer labor are discussed.

Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.
Sorensen, Randy
School Planning and Management; v39 n2 , p52-54 ; Feb 2000
Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted.

Save Money on Site Design.
Galbraith, Roger
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 , p32-33 ; Aug 1999
Examples are provided on ways of saving money during school athletic site design, including plastic alternatives to concrete for site water drainage and cost efficient considerations when earth moving and grading. Concluding comments address the importance of designers making timely decisions and monitoring progress to avoid unnecessary costs.

Site Design for Greater Security.
Peters, Ronald
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 , p30, 32 ; Jul 1999
Describes how to use the school site and landscape plan to create a safer outdoor environment for students. Facility design concepts used by one school district to address its campus security issues are discussed.

Fundamentals of a Low Maintenance, Integrated Pest Management Approach to Landscape Design
Ard, Jeff
IPM Access; 1999
Published on the Integrated Pest Management Practitioners Association Web site, this article discusses the design/maintenance interface, key considerations for low maintenance IPM-based landscape designs, and construction practices.

School Grounds Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n33 , p11-14 ; Feb 1998
Describes the direct effect between the way school grounds are designed and managed, and the behavior and attitudes of the pupils. Discusses several countries' initiatives regarding school grounds, the "Learning through Landscape Trust" program of the United Kingdom, and findings from a conference regarding the importance of school grounds in education.

Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond
Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob
Green Teacher; n48 , p9-12 ; Jun 1996
Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through maintenance.

School's Out! New Initiatives for British School Grounds.
Adams, Eileen
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p118-135 ; 1993
Describes the thinking behind current initiatives in the United Kingdom to improve environmental quality and educational opportunity in school grounds. It explains the ideas underpin the research and development program of Learning through Landscapes, and summarizes findings from the research report (Adams 1990b). Themes include: the use of school grounds in relation to formal, informal and hidden curricula; the design of school grounds as an educational resource; the development of school grounds; participation in the design process; and interprofessional collaboration in education. Examples of primary and secondary schools where pupils and teachers have worked together with other members of the school community, artists and designers to change their environment are provided. Includes six references.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).