NCEF Resource List: Impact of Facilities on Learning-- Academic Research Studies
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Information on the relationship between student achievement and the physical environment of school and campus buildings, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles – Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment Adobe PDF
Welsh, William; Coglan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke
(School of Education, Stanford University, Aug 2012)
By tracking thousands of students who moved from overcrowded to new facilities over the 2002-2008 period, Berkeley researchers discovered gains equivalent on average to about 35 additional days of instruction each year for elementary-school pupils. Gains are most robust (65 days) for elementary students who escaped severe overcrowding by moving to a new school. Researchers found inconsistent and weaker gains for high school students. p12

The Impact of School Buildings on Student Health and Performance: A Call for Research Adobe PDF
Baker, Lindsay; Bernstein, Harvey
(The McGraw-Hill Research Foundation and the Center for Green Schools at the U.S. Green Building Council, Feb 27, 2012)
Explores research from two perspectives: from the lens of the child’s experience with their built environment, and from how different stakeholders can play an important role in bringing that research to light. Sheds light on the critical need for research around how the school building—through its design, maintenance and operations—impacts the health and performance of the students in those buildings. 35p

Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers
Copeland, Kristen; Sherman, Susan; Kendeigh, Cassandra; Kalkwarf, Heidi; and Saelens, Brian
(Pediatrics, Jan 04, 2012)
Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care were identified: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. [Authors' abstract]

Health Benefits to Children From Contact With the Outdoors and Nature Adobe PDF
(Children and Nature Network , 2012)
Synthesis of selected research and studies on positive health benefits of children’s play in nature. 46p

Improved Academic Performance. Student Health and Academic Performance: Using Research to Make the Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2012)
Provides links to research reports that link key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Includes the latest scientific data on indoor environmental quality, health and academic performance. Discusses why the physical environment of a school is important; what environmental factors are important and practical to address; and how much improvement can be expectec in academic performance and health.

A Place to Learn: Lessons from Research on Learning Environments Adobe PDF
Bernard, Jean
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Montreal, Canada, 2012)
This report presents a comprehensive review of research on learning environments from multiple perspectives, broadly grouped as those that focus on the physical conditions, psychosocial environment and/or organizational climate of classrooms, schools and other learning spaces. The general conclusions and recommendations offered in light of the collected findings are intended to assist learning communities, particularly those in countries with limited resources, with a practical framework for creating and sustaining safe, healthy, equitable and inclusive environments that foster effective learning. 87p

Sustained Positive Effects on Graduation Rates Produced by New York City’s Small Public High Schools of Choice
Bloom, Howard S. and Unterman, Rebecca
(MDRC, 2012)
Between fall 2002 and fall 2008, the New York City school district closed 23 large failing high schools (with graduation rates below 45 percent), opened 216 new small high schools (with different missions, structures, and student selection criteria), and implemented a centralized high school admissions process that assigns over 90 percent of the roughly 80,000 incoming ninth-graders each year based on their school preferences. In June 2010, MDRC released a report on the effectiveness of these small schools of choice. That report demonstrated that SSCs are markedly improving academic progress and graduation prospects, particularly for disadvantaged students. This policy brief extends the analysis by a year, adding information on high school graduation rates for the 2006 cohort and providing a fifth year of follow-up for the 2005 cohort.

The Impact of Sound Field Systems on Learning and Attention in Elementary School Classrooms Adobe PDF
Dockrell, Julie E. and Shield, Bridget
(Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, United Kingdom, 2012)
An evaluation of the installation and use of sound field systems (SFS) was carried out to investigate their impact on teaching and learning in elementary school classrooms. The evaluation included acoustic surveys of classrooms, questionnaire surveys of students and teachers and experimental testing of students with and without the use of SFS. Students’ perceptions of classroom environments and objective data evaluating change in performance on cognitive and academic assessments with amplification over a six month period are reported. Teachers were positive about the use of SFS in improving children’s listening and attention to verbal instructions. Over time students in amplified classrooms did not differ from those in nonamplified classrooms in their reports of listening conditions, nor did their performance differ in measures of numeracy, reading or spelling. Use of SFS in the classrooms resulted in significantly larger gains in performance in the number of correct items on the nonverbal measure of speed of processing and the measure of listening comprehension. Analysis controlling for classroom acoustics indicated that students’ listening comprehension scores improved significantly in amplified classrooms with poorer acoustics but not in amplified classrooms with better acoustics. Both teacher ratings and pupil performance on standardized tests indicated that SFS improved performance on children’s understanding of spoken language. However, academic attainments showed no benefits from the use of SFS. Classroom acoustics were a significant factor influencing the efficacy of SFS; children in classes with poorer acoustics benefited in listening comprehension while there was no additional benefit for children in classrooms with better acoustics. [Authors' abstract] 41p

The Impact of School Facility Construction and Renovation on Academic Achievement in Texas
Holmes, Shannon J
(Dissertation, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, 2012)
The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and student academic achievement. Participating schools designated as having new facilities were determined by the campus earning an Educational Appropriateness Award from the Texas Association of School Boards between 2005 and 2009. Older facilities were determined by the Campus Comparability report issued by the Texas Education Agency. Campuses were compared quantitatively using an independent sample t-test. Six campus principals were also interview to ascertain their perceptions about the impact of school facility conditions on student achievement. The researchers' recommendations based upon this study include the following: further investigations of this topic be from a qualitative approach model. A more robust qualitative study could provide information that is either inaccessible from a quantitative perspective or useful in understanding this type of data. Quantitative studies similar to this research should consider expanding the study population to gather larger study samples. This study did not control for factors such as teacher effectiveness, school leadership, or curriculum equivalence. Future studies could attempt to control For these variables in order to achieve more reliable and significant results. [Author's abstract] 94p

Portraiture of a Green Schoolyard: A Natural History of Children's Experiences
Keena, Kelly Elizabeth
(Dissertation, University of Colorado at Denver, 2012)
Children in the United States are losing access to nature, yet previous research suggests that time in nature provides benefits for children's healthy development. Youth withdrawal from the natural world comes at a time in history when understanding environmental issues demands a knowledge of the natural environment and human's relationship to it. Schools have an opportunity to provide access to nature, but traditionally do not. This portraiture study investigated children's experiences in a schoolyard habitat at a public, traditional school with the purpose of illuminating how the fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students felt, knew about, and acted in the natural setting. The findings indicated five major benefits of a schoolyard habitat used as a classroom throughout the school day: (1) critical thinking and curiosity; (2) ownership and identity; (3) peace and calm; (4) respite and respect; and (5) adventure and imagination. Present in all of those distinct yet interrelated themes was intellect, movement, joy, trust and confidence, safety, comfort and familiarity, respect, and relationships between students and between students and teachers. The study concluded that children's physical, intellectual, and emotional selves were all actively benefiting from the time in the habitat, that a balance of free and promoted action naturally occurred for students and teachers, and that the habitat was a place of kindness and respect. The study has implications for research and practitioners in children's sense of place, schooling, environmental literacy, and portraiture as a methodology to research children's experiences of place. [Author's abstract] 312p

Proximity of Public Elementary Schools to Major Roads in Canadian Urban Areas
Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; and Allen, Ryan W
(International Journal of Health Geographics , Dec 21, 2011)
Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads outside of the US. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances <75 m from major roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Conclusions: asubstantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children. [Authors' abstract]

The Effect of School Construction on Test Scores, School Enrollment, and Home Prices. Adobe PDF
Neilson, Christopher and Zimmerman, Seth
(IZA: Institute for the Study of Labor, Nov 2011)
This paper provides new evidence on the effect of school construction projects on home prices, academic achievement, and public school enrollment. Taking advantage of the staggered implementation of a comprehensive school construction project in a poor urban district, the authors find that, by six years after building occupancy, $10,000 of per-student investment in school construction raised reading scores for elementary and middle school students by 0.027 standard deviations. For a student receiving the average treatment intensity this corresponds to a 0.21 standard deviation increase. School construction also raised home prices and public school enrollment in zoned neighborhoods. 47p

The Effect of the New Haven School Construction Project on Test Scores, Home Prices, and Public School Enrollment. Policy Brief
Neilsen, Christopher; Zimmerman, Seth
(Yale University Department of Economics, Oct 09, 2011)
In 1995, New Haven began the Citywide School Construction Program (SCP), a comprehensive effort to rebuild every public school in the district. By 2010, out of 42 school buildings in the district, 30 had been rebuilt or extensively renovated, with an additional seven schools under construction or under design. With total projected costs of approximately $1.4 billion (in 2005 dollars), the SCP is believed to be the largest per-capita school construction program in the U.S. Of the $1.4 billion in total expenditures, New Haven paid for just over 20 percent, or $300 million; the remaining funds came from State or Federal sources.This document summarizes the results of an independent study of the effects of the New Haven SCP on educational and community outcomes in the city. The method of analysis controls for persistent differences in neighborhoods and for citywide trends. 8p

Research Into the Connection Between Built Learning Spaces and Student Outcomes Adobe PDF
Jill Blackmore, Debra Bateman, Jill Loughlin, Joanne O’Mara, George Aranda
(Education Policy and Research Division, Victoria Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Australia, Jun 2011)
This literature review asked the question of the current literature on built environments: To what extent does the literature show connections between learning spaces and student learning outcomes in schools? The report presents information on: theoretical and empirical connections made between learning spaces and student learning outcomes; gaps in extant research; and emergent themes. The review identified over 700 primary documents from a wide range of sources including peer-reviewed periodicals, magazines, reports (governmental, non-governmental and advocate groups), books, conference proceedings, national newspapers, dissertations and websites. This report is organised around a conceptual framework that was developed from an analysis of the literature. The framework identifies four temporalities in the research addressing connections between learning spaces, teacher practice and student learning. These temporalities are the: design phase; implementation and transition phase; consolidation phase; and sustainability/re-evaluation phase. 63p

A Preliminary Study of the Effects that Four L.E.E.D. Gold Certified Elementary Schools Have on Student Learning, Attendance and Health
LaBuhn, Richard W
(Dissertation, Texas State University, Jun 2011)
As student enrollment increases in the United States, so too does the demand for educational facilities. School districts that have faced successive years of budget shortfalls have neglected renovations to existing facilities in order to pay for more immediate operating costs. As a result, a growing number of schools have environmental hazards such as poor indoor air quality and inadequate ventilation. Education facilities are also voracious consumers of energy. A green building movement has emerged in the past decade that has sought to minimize the impact that school construction has on the environment, while also providing learning environments conducive to student and faculty health. Proponents of green building claim that green schools improve student test scores, promote better attendance, and provide healthier learning environments. This study focused on four elementary schools that meet the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (L.E.E.D.) standard and sought to determine whether students in these schools had better standardized test scores, better attendance rates, and fewer health problems than students in conventionally constructed schools. [Author's abstract] 137p

Investigating the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students in Reference to Factors Associated with Daylight.
Majid, Seied et al
(Asian Social Science, Mar 2011)
There is no simple guide to human behavior which architects can use but recommendations rather an understanding of the principles of behavior and of man's interactions with buildings. To investigate the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students, the attitudes and behaviors towards the visual environment of three hundred and fifty primary school students were studied in eleven schools of varying design, with particular reference to factors associated with daylight and fenestration. The survey included social issues, personality characteristics of the primary school students and the varying visual characteristics of the buildings including photometric studies. Considerable proportions of students choose to work or sit near windows, the chief factor being the amount of daylight. View content, view out and nature are important. The most popular children occupy favored window places. Space and comfort both thermal and visual are important. Gender separation is natural. [Authors' abstract] 12p.

The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.
Cellini, Stephanie; Ferreira, Fernando; Rothstein, Jesse
(The Quarterly Journal of Economics, v125 n1, Feb 2011)
Estimates the value of school facility investments using housing markets: standard models of local public goods imply that school districts should spend up to the point where marginal increases would have zero effect on local housing prices. The research design isolates exogenous variation in investments by comparing school districts where referenda on bond issues targeted to fund capital expenditures passed and failed by narrow margins. Results indicate that California school districts underinvest in school facilities: passing a referendum causes immediate, sizable increases in home prices, implying a willingness to pay on the part of marginal homebuyers of $1.50 or more for each $1 of capital spending. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the impact on test scores appears to explain only a small portion of the total housing price effect. [Ahuthors' abstract] p215-261

Performance Evaluation of Indoor Environment towards Sustainability for Higher Educational Buildings Adobe PDF
Khalil, Natasha; Husin, Husrul Nizam; Wahab, Lilawati Ab; Kamal, Kamarul Syahril; Mahat, Noorsaidi
(US-China Education Review , 2011)
The indoor environmental factors considered in higher educational building must be determined in order to meet the user's requirement. Disruption of indoor environment may reduce occupants' efficiencies and their learning process and activities. But the question is, how to ensure that the provision of indoor environmental aspects achieves high satisfaction to the building user. Therefore, POE (post occupancy evaluation) is a prominent tool that indicates satisfaction and comfort level needs by the building occupants as lessons learned to identify problems in the indoor environment. The information of the building's condition is gained by reviewing what the occupants' feelings are and how they response to their needs by using and occupying the building. With relation to the title, the main aim of this study is to determine the occupants' satisfaction levels and the probability of learning process, which can be affected due to poor environmental conditions, based on analytical study on concept and process of POE. A survey on occupants' satisfaction of 100 students in University Technology of MARA, Perak, Malaysia, has revealed that there is significance of providing good quality of indoor environmental conditions, that will affect the learning process of the students. It is concluded that POE is effective to be used in evaluating performance of environmental conditions in a building, especially to apply the relative impact of aspects towards the design of future buildings. By introducing POE in evaluating environmental conditions in higher educational buildings, it is hoped that it helps to move the industry towards sustainable, healthy and comfortable learning areas. [Authors' abstract]

Study of the Relationship Between Air-Conditioned Classrooms and Student Achievement.
Lemasters, Linda K.; Earthman, Glen
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2011)
Previous research on the effect air-conditioning has upon the well being and performance of students has produced some very positive results indicating there is a relationship between the thermal environment and student achievement. Three hypotheses were developed to test the proposition that air-conditioned classrooms had an effect upon student performance. The present study used the 2001 student results of the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition in the 4th, 6th, and 9th grades to measure the effect air-conditioned classrooms have upon this performance. The mean scaled scores of the 10 subtests were used to make the comparison. The population of the study consisted of 10 school divisions in Virginia. Half of the school divisions had all of the buildings air-conditioned, while the other half had no air-conditioned buildings. Although only one statistical significant relationship was found through the ANCOVA, observations of other relationships indicated a recognizable difference between the 9th grade scores of students in air-conditioned and non air-conditioned buildings that was not present in the 4th grade scores. This leads to the belief that the longer students attend an air-conditioned building, the higher will be their achievement scores. [Authors' abstract]

The Impact of School Facilities on the Learning Environment.
Vandiver, Bert
(Dissertation, Capella University, 2011)
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the impact of the quality of facilities on the educational environment in high schools located in northeast Texas. The intent of this research study was to determine the relationship between school facilities and the school-learning environment. This study was a mixed method research that used questionnaires and interviews to identify and appraise school facilities and learning environment. The problem was that school facilities were negatively impacting student learning and faculty, and administrators were not properly supporting stronger facility management. The poor condition of some schools raised serious concerns about teacher and student safety. Educators must understand and find ways to help increase student performance. This study used descriptive statistics to analyze the data. The independent z-test was conducted to determine the difference in student performance before vs. after the new facility. The results of the data analysis findings indicated that quality and educational adequacy of educational facilities were statistically significantly associated with student performance and teacher turnover rate showing a statistical change also. [Author's abstract] 175p.

Plants in the Classroom Can Improve Student Performance.
Daly, John; Burchett, Margaret; Torpy, Fraser
(University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, Oct 29, 2010)
The aims of this project was to investigate the effects of indoor plants on classroom performance in years 6 and 7 students. The trials were conducted in three independent schools in the Brisbane region, with a total of over 360 students in 13 classes. Half of the classes received 3 plants per classroom, and students were tested with standard tests before plant placements and re-tested after 6 weeks of plant presence or absence. In two of the schools, significant improvements were found with plants present, as compared to classes without plants. The consistency of results among schools, classes, and the large student numbers leads the authors to recommend that indoor plants should be a standard installation in school classrooms. 9p.

Class Sizes Are Increasing, but Does It Really Matter?
Henry, Tamara
(Columbia University Teachers College, New York, NY , Aug 26, 2010)
Examines to what extent class size really matters. Conventional wisdom says smaller classes equal better education, but decades of research show the relationship between class size and student outcomes is murky. The Center on Reinventing Public Education says the effects of class-size reduction are pretty marginal, except in early grades for disadvantaged students. With coming teacher layoffs, the report claims that it probably makes sense to focus not so much on class sizes but on making sure that the teachers you keep are really effective. 7p.

Exploring Characteristics of Public School Facilities and Resources and Their Relationship With Teacher Retention Adobe PDF
Brendle-Corum. Anita Dawn
(Dissertation, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, Aug 2010)
The purpose of this study was to examine how the eight items within the public school Facilities and Resources domain of the 2008 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions survey predict teachers’ stated intentions to return to the same assignment in North Carolina. The survey items were divided into three clusters: technology, facilities, and instructional materials. A discriminant function analysis was conducted to predict teachers’ stated intentions to return to the same assignment or to change positions. This study found that teachers want to work in a school environment that is safe and has sufficient access to appropriate instructional materials and resources to teach effectively. The study also found that the survey respondents in the “stay” group, which are the teachers that did not plan to leave their current assignment, were classified with better accuracy (96.6%) and were more positive about their work environment. The results of this study confirm a relationship between teachers’ stated intentions to stay in their current assignment, the condition of school facilities, and the availability of resources in public schools in North Carolina. Implications for policy and practice are presented along with suggestions for further research. [Author's abstract] 108p.

The Impact of Eliminating Extraneous Sound and Light on Students' Achievement: An Empirical Study.
Mangipudy, Rajarajeswari Venkata Surya
(Florida International University Thesis, Jul 2010)
The impact of eliminating extraneous sound and light on students’ achievement was investigated under four conditions: Light and Sound controlled, Sound Only controlled, Light Only controlled and neither Light nor Sound controlled. Group, age and gender were the control variables. Four randomly selected groups of high school freshmen students with different backgrounds were the participants in this study. Academic achievement was the dependent variable measured on a pretest, a posttest and a post-posttest, each separated by an interval of 15 days. ANOVA was used to test the various hypotheses related to the impact of eliminating sound and light on student learning. Independent sample T tests on the effect of gender indicated a significant effect while age was non- significant. Follow up analysis indicated that sound and light are not potential sources of extraneous load when tested individually. [Author's abstract] 204p

Effects of Classroom Acoustics on Performance and Well-Being in Elementary School Children: A Field Study. Adobe PDF
Klatte, Maria; Hellbrück, Jürgen; Seidel, Jochen; Leistner, Philip
(Presented at Internoise 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, Jun 13, 2010)
Analyzes the effects of classroom reverberation on children’s performance and well-being at school. Performance and questionnaire data were collected from 487 children from 21 classrooms which differed in mean reverberation time from 0.49 to 1.1 seconds. Significant effects of reverberation on speech perception and short-term memory of spoken items were found. Furthermore, the children from reverberating classrooms performed lower in a phonological processing task, reported a higher burden of indoor noise in the classrooms, and judged the relationships to their peers and teachers less positively than children from classrooms with good acoustics. The results demonstrate the importance of good acoustical conditions in classrooms. {Authors' abstract] 9p

The Evaluation of Charter School Impacts. Adobe PDF
Gleason, Philip; Clark, Melissa; Tuttle, Christina; Dwoyer, Emily; Silverberg, Marsha
(U.S. Department of Education, Nationca Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Washington , Jun 2010)
Evaluates outcomes in 36 charter middle schools in 15 states. The report compares the outcomes of 2,330 students who applied to these schools and were randomly assigned by lotteries to be admitted (lottery winners) or not admitted (lottery losers) to the schools. Both sets of students were tracked over two years and data on student achievement, academic progress, behavior, and attitudes were collected. Among the key findings were that, on average, charter middle schools that held lotteries were neither more nor less successful than traditional public schools in improving math or reading test scores, attendance, grade promotion, or student conduct within or outside of school. 264p.
Report NO: NCEE 2010-4029

New Learning Environments: A Study of How Architecture Can Respond to Interdisciplinary and Mobile Learning.
Hall, Chantel
(University of Cincinnati, OH , May 2010)
By evaluating designs based on the evolution of the American school as a building typology and predicting the future of higher learning based on the progressing pedagogical shift, this thesis explores new generation learning environments as social entities which will promote interdisciplinary interaction among students and faculty and will challenge the status quo in current education. 182p.

Relationship Between the Physical Characteristics of Higher Educational Facilities and Student Attitudes About Their Graduate School Programs
Lopez del Puerto, Carla
(Dissertation, St. Louis University , Apr 2010)
This research investigates how the following factors of the physical environment: lighting, acoustics, temperature, and color influence perceptions of their classrooms and thus influence student attitudes about the quality of their programs. It reports the results of technical measurements and linkages with the perceptions of former students who utilized them. Understanding the influence of the physical environment will furnish facility managers measurable physical metrics that can be used to identify those educational spaces that are having an adverse impact on learning and exactly what systems/areas are the greatest contributor to negative student perceptions. This allows the institution to make the best possible allocation of resources to improve a facility and enhance its sustainability. The research results indicate that there is a disconnect between the former students' perception of adequacy of their higher education facilities and the actual condition of the facilities. Even though the results indicate that the campus facilities play a small part in the students' satisfaction with their graduate program, policy makers and college administration must realize that the physical environment does influence satisfaction with the graduate school program. [Author's abstract] 97p.

Learning Landscapes in Higher Education: Final Report. Adobe PDF
Neary, Mike et al
(Centre for Educational Research and Development, University of Lincoln, England, Apr 2010)
Learning Landscapes is a research project looking at the ways in which academics work with colleagues in campuses and other key stakeholders to develop and manage innovation in the design of teaching and learning spaces in higher education. This project explored new pathways and strategies which universities are using to link academic expertise to the process of quality and cost effective campus development in the redesigning the university for the twenty first century. The research features a series of campus mapping profiles and case studies of particular innovative teaching and learning spaces in the participating universities. These case studies have been used to produce a number of development tools that can be utilised by academics, estates professionals and other key stakeholders working in the HE sector. 29p.

Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Jan 2010)
Reviews the literature on school facilities and academic outcomes, school building systems, and school facility condition and community factors. It includes a bibliography of research since 2002 and discusses the need for future school facility research. 3p.

An On-going Research on Learning and School Buildings in Palestine. Adobe PDF
Al-Azzar, Ahmad; Joubran, Joubran; Juha, Linda
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Compares drawings by children from two very different school environments. The project investigates how children and teachers in three recently built new schools in different regions of West Bank evaluate and use their school buildings. These three schools were chosen for this study because special care has been given to their spatial layout. Similar data are collected from children going to school in three old school buildings with more traditional spatial lay-outs. In their drawings, children from the new school give much more place to the surroundings, playground, nature, trees, open space, sun and also school friends (drawings of children in the courtyard) when compared to drawings from the old school. The authors suggest that this has to do with the fact that there is generally speaking more space and transparency in the new school. This could also be a hypothesis for explaining the more positive evaluation that children of the new school give about their school. 8p.

Improving Student Achievement and School Facilities in a Time of Limited Funding.
Cash, Carol; Twiford, Travis
(The Connexions Project , 2010)
This paper will provide a plethora of data that research has provided regarding how the learning environment can improve student performance. Over a decade of research has consistently confirmed that the physical environment impacts the learning environment and student achievement. In an era of data-driven decision making, one cannot ignore evidence that is quantified and specific. Some factors require minimum investment, but provide significant return. The authors' experiences and the research shared in this paper will arm the reader with the data to make changes in the built environment that can produce significant improvement in teacher morale, school climate, parent and community confidence, and student outcomes. [Authors' abstract] 9p.

Building Better Schools: Methodological Concerns and The Need for Evidence-Based Research. Adobe PDF
Edgerton, Edward; McKechnie, J.; McEwen, S.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Describes how the difficulty in building high-quality school environments has more to do with a lack of knowledge rather than a lack of finance. Research supported decisions in planning schools are still badly needed. According to the author, there are many reasons why there is little high quality research on school environments, but, perhaps the main reason concerns the practical and methodological difficulties that exist in this "real-life" field of research. Issues such as access to schools and users, specifying what variables to measure, selecting appropriate tools and obtaining large, representative samples, result in many barriers that need to be overcome. With reference to two school environment studies (one completed and one on-going), the paper focuses on tool development, operationalization of variables and the necessity for longitudinal research. 9p.

Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers: A Summary of Studies Published since 2000. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary; Vincent; Jeff
(21st Century School Fund with funding from the Charitable Trust of the Council on Educational Facility Planners International., 2010)
Recent research continues to point to a small but steadily positive relationship between the quality of a public school facility and a range of academic and community outcomes. This study reviews the literature on: (1) Facilities & academic outcomes; (2) School building systems; and (3) School facility condition and community factors. The review is designed as an update to the 2002 review “Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?” by Mark Schneider, originally commissioned by the 21st Century School Fund’s Building Educational Success Together collaborative and then expanded by Dr. Schneider and published by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. This new review, available in October 2009 includes an extensive bibliography of research since 2002 and discusses the need for future school facility research. 3p.

Principals' Perceptions of the Impact of Building Condition on Student Achievement.
Harrison, Elise Kollmann
(Ed.D. Dissertation, The George Washington University., 2010)
The issue of the condition of the schools children attend has been resistant to inclusion in the culture of educational reform. This study was undertaken to probe this resistance by examining the perceptions of a specific population of principals whose evaluation and continuing employment was tied to improving student achievement in their schools, in order to assess the condition of their buildings and their identification of condition with effect on student achievement. [Author's abstract] 211p.

Architectural Quality in Planning and Design of Schools: Current Issues with Focus on Developing Countries. Adobe PDF
Knapp, Eberhard; Noschis, Kaj, eds.
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th Architecture & Behavior Colloquium, bringing. It brought together researchers, designers, consultants and decision makers on educational facilities. Representatives from countries in Africa, the Middle-East, Europe, and the United States took part. The eleven presentations included in the proceedings cover the following topics: 1) Research on the interrelation between the quality of educational facilities and students' learning performance; 2) Educational architecture that enhances learning and social processes: examples of successful design projects, and 3) Educational architecture in developing countries: standard designs vs. site-specific, individual designs. 108p.

Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
Perkins, Bradford; Bordwell, Raymond
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises architects, planners, engineers, and their clients through all aspects of school facilities design. Chapters address predesign, circulation, design concerns and process, site planning, codes, sustainability, systems, technology, materials, acoustics, lighting, interiors, wayfinding, renovation, international design issues, operation and maintenance, and financing. Appendices provide sample space programs for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. The book examines technology's influence in the classroom, along with current research that shows how school buildings can impact teaching and learning. Design guidance is illustrated with school case studies, photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 350p.

Learning and The Physical Environment-A Research Overview from Scandinavia. Adobe PDF
Pia Bjoerklid
(Comportements and Authors, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2010)
Presents a review of research done in Scandinavia on the relationship between learning and the physical environment. The paper discusses the interaction between children's learning and the physical environment of schools and their adjacent outdoor environments. The author stresses that learning in schools comprises both formal and informal learning, including play. She argues that both play spaces and learning spaces should have workshop-like qualities, preferably with clearly demarcated areas for different activities. Children need environments that inspire them to different types of practical activity. Learning environments should provide rooms for meeting and mixing with friends but also for seclusion. One way of assuring students' right to safe and developmental environments is to give them influence over the planning of their physical landscape. The local environment around the school is an opportunity in this respect. 6p.

Awareness of Daylighting on Student Learning in an Educational Facility.
Pulay, Alana
(University of Nebraska, Lincoln , 2010)
Examines how awareness of the interior architecture of a building, specifically daylighting, affects students academic performance. Extensive research has proven that the use of daylighting in a classroom can significantly enhance students?academic success. The problem statement and purpose of this study is to determine if student awareness of daylighting in their learning environment affects academic performance compared to students with no knowledge of daylighting. Research and surveys in existing and newly constructed high schools were conducted to verify the results of this study. These design ideas and concepts could influence the architecture and design industry to advocate construction and building requirements that incorporate more sustainable design teaching techniques. 60p.

Impact of a New School Facility on One District's Experience. Adobe PDF
Shearer, Adriel
(Ohio University, College of Education, Athens , Jan 2010)
Analyzes improvement in academic performance in Ohio's new Laurel High, a building that replaced an historic, but decrepit facility. Despite the extreme contrast of facility conditions between the old and the new, the overwhelming majority of teachers who participated in this study did not observe a change in academic performance since moving into the new facility. The most dramatic and observable impact of the new school facility was the shift in attitude and behavior of teachers within the building. The teachers at Laurel High School went from a severely out-dated and substandard facility to a building that provided a clean bright and safe environment for learning. The transition was also accompanied by equipment that enabled teachers to incorporate a wide range of new learning activities. The opportunity that these two factors presented instilled a new enthusiasm for teaching in virtually all teachers surveyed. This enthusiasm also accompanied an eagerness to incorporate new technologies into the classroom. Includes 33 references. 56p.

Making the Case for Space: Three Years of Empirical Research on Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Whiteside, Aimee L.; Brooks, D. Christopher and Walker, J. D.
(Office of Information Technology at the University of Minnesota, 2010)
Research project shows that students in new, technology-enhanced learning spaces exceeded final grade expectations relative to their ACT scores, suggesting strongly that features of the spaces contributed significantly to their learning; first-year and sophomore students as well as students from metropolitan areas rated new learning spaces significantly higher than their upper-division and rural counterparts in terms of engagement, enrichment, effectiveness, flexibility, fit and instructor use; different learning environments affect teaching-learning activities even when instructors attempt to hold these activities constant; assignment types greatly impact the study environments students select. [Authors' summary of key findings] 18p.

Stress and the Administrator of Rural Schools Being Rebuilt. Adobe PDF
Wright, Robert J.; Lesisko, Lee J.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Denver, CO, Apr 30-May 4, 2010), 2010)
School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The negative impact on the ongoing educational programs is a stressor for many administrators. The possibility that rural school administrators would experience more stress producing problems than would suburban and urban school leaders was studied. Using a sample of 190 school administrators, this hypothesis was supported for a number of dimensions of school climate. Possible causes for this differential effect are proposed. 13p

The Impact of Rosenwald Schools on Black Achievement. Adobe PDF
Aaronson, Daniel; Mazumder, Bhashkar
(Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago , Oct 2009)
The Black-White gap in completed schooling among Southern born men narrowed sharply between the World Wars after being stagnant from 1880 to 1910. We examine a large scale school construction project, the Rosenwald Rural Schools Initiative, which was designed to dramatically improve the educational opportunities for Southern rural Blacks. From 1914 to 1931, nearly 5,000 school buildings were constructed, serving approximately 36 percent of the Black rural school-aged Southern population. We use historical Census data and World War II enlistment records to analyze the effects of the program on school attendance, literacy, high school completion, years of schooling, earnings, hourly wages, and migration. We find that the Rosenwald program accounts for at least 30 percent of the sizable educational gains of Blacks during the 1910s and 1920s. [Authors' abstract] 69p.
Report NO: WP 2009-26

Optimal Learning Spaces: Design Implications for Primary Schools. Adobe PDF
Barrett, Peter; Zhang, Yufan
(University of Salford, Salford Centre for Research and Innovation in the Builint an Human Environment, Salford, United Kingdom , Oct 2009)
Frames the multitude of opportunities within just a few major design principles derived from the basics of how people experience spaces in response to the environmental data they gain through their senses and synthesize in their brains that are more effective and comfortable. The report provides in-depth and practical suggestions for improving the quality of the internal and external learning environment so ensuring that pupils and teaching staff enjoy effective communication in comfortable spaces. This leads to a focus on naturalness, individualization and level of stimulation. The resulting practical opportunities are illustrated with case studies. When a new building is complete and is handed over to the teachers, the school can only be a finished beginning in which adaptations will occur. Only when spaces are seen to support learning and create a positive experience, can it be said that it was designed successfully. 55p.

The Relationship Between the Condition of School Facilities and Certain Educational Outcomes, Particularly in Rural Public Schools in Texas.
Sheets, Martin Eugene
(Dissertation in Educational Leadership, Texas Tech University, May 2009)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the condition of rural public high school facilities in Texas and student achievement, student attendance, and teacher turnover. The measures for the condition of facilities variables used in this study were obtained from the 2006 Texas Comptroller’s Facility Survey of the 1,037 public school districts in Texas. The participants for this study were the 72 rural public high schools out of the 309 total responses to the survey from all district types. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to examine which selected condition of facilities variables and demographic variables best predicted certain educational outcomes. This study found that the student wealth level contributed most to the variance in student achievement. However, the condition of school facilities has a measurable effect over and above socioeconomic conditions on student achievement and teacher turnover.[Author's abstract] 141p.

Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.
TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press

Space and Place in the University.
Temple, Paul
(Southampton Solent University, Southampton, United Kingdom , Jan 2009)
Argues that university space influences the nature of the community and the culture that exist within it; that these phenomena transform space into place; and that it is place which affects academic outcomes. The idea of the university that is sustainable, in various senses, relates to these concepts. 15p.

Schools of the Future.
Walden, Rotraut, ed.
(Hogrefe and Huber, Cambridge, MA , 2009)
Provides a brief overview of the historical development of school buildings in different countries, followed by contributions from authors discussing how school buildings can work together with users' own creative responses and result in educational environments that are "alive." The give-and- take relationship between architecture and its users (students, teachers, parents, and the community at large) is emphasized from the point of view of architectural psychology and emerging considerations such as information technology. The "schools for the future" vision is to create spaces that people are pleased to return to, time and again, and that allow options for future modification in line with changing user requirements. Also proposed are criteria for the assessment of schools derived from a dual approach. The first is the call for a common language to be used by designers and educators, exemplified by a number of patterns that have been found to be salient in school design. Their common underlying premise is that learning environments should be learner-centered, appropriate to age and developmental stage, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, and equitable, in addition to being cost effective. The second approach presents instruments for the systematic assessment of school buildings according to facet theory, a tool that helps to structure the large number of possible influences and subjective indicators such as learning performance, expressions of well-being, and social behavior. 264p.
TO ORDER: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers

The Value of School Facilities: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.
(National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA , Dec 2008)
Analyzes the impact of voter-approved school bond issues on school district balance sheets, local housing prices, and student achievement. The paper uses California's system of school finance to obtain clean identification of bonds' causal effects, comparing districts in which school bond referenda passed or failed by narrow margins. The housing market estimates indicate that California school districts under-invest in school facilities. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the school bond impact on test scores cannot explain more than a small portion of the total housing price effect. The estimates indicate that parents value improvements in other dimensions of school output (e.g., safety) that may be not captured by test scores. 49p.

The Condition of the High School Facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia's Metropolitan School Divisions and the Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction.
Ruszala, Julie Ann
(Dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. , Aug 2008)
With the increasing age and extensive growth of our nation's school systems, school administrators and building designers have become more concerned with the effects of building conditions and those who work there. This study was undertaken to assess the condition of the high school facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia's metropolitan school divisions and to determine whether or not there was a direct relationship between teacher satisfaction and building conditions. Two survey instruments were utilized to answer the proposed research questions. The Commonwealth Assessment of Physical Environment (CAPE) survey was designed by Cash (1993) and provided an accurate representation of the physical environment for school buildings. The Teacher Opinionaire of Physical Environment (TOPE) survey designed by Ruszala (2006), measured teacher satisfaction in relationship to specific school building conditions. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that a moderate positive correlation was found between the overall building condition as reported by the CAPE and overall teacher satisfaction as reported by the TOPE. Teachers were in pretty strong agreement with the principals on the condition of their school building.{Author's abstract] 232p.

Public School Facilities and Teacher Job Satisfaction.
Stallings, Dwayne K.
(Dissertation, East Carolina University, Aug 2008)
A growing body of research suggests the physical condition of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology, impact teachers' job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference between teachers who plan to stay in current positions and those who plan to leave in terms of their perceptions of the conditions of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology. The study suggests that work environment and availability of resources do impact the job satisfaction of teachers and may be associated with their decisions to remain in teaching. Although many factors influence teacher job satisfaction and teacher retention, the results of this study confirm that educators and policymakers should address the physical conditions of public school facilities and availability of resources as part of their efforts to improve teacher job satisfaction and increase teacher retention. [Author's abstract] 183p.

The Effects of the School Environment on Young People's Attitudes Towards Education and Learning. Adobe PDF
Rudd, Peter; Reed, Frances; Smith, Paula
(National Foundation for Educational Research, Berkshire, United Kingdom , May 2008)
Summarizes research to demonstrate the difference that the British Building Schools for the Future (BSF) schools are making to young people s attitudes towards education and learning, as measured by their levels of engagement and enthusiasm for school. Overall findings indicate that student attitudes had become more positive after the move into the new school buildings. The proportions of students who: 1) said that they felt safe at school most or all of the time increased from 57 to 87 per cent, 2) said that they felt proud of their school increased from 43 to 77 per cent, 3) Said that they enjoyed going to school increased from 50 to 61 per cent, 4) Perceived that vandalism in their school decreased from 84 per cent of respondents to 33 per cent, 5) perceived that bullying decreased from 39 per cent of students to 16 per cent, and 6) expected to stay on in the sixth form or to go to college increased from 64 per cent to 77 per cent. It is not possible to attribute a causal link between improved attitudes of the students and the move to the new BSF building, but the numbers and levels of positive findings suggest an association between the move to the new surroundings and improvements in students' outlooks regarding their experience of school and their expectation for the future. 31p.

Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education.
Campbell, Jeffery
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , Apr 2008)
Reports on a survey of college students to determine any correlation between five levels of cleanliness and academic achievement. The findings showed that eighty-eight percent of students reported that the lack of cleanliness becomes a distraction when cleanliness descends to the third level. Eighty-four percent reported that they desire the first and second levels of cleanliness to create a good learning environment. Cleanliness ranked as the 4th most important building element to impact their personal learning, after noise, air temperature and lighting. Seventy-eight percent reported that cleanliness has an impact on their health, providing 892 comments of how cleanliness affects their health and 681 comments on how to improve campus cleanliness. 144p.

Color in an Optimum Learning Environment. Adobe PDF
Daggett, Willard R., Cobble, Jeffrey E., Gertel, Steven J.
(International Center fo Leadership in Education, Rexford, NY , Mar 2008)
Discusses color as an important factor in the physical learning environment, and as a major element in interior design that impacts student achievement, teacher effectiveness, and staff efficiency. Specific colors and patterns directly influence the health, morale, emotions, behavior, and performance of learners, depending on the individual's culture, age, gender, and developmental level, the subject being studied, and the activity being conducted 9p.

The Impact of the Educational Facility on Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
Wilson, Catherine
(University of Georgia, College of Education, Athens , Feb 2008)
Presents a reflection by the author regarding the impact of the educational facility on student achievement, based on the book Educational Facilities Planning:Leadeeship, Architecture, and Management, by C. Kenneth Tanner and Jeffery A. Lackney. The author reviews relevant portions of the body of research which were cited in the book regarding this topic. After a review of the body of literature, the author reflects on the meaning that such information had to her as a student, as a teacher, and will have to her as a future school leader in the elementary school setting. 8p.

A School for Everyone: School Design to Support the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities.
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark , 2008)
Investigates the impact of school and classroom physical environments on the inclusion of students with disabilities. Researchers analyzed the physical environments of six inclusive schools in three school districts in the state of New Jersey. Half of these schools were newly constructed facilities, built within the past three years, and half were existing schools within the same districts. The findings showed that newer school buildings, designed to be accessible and barrier-free, were generally more supportive of the inclusion of students with physical disabilities. However, for students with intellectual and autism spectrum disorders, other design features had a major impact. Buildings that were predictable, consistent and orderly had a calming effect on students with sensory and behavioral issues and helped them to focus on their work. The ability to reduce environmental stimuli also had a positive impact on students' ability to focus. Classrooms that were configured to allow several activities to happen simultaneously and supported working groups of various sizes, increased teachers' flexibility and promoted interdependence among students. It was also found that many of the small scale environmental modifications that enabled students with disabilities to participate in inclusive educational environments also improved the environment for students who were not classified as having special needs. 25p.

The Age and Condition of Texas High Schools as Related to Student Academic Achievement.
Blincoe, James Maurice
(Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. , 2008)
This study investigated three research questions: (a) the relationship between the building condition of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS); (b) the relationship between the building age of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by TAKS; and (c) the relationship between building age and condition of public high schools in Texas and graduation rate? This quantitative study utilized an ex post facto methodology to examine the relationship between the high school facilities and standardized test scores. This study sampled high schools whose data were presented in the 2006 Texas Comptrollers report and compared to TAKS data. The instrument utilized was developed and tested by the Texas Comptroller's Office. This study utilized an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a regression model. Statistically significant findings showed a relationship between excellent condition of a school, as compared to schools in lesser condition, and student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts scores. Age of the school also had a significant relationship: Schools over 49 years old had a significant impact on student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts. Similar findings showed a negative correlation between schools over 49 years old and graduation rate. Schools in excellent condition had a positive correlation to student graduation rate. Determining the effect of inadequate high school facilities on student achievement can help inform the education and legislative communities of any correlations between the condition and age of a high school building and the academic achievement of the students in these buildings. Providing school facilities that are safe and provide quality learning conditions are issues that must be addressed in Texas. [Author's abstract] 98p.

Corridor Cultures: Mapping Student Resistance at an Urban High School.
Dickar, Maryann
(New York University Press, 2008)
Analysis of an often-neglected aspect of school life: the relationship between architectural space and student and school cultures. Based on an intensive multiyear ethnography in a small school within one of New York City’s reorganized comprehensive high schools, the author examines the ongoing tensions between the student-dominated halls and the teacher-dominated classrooms, as well as how the corridors often become a synthesis of street and school cultures. Through an examination of spatial challenges to teaching and learning, the book provides a sometimes sobering glimpse into the challenges of urban education. 212p

High School Landscapes and Student Performance.
Matsuoka, Rodney
(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor , 2008)
Reports on an investigation of 101 public high schools in southeastern Michigan to examine the role played by the availability of nearby natural environments in the academic achievement and behavior of high school students. The results reveal that nature exposure beneficially affects student performance. Specifically, views with greater quantities of natural features (e.g., trees, shrubs) from classroom as well as cafeteria windows were associated with higher standardized test scores, graduation rates, and percentages of students planning to attend college, and lower occurrences of criminal behavior. In addition, school policies of allowing students to eat lunch outdoors and to leave campus during lunch were related to enhanced test scores and college plans. Finally, large expanses of landscape lacking in natural features had a negative influence on test scores, intentions to attend college, and college plans. Such landscapes included large areas of lawn, parking lots, and bordering farmlands. 121p.

The Impact of School Facilities on Student Achievement, Attendance, Behavior, Completion Rate and Teacher Turnover Rate in Selected Texas High Schools.
McGowen, Robert Scott
(Texas A&M University, Dec 2007)
The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal's designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study's dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. [Author's abstract]

Integration Patterns of Learning Technologies. Adobe PDF
Elmasry, Sarah Khalil
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Sep 10, 2007)
This research proposes sets of design patterns of learning environments as an innovative approach towards an intelligent architectural design process. These patterns are based on teachers’ spatial and pedagogical use of their learning environments. The study is based in the desired condition that learning environments are expected to host learning technologies efficiently, to adapt to the fact that its life span is much longer than that of any technology within it, and to accommodate a variation of teaching modes and learning styles. In an effort to address these issues; calls for designing flexible learning spaces have emerged, as well as recommendations for alternative layouts. Yet, more challenging questions emerge; how efficiently do these technologies integrate with other systems in the classroom space? What should architects and facility planners consider for a successful systems’ integration which incorporates learning technologies in the design of the classroom space? And how can these spaces support variations in pedagogical practice. This study attempts to answer these questions by developing a pattern language to support the early design phases of a technology-rich learning environment. [Author's abstract] 139p.

The Relationship between School Building Conditions and Student Achievement at the Middle School Level in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Adobe PDF
Bullock, Calvin
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , Aug 08, 2007)
Investigates the relationship between school building condition and student achievement as measured by their performance on Virginia s Standards of Learning (SOL) examinations at the middle school level. Data on the condition of the school buildings, the percentage of passing scores from SOL examinations for each Virginia middle school, and the socioeconomic status of the students attending the schools were considered. Students performed better in newer or recently renovated buildings than they did in older buildings. The percentage of students passing the Commonwealth of Virginia Standards of Learning Examination at the middle school level was higher in English, mathematics and science in standard buildings than it was in substandard buildings. Building age, windows in the instructional area, and overall building condition were positively related to student achievement. Finally the data from this study were compared to the results of earlier studies that examined high schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia, finding that these results were consistent with the findings of other studies. 135p.

Learning Environments: Redefining the Discourse on School Architecture. Adobe PDF
De Gregori, Alessandro
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey School of Architecture, Newark , May 2007)
Investigates the physical environment of the school as only one component, although an important one, of learning environments suitable for learner-centered, consiructivist approaches to learning. Accordingly, school architecture should relate to both, the physical as well as the social environmental contexts. The study addresses the following: a) a review of literature related to education, school architecture, and environmental psychology; b) interviews with school architects and educators; c) case studies of schools that exemplify distinctive approaches to the design of learning environments. Among the findings, the thesis identifies three learning factors: classroom organization, learning technologies, and school climate, as components of a conceptual framework that could advance a common language between educators and architects. 125p.

School Facility Conditions and Learning Environments: Canadian Evidence.
Roberts, Lance
(Sociometrix, Inc. , Mar 2007)
Presents evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study that connects Canadian school principals' ratings of their facility condition to a variety of learning environment issues including teacher and student morale, absenteeism, and student achievement. Overall, school facility condition in Canada was perceived to have deteriorated in recent years, and that academic improvement is only achieved when facilities are in top condition. 27p.

Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning.
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines the potential of environmentally-conscious school design for improving education. This book provides an assessment of the potential human health and performance benefits of improvements in the building envelope, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustical quality. The report also presents an assessment of the overall building condition and student achievement, and offers an analysis of and recommendations for planning and maintaining green schools including research considerations. Includes 390 references. 180p.

Public School Principals Report on Their School Facilities: Fall 2005.
Chaney, Bradford; Lewis, Laurie
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington , Jan 2007)
Reports on principals' satisfaction with environmental factors in their schools, and the extent to which they perceive those factors as interfering with the ability of the school to deliver instruction. The report describes the match between the enrollment and the capacity of the school buildings, approaches for coping with overcrowding, the ways in which schools use portable buildings and reasons for using them, and the availability of dedicated rooms or facilities for particular subjects, such as science labs or music rooms, and the extent to which these facilities are perceived to support instruction. More than half of the principals reported that their school had fewer students than the school’s design capacity. The remaining schools included those that had enrollments within 5 percent of their capacity (22 percent) and those that were overenrolled (10 percent were overenrolled by between 6 to 25 percent above their capacity, and 8 percent by more than 25 percent of their design capacity). Those schools that principals described as overcrowded used a variety of approaches to deal with the overcrowding: using portable classrooms (78 percent), converting non-classroom space into classrooms (53 percent), increasing class sizes (44 percent), building new permanent buildings or additions to existing buildings (35 percent), using off-site instructional facilities (5 percent), or other approaches (12 percent). 93p.

Investment in School Infrastructure As a Critical Educational Capacity Issue: A National Study.
Crampton, Faith
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2007)
Illustrates a research model that links human capital, social capital, and physical capital as elements that work together to enhance student achievement. Data for the study was gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau Data, the Common Core of Data from the U.S. Department of Education, and NAEP data on student achievement. With the negative effects of poverty controlled for, investment in human, social, and physical capital explains a large percentage of the variation in student achievement. Investments in teacher compensation (human capital) and instructional support (social capital) demonstrated larger effects than investments in school infrastructure (physical capital), but all were statistically significant. 18p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI)

The Effect of a New School Facility on Student Achievement.
Fritz, James
(Dissertation, Univerity of Toledo, 2007)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of new school buildings on achievement as measured by student performance on Ohio 6th grade proficiency subtests. For the purpose of answering the research question, this study followed a causal-comparative, quantitative research design. The change in learning environment from the old school building to a newly constructed school building was the independent variable. The percentage of students who pass each subtest of the Ohio 6th grade proficiency test, reported on the individual school buildings Local Report Card (LRC), was the dependent variable. From the sample population of 26 schools building LRC's were collected from the Ohio Department of Education website for two years prior to moving into and two years after moving into the new school building. From the LRC's the percentage of students who have passed the Ohio 6th grade proficiency subtests of math, science, reading, writing, and citizenship were collected. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used to determine the difference between means for each subtest prior to moving into the new building and after moving into the new building. Upon moving into a new building, there was a significant increase in student achievement in reading and science. Conversely, there was not a significant increase in writing, citizenship, and math. [Author's abstract] 45p.

The Walls Still Speak: The Stories Occupants Tell. Adobe PDF
Uline, Cynthia; Tschannen-Moran, Cynthia; Wolsey, Thomas
(San Diego State University, National Center for the Twenty-First Century Schoolhouse , 2007)
Explores the complicated intricacies of how a school building's physical properties influence teaching and learning. Two high poverty schools, within the upper quartile of facilities quality, were identified from an earlier quantitative study. One school is urban, the other rural. Preliminary results of the research indicate that ongoing interactions between the design of the built environment and the occupants of that environment helped to define the learning climate of these schools. Reciprocally, the climate helped to shape the interactions that took place, fostering environmental understanding, competence and control and supporting academic learning. From the data, several broad themes related to building quality emerged as central to this interaction between the built environment and building occupants, including movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, and elbow room. 57p.

An Assessment of the Quality and Educational Adequacy of Educational Facilities and Their Perceived Impact on the Learning Environment as Reported by Middle School Administrators and Teachers in the Humble Independent School District, Humble, Texas
Monk, Douglas
(Texas A&M University, College Station , Dec 2006)
Investigates the adequacy and quality of middle school facilities in Humble ISD middle schools as reported by the primary users of these facilities, the teachers and administrators. These middle school educators also provide an assessment of the impact that these facilities have on the learning environment. The study also assesses the quality and adequacy of these middle school facilities through a quantitative evaluation conducted by an unbiased assessment team in order to ascertain which factors in each of these six facilities have the greatest quality and adequacy and the impact that they have on the learning environment. This study also investigates the relationship between what educators perceive as adequate and quality facility factors and their perception of the impact that these factors have on the learning environment. Finally, this study reviews any congruency or agreement between educator s perception of adequacy and quality and architect assessment of adequacy and quality. 329p.

The Impact of Smaller Learning Communities as a Single-Site Initiative: a Case Study.
Baldwin, Christina
(Doctoral Dissertation, East Carolina University, Greenville , Mar 2006)
Describes one eastern North Carolina high school's initiative to implement Smaller Learning Communities as a strategy for strategic change. The study revealed that the implementation of SLC's elevated expectations within the school and community. The SLC's provided support for all stakeholders through structured systems that increased leadership capacity, self-efficacy, and personal and professional growth. As SLC's were created, learning communities formed that acted as catalysts of change within the school and district. The greatest gains in student achievement were experienced by students specifically in SLC structures. Students benefited most when SLC structures and strategies were implemented. Teachers' level of collegial support was greatest for those involved in SLC structures. Parents and community members viewed the SLC implementation as providing a specialized experience for the high school students and viewed the restructuring in a positive light. It was found that SLC implementation was very time-intensive for teachers and administrators, with SLC administration and teachers feeling isolated. Interestingly, they were deeply committed even though implementation was time-intensive. 281p.
Report NO: 3205620


Educational Facilities: Discipline, Surveillance and Democracy.
Attia, Mohammed E.
(Master's Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee , 2006)
Discusses the redesign and renovation of an open-plan middle school that is incompatible with the instructional policies practiced. TEAMS (Technology Enhancing Achievement in Middle School), an advanced educational system is proposed to be implemented at the school, will be reflected in the educational philosophy of the school and the new proposed design. The project will seek to create an environment that is an expression of the school's educational approach and make the school a place that students look forward to entering. The proposed design covers site conditions, types of construction and materials, energy conservation, and other "green" design features. 97p.

School Facilities and Student Achievement: Student Perspectives on the Connection Between the Urban Learning Environment and Student Motivation and Performance.
Edwards, Nicole C.
This study examined the ways in which students in an urban school district responded to being educated in substandard facilities. The purpose of this study was to arrive at an understanding with respect to students’ attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding the environment(s) in which they are educated. The questions which guided this research were: 1.) To what extent do students perceive their achievement, motivation and/or personal conduct is affected by facility condition? 2.) In what ways does facility condition affect students’ perceptions of the overall quality of teaching and administrative staffing within their building? 3.) In what ways does facility condition affect students’ perceptions of the degree to which their school district values their education and personal safety? Analysis revealed students perceived there to be a connection between the condition of the school they attended and their motivation, conduct and achievement. The study also showed students regarded the quality of staffing in their educational environments as being contingent upon the condition of the school itself. Students held the point of view that teachers and principals of higher quality were employed elsewhere and were more effective in well-maintained schools. The study revealed a connection between students’ perceptions of the facilities in which they are educated and the degree to which the school district values their education and safety. [Author's abstract] 183p.

The Impact of School Environments: A Literature Review. Adobe PDF
Higgins, Steve; Hall, Elaine; Wall, Kate; Woolner, Pam; McCaughey, Caroline
(The Design Council, London, United Kingdom; The Centre for Learning and Teaching, School of Education, Communication and Language Science, University of Newcastle. , Feb 2005)
Explores the impact of learning environments on student achievement, engagement, affective state, attendance, and well-being through an extensive review of the literature dating back approximately 25 years. This review finds clear evidence that extremely poor environments have a negative effects on students and teachers, and that improving these has significant benefits. However, once school environments are raised to minimum standards, the evidence of effect is less clear. Citations to the 167 sources reviewed are provided. 47p.

New York State School Facilities and Student Health, Achievement, and Attendance: A Data Analysis Report. Adobe PDF
Boese, Stephen; Shaw, John
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2005)
Presents results of a study of two New York counties indicating that school facility condition does affect student achievement. Data regarding school condition, student complaints, and academic achievement in these schools were gathered from local and state sources. When correlated, poorer academic achievement was evident in schools where environmental hazards had been identified. Recommendations for better collection, linking, and distribution of these three data sources are also included. 39p.

The Relationship Between School Design Variables and Student Achievement in a Large Urban Texas School District.
Hughes, Stephanie
(Doctoral Dissertation, Baylor University, Waco, TX , 2005)
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between school facility design variables and student achievement as determined by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. The Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools designed by Kenneth Tanner (1999a) was used to evaluate 21 schools in a large urban district. The design variables included movement patterns, large group meeting places, architectural design, daylighting and views, psychological impact of color schemes, building on student s scale, location of the school, instructional neighborhoods, outside learning areas, instructional laboratories, and environmental. The 2003-2004 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skill 5th grade scores on reading, math, and science were used to determine student achievement. T-tests were used to determine the relationship between design variables and student achievement within TEA designated rating categories. An ANOVA was used to determine if a relationship existed between Texas Education Agency school categories and building design variables. This study concluded all building design variables had a statistically significant relationship with student achievement within each school category. However, there was not a statistically significant relationship between building design variables and school ratings. 109p.
Report NO: 3195290


A Study of the Relationship Among New School Buildings and Student Academic Performance and School Climate in Mississippi.
Wicks, George Milan
(Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2005)
This was a correlational study, conducted in 10 Mississippi schools, built since 1999. It was designed to add to the limited research related to building conditions, amenities, student grade point averages (GPAs), and school climate. The eight categories surveyed were: respect (how individuals treat each other and their sense of importance), trust (honesty, fairness, and good judgment), high morale (pride of school), opportunity for input (valued voice in school operation), continuous academics and social growth (aggressively seeking and linking new ideas to real life), cohesiveness (school spirit, unity, and respect), school renewal (school's promotion of innovation and creativity), and caring (kindness and concern for the school body). The overall group's mean differences were positive and statistically significant differences occurred among variables of old school buildings, new school buildings, and what should be, in all eight categories assessed by the survey. This study could benefit K-12 schools by helping leaders in education make decisions about building and managing new schools. [Author's abstract] 237p.

Investigating Multimodal Interactions for the Design of Learning Environments: A Case Study in Science Learning.
Anastopoulou, Stamatina
(University of Birmingham, United Kingdom , Nov 2004)
This thesis focuses on multimodal interactions for the design of a learning environment, analyzing the structure of the interactive space between the learner and the content to be learnt, and introducing a framework to structure it. It proposes that multimodal interactions can encourage rhythmic cycles of engagement and reflection that enhance learners meaning construction in science concepts, such as forces and motion . The framework was the outcome of an iterative process of analysis and synthesis between existing theories and three studies with learners of different ages. Through these theory-informed studies, the significance of physical manipulation of objects and symbols through the employment of multiple modalities was emphasized as a way to facilitate learners meaning construction, engagement and reflection. 224p.

Teacher's Construction and Use of Space. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
(Texas Tech University, College of Architecture, Lubbock , 2004)
Describes how school architectural design plays a role as a context of teachers’ work in high schools. The paper explores school architectural design supports or constrains teachers’ activity in the classroom and in other workspaces in the school, and gauges the fit between the physical environment and teachers’ conceptions of their work. The paper investigates several questions that consider the variety of activities and interactions that comprise teachers’ daily work lives and how teachers construct and use space as part of that process: 1) How do teachers actually use their work environment? 2) How do teachers’ real use of the school facility compare with expectations about what their experiences should be? and 3) How does school architectural design support or constrain teachers’ execution of current images of teaching and schooling? Ten references are included. 63p.

Identifying Relevant Variables for Understanding How School Facilities Affect Educational Outcomes.
Bosch, Sheila Jones
(Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta , 2004)
Presents the results of research that solicited information from educators and other researchers to develop a set of priorities for guiding future work toward understanding how school facilities affect educational outcomes. The phases of this research included: 1) a literature analysis that provided important physical and outcome variables to seed brainstorming lists used in following phases and served as the basis for a gap analysis to identify unavailable information, 2) a set of educational outcomes identified by educators as important to monitor or otherwise track, 3) a set of hypotheses developed by researchers and selected as priorities for future research enhance the understanding of the relationships between physical school facilities and important educational outcomes, and 4) a proposed research agenda for the field. 358p.
Report NO: 3126217


The Relationship Between Design of School Facilities and Student Behavior and Academic Achievement.
Broome, Steven
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Mississippi , May 2003)
Examines the bivariate relationships between five predictor variables related to school facilities design (learning environment functionality, adequacy of social areas, quality of transition spaces, visual appearance, and emphasis placed on safety and security) and two criterion variables (student behavior and academic achievement) in schools with eighth-grade students in Mississippi and Tennessee. When socioeconomic status was controlled for using a partial correlation, there was no significant statistical relationship between building design and student academic achievement. The relationship between the five elements of school design and student behavior is not strong or statistically significant in the simple bivariate correlation or the partial correlations controlling for student socioeconomic conditions. However, this study found statistically significant, strong negative Pearson correlation coefficient values for the student socioeconomic status with both the five elements of school design and academic achievement. Thus, this study found that the student socioeconomic status overwhelms the small influence that school design has on student academic achievement. 76p.
Report NO: 3089830


A Study of the Effect School Facility Conditions Have on Student Achievement.
Lair, Susan
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin , May 2003)
Explores the effect school facilities have on student achievement as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in a high-performing, high-poverty school district in Texas. This study contains a presentation of the information and data findings from the Ysleta Independent School District and its decision in 1994 to include school facilities as a component of its student achievement initiative. The schools were randomly selected and the case study research was conducted using a mixed-method approach. Data provided by the schools' principals on building structure, maintenance, and housekeeping were collected using a questionnaire, and student achievement was measured using the percent of students at each school passing the TARS sub-tests of reading, mathematics, and writing and the percent passing all the TAAS tests from 1994 to 2001. The study resulted in findings that merit attention and support previous research that points to building age, overall building maintenance and cleanliness as elements that help explain student achievement. 220p.
Report NO: 3116105


Design Features Of the Physical Learning Environment For Collaborative, Project-Based Learning at The Community College Level Adobe PDF
Wolff, Susan
(National Dissemination Center for Career and Technical Education The Ohio State University, May 2003)
The purpose of the study was to (a) determine the design features of the physical learning environment that support collaborative, project-based learning, and (b) to gain an understanding of the rationale for the selection of the features. The literature review indicated a need for changing learning expectations to prepare learners for rapidly changing roles and responsibilities for the 21st century. Collaborative, project-based learning was identified as a pedagogy that prepares learners for these new learning expectations. Data were collected in three phases using a phenomenological approach. Collection methods included site visits, observations, reflection, text, interviews, and designs. Architects and educators participated in the study. Thirty-two design features were identified and placed into six categories. Upon further reflection and analysis, it appears the essence of the findings is the interrelationship among spaces and people. [Author's abstract]

School Size as a Factor in Elementary School Achievement. Adobe PDF
Alspaugh, John W.; Gao, Rui
(University of Missouri, Columbia. , Apr 28, 2003)
The relationship between elementary school enrollment and fifth-grade achievement was explored using data from a large urban Missouri school district. The district's 39 elementary schools received uniform allocations of resources from the district and used the same instructional materials but varied considerably in K-5 enrollment, socioeconomic status (SES), and student achievement. Statistically significant differences were found among the mean levels of achievement of students in the five school enrollment groups. Smaller schools tended to be in the older inner-city part of the district, while larger schools were found in the newer suburban parts of the district. There was a general decline in achievement as school enrollments increased, for both the inner-city and suburban schools. [Authors' abstract] 25p.

Facility Condition as an Influence on School Climate: a Study of Two Separate Secondary School Settings.
Kilpatrick, Anita
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , 2003)
Examines school facility condition influences on the perceptions of students, parents, and teachers about the school climate. This study compared the condition of two secondary school settings and the perceptions of school clientele associated with each school. A school climate survey was used to measure the perceptions of clientele at each school setting about the school climate, and the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International (CEFPI) guide for standards asked respondents to assess the condition of the school, whether excellent, satisfactory, borderline, or not adequate. A focus group interview was also conducted to gain further insights into the perceptions of teachers, students, and administrators about the facility condition and the school climate. Data from the interviews indicated safety, space, parking facilities, condition of the building, and maintenance are all factors that influenced the perceptions of the clientele at each school. These findings about the influence of a school facility on school climate highlight the importance of school buildings and physical environments on the perceptions of the school personnel and students. 134p.
Report NO: 3092363


The Effects of Spatial Layouts on Students Interactions in Middle Schools: Multiple Case Analysis.
Pasalar, Celen
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , 2003)
Reports on research to indicate how small school environments are spatially organized and how spatial relationships influence students behavior and interactions. Four school buildings with differing spatial layouts were selected, representing both "academic house" and "finger plan" type. The evidence suggests that spatial layout and distribution of educational facilities in school buildings modulate patterns of use, movement, and the potentials for interactions. School building layouts with higher accessibility, shorter and direct walking distances, and highly visible public spaces generated higher rates of incidental interactions among students. Students ability to get to know others in the same grade through interactions was higher in academic house type school buildings. However, the rate to know students from different grade levels was higher in finger plan type schools, which offered better visual and physical access among the public areas. Overall findings indicated that single-story school buildings were the more advantageous for fostering social interactions among students. 292p.

School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement.
Earthman, Glen I.
(University of California Los Angeles, Institute for Deomcracy, Education & Access , Oct 2002)
Explains how the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness, particularly where classroom temperature and noise level are concerned. Older buildings typically have more problems in this regard. The report cites a number of studies indicating that students attending schools in good condition outperform students in substandard buildings by several percentage points. School building conditions also influence teacher effectiveness, and school overcrowding makes it harder for students to learn. Analyses show that class size reduction leads to higher student achievement. 18p.

New High Schools in Ohio: Relationships between School Facilities and Staff Behavior and Attitudes.
Hickman, Paul
(Doctoral Dissertation, Ashland University, Ohio , 2002)
Investigates the relationships between moving from old to new high school facilities and student behavior and staff attitudes in selected Ohio schools. This study comprised 13 rural, small cities, and suburban high schools. Data from two years prior and two years after the move into new school facilities were examined. The major findings of this study, after moving into new facilities, included: 1) A significant reduction in the number of reported student suspensions and student expulsions. 2) No significant increase or decrease in the student attendance or graduation rates. 3) A significant positive change in staff attendance rates. 4) A significant positive change in overall staff perceptions of student pride and morale (attitudes), and staff pride and morale (attitudes). 5) A significant positive change in overall staff perceptions of student behavior. 195p.
Report NO: 3047184


Teacher Interactions within the Physical Environment: How Teachers Alter Their Space and/or Routines Because of Classroom Character. Adobe PDF
Lang, Dale Christopher
(Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle , 2002)
Through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, this study revealed the degree to which 31 high school teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals at a temporary school site. Teachers emphatically desired: (1) an appropriate amount of space to rearrange student furniture, enabling them better interaction with students for planned activities; (2) an ability to control the location and amount of lighting during those activities; and (3) access to adequate computing tools for their students. The ability to control noise, temperature, and ventilation was also important. Teachers' mediation of classroom spaces appeared to be closely associated with individual teaching goals rather than physiological responses to the environment, although there was evidence of the importance of accommodating teachers' perceptions of their own physical wellbeing. The study also disclosed a noticeable social-cultural need for meeting places within the school for teacher peer interactions and equally negative responses to sharing teaching spaces with those with dissimilar tastes and goal aspirations. Four appendixes include consent forms and approval letters; questionnaire, observation form, and interview questions; data results; and classroom physical measurements. 101p.

Learning Environments Designed for the Occupants: Three Case Studies of Innovative Elementary School Design.
Shrader-Harvey, Erika; Droge, Martha
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville , Jan 2002)
This research project examined how educational facilities are perceived and used by the occupants. It sought to inform the design of effective learning environments in elementary schools through a heightened awareness of the needs of the occupants and an understanding of how they use their school facilities. Project objectives included the following: (1) to increase awareness of the needs of facility users by encouraging a dialogue between designers, educators, and facility occupants; (2) to develop a knowledge base that will lead to the design of effective learning environments; and (3) to assemble a set of visual examples of effective learning environments that can be used as a resource to facilitate communication between architects and educators. The project involved the case study of three elementary schools: Irwin Avenue Open Elementary School in Charlotte, North Carolina; Grasonville Elementary School in Grasonville, Maryland; and Cougar Elementary School in Manassas Park, Virginia. In addition to detailed building descriptions with photographs, significant findings were: (1) a sense of community at multiple scales provides students with a sense of belonging and a sense of place; (2) functional spaces that allow for multiple uses and a variety of tasks encourage students to make choices for themselves, fostering the development of individual responsibility; and (3) experiential learning takes place when a student is engaged in an activity; active participation allows students to apply what they learn and helps them define their interests, thereby contributing to a sense of self. 44p.

Sustaining Systems of Relationships: The Essence of the Physical Learning Environment That Supports and Enhances Collaborative, Project-Based Learning at the Community College Level. Adobe PDF
Wolff, Susan J.
(Oregon State University, Corvallis , Sep 07, 2001)
The purpose of this study was to determine the design features of the physical learning environment that support and enhance collaborative, project-based learning at the community college level, and to gain an understanding of the rationale for selection of the features. The characteristics of the physical environment investigated in the study were scale, location, functionality, relationships, and patterns. Aspects of the rationale or purpose for the selected features included: (1) important factors for consideration; (2) sequence of consideration among the factors; (3) relationship among the factors; (4) derivation of the factors; (5) design process considerations; and (6) theories used to make the recommendation. Data were collected in three phases using a phenomenological approach to gain an understanding of the two foci areas of the study. Methods for collecting data included site visits, observations, text, interviews, and designs. Participants included architects, educators, and learners. The findings included the initial identification of 44 design features of the physical learning environment that support and enhance collaborative, project-based learning at the community college level and the determination of the rationale for the selection of the features. Analysis and synthesis of the features resulted in 32 design features that were placed in the following 6 categories: learning group size, functional spaces for learning activities, adjacencies, furnishings, psychological and physiological support of learners, and structural aspects. The study concluded that the essence of designing physical environments that support and encourage collaborative, project-based learning is the interrelationship among the categories and features within the categories. (Appendices contain research forms. Contains 104 references.) 256p.

The Relationship of School Design to Academic Achievement of Elementary School Children. Adobe PDF
Yarbrough, Kathleen Ann
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , May 2001)
This study sought to determine if there are relationships between student achievement and educational facilities. It focused on the question: Does school design influence the academic achievement of elementary school students? Criteria used were scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and 86 variables describing design patterns in various categories such as movement patterns, large group spaces, architectural layout, daylighting and views, color, scale of building, and location of school site. Findings indicated that design does influence student learning, with circulation pattern or movement accounting for the largest percentage of variance for the third grade, and availability of large group meeting areas accounting for the largest percentage of variance in the fifth grade.
Report NO: UMI AAI0802849

Differences in School Climate Between Old and New Buildings: Perceptions of Parents, Staff, and Students.
Stapleton, David Barry
(Dissertation, Georgia Southern University , 2001)
The purpose of this study was to determine if the age of a school facility had a significant influence on the perceptions of school climate held by students, staff members, and parents in the school. Jeff Davis High School in Hazlehurst, Georgia, was the target school for this study. Jeff Davis High School moved from an old facility into a new one during the summer of 1999. Results of the study were that, at least during the first year in a new school building, the perceptions of school climate by students, staff members, and parents were negatively influenced. Statistical analysis showed that the decrease was significant. One suggested reason for the decrease was that acclimation to a new building may take longer than a year. Another explanation was that building maintenance and cleanliness may have a more significant influence on school climate than does building age. [Author's abstract]

The Relationship Between School Size and Academic Achievement in Georgia's Public High Schools.
Gentry, Kathy Joy
(Dissertation, University of Georgia , Aug 2000)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school size and academic achievement in Georgia's public high schools. Since research indicated that many factors influence academic achievement, this study controlled for two possible influences on academic achievement: ethnicity of students (through sampling), and percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch (through analysis of covariance). Based on the test of significant differences among the group classifications it was not necessary to control for the percentage of teachers with advanced certification in this sample. This study of Georgia's public high schools found that in the three academic areas analyzed, students in the larger schools scored higher on achievement measures than students in the smaller schools (less that 850 students). Although the results of this study were in favor of the larger schools when cognitive learning was analyzed, affective and behavioral dimensions of learning were not investigated. It is recommended that further investigations consider school size as it relates to the behavioral and affective dimensions of learning before making the overall declaration that "bigger schools are better."

The Impact of School Facilities on Student Achievement, Behavior, Attendance, and Teacher Turnover Rate at Selected Texas Middle Schools in Region XIII ESC.
O'Neill, David John
(Doctoral Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station , Aug 2000)
Explores whether improving school buildings has a direct and positive affect on student learning, attendance, and teacher turnover rates. The study shows a direct relationship between building quality and student achievement. The author’s recommendations include: 1) designing school buildings and classrooms to accommodate the instructional program, including carpeting, utilizing the latest technology, adequate storage for teachers and student projects, and minimizing disruptive noises; and 2) making items such as daily custodial care, maintenance, and needed renovations a priority when administrators are planning a district budget. 228p.
Report NO: 9980195


Schools of the Future and Sustainable Design. Adobe PDF
Fox, Anne Webster
(Masters Thesis, Antioch University, Seattle, WA. , Jan 2000)
This thesis examines what practices schools and school districts need to adopt if they want to apply sustainable design principles to their new schools and the benefits these design practices offer school communities. The paper argues that school districts will benefit from these design principles, and that these benefits will occur because sustainable design and construction decisions lead to the creation of learning environments that are environmentally healthy for occupants, operationally efficient, and site sensitive to the natural and community environment. Also argued is that school districts are best served by being proactive in their embrace of sustainable design principles, and that the adoption of these concepts and processes will be most successful if they involve a collaborative and interdisciplinary project management model that uses project teams and the community throughout the design and construction process. Appendices contain a report on the impact of inadequate school facilities on student learning and the study's interview questions. (Contains 64 references.) 104p.

Effects of Student Population Density on Academic Achievement in Georgia Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Swift, Diane O'Rourke
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , 2000)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between school density and achievement test scores. Based on comparing test scores and student population density, it was concluded that elementary schools having an architectural square footage of less than 100 square feet per student tend to have significantly lower science, social studies, and composite ITBS scores than schools having more than 100 architectural square feet per student. Schools ranging from 100.27 to 134.1 architectural square feet per student had significantly higher ITBS science, social studies, and composite scores at the third-grade level. 71p.
Report NO: UMI AAI9994129

Exploring the Relationship Between High School Facilities and Achievement of High School Students in Georgia.
Ayers, Patti Deann
(Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Georgia, Athens , Dec 1999)
Reports on a study to determine any relationship between selected building design features and results on the Georgia High School Graduation Test. The population of the study included 27 public high schools in two Regional Service Educational Area districts. Variables considered included socio-economic status, educational background of the teachers, average number of years teaching, and the size of the student population in the school. School design variables explained approximately 6% of the variance in English and social studies, 3% in science, and 2% in mathematics and writing. 121p.
Report NO: 9975099


The Relationship Between School Design Variables and Scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.
Andersen, Scott
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Oct 1999)
Explores the relationship of 38 middle school design elements, identified in the literature, to student achievement as measured by the eighth grade Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). The purpose of the study was to attempt to determine if any of the 38 school design elements positively or negatively related to the ITBS scores. The setting of the study included 14 contiguous counties in central Georgia. Within those counties, 50 middle schools were identified for the population of the study. Based upon the results of the analysis, recommendations were made. One of the recommendations was that facility planners should give serious consideration to designing learning environments outside of the traditional classroom. Another recommendation was that more attention should be given to the exterior design of school buildings. 76p.
Report NO: 9975098


Effects of School Safety and School Characteristics on Grade 8 Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis. Adobe PDF
Gronna, Sara; Chin-Chance, Selvin
(U.S. Department of Education, ERIC Database , Apr 1999)
Reports on a statewide study that examined the extent to which a safe school influences individual student achievement. The study used a two-level hierarchical model that included student characteristics and school conditions used in prior research. The statewide analysis was based on 46 of the 50 schools with grade 8 classes in one western state. The study used scores from the Stanford Achievement Test, along with data obtained from state department of education data bases for the school years 1993 through 1996. The findings suggest that school safety has statistically significant effects on students grade 8 reading and mathematics achievement. Controlling for student background characteristics and differences in school conditions, students who are in safer schools have higher grade 8 achievement scores than students who are in less-safe schools. Additionally, there was a statistically significant negative effect on student achievement associated with increased school disciplinary infractions after controlling for student background characteristics and school conditions. Includes 39 references. 20p.

Influence of the School Facility on Student Achievement: Thermal Environment
Jago, Elizabeth and Tanner, Ken
(University of Georgia, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA , Apr 1999)
This is review of research that examines the hypothesis that the thermal environment affects academic achievement at various grade levels within the school. Some of the research dates back to the 1930's, though most research cited here took place in the 1960's. 3p.

Relating Building and Classroom Conditions to Student Achievement in Virginia's Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Lanham, James W.
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1999)
The relationship between student achievement and a number of variables relating to building and classroom conditions in Virginia elementary schools were examined. A systematic random sample of 300 schools were selected from all elementary schools in Virginia with grades three and five. Data on building condition, classroom condition, and demographics were collected. Building principals completed the survey. The scaled scores from the Spring 1998 Standard Learning Assessments for third-grade English, fifth-grade English, third-grade mathematics, and fifth-grade mathematics were used as measures of student achievement. Among the findings, a large portion of Virginia elementary schools are more than thirty years old and have a number of structural and classroom defects. While principals gave high composite ratings to their schools, their responses to individual questions indicate problems with roof leaks and climate control. The percentage of students participating in the free and reduced-lunch program accounted for the largest variance in English, math, and technology achievement. Air conditioning was a significant variable in third-grade English, fifth-grade mathematics, and fifth-grade technology achievement. Other variables found significant in one or more of the analyses were ceiling type, frequency of floor sweeping, frequency of floor mopping, connection to wide-area network, room structure, overall building maintenance, and flooring type. [Author's abstract] 148p.

Daylighting in Schools for the Future.
Ayanlola, Tayo
(TAA Group Architecture, Rockwall, TX , 1998)
Discusses daylinghting in schools, including a brief history of daylight in schools, explaining its political/critical strategies and the natural tendency for people to turn towards the source of light, or as it is called "phototropism" and its importance in the design of lighting in schools. Case studies of British schools from recent decades that address daylighting with varying degrees of success are included. 26p.

School Building Design: Its Relationship to Professional Community, Quality Teaching Practice, and the Pursuit of Higher Standards.
Lorthridge, Connie C.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, NYC , 1998)
Tests the hypothesis that an open-space school building design is positively related to professional community, quality teaching practice, and pursuit of higher standards. A comparative study of two open-space and two-closed space schools in one school district relied on data from a teacher-reported survey and interview results, classroom observation, and building floor plans. Survey results were more similar than different across the four schools on all items because of the use of partitions to divide open-space clusters into individual classrooms, causing these classrooms to resemble closed-space classrooms in appearance and functionality. One remnant benefit of the open-space design was "professional growth" through "seeing and hearing" others, and spontaneously sharing materials and ideas. Another benefit of proximity was "developing a bond." 220p.
Report NO: 9909424


Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks? Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International; Scottsdale, AZ , Sep 26, 1997)
Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed to help decision makers improve educational facilities. The research reveals that student achievement scores were higher when windows, floors, heat, roofs, locker conditions, ceilings, laboratory conditions, age of the facility, lighting, interior paint, and cosmetic conditions of the school were generally rated above standard by school staffs. Also examined are research findings on how facility conditions affected student attitudes, behaviors, and achievement. A list of measurements of dependent variables and research summary notations for educators and architects concerning facility/student interaction conclude the paper. (Contains 79 references.) 40p.

Educational Facility Age and the Academic Achievement and Attendance of Upper Elementary School Students.
Phillips, Ransel Warren
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Jul 1997)
Reports on a study to determine the relationship of the age of the learning facility to the academic achievement of upper elementary school students taught within those facilities. A significant relationship was found between the age of the facility and the academic achievement and attendance of the third, fourth, and fifth grade pupils in three rural Georgia schools. Absenteeism decreased overall by 1% while achievement scores in reading increased an average of 2% and math scores increased an average of 6% after the students moved into brand new replacement facilities in the Fall of 1995 from facilities built in 1929, 1936, and 1945 respectively. 89p.
Report NO: 9807080


A Synthesis of Studies Pertaining to Facilities, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior.
Lemasters, Linda Kay
(Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , 1997)
This study examines the research on the extent school facilities influence student achievement and behavior. Fifty-three studies conducted since 1980 were synthesized that included the independent variables of noise, facility age, color, lighting, maintenance, density, climate conditions, and classroom structure. Data suggest that all the independent variables have an affect on student achievement and behavior. Additionally, the literature indicates that student attitudes and behaviors improved when the facility improves or is congruous with the facility needs for the instructional program. The study also discusses the theoretical model developed by Cash (1993) that explains the relationship between the condition of the school and student achievement and behavior. 205p.
Report NO: AAG9722616


Colour and Light in Schools. Theoretical and Empirical Background. Adobe PDF
Samuels, Robert; Stephens, Harry
It is widely recognised that colour impacts on people, but there is little objective and empirical research confirming such influences on educational performance. Without a “principles guideline”, colourists and educational managers have no means to cross-check and evaluate colour decisions, and choices become personal, fashionable, political and so on, which is not an acceptable way in which to ensure that the quality of the learning environment conforms to the best practice in terms of the available knowledge. Given that colour is inseparable from light, and that light has been shown to have a profound affect on well-being and performance - despite its apparently ethereal nature - no colour principles guideline would be acceptable without a corresponding integration of best practice knowledge currently available concerning the psycho-biological effects of light. The research reported on herein constitutes a review of contemporary knowledge relating to both colour and light. [Authors' abstract] 161p.

Quality In School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environment Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee , 1996)
Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an investigation of five elementary schools in the Baltimore City Public School System. The following issues are addressed: (1) the perception of the nature of environmental quality within the context of schools; (2) the attributes of environmental quality perceived to have an impact on educational outcomes; (3) the impact of facility management, if any, on the perception of environmental quality in schools; (4) whether environmental quality can be assessed in local school contexts; (5) whether environmental-behavior research contributes to the improvement of environmental quality in schools; and (6) the effectiveness of action research in defining problems, providing solutions, and increasing knowledge and awareness of environmental quality in schools. Volume 2 provides a summary of the project objectives, problem and approach, and process and procedures of the Baltimore Environmental Quality Assessment Project. It provides the case reports of each school in the study, documenting specific aspects of environmental quality of concern. Each case study provides a brief analysis of the relationship between the attributes of environmental quality concerns and their potential educational impact. Areas addressed include the school's physical comfort and health; classroom adaptability; safety and security; building functionality; aesthetics and appearance; privacy; places for social interaction; and overcrowding. 521p.

Physical Environment and Student Safety in South Georgia Schools. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung; Morgan, P. Lena
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA , Nov 1996)
The preservation of school safety should be a primary commitment of all educators. This paper presents findings of a study that examined school facility safety in 27 Georgia schools. Data were gathered from a survey of 9 elementary, 11 middle, and 7 high schools in south Georgia. The surveys elicited information related to both school-site safety and school-building safety. Respondents assessed the condition of their school buildings with a school-building evaluation instrument. The data show a significant relationship at the .05 level between school safety and school-building age for the middle schools. The relationship between the school-building safety score and school-building age was found to be statistically significant for middle and elementary schools at the .10 level. The general rating for school-facility safety was above average, except in areas such as corridors, parking lots, and playgrounds. Four tables are included. (Contains 8 references.) 12p.

Perceptions About the Role of Architecture in Education.
Bradley, William Scott
(Dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville , 1996)
This dissertation was conducted to examine perceptions held by those who influence schoolhouse design about the role of architecture in education. Eleven informants--regionally and/or nationally respected educators, architects, and educational consultants--were interviewed and asked what they perceive to be the role of architecture in education. Very generally, the informants agreed that architecture should "enhance" education; however, they varied greatly on what they meant by "enhance." Five metaphors were developed to describe the role of architecture in education: (1) as a facility: the architecture should provide the school's basic operational necessities; (2) as a place: the architecture should provide a meaningful context for the learning experience; (3) as a signpost: the architecture should communicate implicitly that which may otherwise be communicated explicitly; (4) as a textbook: the architecture should reinforce the curriculum at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels; and (5) as an agent: the architecture should be a medium that affects change. Those informants closest to the field of education were more concerned with providing basic operational necessities than other considerations. In contrast, those informants closest to the field of architecture were more concerned with applying architecture in creative ways to address issues in education. The dissertation concludes that these goals need not be in opposition to one another and that the metaphors are not mutually exclusive; the more of the metaphors that can be incorporated into the designs of schools, the richer the educational experience could potentially be. 155p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9701330


An Investigative Study of the Relationship of the Physical Environment to Teacher Professionalism in the State of Mississippi Public Schools.
Williams, Cardell
(Doctoral Dissertation, Jackson State University, Mississippi , May 1995)
Investigates 1994 State Teacher of the Year Nominees’ perceptions of how school facilities enhance their ability to function as professionals. The study revealed that of the 21 identified environmental aspects, the respondents were well satisfied with: location; space utilization; ambient features (heating, ventilation, lighting, acoustics, colors); windows; floor coverings; classroom furnishings; classroom equipment; teacher storage; in-building communication; conference area; teacher restroom; teacher parking; teacher planning area; teacher lounge area; and teacher dining area. The respondents ranked classroom equipment, classroom furnishings, ambient features, space utilization, and location of instruction as the most important environmental aspects. 156p.
Report NO: 9615254


The Impact of Construction on an Elementary Campus While School Is in Session.
Hermie, Marian Riggins
(Doctoral Dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe , Aug 1994)
Examines how the instructional process is affected by major construction on an elementary campus while school is in session. Five schools in Arizona’s Washington Elementary School District formed the setting for this study. The study concluded that the students were not impacted nearly as much as the principals, faculty and staff of the schools. Three recommendations were made for those considering renovation: 1) allow time to examine the worthiness of the renovation project as well as time to carry out the project; 2) hire adequate support staff to aid in carrying out the project; 3) hire a construction supervisor to represent the school who is well versed in construction and education and is knowledgeable in coordinating the two. 188p.
Report NO: 9500721

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The Effects of Teacher Involvement on the Planning of Secondary Schools.
Montoya, Carl A.
(Doctoral Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces , May 1994)
Explores the effects of teacher involvement in the planning of new secondary schools. The study found that the more teachers were involved in planning the new school, the more positive their attitude was towards the facility. The study found that three-fourths of the teachers surveyed were not involved in new school planning. It also found that most teachers, whether or they had previously been involved in planning their schools, wanted an active role in the planning process. 169p.
Report NO: 9510414


Architectural Concerns for Future Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
McMillan, Kelvin Loren
( Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln , Apr 1994)
A research study examined the factors that will affect future educational programs and the resultant effect of these factors on future school facilities. Additionally, the study developed an architectural program for future educational facilities based upon the anticipated educational specifications and determined the underlying themes concerning the development of future education facilities. Surveys were sent to architects, futurists, and educators to gain a reasoned consensus on the factors involved. Following survey rounds, the participants were given either qualitative or quantitative feedback to generate a higher order of responses and group consensus. Findings indicated 28 probable social or technological futures that may affect education. Also revealed were 12 major themes concerning the effect of these futures on school architecture. Each theme has supporting architectural considerations that could be incorporated in future school facilities. Recommendations for other researchers are noted. An appendix, comprising over half the document, includes the survey instruments used in the study. (Contains 132 references.) 584p.

Effects of Color and Light on Selected Elementary Students. Adobe PDF
Grangaard, Ellen Mannel
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nevada , 1993)
This study compared children's off-task behavior and physiological response in a normal elementary classroom setting with those in a prescribed classroom environment. In the prescribed environment, the colors of the classroom walls were changed from brown and off-white to blue, while Duro-test Vita-lite fluorescent tubes without diffusers replaced the standard cool-white fluorescent tubes with diffusers in the lighting fixtures. Eleven first-graders took part in the study, which measured their off-task behaviors, blood pressure, and pulse twice each day at the same time each day for 10-day periods in the original classroom environment, then in the prescribed environment, and back in the original environment. Results indicated that off-task behaviors, as recorded by three observers, dropped 24 percent after the change from the normal to the prescribed environment, and that systolic blood pressure readings dropped 9 percent after the change. Blood pressure readings demonstrated a gradual increase after the return to the normal environment. (Observer credentials and blood pressure and pulse readings are appended. Contains 126 references.) 183p.

Interface between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Northern Alabama K-2 Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Yielding, AC
(Dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , 1993)
This study was designed to observe, record, and describe the interface between educational facilities and learning climate in three elementary schools, comparing the results with results from a 1990 study. Study instruments included the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Observation Form and the Teachers' Educational Facility Perception Questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that school facility had a definite impact on total learning climate. Specific physical features (space, equipment, maintenance, appearance, comfort, and general physical arrangement) had the ability to positively or negatively impact learning climate. Teachers had specific preferences regarding safety, aesthetic, instructional, and equipment features of their classroom. Results found that architectural features and general schematic arrangements relative to the physical location of the school could affect the learning climate in the area of safety and aesthetics. The open space (pod) design negatively impacted the learning climate in the area of comfort and space. Student movement in the classroom and school was affected by available space, learning centers, equipment, and other materials. Space outside the building had to be properly allocated for the ingress and ingress of vehicles and loading and unloading of students to ensure safety at all times. 340p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9417177

The Effect of Selected Physical Features of the General Elementary Classroom on the Learning Environment.
Koval, Joseph G.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute , Aug 1991)
Examines the extent to which selected physical, aesthetic, comfort, and health and safety features of Indiana K-6 general classrooms are perceived by the school principals to affect the quality of the learning environment. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) rest rooms and a wet area for arts and crafts are essential physical features in a kindergarten classroom; 2) provision for technology, a silent reading area, an area for storage, and classroom arrangement by grade level are essential for grades K-6; 3) display areas for student work, student-oriented learning centers, and an abundance of maps and globes are aesthetic features to be included in the general classroom; 4) acoustical treatment, control of thermal conditions, the location of the classroom in relation to the media center, and distance from other noise centers are comfort features which affect the learning environment; and 5) appropriate ventilation, more than one electrical outlet per wall, adjustable classroom lighting, windows which open, a science lab area, close proximity to a rest room and an outside exit are features which provide a healthy learning environment. 135p.
Report NO: 9206046


Building Conditions, Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in the D.C. Public School System.
Edwards, Maureen M.
(Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC , 1991)
This paper examines the impact of parental involvement on the overall condition of the Washington (District of Columbia) public school buildings, and then looks at the impact of various variables on student achievement. Although a complete set of data on all schools was not obtained, a sampling of 52 schools indicates that the size of a school's Parent Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the condition of the school building. The relation between the PTA budget per pupil and the overall condition of the school building was statistically significant. The condition of the building is related to academic achievement, and improvement in the condition of the building is associated with improvement in achievement scores. The policy implications of these results are discussed. Although actions such as the support of parents' organizations appear to contribute to maintaining the school in good condition, capital outlays to improve the basic condition of the schools may contribute to student achievement. There are six tables presenting study data. Three appendices contain data about the schools, correlation analysis results, and regression results. There is an 96-item list of references. 100p.

The Design of Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Stueck, Lawrence E.
(University of Georgia, Athens , 1991)
This study, using the Eisner's Educational Criticism Model, examines the role school architecture plays in eliciting creative, self-directed, child-centered responses in elementary school students. An evaluation of 11 play environments; 7 learning environments; an integrated third grade curriculum known as the City Classroom is presented. The relationship of the role school architectural design and art has in developing individuals' capacities to deal with change is explored. A three-dimensional evaluation matrix, comprising the three axes of environment, curriculum, and human needs is proposed for assessing learning environments. Five principles of design used in this study are discussed: environment; perception; conception; diversity; and scale. A hypothetical elementary school design (the Suburban School) is proposed using the matrix with these five principles. The study concludes that children exhibit increases in both ludic and epistemic behavior when interacting with rich and varied school learning environments 261p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9206986

The Interface Between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Elementary Schools
Lowe, Jerry Milton
(Unpublished dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 1990)
Research was conducted on three campuses during spring, 1989. Results of the study provided the following insights into the six components of the research question. (1) Building age, when considered alone, did not appear to impact learning climate. (2) Design and appearance of the facility appeared to impact learning climate. (3) Building square footage seemed to have a marginal impact upon school learning climate. (4) Size and organization of instructional space had a major impact upon the learning climate of a school. (5) Building maintainability appeared to impact learning climate. (6) Results of the study imply that campus location has a significant impact upon learning climate. Data for the study were obtained from parents, teachers, and administrators. Two forms of instrumentation were developed by the researcher: the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Observation Form was developed by the researcher to enhance the observation of classroom spatial organization and movement patterns of students, and teachers within a specific instructional space. The Teachers' Educational Facility Perception Questionnaire was developed by the researcher to assess the feelings of teachers concerning the school building which they taught. 227p

School Facilities: The Relationship of the Physical Environment to Teacher Professionalism. Adobe PDF
Overbaugh, Betty Lightfoot
(Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station , 1990)
This study determined the perceptions of 38 state Teachers of the Year (1988) had about how school facilities affected their ability to function as professionals. Data from a 105-item questionnaire revealed that, except for space utilization, the teachers were satisfied with all the physical environmental aspects of their school s instructional areas. They were also satisfied with noninstructional features except for telephones for teacher use; teacher to teacher conference areas; teacher professional libraries; and planning, lounge, and dining areas. Statistically significant differences in perception were found by gender, teaching level, and years of experience. The teachers ranked classroom furnishings, equipment, and ambient features as most important environmental features. They were least pleased with space utilization; acoustics; thermal conditions; equipment; and areas for planning, conferencing, and relaxation in their schools. The respondents also suggested features from their present facilities and features to add when planning new schools. 143p.

Color and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology. Adobe PDF
Wohlfarth, M.
(University of Alberta, Canada , May 1986)
This intensive research study utilized a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served as experimental groups and one as a control group. Independent variables were exposure to full-spectrum light or prescribed cool colors for teachers and prescribed warm colors for students or a combination of light and color treatments, ultraviolet light for a sample of grade five students, and elimination of electromagnetic radiation for a sample of grade three students. Dependent variables were primarily student academic, physiological, and affective outcomes and also included blood pressure as a teacher physiological measure. A pre-experimental static-group comparison design was used in the investigation of mood and noise. Overall results support a call for additional field-based and laboratory research into the effects of color, light, and color/light combinations. Findings regarding the beneficial effects of ultraviolet light and reduction of electromagnetic radiation in the school environment support strong recommendations for further study of these effects. An extensive literature review of research findings on light and color is included in the report, which also contains 58 tables, 12 figures, and a bibliography. 219p.

The Effects of Interior Pigment Color on School Task Performance Mediated by Arousal
Fehrman, Kenneth R.
(Dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1986)
This study investigated the effect of interior pigment color on task performance and arousal (a combination of GSR and pulse scores) to determine optimum color use for the interiors of educational facilities, residential, and commercial environments. It was anticipated that a better understanding of the effects of color on human beings could prove an effective means toward improving the ability to perform tasks with greater accuracy and lessened stress in human-engineered interior environments. Based on previous studies, it was predicted that red would cause more arousal or "excitement" than blue, and that there would be a difference in performance across the three colors. Unlike previous studies, this study precisely controlled the color and lighting conditions. It was found that pigment colors of equal saturation and brightness resulted in comparable arousal and task performance scores, therefore dispelling the belief than red is more arousing than blue. Lack of control in color value and lighting conditions has been criticized as invalidating previous color studies (Mehrabian, 1974). In this study where controlled color and light were used, the results indicate that red does not cause greater arousal than blue as previously thought. This study indicates that colors of equal value produce comparable arousal and performance results, therefore indicating that the color balance of an environment is of greater significance than a specific hue. [Author's abstract] 110p.

A Comparative Study of Pupil Attitudes toward New and Old School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung
(School District of Greenville County, Greenville, SC , Jan 1982)
Student attitudes toward the physical environment of a school opened in 1980 are compared to student attitudes toward two older schools: one constructed in 1923, the other in 1936. The control group consisted of all the 119 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1936-era school. The experimental group consisted of all the 96 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1923-constructed building who were later transferred to the new school. Pupil pre-test and post-test scores on the "Our School Building Attitude Inventory" served as the dependent variable. The independent variables were the physical facilities in the three school buildings, and students' sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Analyses of covariance and variance were used to examine the variables. The main finding of the study was that pupils housed in a modern school building have significantly more positive attitudes toward their school building than do pupils housed in an old building. Race and socioeconomic status had no effect on pupil attitudes toward school buildings, though females in the control group scored significantly higher than males in both the pre-test and the post-test. Six pages of selected references accompany the report. 33p.

The Impact of School Building Age on Pupil Achievement. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung
(Office of School Facilities Planning, Greenville School District, Greenville, SC , 1979)
Research conducted in Georgia reveals that pupils in school buildings with modern facilities attain higher achievement than pupils in buildings with older facilities. All public schools in Georgia containing eighth grade students were classified as non-modernized, partially modernized, or modern according to results of questionnaires administered to building principals in 1975-76.. Analysis indicated that when the socioeconomic status variable was statistically controlled, school building age was significantly related to the composite, vocabulary, and mathematics scores on the Iowa Tests. 18p.

Factors Affecting Perception of and Responses to Crowded Classroom Environments. Adobe PDF
Winer, Janice I.
Aug 1977
The effects of density and other situational factors on perceptions of and responses to crowding in classroom learning environments were examined in three separate and concurrent investigations. The first experiment examined the effects of various demographic variables, learning environments and room design variables on crowding. In the second experiment, the effect of two levels of density on classroom achievement was examined in the laboratory. The third experiment examined achievement as a function of class size over a 24-year period in two community school districts. It was concluded from the three experiments that: (1) density is primarily a moderator of arousal; (2) high density can therefore have either positive or negative effects on performance, depending on whether the task contains learned or unlearned components, or both; (3) the same interpretation applies to psychological reactions (affect) to the situation; (4) if perceived violations of personal space accompany high density, the outcome is uniformly negative; and (5) the effects of high density (positive or negative) can be eliminated by diverting a person's attention away from the other people in the room, or by increasing the degree of cooperation between people. 56p.

An Investigation of the Physical Environment and Its Effect on MR Youth. Adobe PDF
Bartholomew, Robert P.; And Others
Reported are the findings of a research study to determine the effects of physical environment on the learning behavior of 13 institutionalized moderately and severely retarded individuals (14-18 years old). An introductory section covers the need for research in environmental control, the five study objectives, study procedures, data collection methodology, and the specific hypotheses tested. Examined in a review of the literature are such aspects of architectural design as furniture, space, color, and light. A section on the methods and procedures used in the study includes information on the Ss (participants from a residential classroom), apparatus (a cassette tape recorder for recording researchers' observations), lighting (either general illumination alone or both general illumination and tract lighting), color (including "hot" and "cold" colors), space density (ranging from 500-400 square feet), procedure (which entailed the manipulation of four environmental conditions), and the recording of two types of behavior (on-task behavior and ambient-task movements). Among the effects reported from manipulating color, space, lighting, and space-color were that ambient behavior associated with hyperactivity was not increased by color change and that space reduction resulted in increased on-task behavior. The results of a questionnaire survey involving interior designers, architects, and special educators are also provided in the form of guidelines for designing an appropriate physical environment. 70p.

Some Effects of School Buildings Renovation on Pupil Attitudes and Behavior in Selected Junior High Schools. Adobe PDF
Cramer, Robert Joseph
(Doctor of Education Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, GA , 1976)
A study of 2300 junior high school students from three schools were tested to determine the effect of a newly renovated school, a new school environment, and an old dilapidated school environment on their attitudes and behavior. Points were assigned to their answers; high scores indicated a positive attitude. Results show attitudes were lowest in the old dilapidated school; highest in the newly renovated school. Dilapidated schools also generated higher disruptive behavior incident scores. Neither space density or grade level had significant effect on pupil attitudes and behavior. Black students had more positive attitudes toward their school than White students. Sex differences in attitudes toward the school building were not significant, but subsets within each school had significant interactions. Finally, students without free-lunch scored higher on the attitude scores than students receiving free lunches. Appendices provide the Our School Building Attitude Inventory, population group separation statistics from each school, a comparison of physical characteristics of the three schools, and buildings floor diagrams. (Contains 47 references.) 138p.

The Effects of Windowless Classrooms on the Cognitive and Affective Behavior of Elementary School Students. Adobe PDF
Romney, Bryan Miles
(Dissertation, 1975)
Windowless school buildings are currently being proposed as a design solution to the problems of vandalism, energy conservation, and building costs. However, little consideration is being given to the effects of windowless classrooms on the students and teachers inside. This thesis describes the effect of windowless classrooms on three specific areas of cognitive behavior: rote learning, concept formation, and perceptual ability. In addition, a description of student and teacher affective behavior, based on formal observations, is included. Two identical sixth-grade classes were selected for the study. The experimental period was divided into two three-week phases. Each classroom had all existing windows covered during one phase. Students were randomly divided into three test groups for the testing phases of the study. No consistent trends emerged to allow definitive judgment that windowless classrooms are detrimental to student cognition and learning. The only definitive trend is in the realm of affective behavior, indicating that student aggression increases in windowless environment.

The Effects of Noise on Pupil Performance
Slater, Barbara Ruth
(Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation , 1966)
Effects of school noise conditions on student written task performance were studied. Three noise levels were examined--(1) irregular interval noise, 75-90 decibels, (2) average or normal noise, and (3) quiet condition, 45-55 decibels. An attempt was made to reproduce noise conditions typical of the school environment. A second controlled experiment used similar conditions of white noise. Subjects were 263 seventh grade children from a small urban complex. The STEP (Sequential Tests of Educational Progress) Reading Test was administered both as a test and as worksheets. Questionnaires were used to determine perceptions of noise and anxiety scale. No significant differences were found in analysis of variance for speed and accuracy on test scores. No significant relationship was found between anxiety and perception measures and performance. Conclusions state that written tasks of relatively short duration are not affected by peaks of noise typically found in a normal school environment. 113p.
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Light, Vision and Learning.
Seagers, Paul
(Better Light Better Sight Bureau, New York, NY , 1963)
Addresses the role of light and sight in learning, explaining aspects of visual development in children, anatomy and physiology of the eye, eye care and protection, the physics of light, light and seeing, and environmental recommendations for schools and home study. 95p.

References to Journal Articles

School Design and Students’ Relationships with the Natural World
Indira Dutt
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p198-226 ; Spring 2012
This qualitative study is an exploration of intermediate students’ experience of the natural world as mediated by indoor/outdoor elements. The fieldwork for this project was conducted in the spring of 2009 at Bowen Island Community School in British Columbia. The research includes data collected from two focus groups, semi- structured interviews, photographs and fieldnotes. Using thematic analysis, the research found that indoor/outdoor interfaces and the presence of both gardens and forest as play environments provided students with a sense of freedom, joy, social cohesiveness and aesthetic pleasure in relation to their physical learning environment. Results are discussed in terms of future school design and other relevant student impacts. [Author's abstract]

The Role of Objective and Perceived School Building Quality in Student Academic Outcomes and Self-Perception
Maxwell, Lorraine E. and Schechtman, Suzanne L
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p23-51 ; Spring 2012
This study examines the role of school building quality, both perceived and objective, in the development of self-efficacy and academic success in young adolescents (mean age =14, range 11-17 years old). Previous research related to school building quality used only adult assessment of building quality. The study interviewed public school students in two high schools and three middle schools about their school and their self-perception. Objective school building quality was assessed by a trained researcher. Academic performance was measured by classroom grades (GPA – grade point average) and state-wide standardized test scores. A series of regression equations indicates that objective and perceived school building quality and self-efficacy are significantly related to GPA scores. Neither measure of building quality, however, predicted standardized test scores. Student self-perception of behavioral conduct as measured by the self-perception profile for adolescents (Harter 1988) was marginally related to standardized test scores. Students’ perception of building safety (compared to degree of crowding, noise, privacy and clutter/mess) was the best predictor of perceived school building quality as well as predicting perceived scholastic competence, behavioral conduct and self-worth. [Authors' abstract]

Changing Spaces: Preparing Students and Teachers for a New Learning Environment
Pamela Woolner, Jill Clark, Karen Laing, Ulrike Thomas and Lucy Tiplady
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p52-74 ; Spring 2012
Physical settings in schools have a complex relationship to teaching and learning practices. Uncomfortable tensions can result when the intentions of learners and teachers conflict with each other or with the affordances of the environment. Yet, change may be difficult to achieve and stressful for those involved. This paper considers a case where there has been minimal involvement of staff or students in the design of a new school, but there is a desire to prepare them for the changed environment. Changes will include an integrated curriculum and an “enquiry approach,” which it is hoped will be facilitated by large, shared spaces in the new premises. We discuss an “experimental week” of enquiry learning that took place in the middle of the 2010-11 school year with half of the Year 8 group (12-13 years old) in an existing large space (a school hall). The alteration to the learning environment included changes to both the use of space and the organization of learning time. We concentrate here on the student experience of learning in this new way, rather than the views of the teachers. An enquiry-based approach was enabled by the more fluid, flexible use of school space and time. Overall, students enjoyed the experimental week, but they understood it to be a limited experience. If these changed practices are to be successful they will need to be accepted as more permanent. The challenge for those managing the change process is to remain mindful of the differing needs of students, and continue to develop a shared understanding among staff and students of what learning is or could be. [Authors' abstract]

Citizens Fit for the 21st Century? The Role of School Design in Facilitating Citizenship and Self-Governance in Young People
Brown, Jane
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice; n1 , p19-31 ; Mar 2012
This article explores the relevance of school design in providing an important social-spatial context for promoting citizenship in young people. Drawing on a small-scale study that investigated the perspectives of pupils and teachers, it contrasts the ways in which the social control and monitoring of pupils differed in two secondary schools. Comparing features of everyday life in one new and one old-build school, this study found that school design could either heighten or lessen the need for teacher control of pupils. As a consequence the layout of the schools could enable or restrict young people's opportunities for self-determination, as well as encourage the normalization of the acceptance of control by others. The implications of this for the production of autonomous and self-governing citizens will be addressed. [Author's abstract]

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of the Acoustical Conditions in a Simulated Classroom on Speech Recognition and Learning in Children
Valente, Daniel L.; Plevinsky, M.; Franco, M.; Heinrichs-Graham, Dawna, Elizabeth C. and Lewis, E.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; v131, n1 , p232-246 ; Jan 2012
The potential effects of acoustical environment on speech understanding are especially important as children enter school where students’ ability to hear and understand complex verbal information is critical to learning. However, this ability is compromised because of widely varied and unfavorable classroom acoustics. The extent to which unfavorable classroom acoustics affect children’s performance on longer learning tasks is largely unknown as most research has focused on testing children using words, syllables, or sentences as stimuli. In the current study, a simulated classroom environment was used to measure comprehension performance of two classroom learning activities: a discussion and lecture. Comprehension performance was measured for groups of elementary-aged students in one of four environments with varied reverberation times and background noise levels. The reverberation time was either 0.6 or 1.5 s, and the signal-to-noise level was either +10 or +7 dB. Performance is compared to adult subjects as well as to sentence-recognition in the same condition. Significant differences were seen in comprehension scores as a function of age and condition; both increasing background noise and reverberation degraded performance in comprehension tasks compared to minimal differences in measures of sentence-recognition. [Authors' abstract]

Well-Being at School: Does Infrastructure Matter?
Cuyvers, Katrien; De Weerd, Gio; Dupont, Sanne; Mols, Sophie; Nuytten, Chantal
CELE Exchange; , 7p ; Dec 2011
Study investigates the impact of educational spaces on their users and identifies empirical evidence supporting the importance of school infrastructure on the well-being of Flemish secondary students

Leadership and Learning Landscapes: The Struggle for the Idea of the University
Neary, Mike; Saunders, Gary
Higher Education Quarterly; v65 n4 , p333-352 ; Oct 2011
This paper focuses on the academic involvement in the design and delivery of new teaching and learning spaces in higher education. The findings are based on research conducted at 12 universities within the United Kingdom. The paper examines the nature of academic involvement in the design and decision-making process of pedagogic space design, revealing some of the complexities and the tensions within this area of academic leadership. The research found that innovation and creativity on particular projects is often restricted by the project management decision-making processes and that broader institutional aims are often underplayed once the design process goes into project mode. The paper concludes by calling for greater academic involvement in the design process in ways that allow for critical reflexivity based on discussions around the concept of "the idea of the university". [Authors' abstract]

Classroom Acoustics Affect Student Achievement.
Ronsse, Lauren M. and Wang, Lily M.;
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Sep 19, 2011
Findings from a study comparing unoccupied classroom noise levels and reverberation times to the age of the school buildings and the elementary student achievement scores attained by students using those classrooms. Recommends that classroom mechanical systems should be designed with lower noise levels to optimize student reading comprehension.

Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A 2-Level Hierarchical Linear Model.
Bowers, Alex J., Urick, Angela
Journal of Education Finance; v37 n1 , p72-94 ; Summer 2011
The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall independently rated structural and engineering aspects of schools have been shown to not be related to achievement. However, more recent research has suggested that facility maintenance and disrepair, rather than structural issues, may be more directly related to student achievement. If there is a relationship, addressing facility disrepair from the school, district, or state level could provide a potential avenue for policymakers for school improvement. We analyzed the public school component and the facilities checklist of the ELS:2002 survey (8,110 students in 520 schools) using a two-level hierarchical linear model to estimate the independent effect of facility disrepair on student growth in mathematics during the final two years of high school controlling for multiple covariates at the student and school level. We found no evidence of a direct effect of facility disrepair on student mathematics achievement and instead propose a mediated effects model. [Authors' abstract]

Air Pollution Around Schools Is Linked To Poorer Student Health And Academic Performance.
Mohai, Paul; Byoung-Suk Kweon; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry
Health Affairs; v30 n5 ; May 2011
Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children’s schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children’s health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates—a potential indicator of poor health—and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary. [Authors' abstract]

An Assessment of Schoolyard Renovation Strategies to Encourage Children's Physical Activity
Peter Anthamatten, Lois Brink, Sarah Lampe, Emily Greenwood, Beverly Kingston and Claudio Nigg
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity; Apr 2011
Children in poor and minority neighborhoods often lack adequate environmental support for healthy physical development and community interventions designed to improve physical activity resources serve as an important approach to addressing obesity. In Denver, the Learning Landscapes (LL) program has constructed over 98 culturally-tailored schoolyard play spaces at elementary schools with the goal to encourage utilization of play spaces and physical activity. In spite of enthusiasm about such projects to improve urban environments, little work has evaluated their impact or success in achieving their stated objectives. This study evaluates the impacts of LL construction and recency of renovation on schoolyard utilization and the physical activity rates of children, both during and outside of school, using an observational study design.

School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students.
Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela
School Effectiveness and School Improvement; v22 n1 , p29-50 ; Mar 2011
A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched 180,000 students in the 3rd and 6th grades of primary education at 3,000 schools from 15 countries in Latin America. Results show that the availability of basic infrastructure and services (water, electricity, sewage), didactic facilities (sport installations, labs, libraries), as well as the number of books in the library and computers in the school do have an effect on the achievement of primary education students in Latin America, but their relative weight varies significantly from country to country. These results indicate the need to continue investment in resources and facilities and to incorporate this factor into school effectiveness models that are meant to become universal. (authors' abstract)

Classroom Learning Environments and the Mental Health of First Grade Children.
Milkie, Melissa A.; Warner, Catherine H.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior ; v52 n1 , p14-22 ; Feb 28, 2011
Study finds that between inadequate supplies, rundown school buildings, and disrespected teachers buried in paperwork, school can be stressful for 1st graders, who are in a fragile place in their educational lives. The study is based on interviews with more than 10,700 1st-grade parents and teachers in spring 2000.

Students' Experience of University Space: An Exploratory Study Adobe PDF
Cox, Andrew M.
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education; v23 n2 , p197-207 ; 2011
The last decade has seen a wave of new building across British universities, so that it would appear that despite the virtualization discourses around higher education, space still matters in learning. Yet studies of student experience of the physical space of the university are rather lacking. This paper explores the response of one group of students to learning spaces, including virtual ones, preferences for the location of independent study, and feelings about departmental buildings. It explores how factors such as the scale of higher education and management efficiency tend to produce rather depersonalized and regimented environments that in turn are likely to produce surface engagement. Responses of hospitality, criticality, and solidarity are briefly explored.

Effect of Education Buildings' Spatial Quality on Child's Academic Achievement.
Selda AL, Hatice Odaci, Ayse Sagsöz
American Journal of Scientific Research; , p100-109 ; 2011
Education buildings are the most important factor after the home in development of children. Teaching resources, teachers' skill and curriculum play a vital role in a child's education. In addition, there is another important factor that the physical condition and design of the actual school facility have an important effect on the child’s academic achievement. There are numerous studies positive or negative effects of spatial quality of building groups on people. However, there is no comprehensive study about how spatial quality of education buildings effects child’s educational performance, whether it is enough for child’s social, psychological and biological needs, how much it supplies child’s demands. This investigates the effect of spatial quality of schools in Trabzon and their physical conditions on a child’s academic achievement.

Relationship between Educational Resources and School Achievement: A Mixed Method Intra-District Analysis.
Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar
Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education; v42 n4 , p351-371 ; Nov 2010
This study examines the relationship between educational resources (fiscal, personnel and facilities) and school achievement within a large urban/suburban elementary school district. A sequential mixed methods approach reveals inequitable resource allocation trends and patterns between schools within a school district by producing different student outcomes. The educational resources positively correlated to higher school achievement are: higher teacher salaries, newer schools, more multi-purpose space per pupil and less portable classrooms. Without question, White students receive more of these resources than Latino students, low-income students and English Language learners. The study contains policy and practice implications to improve opportunity and school achievement in urban/suburban school districts. (Author's abstract)

The Impact of School Building Conditions on Student Absenteeism in Upstate New York.
Simons, Elinor; Syni-An Hwang; Fitzgerald, Edward F.;Kielb, Chrstine; Lin, Shao
American Journal of Public Health ; v100 n9 , p1679-1686 ; Sep 2010
Authors investigated Upstate New York school building conditions and examined the associations between school absenteeism and building condition problems. They merged data from the 2005 Building Condition Survey of Upstate New York schools with 2005 New York State Education Department student absenteeism data at the individual school level and evaluated associations between building conditions and absenteeism at or above the 90th percentile. The results shows that schools in lower socioeconomic districts and schools attended by younger students showed the strongest associations between poor building conditions and absenteeism. They found that there are associations between student absenteeism and adverse school building conditions. Future studies should confirm these findings and prioritize strategies for school condition improvements.

Improving the Physical and Social Environment of School: A Question of Equity.
Uline, Cynthia L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Lin, Chii-Dean
Journal of School Leadership; v20 n5 , p597-632 ; Sep 2010
This study explored the interplay between quality facilities and school climate, charting the effects of facility conditions on student and teacher attitudes, behaviors, and performance within schools slated for renovations in a large metropolitan school district. The research applied a school leadership-building design model to explore how six characteristics of facility quality--movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, elbow room, and security--interact with four aspects of school climate: academic press, community engagement, teacher professionalism, and collegial leadership. Because the schools were older and participants in the research perceived them as being in great need of maintenance and repair, the school building characteristics were often described as absent qualities. The survey data revealed moderate to strong relationships between the quality of school facilities and school climate. The interviews further explicated these relationships. Two additional themes--counterbalance and equity--emerged as being significant to occupants' interactions with their current facilities. This study used a mixed-methods triangulation design-data transformation model. Specifically, school climate surveys, photo interviews with students, walking tours of the school facility, and formal interviews were triangulated to obtain complementary data and a more complete understanding of the educational facility to be renovated and its impact on occupants. [Authors' abstract]

School Disrepair and Substance Use among Regular and Alternative High School Students.
Grana, Rachel A.; Black, David; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Gunning, Melissa; Sussman, Steven
Journal of School Health; v80 n8 , p387-393 ; Aug 2010
The physical environment influences adolescent health behavior and personal development. This article examines the relationship between level of school disrepair and substance use among students attending regular high school (RHS) and alternative high school (AHS). Data for the physical disrepair of schools were collected from individual rater observations of each school environment. Findings indicated that students attending AHS with greater school disrepair were more likely to report the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs (ie, cocaine, heroin). Students attending RHS with greater school disrepair were less likely to report smoking cigarettes. (Authors' abstract)

Characterization of Classroom Noise and Noise Control Techniques and Their Effect on Speech Comprehension while Learning.
SanSouci, Sooch; Guerra, Line; Campbell, Dick
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; v 127 n3 , 2028-2028 ; Mar 2010
Discusses a current study that includes three parts: (1) the characterization of masking invoked by noise commonly found in today's classrooms, (2) the formulation of a metric that intends to associate masking risk to noise features, and (3) the attempt to quantify any increase in speech comprehension resulting from interior acoustic designs that aspire to reduce noise in occupied classrooms. Calibrated recordings made during classroom activities in 9 schools are post processed to allow noise characteristics to be rated based on attributes related to the noise source or type, duration, rate of recurrence, spectra, level, envelope, and peak energy. The results suggest that there are misconceptions in the literature in terms of today's classroom design trends and a few novel principles emerged as being highly effective. [author's abstract]

The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity.
Cellini, Stephanie; Ferreira, Fernando; Rothstein, Jesse
Quarterly Journal of Economics; v125 n1 , 215-261 ; Feb 2010
Estimates the value of school facility investments using housing markets: standard models of local public goods imply that school districts should spend up to the point where marginal increases would have zero effect on local housing prices. Our research design isolates exogenous variation in investments by comparing school districts where referenda on bond issues targeted to fund capital expenditures passed and failed by narrow margins. The results indicate that California school districts underinvest in school facilities: passing a referendum causes immediate, sizable increases in home prices, implying a willingness to pay on the part of marginal homebuyers of $1.50 or more for each $1 of capital spending. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the impact on test scores appears to explain only a small portion of the total housing price effect.

Space Matters: The Impact of Formal Learning Environments on Student Learning. Adobe PDF
Brooks, D. Christopher
British Journal of Educational Technology; 2010
Reports on research on the relationship between formal learning spaces and student learning outcomes. Using a quasi-experimental design, researchers partnered with an instructor who taught identical sections of the same course in two radically different formal learning environments to isolate the impact of the physical environment on student learning. The results of the study reveal that, holding all factors excepting the learning spaces constant, students taking the course in a technologically enhanced environment conducive to active learning techniques outperformed their peers who were taking the same course in a more traditional classroom setting. The evidence suggests strongly that technologically enhanced learning environments, independent of all other factors, have a significant and positive impact on student learning. Includes 19 references.

Relationship Between School Facility Conditions and the Delivery of Instruction: Evidence From a National Survey of School Principals.
Duyar, Ibrahim
Journal of Facilities Management; v8 n1 , 8-25 ; 2010
Investigates the effects of school facility conditions on the delivery of instruction from the perspective of school principals in the USA. The paper empirically investigated whether the quality of ten facility conditions affects the delivery of instruction after controlling three school and three student characteristics that also may affect the delivery of instruction. The conceptual framework of this paper envisions the physical capital, along with the human and social capitals, as one of the three main core elements for effective teaching and learning. The findings of the study indicated that six of the ten facility conditions are statiscally and positively associated with the delivery of instruction. These six facility conditions significantly predicted the delivery of instruction after controlling other extraneous or plausible variables.

Lack of Short-Wavelength Light During the School Day Delays Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) in Middle School Students.
Figueiro, Mariana; Rea, Mark
Neuroendocrinology Letters; v31 n1 , p92-96 ; 2010
Reports the results of a study investigating whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. The results show that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools.

Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research.
Gislason, Neil
Learning Environments Research; v13 n2 , 127-145 ; 2010
Develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching, and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching and learning. Supporting evidence for this argument is drawn from research on school climate and organization, as well as from the author's study of three open-plan high schools. Facilities design, educational practice, school culture, and student learning are found to be interrelated aspects of a school's total learning environment. [author's abstract]

When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research, Oct 2009)
Examines the impact that the closing of some Chicago schools had on the students who attended these schools. The research focused on regular elementary schools that were closed between 2001 and 2006 for underutilization or low performance and asked whether students who were forced to leave these schools and enroll elsewhere experienced any positive or negative effects from this type of school move. Student outcomes, including reading and math achievement, special education referrals, retentions, summer school attendance, mobility, and high school performance were examined. Also examined were characteristics of the receiving schools and if the differences in these schools had any impact on the learning experiences of the students who transferred into them. Students ages eight and older who were displaced by school closings were compared to a group of students in similar schools that did not close. 48p.

The Users in Mind: Utilizing Henry Sanoff's Methods in Investigating the Learning Environment.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p35-44 ; Mar 2009
Analyzes reactions of teachers and students to classroom and cluster prototypes, among other aspects, against a number of spatial requirements and educational objectives. The results of this investigation support the assumption on how the school environment has a direct impact on the way in which teaching and learning takes place. A conclusion envisioning the need for going beyond adopting prescriptive measures to address the quality of the learning environment is conceived by highlighting the need to utilize knowledge generated from research findings into school design process, to pursue active roles in sensitizing users about the value of the school environment in reaching the desired academic performance while increasing teachers productivity.

Do Portable Classrooms Impact Teaching and Learning?
Chan, Tak
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p290-304 ; 2009
Examines the possible impact portable classrooms have on the teaching and learning process by exploring current related literature. The article takes a synthesis approach, analyzing current studies to assess the impact of portable classrooms on teaching and learning. The research found no significant impact of portable classrooms on teacher perception, teacher morale, teacher job satisfaction, student achievement, and behavior. Negative student attitude is found in one of the studies reviewed. Technical testing shows negative relationships between portable classrooms and health and safety conditions, but the permanent structures are sometimes worse. Still, the negative effects of deterioration or lack of maintenance cannot be underestimated; making implementation strategies, maintenance schedules, relocation plans, and plans for ultimate replacement vital.

Spending on School Infrastructure: Does Money Matter?
Crampton, Faith
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p305-322 ; 2009
Furthers development of an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital. The author uses canonical analysis, a multivariate statistical approach that allows for multiple independent and dependent variables. Level of student poverty is added as a control variable given an extensive body of research that supports its negative impact on achievement. Descriptive statistics are generated as well as a Pearson product moment correlation matrix to diagnose and address potential issues of multicollinearity and simultaneity. Three national databases are used: United States Census Bureau, US Department of Education s National Assessment of Educational Progress test score data, and the US Department of Education s Common Core of Data. Years analyzed are 2003, 2005, and 2007. The findings indicate that investment in human, social, and physical capital accounts for between 55.8 and 77.2 percent of the variation in student achievement in fourth and eighth grade reading and mathematics. Investment in human capital is consistently the largest influence on student achievement followed by social and physical capital.
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Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions.
Earthman, Glen; Lemasters, Linda
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p323-335 ; 2009
Investigates the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they were willing to leave the teaching profession. Eleven high schools in which the principals state the buildings are in unsatisfactory condition are identified and matched with 11 schools assessed as being in satisfactory condition. The differences between the responses of teachers in satisfactory buildings were significantly different than those of teachers in unsatisfactory buildings. The findings indicate that the physical environment influences attitudes of teachers, which in turn affects their productivity. Such effects could cause morale problems in the teaching staff.
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Building Schools, Rethinking Quality? Early Lessons from Los Angeles.
Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke; Hosek, Adrienne; Kirschenbaum, Greta; McKoy, Deborah; Rigby, Jessica; Vincent, Jeffrey
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p336-349 ; 2009
Explores how the designers of newly built schools in Los Angeles--midway into a $27 billion construction initiative--may help to rethink and discernibly lift educational quality. This may be accomplished via three causal pathways that may unfold in new schools: attracting a new mix of students, recruiting stronger teachers, or raising the motivation and performance of existing teachers and students. The research tracks basic indicators of student movement and school quality over a five-year period (2002-2007) to understand whether gains do stem from new school construction. Initial evidence shows that many students, previously bussed out of the inner city due to overcrowding, have returned to smaller schools which are staffed by younger and more ethnically diverse teachers, and benefit from slightly smaller classes. Student achievement appears to be higher in new secondary schools that are much smaller in terms of enrollment size, compared with still overcrowded schools.
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Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Ornstein, Sheila; Moreira, Nanci; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana; Nogueira, Roselene
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p350-367 ; 2009
Describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POE?s) as a method for assessing school building performance. The authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of Sao Paulo s schools. The various methods of POE, including expert walkthroughs, physical measurements, observations, behavioral mapping, user interviews, focus groups, and survey questionnaires were applied within a purposefully selected case study school were examined. The findings indicate that the POE carried out at Fernando Gasparian High School revealed limitations in the building s design, particularly in light of the neighborhood context, thus raising significant concerns about safety and security. Users gave the construction quality of the building, a generally positive evaluation, however, there were some important aspects of the building design judged as deficient. In particular, researchers observed a significant mismatch between the building design and the realities of the surrounding community. This sort of incongruity introduced important challenges to principals, teachers, and staff, as they worked to ensure the safety of students who attend the school.
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Measuring School Facility Conditions: An Illustration of the Importance of Purpose.
Roberts, Lance
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p368-380 ; 2009
Argues that taking the educational purposes of schools into account is central to understanding the place and importance of facilities to learning outcomes. The paper begins by observing that the research literature connecting facility conditions to student outcomes is mixed. A closer examination of this literature suggests that when school facilities are measured from an engineering perspective, little connection to learning outcomes is evident. By contrast, when school facilities are rated in terms of educational functions, a connection to learning outcomes is apparent. Using the schools in a Canadian division, the condition of school facilities was measured in two ways, including both conventional, engineering tools and a survey capturing principals assessments. School facility ratings using these alternate measurement methods were correlated with schools' quality of teaching and learning environments (QTLE). Two central findings emerge. First, engineering assessments of facilities are unrelated to the QTLE in schools. Second, educators' assessments of school facilities are systematically related to the QTLE in schools.
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Effects of School Design on Student Outcomes.
Tanner, Kenneth
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p381-399 ; 2009
Compares student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. From a sample of 71 schools, measures of these three school designs, taken with a ten-point Likert scale, are compared to students outcomes defined by six parts of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS): Reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science. This result, in each case, is defined as the effect of the school s physical environment on students' outcomes represented by achievement scores on the ITBS. The research finds significant effects reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, language arts, mathematics, and science. The study's findings regarding movement and circulation patterns, natural light, and classrooms with views have implications for designing new schools or modifying existing structures.
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Lighting and Discomfort in the Classroom.
Winterbottom, Mark; Wilkins, Arnold
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v29 , p63-75 ; 2009
Examines aspects of classroom lighting and decor that can promote discomfort and impair task performance through glare, and imperceptible 100 Hz flicker from fluorescent lighting. In 90 United Kingdom classrooms, variables measured included flicker, illuminance at desks, and luminance of whiteboards. Results showed that 80% of classrooms are lit with 100 Hz fluorescent lighting that can cause headaches and impair visual performance. Mean illuminance was in excess of recommended design illuminance in 88% of classrooms, and in 84% exceeded levels beyond which visual comfort decreases. Ceiling-mounted data projectors directed at whiteboards mounted vertically on the wall resulted in specular reflection from the whiteboard, visible as a glare spot with luminance high enough to cause discomfort and disability glare. Ambient lighting, needed for close work at pupils' desks, reduced image contrast. Venetian blinds in 23% of classrooms had spatial characteristics appropriate for inducing pattern glare. There was significant variation between schools and local authorities. The findings may provide insights into small-scale reports linking pupils' attainment, behavior and learning to classroom lighting, and may also help explain some of the benefits of colored overlays for pupils' reading.

School Building Condition, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in New York City Public Schools: A Mediation Model.
Durán-Narucki, Valkiria
Journal of Environmental Psychology ; v28 n3 , p278-286 ; Sep 2008
Examines the role of school attendance as a mediator in the relationship between facilities in disrepair and student grades in city and state tests. Data on building condition and results from English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics (Math) standardized tests were analyzed using a sample of 95 elementary schools in New York City. Variables relevant to academic achievement such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, teacher quality, and school size were used as covariates. In run-down school facilities students attended less days on average and therefore had lower grades in ELA and Math standardized tests. Attendance was found to be a full mediator for grades in ELA and a partial mediator for grades in Math. This study provides empirical evidence of the effects of building quality on academic outcomes and considers the social justice issues related to this phenomenon. [Author's abstract]

Four Strong Schools: Developing a Sense of Place through School Architecture.
Upitis, Rena
International Journal of Education & the Arts; v8 i1 , p1-16 ; Jun 2007
The premise is that students should be schooled in built and natural environments that afford them ways of understanding how their daily physical actions and social choices affect the earth. Views of prominent philosophers and scholars in support of this premise are described. Next, four cases illustrate how schools can provide students with opportunities to develop ecological mindfulness through practical activities that are enhanced by natural and built environments. The examples--from Canada, the United States, and Australia--span the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. It is concluded that schools and curricula that focus on a sense of place are able to support the practical activities that lead to meaningful relationships between members of the community, and between people and the land. [Authors' abstract]

Environmental Design and Educational Performance, with Particular Reference to "Green" Schools in Hampshire and Essex.
Edwards, Brian W.
Research in Education; v76 , p14-32 ; Nov 2006
Examines the argument that "green" schools enhance educational performance. Having set the context of the relationship between environmentalism and the design of schools in the twentieth century, the article explores the performance of a number of green schools built in the UK between 1980 and 1995. The aim is to discover whether attention to environmental or ecological design produces measurable benefits in terms of learning levels in the classroom and the general performance of the school. The methodology consists of comparing the performance of green schools with that of orthodox schools which share similar characteristics of size, location and socio-economic features, and then relating variables of educational performance to design features. Three initial findings are highlighted: first, the importance of classroom daylight levels to learning; second, the benefits to the school of secondary sun spaces; third, the need for attention to the relationship between ventilation and acoustic control in open-plan solar schools. [Author's abstract]

The Impact of an Intelligent Classroom on Pupils' Interactive Behaviour.
Tibúrcio, Túlio; Finch, Edward F.
Facilities; v23 n5/6 , p262 - 278 ; 2005
The purpose of this research is to determine whether new intelligent classrooms will affect the behaviour of children in their new learning environments. A multi-method study approach was used to carry out the research. Behavioural mapping was used to observe and monitor the classroom environment and analyse usage. Two new classrooms designed by INTEGER (Intelligent and Green) in two different UK schools provided the case studies to determine whether intelligent buildings (learning environments) can enhance learning experiences. Several factors were observed in the learning environments: mobility, flexibility, use of technology, interactions. Relationships among them were found indicating that the new environments have positive impact on pupils' behaviour. [Authors' abstract]

Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma in School-age Children.
Wang, LY; Zhong, Y; Wheeler, L
Preventing Chronic Disease; Jan 2005
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and is the most common cause of school absenteeism due to chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate direct and indirect costs of asthma in school-age children. Using data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the authors estimated total economic impact of asthma in school-age children was $1993.6 million ($791 per child with asthma). The economic impact of asthma on school-age children, families, and society is immense, and more public health efforts to better control asthma in children are needed. [Authors' abstract]

Sound Levels in Classrooms and Effects on Self-Reported Mood Among School Children
Lundquist, P; Holmberg, K.; Burstrom, L.; and Landstrom, U.
Perceptual and Motor Skills; v96 , p1289-99 ; Jun 2003
The principle of this field study is an investigation of recorded sound levels in 24 classrooms and relations between sound level measures and aspects of children's rated annoyance, task orientation, and inattentiveness. Results do not support the hypothesis that lower background-sound level and fewer students per class would improve the sound environment by generating a lower activity noise or the hypothesis that higher sound levels should increase annoyance and inattentiveness as well as deteriorate task orientation ratings.

School Size and Student Outcomes.
Fowler, William
Advances in Educational Productivity; v5 , p3-26 ; Jan 1995
Reviews literature examining the relationship between secondary school size and student achievement. A variety of sources spanning thirty years are summarized, and their findings on the effect of school size on student attitude, achievement, non-academic participation, and dropout rate compared. Includes 44 references.

Building Conditions, Parental Involvement, and Student Achievement in the District of Columbia Public School System.
Berner, Maureen M.
Urban Education; v28 n1 , p6-29 ; Apr 1993
Little research has been done on the need to repair and refurbish school buildings because of the impact that the condition of buildings has on the students, rather than just the need to maintain local government's capital investment. This study uses Washington, DC, as a case study showing that the size of a public school's Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the school building 's condition. The condition is, in turn, shown to be statistically related to the student's academic achievement. An improvement in the school's condition by one category, say from poor to fair. is associated with a 5.5 point improvement in average academic achievement scores. [Author's abstract]

Health and Behavior of Children in Classrooms With and Without Windows
Küller, Rikard; Lindsten, Carin
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v12 n4 ; Dec 1992
The aims of the study were to assess the effects of light on the production of stress hormones, classroom performance, body growth, and sick leave, of school children. About 90 children were investigated in their school environment for a duration of one school year. The children were situated in four classrooms differing in respect to the access to natural daylight and artificial fluorescent light. The results indicated the existence of a systematic seasonal variation with more stress hormones in summer than in winter. The children situated in the one classroom lacking both natural daylight and fluorescent daylight tubes demonstrated a marked deviation from this pattern. High levels of morning cortisol were associated with sociability, while moderate or low levels seemed to promote individual concentration. Annual body growth was smallest for the children with the highest levels of morning cortisol. Possibly, the production of cortisol had some influence on sick leave. It may be concluded, that windowless classrooms should be avoided for permanent use. [Authors' abstract]

Young Children's Preferences for School-Related Physical-Environmental Setting Characteristics.
Cohen, Stewart; Trostle, Susan
Environment and Behavior; v22 n6 , p753-766 ; Nov 1990
The hypothesis of this research study is that children are influenced by such environmental characteristics as color, shapes, light, and the complexity of their surroundings. The study reports that the test results as related to color, multidimensional shapes, brighter lighting combinations, and more detailed use of scenic arrangements were very significant for the study participants.

Effects of Physical and School Environment on Students and Faculty
Bowers, J. Howard; Burkett, Charles W.
Educational Facility Planner; v27 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1989
This article reports on a research study to determine if the physical environment of the school was related to student achievement, attendance, behavior, and self-concept. Two schools, one modern and one older facility, in one school system in Upper East Tennessee were used in the study. In all hypotheses there were found to be significant differences between the effects of the modern school and the older school. Students in the modern facility scored higher in achievement, had better attendance, fewer incidences of disciplinary action, and higher self-concepts as measured on the Piers-Harris Children's self-concept scale.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).