COMMUNITY USE OF SCHOOLS - POLICY ISSUES AND JOINT USE AGREEMENTS
Information on policy issues concerning the community use of school buildings and grounds during and after school hours, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Model Joint Use Agreement Resources
(Public Health Law & Policy, 2012)
Provides model joint use agreements that are a formal agreement between two separate government entities–often a school and a city or county–setting forth the terms and conditions for shared use of public property or facilities. Includes the following: Opening Outdoor School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours; Opening Indoor and Outdoor School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours; Opening School Facilities for Use During Non-School Hours & Authorizing Third Parties to Operate Programs; and Joint Use of District and City Recreation Facilities.
School Facilities Joint Use Cost Calculator.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC and The University of California, Center for Cities & Schools, Berkeley, Sep 2010)
One obstacle to sharing public school facilities is recovering the cost of joint use. This joint use cost calculator helps school districts determine what to charge users to recover costs for joint use, particularly in situations where the district is unsure know what it costs to own and operate the school buildings. The calculator helps: 1) identify the elements of school district facility related costs, 2)calculate full cost of ownership on a per square foot and per hour basis, 3) determine policy decisions school districts need to make about which users to subsidize, and 4) create fee structure options for various non-school users, based on the real cost of ownership
Partnerships for Joint Use: Expanding the Use of Public School Infrastructure to Benefit Students and Communities.
(University of California, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Sep 2010)
Cites current perspectives and prior research on community use of school facilities, outlines three types of joint use approaches, and categorizes nine types of common community use arrangements found in California schools. These categories include expanded outdoor and indoor recreational spaces, shared library and arts facilities, community services, meetings and events, land development and local revitilization, and tenant type arrangements. Ten findings from the research are detailed, and lists of 6 resources and 43 references are included. 44p.
Opening School Property After Hours. A Primer on Liability.
(Public Health Law & Policy, Aug 2010)
Some school districts are reluctant to open school property to the community after hours, concerned about the legal risks and the costs associated with injury or property damage. This fact sheet explains how state laws, insurance, and joint use agreements can help protect school districts from liability. 3p
Summary of Legal Rules Governing Liability for Recreational Use of School Facilities
(Public Health Law & Policy, Apr 2010)
Focuses on liability for recreational use of school facilities, outlining what general liability standards are applied, as well as any limitations on liability or damages. 8p
Fifty-State Scan of Laws Addressing Community Use of Schools
(Public Health Law & Policy, Mar 2010)
State-by-state overview of statutes about whether school property can be used by the community for recreation. Includes special rules regarding liability, fees, insurance, joint use, or applicability to K-12 or universities/colleges.
San Francisco's Public School Facilities as Public Assets: A Shared Understanding and Policy Recommendations for the Community Use of Schools
Vincent, Jeffrey; Filardo, Mary; Klein, Jordan; McKoy Deborah
(Center for Cities and Schools, University of California, Berkeley , Mar 2010)
Presents research findings and policy recommendations from a yearlong investigation to establish a more effective joint use strategy in the San Francisco Unified School District. The report details utilization, management, policy, and budget findings, noting significant deficiencies. Four recommendations to improve the use of San Francisco schools both during school hours and afterwards are offered, and appendices provide scope, vision statements, and lists of participants and identified challenges. 62p.
Joint Use of Public Schools: A Framework for a New Social Contract.
Filardo, Mary; Vincent, Jeffrey; Allen, Marni; Franklin, Jason
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2010)
Explores joint use as a way to provide services to children and families in convenient locations, improve opportunities for physical activity of youth and adults, leverage capital investments, and reduce the consumption of land. The report attempts to frame the basic challenges and opportunities for joint use to increase the quantity and quality of joint use policy and practice. 17p.
Opening School Grounds to the Community after Hours: A Toolkit for Increasing Physical Activity through Joint Use Agreements.
Ogilvie, Robert; Zimmerman, Jason
(Planning for Healthy Places, a project of Public Health Law & Policy (PHLP), California , 2010)
Shares what has been learned from some successful school/community joint use agreements and offers guidelines and templates for communities seeking to increase their own access to school recreational facilities. Chapter 1 provides a snapshot of how communities throughout California are currently sharing facilities, and highlights the essential components of a joint use agreement. Chapter 2 provides a step-by-step checklist for negotiating and developing a joint use agreement, highlighting important issues to consider at each stage of the process. Chapter 3 presents short profiles illustrating how different communities throughout California have negotiated and implemented four types of joint use. 168p.
School Districts: Leases and Agreements.
(California State Legislature, Sacramento , Aug 27, 2009)
This California legislation authorizes a school district to enter into leases and agreements relating to real property and buildings to be used jointly by the district and a local governmental agency. Existing law already authorized a school district to enter into leases and agreements relating to real property and buildings to be used jointly by the district and any private person, firm, or corporation. 8p.
Checklist for Developing a Joint Use Agreement (JUA).
(National Policy and Legal Analysis Network to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Berkeley, CA , Mar 2009)
Outlines 18 elements that should be considered in a joint-use agreement between schools and communities. This is a chapter in a Joint Use toolkit. 5p.
Community Schools in North Carolina.
(Public Schools of North Carolina, School Planning Section, Raleigh , Sep 2008)
Discusses opportunities for community schools in North Carolina, addressing purpose and legal foundation, possible synergies, examples and success stories, potential pitfalls, legal and financial aggreements, suggestions for implementation, recent legislation, and non-financial benefits. 25p.
Joint Use School Partnerships in California: Strategies to Enhance Schools and Communities.
Coober, Tamar; Vincent, Jeffrey
(University of California, Center for Cities and Schools, Berkeley , Aug 2008)
Examines joint use partnerships in the California policy context, focusing on three cases: opening up existing school yards for public use in San Francisco, building new joint use gymnasiums in Rosemead, and building a joint use child development center in Clovis. Appendices include formal case agreements. The report offers a discussion of lessons learned and recommended steps to crafting effective joint use partnerships. 76p.
School Facility Program Handbook: A Guide to Assist with Applying for and Obtaining Grant Funds.
(California Department of General Services, Office of Public School Construction, Sacramento , May 2008)
Assists California school districts in applying for and obtaining grant funds for the new construction and modernization of schools under the provisions of the Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998. Following a preface and overview, the guides chapters address the involved agencies, project development activities, application for eligibility, new construction funding, charter school facilities, critically overcrowded school facilities, joint use projects, modernization funding, financial hardship, facility hardship grants, program accountability, and additional requirements and features. Appendices provide contact information, forms, and a construction services matrix. 111p.
Webinar Recording: Recovering Costs for the Community Use of Our Schools.
(Schooldude.com, Charlotte, NC , 2008)
Encourages the community use of schools schools and advises on how school systems can recover the extra expense it incurs. Statistics on what community use might cost are illustrated in charts, and advice on risk management, cost recovery, scheduling, building support, and developing fee structures is offered, based on successful practices observed in the field.
Athletic Fields and Recreational Facilities Use Policy
(Village of Ridgewood and Ridgewood Board of Education, New Jersey, Jan 2007)
Includes policies and procedures which govern facility use and users in order to insure optimal maintenance of athletic fields and other recreational facilities owned by the Village of Ridgewood and Ridgewood Board of Education. 12p.
Use of Facilities [Hawaii]
(Hawaii Department of Education. Facilities Development Branch. , 2007)
The use of school facilities and grounds by the general public is governed by Chapter 39, Hawaii Administrative Rules. According to Chapter 39, such facilities shall be made available for public use as long as the requested activities do not interfere with normal school operations. This contains answers to frequently asked questions relating to the use of school facilities.
New Directions in School Facilities: Section 5: Joint Use of School Facilities.
(California Dept. of General Services, Sacramento , 2007)
Reviews the advantages of joint use of facilities and public/private partnerships in environments where taxpayers are particularly opposed to raising of local revenues. California examples are offered and include partnerships from both community college and K-12 districts. Includes 13 references. 4p.
Community Use of School Facilities. District Policy.
(Jefferson County Public Schools , Jun 2006)
This outlines the district policy to make Jefferson County district buildings and facilities available to the community when not in use for school activities, delineating community/commercial use, before and after school care providers, use of equipment, and denial of requests.
Model Policies for Preserving Historic Schools.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , May 2006)
Outlines components of school facility policies that successfully combine rehabilitation of older schools and construction of new. These policies feature flexible acreage standards, joint use, funding partnerships, feasibility studies to compare the costs of renovating and building new, and sale or reuse of older school buildings that are not renewable. Citations for 20 exemplary state policies are included. 4p.
Equal Access to Public School Facilities for the Boy Scouts of America and Other Designated Youth Groups: Final Rule. Federal Register, Part II: Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 75, 76, and 108
(National Archives and Records Administration, Federal Register v71 n57 p14994-15003 Mar 24 2006, Mar 24, 2006)
The Secretary adds a new part to title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations and amends 34 CFR parts 75 and 76 to implement the provisions of the Boy Scouts of America Equal Access Act (Act). This Act directs the Secretary of Education, through the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), to ensure compliance with this new law. The regulations address equal access to public school facilities by the Boy Scouts of America and other designated youth groups. 11p.
Rental of Public School & Library Facilities by Religious Groups
(Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2006)
This provides an overview of the controversy of renting public school facilities to religious organizations, discusses the "Milford NY Good News Club" court case as well as several other court cases, lists related essays, and includes references.
Key Legal Issues for Schools.
Russo, Charles, ed.
(Rowman and Littlefield Education, Lanham, MD , 2006)
Covers a variety of legal issues for school officials, with facilities issues being included in chapters on school board contracting, transportation, technology, and special education students. 216p.
Schools as Community Facilities: Policy Framework and Guidelines. [Australia]
(Dept. of Education and Training, Melbourne, Australia , Nov 2005)
Outlines community use of schools from an Australian perspective, including opportunities for use of schools by the community, benefits and features of school-community partnerships, types of agreements, and case studies. Guidelines for developing the legal framework and suggested details of joint use agreements are included. 36p.
Rental of School Facilities. Seven Oaks School Division.
(Seven Oaks School Division, Winnipeg, Canada, Jun 2005)
Includes a general statement, regulations, how to make an application, and a definition of organizations and rates. 5p.
Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 2: Schools as Centers of Communities Policies.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve the creation of schools as centers of community. The recommended policies cover extensive and innovative community use of the public school facility, community partnerships that support high quality education and contribute to life-long learning, co-location with local government agencies and/or community organizations resulting in creative program service delivery and more efficient utilization of public land and buildings, and opportunities for new and/or additional sources of funds for financing building improvements and program delivery. Preservation of historic and other neighborhood schools is particularly encouraged. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 15p.
Breaking Ground: Rebuilding New Jersey's Urban Schools The Abbott School Construction Program.
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , Apr 2004)
Recounts the history of New Jersey's Abbott School Construction Program, from 1990 court rulings on school facility deficiencies in poorer school districts to the present. The work of the Program in creating facilities plans, integrating planning and design with educational needs, and lessons learned from the first years of the program are described. It is written to assist policy-makers and advocates in New Jersey and elsewhere in their efforts to renovate and construct educationally adequate, and community-centered public schools. 40p.
Joint Use Agreement between Shoreline School District #412 and the City of Shoreline.
(Lifestyle Information Network, Toronto, ONT, Canada , 2004)
Formalizes an agreement allowing the city and school district use of each other's facilities. The agreement outlines plans for scheduling, staffing, fees, dispute resolution, maintenance, operation, improvements, and liability. 8p.
Shared Use Facilities Collection
(Leisure Information Network, National Recreation Directory, 2004)
Joint use of facilities can reduce costs, maximize the usage of existing or new physical facilities, and provide better services to the community. With cost-cutting a major focus of many school boards it is important to keep the overall benefits to the community in mind. This includes guides to these kinds of partnerships, and examples of typical joint use agreements.
Combined Libraries: A Bibliography.
(American Library Association, Fact Sheet Number 20. , Nov 2003)
This is a selected list of articles, books, and web sites covering the subject of combined and joint-use libraries. It covers the two most common types of combined libraries: public libraries combined with school library media centers and public libraries combined with academic libraries.
Community Schools Guidelines and General Procedures for All Facility Use.
(Kodiak Island Borough School District, Kodiak, AK, 2003)
Includes a description of priority use of facilities; rental fees; facility use agreeements; facility availability beyond the school day; and a nondiscrimination statement. 3p.
Fair Funding Manual: Community Facilities.
(Birmingham City Council, Education Services, AL , 2003)
This describes the range of controls over schools that choose to provide community facilities, including funding arrangements, prohibitions, treatment of income, health and safety matters, and insurance. 7p.
Joint Use Cooperative Agreement for the Lincoln Public Library at Twelve Bridges.
(City of Lincoln, California , 2003)
Formalizes the agreement between the City of Lincoln (California), the Western Placer Unified School District, and the Sierra Joint Community College District to build and operate a library to be shared by all three entities. From a tract of land owned by the community college, the city agreed to buy five acres and build the library. The school district agreed to buy 35 acres and build a new high school. The community college agreed to retain and construct a campus on the remaining 23 acres. All three institutions agreed to share the operation and maintenance costs of the library. Details of funding, collection ownership, library services, rights of use, staffing, and the constitution and powers of the board are detailed. 37p.
Parking on Joint Use School and Park Sites.
(City of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada , Sep 2002)
Reports on a study concerning parking shortages at joint use school and park sites in Edmonton. The resulting planning principles attempt to balance competing needs of convenience, protection of open space, community impact, and availability of resources, as well as consideration of alternative options such as public transportation and off-site parking. Design guidelines that can mitigate problems at future sites include reduction of parking lot surface treatment standards, multi-level parking, development of off-site parking, and written arrangements for shared parking. 40p.
The Newport-Mesa Unified School District and the City of Costa Mesa Collaborative Agreement for Use of Facilities and Active Use Areas.
(City of Costa Mesa, California , Jul 01, 2002)
Formalizes a five-year agreement that allows the city and school district use of each other's facilities. The agreement outlines plans for joint master scheduling, prioritizes allowed uses, and defines notification, custodial, maintenance, liability, and termination responsibilities of the parties. 9p.
Making It Work: Increasing Community Use of Existing School Facilities.
Parsons, Adrienne A.
(Master's Thesis, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada , May 2002)
Examines how to increase community use of existing school facilities. A literature review and two case studies of schools in British Columbia confirmed that in addition to the need to modify education legislation, municipal legislation and the respective governing bodies, there is also a fundamental need to address obstacles, such as institutional inertia and materialist values. The project concludes with a set of recommendations designed to increase community use of existing school facilities in the two case study communities and elsewhere. 150p.Report NO: MQ66992
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: email@example.com
Controlling Access to Public Educational Facilities: Legal and Practical Issues. CEFPI Mini-Session.
Uerling, Donald F.
(Paper presented at the Council of Educational Facility Planners International Conference, Denver, CO , 2002)
This paper addresses the topic of access to educational facilities by the public. It explains that many organizations and individuals request access to public educational facilities; while boards and administrators generally want to make them available for public use, problems sometimes arise when the nature of the group or proposed activity seems likely to be controversial or inconsistent with the purposes of the institution or character of the property. The paper explores legal and practical issues involved in public access from a Constitutional perspective. It addresses the differences between traditional public fora, designated public fora, and nonpublic fora, then concludes that public educational facilities are not traditional public fora and that officials should not create a designated public forum that is open to all persons for all purposes. It asserts that institutional officials need to decide whether limited public fora should be made available in certain facilities, or whether only nonpublic fora should be maintained throughout the system by exercising significant control over access. 6p.
Community Use of School Fields and Grounds
(Jefferson County Public Schools, Colorado, Oct 23, 2001)
Guidelines to govern community use of district grounds. 1p.
Cooperative Joint-Use Educational Centers: Toward a Model for California.
Jones, Janis Cox
(Doctoral Dissertation, Union Institute Graduate College, Cincinnati, OH , Jul 2001)
Develops a model for a cooperative, joint-use educational center to meet the future needs of California. Based on case studies of two such existing educational centers in Denver, Colorado and Yuma, Arizona, and on a case study of a developing center in Tracy, California, seven key elements critical to the successful design and implementation of such educational centers were identified. These seven elements are: 1) partners; 2) people; 3) planning; 4) politics; 5) property; 6) “pence” (funding); and 7) policies/procedures. 183p.Report NO: 3019564
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cooperative Agreements for Shared Use Facilities.
Carpenter, Jeffrey; Walston, James R.
(Rider, Bennett, Egan, & Arundel, LLP, Minneapolis, MN , 2001)
Presents a legal perspective on what a shared facility is; describes typical partners in a shared use arrangement; and identifies common locations, anticipated purposes, and funding sources. Also discussed are different organizational structures that can be established, such as joint powers entity, lease, or license; land acquisition and development issues, with matters of conveyencing, zoning, and construction; and other common legal/practical issues or dilemmas. 21p.
An Agreement for the Joint Use of Facilities between The Seattle School District No. 1 and The City of Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation.
(City of Seattle Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Washington , Sep 15, 2000)
Formalizes the city and school district's cooperative use of facilities. The agreement codifies usage priorities, scheduling, dispute resolution, fees, interagency training, maintenance, operation, improvements, liability, and renewal of the agreement. 14p.
Development of Joint-Use Educational Facility Agreements between California Public School Districts and Community Entities: A Cross-Case Analysis of Strategic Practices, Barriers, and Supportive Elements.
Testa, Kenneth Charles
(Dissertation, University of La Verne, CA , Aug 2000)
The purpose of this study was to describe strategic practices (defined as priority-based actions) used in the development of joint-use agreements for educational facilities between California public school districts and community entities, as well as both impeding and supportive elements. A cross-case analysis of the efforts and experiences of seven California school facility practitioners was crafted. The study identified major findings as metathemes that were operationally described. Six metathemes of strategic practices were identified relative to aspects of cooperation, perseverance, collaboration, entrepreneurialism, synergy, and resourcefulness. Six metathemes described barriers to joint-use relative to aspects of territorialism, use/access conflicts, bureaucracy, limited finances, collaboration, and top-level support. Four metathemes described supportive elements to joint-use, including institutionalized belief, productive relationships, strong reputations, and support from top-level leadership. An annotated compendium of successful joint-use projects in included, as well as a list of network resources utilized by the researcher. [Online access to excerpt from this dissertation available at http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/joint-use.pdf] 418p.Report NO: UMI AAI9987888
TO ORDER: UMI Dissertation Express
Successful Steps: Identifying Elements in Joint-use Agreements. A Study of the Joint-use Agreements Involving Public School Districts Who Were Approved for Funding from Proposition 203, the Public Education Facilities Bond Act of 1996.
Reeve, Timothy Richard
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of La Verne, CA , Mar 2000)
Examines the specific elements and component language of sixty-seven joint-use agreements that were submitted to the Office of Public School Construction (OPSC) as part of the application process for California's Proposition 203 Joint-Use Program. Based upon the research findings, a written agreement should include ten basic elements: 1) description of ownership; 2) entity that has prime responsibility in cases of disputes; 3) indemnification clause; 4) maintenance and repair of the facility; 5) description of the operation of the shared project; 6) authority for signatures; 7) modifications to the agreement; 8) set terms for the use of the shared project; 9) insurance of the shared project; and 10) venue for actions. 160p.Report NO: 9963260
TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email: email@example.com
Hobart School Board Policy Manual. Article Ten: Facilities
(Hobart School Board, Hobart, IN, 2000)
Describes policies on facility use, including procedures, contracts, rental fees, time schedule, chaperones, custodial fees, emergency use, security, operations and maintenance of the physical plant, use of school equipment, and the naming of school properties.
Joint Use Facilities
(Better Schools Better Neighborhoods, Los Angeles, CA, 2000)
Provides examples of joint-use projects, joint-use analysis and recommendations, and joint-use policies from throughout California and the nation.
Intergovernmental Cooperation in Parks and Recreation.
(Municipal Research & Services Center of Washington, Seattle, Dec 1999)
Cooperative efforts can eliminate unnecessary duplication of services, reduce overall park and recreation costs, and can more effectively allow taxes to meet the educational, recreational, and leisure time needs of a region. This page provides sample interlocal agreements for services and facilities related to parks and recreation in the state of Washington.
Community Use of School Facilities. [Alberta, Canada]
(Parkland School Division, Alberta, Canada, 1999)
This outlines board policy on making school facilities available for other than educational uses. Includes definitions and guidelines, restrictions, use of school equipment, damages, accident procedure, fees/charges, etc. 3p.
Community Use of Facilities/Joint Use.
(Greater St. Albert Catholic Schools, Edmonton, Canada, Nov 1998)
Background, policy statement, guidelines and procedures for cooperatively utilizing community and school facilities.
Combined School and Public Libraries: Guidelines for Decision Making.
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services , 1998)
This helps communities and school districts determine whether a combined school and public library will provide the most efficient library service for all community residents. Topics covered are: planning issues; mission statements; the legal framework for combined school-public libraries in the state of Wisconsin; and a list of key issues to be considered when examining the feasibility of establishing such a library. A feasibility checklist is also included and covers planning, governance, administration and funding, access to information and materials, the physical facility, technology, and attitudinal factors. Also included are: descriptions of existing combined school and public libraries in Wisconsin; examples of alternative methods for improving library services; a selected bibliography; statutory references; and sample master agreement. 38p.
Joint Use Agreements: A How-To Guide.
Rizzuti, Tom; Silva, Tom; Roop, Mel
(California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento , Apr 22, 1997)
Joint use agreements provide a school district and another entity, whether it be a city, county, non-profit, or private organization, with the opportunity to construct a facility and share both the capital and operating costs and responsibilities. The purpose of this manual is to introduce joint use agreements and their potential. The manual begins with a definition of what a joint use agreement is and what it is not. Next it suggests a number of considerations which should go into a joint use agreement and provides a guideline by which a joint use agreement can be drafted. Finally, the manual discusses some potential problems a district may encounter in the implementation of a joint use and some possible solutions to these problems. Each section includes a table to help summarize its main points. (Appendices contain the Civic Center Act, and two sample agreements.) 40p.TO ORDER: California Association of School Business Officials Bookstore, 700 N. 10th Street, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95811; Tel: 916-447-3783, Fax: 916-447-3794
Buildings and Grounds: Non-School Use of APS Facilities Other Than Schools
(Albuquerque Public Schools, Albuquerque, NM, 1997)
Policy directive on non-school use of school administration buildings and grounds, including priority of use; unauthorized use; right to deny use of facilities; initiating a request for use of a facility; approval for use of facility; billing and collecting, and safeguarding non-school property.
Use of Facilities.
(San Diego County Office of Education, CA, Sep 1995)
Surplus Space in Schools: an Opportunity.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 1985)
Surplus school spaces, highlighted by falling enrollments, will significantly affect educational building policies in the eighties. Accordingly, this document consists of a comprehensive analysis of the causes of surplus, the problems and opportunities that follow, and the implications for policy and planning. Part 1 analyzes the six major causes of surplus school accommodation in highly industrialized countries: declining birth rates, planning faults, population movements, the aging cycle of the population, educational reorganization, and municipal reforms. Part 2 concerns assessment of surplus and needs, while part 3 is an indepth consideration of ways to make use of surplus space. Part 4 covers management of surplus, including participants and modes of cooperation along with obstacles and constraints. Part 5 addresses consequences for the future, in both planning and design. Finally, part 6 is a summary of conclusions pertaining to the following areas: school population change; capacity and potential of building stock; actual, potential, and future needs of the community; participation in decision-making and incentives; financial procedures, norms, and regulations; and roles and attitudes. Six case studies are appended that provide examples and ideas for the reuse of surplus space in schools. 133p.
Managing Community School Centers.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1979)
Examines a variety of strategies that have been developed for managing community school centers. Four aspects of management are discussed: 1) setting up an organizational structure that establishes relationships among participants; 2) ways of making the structure work; 3) managing the center's facilities; and 4) funding for administration, programs, and operation and maintenance. This booklet is the third in a series that examines community school centers. 32p.
References to Journal Articles
Liability Risks for After-Hours Use of Public School Property to Reduce Obesity: A 50-State Survey.
Journal of School Health; v80 n10 , p508-513 ; Oct 2010
One way to address childhood obesity is to create outlets for children to engage in physical activity. Schools are well equipped to provide an active environment. However, some school boards and administrators are concerned about liability risks. This study describes the legal rules applicable to potential claims against public schools during recreational use of school grounds and facilities. The study concluded that public schools in most states can be subject to liability in certain cases arising out of recreational use of their facilities. However, schools have important defenses. In combination with empirical research about liability in other contexts, this survey suggests that liability risks are unlikely to justify the denial of recreational access to children who are at risk of obesity. (Authors' abstract)
Policies to Promote the Community Use of Schools: A Review of State Recreational User Statutes.
Spengler, John; Carroll, Michael; Connaughton, Daniel; Evenson, Kelly
American Journal of Preventive Medicine; v39 n1 , 81-88 ; Jul 2010
Examines the applicability of recreational user statutes to public schools when the use of school facilities for recreational purposes would occur outside of regular school hours. A review of recreational user statutes from all 50 states was conducted in 2007 and 2009. Forty-two states had recreational user statutes that would potentially offer protection from liability for public schools. The study suggests the need for further statutory liability protections for public schools, and immunity provisions that target activities conducive to physical activity, common on school grounds, and popular among community residents. It further suggests that empirical studies be conducted to examine school administrator's perceptions relevant to liability as a potential barrier to opening school sport and recreational facilities to members of the community outside of regular school hours.[author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/S0749-3797(10)00260-6/abstract
Shaping up Community Fitness Centers.
College Planning and Management; v13 n1 , p75-77 ; Jan 2010
Discusses opening higher education fitness centers to the public, addressing potential legal problems of selling memberships, design considerations, security, equipment, personnel, and potential conflicts among user groups.
Overcoming Challenges to Community-Centered Schools.
Forum Journal; v23 n2 , p12-19 ; Jan 2009
Reviews state- and local-level challenges to creating smaller, community-centered schools and preserving historic neighborhood schools. These historically come from acreage requirements in school facility guidelines that are gradually being abandoned. Nonetheless, the desire to build large, remote schools persists. Deferred maintenance that has led to decrepit inner city schools that are deemed unsalvageable is also blamed. A variety of remedies suggested include relaxing cost percentage rules for renovation versus new construction, joint use of neighborhood facilities, and more accurate feasibility studies for renovation versus new construction.TO ORDER: http://www.preservationbooks.org/Bookstore.asp?category_id=29&Item=1366
Finding Relief: Recovering Costs for Community Use.
School Business Affairs; v74 n10 , p8-10 ; Nov 2008
Advises school districts on recovering expenses related to community use of their facilities. Empowering individual school administrators to control use of their buildings, but centralizing and automating the scheduling and billing are recommended. A tiered fee structure for different types of users and the often delicate public relations issues that arise are also addressed.
Athletic Business; v32 n6 , p239-241 ; Jun 2008
Discusses school/community partnerships for building, maintaining, and sharing athletic facilities. Examples of successful partnerships are included, and conditions of shared-use agreements are briefly discussed.
Community Use of Schools.
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p22-24 ; Jun 2008
Elaborates on the legal complexity of the relationship when schools are made available for community use, acknowledging that it is in the best interest of the school system to open facilities to outside use. Agreements for community use of school facilities are outlined, with particular attention to how school districts should insulate themselves against litigation arising from community use of their facilities.
Schools as a Community Resource for Physical Activity: Legal Considerations for Decision Makers.
Spengler, John; Young, Sarah; Linton, Leslie
Addresses liability issues in school facilities that are also used for community recreation. Discussion and illustration of the community use of schools for recreation and physical activity is followed by coverage of relevant liability issues and protections as they relate to public access of school property. Legal issues of common law, contract law, and statutory protections are discussed, as well as joint-use agreements for the use of schools by the community and policy initiatives mandated by federal legislation. Includes 53 references.
Creating Joint-use Agreements that Work: How a Newly Created Town Crafted a Public School/Library/Park That Serves the Community.
District Administration; v42 n5 , p80-82 ; Jun 2006
Case study of the new town of Ladera Ranch in south Orange County, California, that has a 25-acre campus with an elementary and middle school, a public library, and a joint-use community park.
American School and University; v78 n9 , p16-18,20,22,23 ; Apr 2006
Describes a variety of joint use arrangements between municipalities and public schools and/or community colleges. Resources that the various partners typically bring to the project are discussed, as are some successful and unsuccessful joint-use endeavors.
Open Door Policy.
Athletic Business; v30 n4 , p60-62,64,66,68,70 ; Apr 2006
Offers several examples of how high school athletic facilities are being shared with the community, also describing tactics for meeting the increased operating costs that accompany extended use.
Noncurricular Use of School Facilities: Legal Issues to Consider.
Jenkins, J. Kevin
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p44-47 ; Dec 2002
Describes legal issues involving use of school facilities by noncurricular groups such as the Girl Scouts, a student chess club, or a community gardening club. Discusses three Supreme Court cases on the subject: "Westside v. Mergens" (1990), "Lamb's Chapel v. Center Moriches Union-Free School District" (1993); and "Good News Club v. Milford Central School" (2001).
Joint-use Agreements Pool Municipal, School Resources: Plans Make Public Facilities More Productive.
Van Wyngaardt, Denise Garcia
Nation's Cities Weekly; Sep 23, 2002
Many communities are making use of joint-use agreements as an opportunity to form collaborative agreements for more efficient and productive use of municipal and school facilities. These agreements not only help cities and school districts avoid the need for duplicate buildings that serve the same function, but also provide community residents with amenities such as programs, services or public spaces that would not otherwise be available.
Joint-Use School Facility Agreements Strengthen School Communities.
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n3 , p11-13 ; 2001
Examines joint-use facility agreements that encourage the shared use of school facilities by school districts and community entities. Explores the positive impact that these arrangements have on student achievement. Identifies six key strategic practices for creating effective joint-use facility agreements and six key barriers to this development.