NCEF Resource List: Impact of School Facilities on Learning
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Information on the relationship between student achievement and the physical environment of school and campus buildings, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles – Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment Adobe PDF
Welsh, William; Coglan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke
(School of Education, Stanford University, Aug 2012)
By tracking thousands of students who moved from overcrowded to new facilities over the 2002-2008 period, Berkeley researchers discovered gains equivalent on average to about 35 additional days of instruction each year for elementary-school pupils. Gains are most robust (65 days) for elementary students who escaped severe overcrowding by moving to a new school. Researchers found inconsistent and weaker gains for high school students. p12

When the Building is the Teacher
Stone, Michael K.; Dale, John; and Sly, Carolie
(Center for Ecoliteracy, Apr 2012)
Essay explores how campus, teaching, and learning complement each other. Discussion is based on the Lodi Unified School District, in California's Central Valley, design of a new STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics] Academy for the district. The campus's sustainable features will include maximizing natural daylighting and indoor environmental quality, incorporating bioswales for management of surface water, and a goal of achieving grid-neutral status through energy conservation and production of electricity through photovoltaics and wind power. The campus is intended to enhance learning, to be a teacher itself, and to support a unique curriculum organized around major themes of green technology.

The Impact of School Buildings on Student Health and Performance: A Call for Research Adobe PDF
Baker, Lindsay; Bernstein, Harvey
(The McGraw-Hill Research Foundation and the Center for Green Schools at the U.S. Green Building Council, Feb 27, 2012)
Explores research from two perspectives: from the lens of the child’s experience with their built environment, and from how different stakeholders can play an important role in bringing that research to light. Sheds light on the critical need for research around how the school building—through its design, maintenance and operations—impacts the health and performance of the students in those buildings. 35p

Improved Academic Performance. Student Health and Academic Performance: Using Research to Make the Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2012)
Provides links to research reports that link key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Includes the latest scientific data on indoor environmental quality, health and academic performance. Discusses why the physical environment of a school is important; what environmental factors are important and practical to address; and how much improvement can be expectec in academic performance and health.

The Impact of School Facility Construction and Renovation on Academic Achievement in Texas
Holmes, Shannon J
(Dissertation, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, 2012)
The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and student academic achievement. Participating schools designated as having new facilities were determined by the campus earning an Educational Appropriateness Award from the Texas Association of School Boards between 2005 and 2009. Older facilities were determined by the Campus Comparability report issued by the Texas Education Agency. Campuses were compared quantitatively using an independent sample t-test. Six campus principals were also interview to ascertain their perceptions about the impact of school facility conditions on student achievement. The researchers' recommendations based upon this study include the following: further investigations of this topic be from a qualitative approach model. A more robust qualitative study could provide information that is either inaccessible from a quantitative perspective or useful in understanding this type of data. Quantitative studies similar to this research should consider expanding the study population to gather larger study samples. This study did not control for factors such as teacher effectiveness, school leadership, or curriculum equivalence. Future studies could attempt to control For these variables in order to achieve more reliable and significant results. [Author's abstract] 94p

Reimagining the Classroom: Opportunities to Link Recent Advances in Pedagogy to Physical Settings Adobe PDF
De Gregori, Alessandro
(McGraw-Hill Research Foundation , Nov 2011)
Examines how a classroom's physical environment (as defined by its design, layout, furnishings, and space utilization) can be manipulated to enhance its learning environment. Presents three case studies on schools where the physical environment has been purposely designed to facilitate unique pedagogical models with marked success; reflects on why the potential for using a classroom's physical setting to optimize its teaching model has not been studied more rigorously; and considers what can be done to enhance the knowledge base in this unexplored yet vital area of study. 16p

The Effect of School Construction on Test Scores, School Enrollment, and Home Prices. Adobe PDF
Neilson, Christopher and Zimmerman, Seth
(IZA: Institute for the Study of Labor, Nov 2011)
This paper provides new evidence on the effect of school construction projects on home prices, academic achievement, and public school enrollment. Taking advantage of the staggered implementation of a comprehensive school construction project in a poor urban district, the authors find that, by six years after building occupancy, $10,000 of per-student investment in school construction raised reading scores for elementary and middle school students by 0.027 standard deviations. For a student receiving the average treatment intensity this corresponds to a 0.21 standard deviation increase. School construction also raised home prices and public school enrollment in zoned neighborhoods. 47p

Collective Intelligence. Facility's Response to the International Baccalaureate Curriculum.
Lee, Liz
(Perkins Eastman K-12 Group, Oct 2011)
Provides plans for accommodating the ideals of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program within an existing school facility, including Primary Learning Modalities, General Meeting & Collaboration, General Teaching Training, and Diploma College Preparation. Focuses on the library as a dynamic and active place for collaboration and exploration. Includes strategies to minimize costs while providing a first class 21st century educational experience. 16p

Facilities: Fairness and Effects. Evidence and Recommendations Concerning the Impact of School Facilities on Civil Rights and Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
Cheng, Gracye; English, Steve; Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C., Jul 27, 2011)
Report to the U.S. Department of Education Excellence & Equity Commission on school facilities impact on educational equity. The report reviews court cases and studies and provides recommendations for the Commission. Acute disparities in the access of public school students to adequate facilities coupled with the compelling evidence of how poor quality school facilities are implicated in lower student achievement, make it imperative that any inquiry into educational inequity include an understanding of the conditions, design, utilization, and location of public school facilities. 13p

The Chicago Schoolhouse: High School Architecture and Educational Reform, 1856-2006.
Gyure, Dale Allen
(Center for American Places , Apr 2011)
Examines the physical structures where formal education happens, drawing connections between school architecture and educational reform. It explains how we arrived at the current state of school architecture, using Chicago’s high school buildings as examples. 240p.

School Facilities and Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
Coalson, Jay et al
(Center for Innovative School Facilities, Portland, Oregon, 2011)
Brief outlines the academic literature and draws real-life case studies from throughout Oregon, focusing on three areas that research shows have considerable impact on student achievement: lighting, air quality, and noise. 8p.

The Impact of School Facilities on the Learning Environment.
Vandiver, Bert
(Dissertation, Capella University, 2011)
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the impact of the quality of facilities on the educational environment in high schools located in northeast Texas. The intent of this research study was to determine the relationship between school facilities and the school-learning environment. This study was a mixed method research that used questionnaires and interviews to identify and appraise school facilities and learning environment. The problem was that school facilities were negatively impacting student learning and faculty, and administrators were not properly supporting stronger facility management. The poor condition of some schools raised serious concerns about teacher and student safety. Educators must understand and find ways to help increase student performance. This study used descriptive statistics to analyze the data. The independent z-test was conducted to determine the difference in student performance before vs. after the new facility. The results of the data analysis findings indicated that quality and educational adequacy of educational facilities were statistically significantly associated with student performance and teacher turnover rate showing a statistical change also. [Author's abstract] 175p.

School Energy and Environment Survey 2010; Data & Analysis.
(Honeywell and Education Week Research, Nov 18, 2010)
The results of an online survey of 800 district administrators or school board members reveal that almost 90 percent of school leaders see a direct link between the quality and performance of school facilities, and student achievement. However, districts face several obstacles when it comes to keeping their buildings up to date and well maintained. 68 percent of school districts have either delayed or eliminated building improvements in response to the economic downturn. The survey finds that a quarter of these respondents have seen their district’s energy costs rise at least 25 percent in the past three years, compared to 17 percent of those polled in 2009. As a consequence of rising utility bills, almost 75 percent of the districts have cut spending in key areas such as maintenance, capital investment and staffing. 23p.

Plants in the Classroom Can Improve Student Performance.
Daly, John; Burchett, Margaret; Torpy, Fraser
(University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, Oct 29, 2010)
The aims of this project was to investigate the effects of indoor plants on classroom performance in years 6 and 7 students. The trials were conducted in three independent schools in the Brisbane region, with a total of over 360 students in 13 classes. Half of the classes received 3 plants per classroom, and students were tested with standard tests before plant placements and re-tested after 6 weeks of plant presence or absence. In two of the schools, significant improvements were found with plants present, as compared to classes without plants. The consistency of results among schools, classes, and the large student numbers leads the authors to recommend that indoor plants should be a standard installation in school classrooms. 9p.

Exploring Characteristics of Public School Facilities and Resources and Their Relationship With Teacher Retention Adobe PDF
Brendle-Corum. Anita Dawn
(Dissertation, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, Aug 2010)
The purpose of this study was to examine how the eight items within the public school Facilities and Resources domain of the 2008 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions survey predict teachers’ stated intentions to return to the same assignment in North Carolina. The survey items were divided into three clusters: technology, facilities, and instructional materials. A discriminant function analysis was conducted to predict teachers’ stated intentions to return to the same assignment or to change positions. This study found that teachers want to work in a school environment that is safe and has sufficient access to appropriate instructional materials and resources to teach effectively. The study also found that the survey respondents in the “stay” group, which are the teachers that did not plan to leave their current assignment, were classified with better accuracy (96.6%) and were more positive about their work environment. The results of this study confirm a relationship between teachers’ stated intentions to stay in their current assignment, the condition of school facilities, and the availability of resources in public schools in North Carolina. Implications for policy and practice are presented along with suggestions for further research. [Author's abstract] 108p.

Place of Virtual, Pedagogic and Physical Space in the 21st Century Classroom Adobe PDF
Harris, Stephen
(Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning, Aug 2010)
This paper outlines work connected to the successful convergence of digital, pedagogic and physical space. The Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning (SCIL) has been focusing on the gap that has existed in schools where the physical layout is often stuck in an industrial-era education model, rather than reflecting the possibilities of ICT-enhanced personalised learning. SCIL has been working to create digital spaces so that students can consistently transition from the real to virtual world. [Author's abstract] 13p.

How Does Indoor Air Quality Impact Student Health and Academic Performance? The Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 2010)
This fact sheet explains how good IAQ in schools is a critical component of a healthy and comfortable learning environment. Briefly cites evidence to support school indoor air quality management. Basic advice on establishing a school indoor air quality management program is offered, as are 18 references. 2p.

Relationship Between the Physical Characteristics of Higher Educational Facilities and Student Attitudes About Their Graduate School Programs
Lopez del Puerto, Carla
(Dissertation, St. Louis University , Apr 2010)
This research investigates how the following factors of the physical environment: lighting, acoustics, temperature, and color influence perceptions of their classrooms and thus influence student attitudes about the quality of their programs. It reports the results of technical measurements and linkages with the perceptions of former students who utilized them. Understanding the influence of the physical environment will furnish facility managers measurable physical metrics that can be used to identify those educational spaces that are having an adverse impact on learning and exactly what systems/areas are the greatest contributor to negative student perceptions. This allows the institution to make the best possible allocation of resources to improve a facility and enhance its sustainability. The research results indicate that there is a disconnect between the former students' perception of adequacy of their higher education facilities and the actual condition of the facilities. Even though the results indicate that the campus facilities play a small part in the students' satisfaction with their graduate program, policy makers and college administration must realize that the physical environment does influence satisfaction with the graduate school program. [Author's abstract] 97p.

Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Jan 2010)
Reviews the literature on school facilities and academic outcomes, school building systems, and school facility condition and community factors. It includes a bibliography of research since 2002 and discusses the need for future school facility research. 3p.

Realistic Contributions for Improving the Physical School Environment.
Albert, Lauren
(California State University, Chico , 2010)
Identifies improvements to schools' culture, through various projects enhancing the physical aesthetics of the school. The premise of the project is based on findings from a survey, which was directed at the aspects of the schools' physical environment that caused increases in students' learning. This project provides a handbook of realistic resources for improving a school's physical environment. The handbook outlines four project ideas to be completed by the school community for minimal costs. The four project ideas are 1) School Murals, 2) School Garden, 3) Paint with School Colors Benches, Doors, etc., and 4) Plant Trees with Identification Tags. The projects are organized with step-by-step instructions for ease of completion. Additionally, the handbook provides resource ideas for funding. Creating an enriching physical school environment has been shown to improve students' attitudes toward learning, thus positively influencing test scores. This handbook is intended to improve the grounds and facilities of a school with the end result being a more motivated school community. [author's abstract] 144p.

Improving Student Achievement and School Facilities in a Time of Limited Funding.
Cash, Carol; Twiford, Travis
(The Connexions Project , 2010)
This paper will provide a plethora of data that research has provided regarding how the learning environment can improve student performance. Over a decade of research has consistently confirmed that the physical environment impacts the learning environment and student achievement. In an era of data-driven decision making, one cannot ignore evidence that is quantified and specific. Some factors require minimum investment, but provide significant return. The authors' experiences and the research shared in this paper will arm the reader with the data to make changes in the built environment that can produce significant improvement in teacher morale, school climate, parent and community confidence, and student outcomes. [Authors' abstract] 9p.

Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers: A Summary of Studies Published since 2000. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary; Vincent; Jeff
(21st Century School Fund with funding from the Charitable Trust of the Council on Educational Facility Planners International., 2010)
Recent research continues to point to a small but steadily positive relationship between the quality of a public school facility and a range of academic and community outcomes. This study reviews the literature on: (1) Facilities & academic outcomes; (2) School building systems; and (3) School facility condition and community factors. The review is designed as an update to the 2002 review “Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?” by Mark Schneider, originally commissioned by the 21st Century School Fund’s Building Educational Success Together collaborative and then expanded by Dr. Schneider and published by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. This new review, available in October 2009 includes an extensive bibliography of research since 2002 and discusses the need for future school facility research. 3p.

Impact of a New School Facility on One District's Experience. Adobe PDF
Shearer, Adriel
(Ohio University, College of Education, Athens , Jan 2010)
Analyzes improvement in academic performance in Ohio's new Laurel High, a building that replaced an historic, but decrepit facility. Despite the extreme contrast of facility conditions between the old and the new, the overwhelming majority of teachers who participated in this study did not observe a change in academic performance since moving into the new facility. The most dramatic and observable impact of the new school facility was the shift in attitude and behavior of teachers within the building. The teachers at Laurel High School went from a severely out-dated and substandard facility to a building that provided a clean bright and safe environment for learning. The transition was also accompanied by equipment that enabled teachers to incorporate a wide range of new learning activities. The opportunity that these two factors presented instilled a new enthusiasm for teaching in virtually all teachers surveyed. This enthusiasm also accompanied an eagerness to incorporate new technologies into the classroom. Includes 33 references. 56p.

The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall; Lackney, Jeffery
(, Minneapolis, MN , Sep 2009)
Presents 28 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, entries, student display space, "home base" and individual storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, supervision, dispersed technology, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Appendices include illustrated essays on school design, the future of built schools, author biographies, and 21 references. 214p.

The Relationship Between the Condition of School Facilities and Certain Educational Outcomes, Particularly in Rural Public Schools in Texas.
Sheets, Martin Eugene
(Dissertation in Educational Leadership, Texas Tech University, May 2009)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the condition of rural public high school facilities in Texas and student achievement, student attendance, and teacher turnover. The measures for the condition of facilities variables used in this study were obtained from the 2006 Texas Comptroller’s Facility Survey of the 1,037 public school districts in Texas. The participants for this study were the 72 rural public high schools out of the 309 total responses to the survey from all district types. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to examine which selected condition of facilities variables and demographic variables best predicted certain educational outcomes. This study found that the student wealth level contributed most to the variance in student achievement. However, the condition of school facilities has a measurable effect over and above socioeconomic conditions on student achievement and teacher turnover.[Author's abstract] 141p.

The Third Teacher: 79 Ways You Can Use Design to Transform Teaching and Learning.
(OWP/P Architects, Chicago, IL , Jan 2009)
Examines the link between how one learns and where one learns. Case studies, interviews, and written contributions are organized under 79 practical topics for how design can be used to transform teaching and learning. The book is a collaborative effort among school architects, school furniture suppliers, and designers. The Third Teacher encourages teachers to develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions of designers and understand that we all create the world in which we live. This book also shows how even the students can become designers of their learning environments. 257p.

Life Between Classrooms: Applying Public Space Theory to Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Nair, Prakash; Gehling, Annalise
(, Minneapolis, MN , Jan 2009)
Applies theories of space between buildings to space between classrooms. Corridors should be social, not just transit spaces. Formal and informal learning spaces replace classrooms. Outdoor spaces should provide a variety of group and individual spaces. 4p.

Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.
TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press

Space and Place in the University.
Temple, Paul
(Southampton Solent University, Southampton, United Kingdom , Jan 2009)
Argues that university space influences the nature of the community and the culture that exist within it; that these phenomena transform space into place; and that it is place which affects academic outcomes. The idea of the university that is sustainable, in various senses, relates to these concepts. 15p.

Schools of the Future.
Walden, Rotraut, ed.
(Hogrefe and Huber, Cambridge, MA , 2009)
Provides a brief overview of the historical development of school buildings in different countries, followed by contributions from authors discussing how school buildings can work together with users' own creative responses and result in educational environments that are "alive." The give-and- take relationship between architecture and its users (students, teachers, parents, and the community at large) is emphasized from the point of view of architectural psychology and emerging considerations such as information technology. The "schools for the future" vision is to create spaces that people are pleased to return to, time and again, and that allow options for future modification in line with changing user requirements. Also proposed are criteria for the assessment of schools derived from a dual approach. The first is the call for a common language to be used by designers and educators, exemplified by a number of patterns that have been found to be salient in school design. Their common underlying premise is that learning environments should be learner-centered, appropriate to age and developmental stage, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, and equitable, in addition to being cost effective. The second approach presents instruments for the systematic assessment of school buildings according to facet theory, a tool that helps to structure the large number of possible influences and subjective indicators such as learning performance, expressions of well-being, and social behavior. 264p.
TO ORDER: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers

Classroom Design for Student Achievement.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC, Dec 02, 2008)
This video reviews some of the fundamentals of learning styles, how this impacts classroom shape, what resources can be developed outside of the classroom to support instruction, and how facilities will continue to adapt as we move through the 21st century. This is a beginner level presentation aimed at architects who have never designed a school before or are just beginning to practice in the educational market.

The Value of School Facilities: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.
(National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA , Dec 2008)
Analyzes the impact of voter-approved school bond issues on school district balance sheets, local housing prices, and student achievement. The paper uses California's system of school finance to obtain clean identification of bonds' causal effects, comparing districts in which school bond referenda passed or failed by narrow margins. The housing market estimates indicate that California school districts under-invest in school facilities. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the school bond impact on test scores cannot explain more than a small portion of the total housing price effect. The estimates indicate that parents value improvements in other dimensions of school output (e.g., safety) that may be not captured by test scores. 49p.

The Optimal Learning Environment: Learning Theories.
Akinsanmi, Bukky
(DesignShare , Nov 2008)
Explores various learning theories, the learning environments associated with each theory, the physical contexts designers have created to support them, and a perspective from which designers can conceptualize the creation of an optimal learning environment. 5p.

The Condition of the High School Facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia's Metropolitan School Divisions and the Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction.
Ruszala, Julie Ann
(Dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. , Aug 2008)
With the increasing age and extensive growth of our nation's school systems, school administrators and building designers have become more concerned with the effects of building conditions and those who work there. This study was undertaken to assess the condition of the high school facilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia's metropolitan school divisions and to determine whether or not there was a direct relationship between teacher satisfaction and building conditions. Two survey instruments were utilized to answer the proposed research questions. The Commonwealth Assessment of Physical Environment (CAPE) survey was designed by Cash (1993) and provided an accurate representation of the physical environment for school buildings. The Teacher Opinionaire of Physical Environment (TOPE) survey designed by Ruszala (2006), measured teacher satisfaction in relationship to specific school building conditions. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that a moderate positive correlation was found between the overall building condition as reported by the CAPE and overall teacher satisfaction as reported by the TOPE. Teachers were in pretty strong agreement with the principals on the condition of their school building.{Author's abstract] 232p.

Public School Facilities and Teacher Job Satisfaction.
Stallings, Dwayne K.
(Dissertation, East Carolina University, Aug 2008)
A growing body of research suggests the physical condition of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology, impact teachers' job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference between teachers who plan to stay in current positions and those who plan to leave in terms of their perceptions of the conditions of public school facilities and the availability of resources, including technology. The study suggests that work environment and availability of resources do impact the job satisfaction of teachers and may be associated with their decisions to remain in teaching. Although many factors influence teacher job satisfaction and teacher retention, the results of this study confirm that educators and policymakers should address the physical conditions of public school facilities and availability of resources as part of their efforts to improve teacher job satisfaction and increase teacher retention. [Author's abstract] 183p.

Classroom Design for Student Achievement.
DuFault, Tim; Dyck, James; Jackson, Jeanne
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , Jul 2008)
Presents the insights of a panel of architects regarding school design intent, classroom functionality, and building attributes for effective learning environments. The presentation includes a significant number of floor plans and photographs of recent schools that offer flexible classrooms, out-of-classroom learning and collaboration areas, and examples of "green" school features. 53p.

The Effects of the School Environment on Young People's Attitudes Towards Education and Learning. Adobe PDF
Rudd, Peter; Reed, Frances; Smith, Paula
(National Foundation for Educational Research, Berkshire, United Kingdom , May 2008)
Summarizes research to demonstrate the difference that the British Building Schools for the Future (BSF) schools are making to young people s attitudes towards education and learning, as measured by their levels of engagement and enthusiasm for school. Overall findings indicate that student attitudes had become more positive after the move into the new school buildings. The proportions of students who: 1) said that they felt safe at school most or all of the time increased from 57 to 87 per cent, 2) said that they felt proud of their school increased from 43 to 77 per cent, 3) Said that they enjoyed going to school increased from 50 to 61 per cent, 4) Perceived that vandalism in their school decreased from 84 per cent of respondents to 33 per cent, 5) perceived that bullying decreased from 39 per cent of students to 16 per cent, and 6) expected to stay on in the sixth form or to go to college increased from 64 per cent to 77 per cent. It is not possible to attribute a causal link between improved attitudes of the students and the move to the new BSF building, but the numbers and levels of positive findings suggest an association between the move to the new surroundings and improvements in students' outlooks regarding their experience of school and their expectation for the future. 31p.

Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education.
Campbell, Jeffery
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , Apr 2008)
Reports on a survey of college students to determine any correlation between five levels of cleanliness and academic achievement. The findings showed that eighty-eight percent of students reported that the lack of cleanliness becomes a distraction when cleanliness descends to the third level. Eighty-four percent reported that they desire the first and second levels of cleanliness to create a good learning environment. Cleanliness ranked as the 4th most important building element to impact their personal learning, after noise, air temperature and lighting. Seventy-eight percent reported that cleanliness has an impact on their health, providing 892 comments of how cleanliness affects their health and 681 comments on how to improve campus cleanliness. 144p.

Good Buildings, Better Schools: An Economic Stimulus Opportunity with Long-term Benefits. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Advocates federal spending to improve the condition of school buildings, noting the respective short- and long-term economic benefits of construction industry promotion and an improved learning environment. The document includes an examination of the size and condition of the U.S. school inventory, a discussion of the importance of school facility quality, details on how capital investment in schools can improve local economies and close achievement gaps between low- and higher-income students. Charts illustrate per student maintenance and operation expenditures, as well as construction spending according to school district levels of free and reduced lunch students. Includes 22 endnotes and references. 9p.

Modern Public School Facilities: Investing in the Future.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , Feb 2008)
Presents the testimony of Kathleen J. Moore, Director of the California Department of Education School Facilities Plannning Division, before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor. The testimony discusses the impact of school facilities on student achievement and teacher retention, California s school facility need, the economic benefits of school construction, and successful federal school facility programs and the need for continued and expanded federal assistance. 12p.

The Impact of the Educational Facility on Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
Wilson, Catherine
(University of Georgia, College of Education, Athens , Feb 2008)
Presents a reflection by the author regarding the impact of the educational facility on student achievement, based on the book Educational Facilities Planning:Leadeeship, Architecture, and Management, by C. Kenneth Tanner and Jeffery A. Lackney. The author reviews relevant portions of the body of research which were cited in the book regarding this topic. After a review of the body of literature, the author reflects on the meaning that such information had to her as a student, as a teacher, and will have to her as a future school leader in the elementary school setting. 8p.

The Age and Condition of Texas High Schools as Related to Student Academic Achievement.
Blincoe, James Maurice
(Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. , 2008)
This study investigated three research questions: (a) the relationship between the building condition of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS); (b) the relationship between the building age of public high schools in Texas and student achievement scores in science, mathematics, and English language arts as measured by TAKS; and (c) the relationship between building age and condition of public high schools in Texas and graduation rate? This quantitative study utilized an ex post facto methodology to examine the relationship between the high school facilities and standardized test scores. This study sampled high schools whose data were presented in the 2006 Texas Comptrollers report and compared to TAKS data. The instrument utilized was developed and tested by the Texas Comptroller's Office. This study utilized an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a regression model. Statistically significant findings showed a relationship between excellent condition of a school, as compared to schools in lesser condition, and student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts scores. Age of the school also had a significant relationship: Schools over 49 years old had a significant impact on student TAKS scores in science, math, and English language arts. Similar findings showed a negative correlation between schools over 49 years old and graduation rate. Schools in excellent condition had a positive correlation to student graduation rate. Determining the effect of inadequate high school facilities on student achievement can help inform the education and legislative communities of any correlations between the condition and age of a high school building and the academic achievement of the students in these buildings. Providing school facilities that are safe and provide quality learning conditions are issues that must be addressed in Texas. [Author's abstract] 98p.

Linking Learning and School Design: Responding to Emerging Ideas. Adobe PDF
Copa, George
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2008)
Outlines emerging educational concepts that affect school design, including student engagement, personalization, connectivity of school to community, technological enhancement, lifelong learning, accountability, equity, accessibility, and investment. 66p.

Smart Kids, Bad Schools.
Crosby, Brian
(St. Martins Press, New York, NY, 2008)
Decries "prison-like" schools and suggests a complete national overhaul in school design. Among the author's additional 38 ideas to save America are the lengthening the school day and school year. 320

The Little School System That Could.
Duke, Daniel
(State University Press of New York, Albany , 2008)
Examines the Manassas Park, Virginia, City Schools' 10-year turnaround from a low- performing district to one in which every school was accredited by 2005. The turnaround is largely credited to superintendent Tom DeBolt, who was hired in 1995. The author considers the district's turnaround from four organizational perspectives and addresses the critical role of professional and political leadership in overcoming the challenges of low morale, scarce resources, changing demographics, and dysfunctional school-community relations. The book offers lessons for any school system facing the challenges of low performance, underfunding, political turmoil, and a culture of low expectations, with special attention to school size and the impact of improved facilities. 182p.

Evaluation of Building Schools for the Future - First Annual Report.
(Dept. for Educational and Skills, London, United Kingdom , Dec 2007)
Reports on the educational impact of the Building Schools for the Future(BSF) capital investment in secondary schools in England, and identifies best practices in the delivery of the BSF programme. 25 school site visits were carried out involving interviews with headteachers and other members of staff, together with a pupil survey. In addition, a national headteacher survey was conducted with 1,918 schools. The report concludes that the vast majority of existing schools are now old (built before 1976) and are increasingly unsuitable for modern teaching and learning, that existing literature indicates that improved (new or refurbished) buildings contribute to pupil performance, and that there are high expectations of BSF with the majority of teachers believing that the BSF programme will support educational transformation. 324p.

The Impact of School Facilities on Student Achievement, Attendance, Behavior, Completion Rate and Teacher Turnover Rate in Selected Texas High Schools.
McGowen, Robert Scott
(Texas A&M University, Dec 2007)
The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal's designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study's dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. [Author's abstract]

Is Classrooms for the Future Changing Teaching and Learning in Pennsylvania Schools? A Preliminary Report on the First Few Months. Adobe PDF
Peck, Kyle; Clasuen, Robin; Byers, Celina; Fidishun, Delores; Murray, Orrin; Stoicescu, Christian
(Pennsylvania Dept. of Education, Harrisburg , Aug 31, 2007)
Reviews preliminary results of Pennsylvania's "Classrooms for the Future " program, a three-year effort to provide laptop computers, high-speed Internet access, state-of-the-art software, and intensive teacher training and support to high school classrooms across the state in the core subjects of English, math, science, and social studies. Observers and students reported that teachers spent significantly less time in whole-class lectures and more time interacting with small groups and individual students. Teachers reported that students spent significantly more time working in groups and that the physical setup of classrooms often changed to accommodate more collaborative student learning. There was a notable shift in the nature of assignments given to students toward "real world" topics and toward teaching styles in which students participate in hands-on projects. A before-and-after analysis indicated students using the technology tools in learning spent significantly less time "off task" and that there was a significant increase in the level of engagement. 77p.

The Relationship between School Building Conditions and Student Achievement at the Middle School Level in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Adobe PDF
Bullock, Calvin
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , Aug 08, 2007)
Investigates the relationship between school building condition and student achievement as measured by their performance on Virginia s Standards of Learning (SOL) examinations at the middle school level. Data on the condition of the school buildings, the percentage of passing scores from SOL examinations for each Virginia middle school, and the socioeconomic status of the students attending the schools were considered. Students performed better in newer or recently renovated buildings than they did in older buildings. The percentage of students passing the Commonwealth of Virginia Standards of Learning Examination at the middle school level was higher in English, mathematics and science in standard buildings than it was in substandard buildings. Building age, windows in the instructional area, and overall building condition were positively related to student achievement. Finally the data from this study were compared to the results of earlier studies that examined high schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia, finding that these results were consistent with the findings of other studies. 135p.

Learning Environments: Redefining the Discourse on School Architecture. Adobe PDF
De Gregori, Alessandro
(New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey School of Architecture, Newark , May 2007)
Investigates the physical environment of the school as only one component, although an important one, of learning environments suitable for learner-centered, consiructivist approaches to learning. Accordingly, school architecture should relate to both, the physical as well as the social environmental contexts. The study addresses the following: a) a review of literature related to education, school architecture, and environmental psychology; b) interviews with school architects and educators; c) case studies of schools that exemplify distinctive approaches to the design of learning environments. Among the findings, the thesis identifies three learning factors: classroom organization, learning technologies, and school climate, as components of a conceptual framework that could advance a common language between educators and architects. 125p.

School Facility Conditions and Learning Environments: Canadian Evidence.
Roberts, Lance
(Sociometrix, Inc. , Mar 2007)
Presents evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study that connects Canadian school principals' ratings of their facility condition to a variety of learning environment issues including teacher and student morale, absenteeism, and student achievement. Overall, school facility condition in Canada was perceived to have deteriorated in recent years, and that academic improvement is only achieved when facilities are in top condition. 27p.

Design for Learning Forum. School Design and Student Learning in the 21st Century: A Report of Findings. Adobe PDF
Sullivan, Kevin
(American Architectural Foundation, Washington, D.C. and the Target Corporation, Minneapolis, MN , Mar 2007)
At a Design for Learning Forum held in Minneapolis on October 11-13, 2006 to examine future forces shaping school design, forum participants arrived at 10 key findings: 1) recognize the paradigm change; 2) create new links to the national education reform effort; 3) build for a changing student population; 4) design for the age wave; 5) use technology to expand learning but recognize its limits; 6) design for health, safety, and sustainability; 7) blur bounderies by designing for community benefit; 8) involve citizen designers to reinvigorate the design process; 9) expand the research agenda; 10) develop a campaign for innovative design. 66p.

Better Buildings Better Design Better Education. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Presents a survey of all 150 English local educational authorities, revealing the results of capital investment over the last 10 years. The booklet shows that schools are off to a positive start, and it demonstrates that excellent design can support broader aims from school sport and healthy eating to personalized learning and provision for pupils with special needs and disabilities. 62p.

Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning.
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines the potential of environmentally-conscious school design for improving education. This book provides an assessment of the potential human health and performance benefits of improvements in the building envelope, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustical quality. The report also presents an assessment of the overall building condition and student achievement, and offers an analysis of and recommendations for planning and maintaining green schools including research considerations. Includes 390 references. 180p.

Report on the School Environment: Survey 2007 Results. [United Kingdom]
(Teacher Support Network, London, United Kingdom , 2007)
Reports the results of a British survey of teachers regarding their school environment. 530 respondents rated their schools for design, layout, lighting, ventilation, furnishings, flexibility, safety, and physical activity accommodation. 32 percent of the respondents rating their environment as poor, and 87 percent believed that the environment had an influence on pupil behavior. 6p.

The Effect of the Physical Learning Environment on Teaching and Learning. Adobe PDF
(Victorian Institute of Teaching, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia , 2007)
Presents conclusions on the impact of school facilities on learning, drawn from a literature review of 22 sources. Includes 35 references, 13 of which are suggestions for further reading. 7p.

Public School Principals Report on Their School Facilities: Fall 2005.
Chaney, Bradford; Lewis, Laurie
(U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington , Jan 2007)
Reports on principals' satisfaction with environmental factors in their schools, and the extent to which they perceive those factors as interfering with the ability of the school to deliver instruction. The report describes the match between the enrollment and the capacity of the school buildings, approaches for coping with overcrowding, the ways in which schools use portable buildings and reasons for using them, and the availability of dedicated rooms or facilities for particular subjects, such as science labs or music rooms, and the extent to which these facilities are perceived to support instruction. More than half of the principals reported that their school had fewer students than the school’s design capacity. The remaining schools included those that had enrollments within 5 percent of their capacity (22 percent) and those that were overenrolled (10 percent were overenrolled by between 6 to 25 percent above their capacity, and 8 percent by more than 25 percent of their design capacity). Those schools that principals described as overcrowded used a variety of approaches to deal with the overcrowding: using portable classrooms (78 percent), converting non-classroom space into classrooms (53 percent), increasing class sizes (44 percent), building new permanent buildings or additions to existing buildings (35 percent), using off-site instructional facilities (5 percent), or other approaches (12 percent). 93p.

Investment in School Infrastructure As a Critical Educational Capacity Issue: A National Study.
Crampton, Faith
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2007)
Illustrates a research model that links human capital, social capital, and physical capital as elements that work together to enhance student achievement. Data for the study was gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau Data, the Common Core of Data from the U.S. Department of Education, and NAEP data on student achievement. With the negative effects of poverty controlled for, investment in human, social, and physical capital explains a large percentage of the variation in student achievement. Investments in teacher compensation (human capital) and instructional support (social capital) demonstrated larger effects than investments in school infrastructure (physical capital), but all were statistically significant. 18p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI)

Environment and Children: Passive Lessons from the Everyday Environment.
Day, Christopher; Midbjer, Anita
(Architectural Press, 2007)
Explores how the built environment affects children - their health, their behaviour, education and development. Based on the authors' experiences designing schools and early childhood centers in the United States and Britain 313p,

The Effect of a New School Facility on Student Achievement.
Fritz, James
(Dissertation, Univerity of Toledo, 2007)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of new school buildings on achievement as measured by student performance on Ohio 6th grade proficiency subtests. For the purpose of answering the research question, this study followed a causal-comparative, quantitative research design. The change in learning environment from the old school building to a newly constructed school building was the independent variable. The percentage of students who pass each subtest of the Ohio 6th grade proficiency test, reported on the individual school buildings Local Report Card (LRC), was the dependent variable. From the sample population of 26 schools building LRC's were collected from the Ohio Department of Education website for two years prior to moving into and two years after moving into the new school building. From the LRC's the percentage of students who have passed the Ohio 6th grade proficiency subtests of math, science, reading, writing, and citizenship were collected. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used to determine the difference between means for each subtest prior to moving into the new building and after moving into the new building. Upon moving into a new building, there was a significant increase in student achievement in reading and science. Conversely, there was not a significant increase in writing, citizenship, and math. [Author's abstract] 45p.

School Building Design and Learning Performance, with a Focus on Schools in Developing Countries. Adobe PDF
Knapp, Eberhard; Noschis, Kaj; Pasalar, Celen
(Colloquia Sàrl, Lausanne, Switzerland , 2007)
Presents the results of a colloquium concerning how school buildings look, how they work, and how they are used by pupils and teachers in contexts where usually the priority is simply to be able to offer basic school training for youngsters. Strongly contrasting views are expressed, all backed by data and coherent arguments: 1) School buildings are of secondary importance. The headmaster, teachers and their relation to pupils are the essential factors of a successful school and learning programme. 2) Culturally and climatically well thought school buildings and schoolyards do greatly improve the possibilities for a successful school and learning programme. 3) Experiences involving the concerned actors (teachers, parents, pupils) in planning and construction of schools and schoolyards improve the possibilities for successful school and learning programmes. Includes reports from Yemen, Jordan, Egypt, and Gaza and the West Bank in the Palestinian territories. 144p.

Smaller, Safer, Saner Successful Schools. Adobe PDF
Nathan, Joe; Thao, Sheena
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC and Center for School Change, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota. , 2007)
Provides a summary of research on small schools and shared facilities showing that, on average, smaller schools provide a safer and more challenging school environment that leads to higher academic achievement and graduation rates, fewer disciplinary problems, and greater satisfaction for families, students, and teachers. Also includes 22 case studies of public schools in 11 states, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities; district-run and charter public schools; and co-housing of almost 50 schools and social service agencies. These studies document the ability of smaller schools to improve academic achievement and behavior in safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments. The studies further suggest that sharing facilities with other organizations can enable schools to offer broader learning opportunities for students, provide higher quality services to students and their families, and present a way to efficiently use tax dollars. 68p.

High Performance Schools: How Do They Really Perform?
Schopf, Anne; Reifert, Gerald; Miller, Forrest
(The American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 2007)
Explores measured performance rates for absenteeism, learning outcomes, staff satisfaction and comfort, energy usage, and building operations at the 2006 AIA/COTE Top Ten Green Projects Award-winning Benjamin Franklin Elementary School, and other green education facilities. The presentation explains how daylighting, access to views, indoor air quality, and ventilation affect student and teacher performance; compares projected and actual performance; and demonstrates the tools available to evaluate performance. 65p.

Educational Trends Shaping School Planning and Design: 2007.
Stevenson, Kenneth
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines 12 educational trends influencing the planning and design of school facilities. The trends were identified by reviewing the latest research on school facilities and student outcomes; current issues, problems, and initiatives in the educational field; emerging demographic patterns; and the author s previous work on this subject. The trends are: (1) School choice and equity will redirect facilities planning. (2) Small schools may be favored over large ones. (3) Class size may continue to be reduced. (4) Technology will be increasingly used to lower personnel costs and to deliver instruction. (5) School missions may change. (6) Classrooms will be reconfigured to accommodate various learning styles or tasks. (7) Schools will see extended hours of use to accommodate year-round schooling, non-traditional students, and community use. (8) Electronic media will increasingly replace paper. (9) Grade configurations will change. (10) Special education will continue to be mainstreamed. (11) Early childhood programs will expand. (12) Schools might disappear altogether in favor of home and distance learning. Includes 40 references. 8p.

Skulls and School Boxes: Student Brains that Want Out.
Sylwester, Robert
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Discusses brain function, the brain's relationship to movement, and emphasizes school design that encourages movement. 4p.

The Walls Still Speak: The Stories Occupants Tell. Adobe PDF
Uline, Cynthia; Tschannen-Moran, Cynthia; Wolsey, Thomas
(San Diego State University, National Center for the Twenty-First Century Schoolhouse , 2007)
Explores the complicated intricacies of how a school building's physical properties influence teaching and learning. Two high poverty schools, within the upper quartile of facilities quality, were identified from an earlier quantitative study. One school is urban, the other rural. Preliminary results of the research indicate that ongoing interactions between the design of the built environment and the occupants of that environment helped to define the learning climate of these schools. Reciprocally, the climate helped to shape the interactions that took place, fostering environmental understanding, competence and control and supporting academic learning. From the data, several broad themes related to building quality emerged as central to this interaction between the built environment and building occupants, including movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, and elbow room. 57p.

Tackling the Crime of School Design.
Upitis, Rena
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN , 2007)
Describes how architecture embeds cultural and educational values, and how schools often send negative messages about institutional life. International examples illustrate both nurturing and non-nuturing environments, with the respective favorable and unfavorable values of design details and materials included. 30p.

Evaluating Changes in Student, Staff and Parent Outcomes following Extensive School Renovations.
Zulli, Rebecca; Lighthall, Christina; Carruthers, William
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2007)
Reports the results of a study demonstrating improved reading, mathematics, and Scholastic Aptitude scores following large-scale renovations of school buildings in the Wake County Public School System. From a sampling of eighteen schools, with data from two years before and after the renovations, improvement from 1 to 7 percent was observed, depending on the grade being tested. Includes eight references. 16p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI)

An Assessment of the Quality and Educational Adequacy of Educational Facilities and Their Perceived Impact on the Learning Environment as Reported by Middle School Administrators and Teachers in the Humble Independent School District, Humble, Texas
Monk, Douglas
(Texas A&M University, College Station , Dec 2006)
Investigates the adequacy and quality of middle school facilities in Humble ISD middle schools as reported by the primary users of these facilities, the teachers and administrators. These middle school educators also provide an assessment of the impact that these facilities have on the learning environment. The study also assesses the quality and adequacy of these middle school facilities through a quantitative evaluation conducted by an unbiased assessment team in order to ascertain which factors in each of these six facilities have the greatest quality and adequacy and the impact that they have on the learning environment. This study also investigates the relationship between what educators perceive as adequate and quality facility factors and their perception of the impact that these factors have on the learning environment. Finally, this study reviews any congruency or agreement between educator s perception of adequacy and quality and architect assessment of adequacy and quality. 329p.

Public School Facilities: Providing Environments That Sustain Learning. Adobe PDF
Hunter, Molly A.
(National Access Network, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, Nov 2006)
This issue brief on school facilities financing policies discusses the obstacles that impair efforts to build and maintain schools that are conducive to learning, including state funding systems that rely heavily on local bonds and provide incentives to build schools cheaply and defer maintenance, and state policies that limit funding specifically for their facilities. This also addresses rising facilities costs, inadequate schools in urban and rural districts, and recent court rulings. 4p.

Power of Aesthetics to Improve Student Learning.
Kjaervang, Ulla
(Designshare, Minneapolis, MN , Nov 2006)
Briefly reviews the affect of aesthetically pleasing environments on student learning and behavior, and describes Denmark's Kingoskolen school as an example. 6p.

School Size and Student Outcomes in Kentucky's Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Legislative Research Commission, Frankfort , Jun 08, 2006)
Assesses the effect of size of school enrollment on state test scores, attendance, dropout, and retention rates. Scores on state assessments were typically as high or higher at large schools than those at smaller schools. Scores for middle and high school students were generally higher for those enrolled at larger schools. Scores for elementary school students attending relatively large schools were generally as high or higher than for those attending smaller schools. The differences in performance may be the result of advantages larger schools can provide such as a wider range of classes. Teachers and administrators of larger schools may also have found ways to address the negative aspects of attending a larger school, such as creating the smaller learning communities. High-performing students may seek out large schools in order to take advantage of the wider ranges of classes. Schools with high scores could also attract more students, so that performance affects size. 78p.

School Size and Its Relationship to Student Outcomes and School Climate. Adobe PDF
Stevenson, Kenneth
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Apr 2006)
Reviews eight school size studies performed by doctoral students and graduate faculty at the University of South Carolina. These studies examine the relationship of South Carolina school size to academic achievement and to costs per student at all grade span groupings, including elementary, middle, and high school. The studies are categorized by grade span covered, and their methodology and findings summarized. Results of the studies are varied and sometimes contradictory, and additional issues arise such as poverty, differing results in grade spans, cost versus outcomes, middle and elementary school climate factors, and variance of the South Carolina findings from those in other states. Smaller middle schools appeared to produce better student outcomes, and where larger elementary and high schools appear to perform better, there is evidence that results vary dramatically depending on the children served. Includes 23 references. 8p.

The Effect of School Interior Environment on Students' Attitudes toward School: Suggestions for Philadelphia Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Vining, Diana
(Diana Vining, University of Pennsylvania , Apr 2006)
Presents options for improving school appearance, including paint finishes, colors, and application; lighting types, controls, and colors; and materials for flooring, art display, and plantings. Also included are suggestions for how to involve students and the community, as well as making school improvement and maintenance a part of the educational program. Includes 13 references. 21p.

The Impact of Smaller Learning Communities as a Single-Site Initiative: a Case Study.
Baldwin, Christina
(Doctoral Dissertation, East Carolina University, Greenville , Mar 2006)
Describes one eastern North Carolina high school's initiative to implement Smaller Learning Communities as a strategy for strategic change. The study revealed that the implementation of SLC's elevated expectations within the school and community. The SLC's provided support for all stakeholders through structured systems that increased leadership capacity, self-efficacy, and personal and professional growth. As SLC's were created, learning communities formed that acted as catalysts of change within the school and district. The greatest gains in student achievement were experienced by students specifically in SLC structures. Students benefited most when SLC structures and strategies were implemented. Teachers' level of collegial support was greatest for those involved in SLC structures. Parents and community members viewed the SLC implementation as providing a specialized experience for the high school students and viewed the restructuring in a positive light. It was found that SLC implementation was very time-intensive for teachers and administrators, with SLC administration and teachers feeling isolated. Interestingly, they were deeply committed even though implementation was time-intensive. 281p.
Report NO: 3205620


Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report.
(National Academy Press, Washington , 2006)
Details findings and recommendations of a National Research Council study that discovered a lack of evidence-based studies on the benefits of green schools, a large number of confounding factors and variables complicating the research, a need for more attention to moisture control in green school guidelines, considerable evidence concerning the effect of indoor air on occupant productivity, inconsistent results on the association between daylighting and student performance, and a link between decreased noise levels and increased student achievement. Includes 146 references. 80p.

The Walls Speak: The Interplay of Quality Facilities, School Climate, and Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
(San Diego State University, College of Education , 2006)
Presents results of a study conducted at 82 Virginia middle schools, where randomly selected faculty were surveyed on a variety of issues at their school, including facility condition. The research determined that quality of the school facility was positively related to school climate variables and student achievement, but the precise role of school climate a mediating variable between facility quality and student achievement is yet to be determined. Includes 23 references. 6p.

Educational Facilities: Discipline, Surveillance and Democracy.
Attia, Mohammed E.
(Master's Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee , 2006)
Discusses the redesign and renovation of an open-plan middle school that is incompatible with the instructional policies practiced. TEAMS (Technology Enhancing Achievement in Middle School), an advanced educational system is proposed to be implemented at the school, will be reflected in the educational philosophy of the school and the new proposed design. The project will seek to create an environment that is an expression of the school's educational approach and make the school a place that students look forward to entering. The proposed design covers site conditions, types of construction and materials, energy conservation, and other "green" design features. 97p.

School Facilities and Student Achievement: Student Perspectives on the Connection Between the Urban Learning Environment and Student Motivation and Performance.
Edwards, Nicole C.
This study examined the ways in which students in an urban school district responded to being educated in substandard facilities. The purpose of this study was to arrive at an understanding with respect to students’ attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding the environment(s) in which they are educated. The questions which guided this research were: 1.) To what extent do students perceive their achievement, motivation and/or personal conduct is affected by facility condition? 2.) In what ways does facility condition affect students’ perceptions of the overall quality of teaching and administrative staffing within their building? 3.) In what ways does facility condition affect students’ perceptions of the degree to which their school district values their education and personal safety? Analysis revealed students perceived there to be a connection between the condition of the school they attended and their motivation, conduct and achievement. The study also showed students regarded the quality of staffing in their educational environments as being contingent upon the condition of the school itself. Students held the point of view that teachers and principals of higher quality were employed elsewhere and were more effective in well-maintained schools. The study revealed a connection between students’ perceptions of the facilities in which they are educated and the degree to which the school district values their education and safety. [Author's abstract] 183p.

Connecting Facility Conditions to Learning Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.
Roberts, Lance
(Ameresco, Framingham, MA , 2006)
Reviews the effect of school facility conditions on learning, as reported in over 300 journal articles, papers, and published reports that were collected by other authors. The areas of building quality, maintenance, visual comfort, thermal comfort, acoustics, and indoor air quality are considered. Includes 12 references are included. 8p.

The Valuation of Intangibles: Explored Through Primary School Design. Adobe PDF
Samad, Zulkiflee; Macmillan, Sebastian
(Eclipse Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom , 2006)
Investigates the impact of good design on improved pupil supervision, increased attendance, better well-being, enhanced educational attainment, flexibility of teaching spaces, and other intangible benefits. The paper concludes by suggesting that improved understanding of the impact of design on outcomes, combined with new valuation methods for capturing intangibles, should raise awareness of appropriate levels of investment needed to achieve design quality and deliver particular outcomes. Includes 32 references. 7p.

School Design Impacts upon Cognitive Learning: Defining "Equal Educational Opportunity" for the New Millennium.
Hill, Franklin; Cohen, Sarah
(, Orange, CA , Aug 30, 2005)
Describes some design and planning impacts on cognitive learning and student performance. The classroom design impact discussion focuses on the relationship of students to instructional media at the front of the room. Extreme viewing angle or distance from the display results in distorted or missing information. Suggestions for educationally appropriate options are included. The site design discussion involves a school with a campus built on both sides of a ravine. The distribution of the educational program across these two halves resulted in a learning gap between gifted and traditional students, which was resolved by reorganizing the campus into team teaching neighborhoods. 6p.

The Effects of Classroom Air Temperature and Outdoor Air Supply Rate on Performance of School Work by Children.
Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Matysiak, B.; Irgens, S.
(Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005, The 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Beijing, China , Aug 2005)
A field intervention experiment was conducted in two classes of 10-year-old children. Average air temperatures were reduced from 23.6oC to 20oC and outdoor air supply rates were increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s per person in a 2x2 crossover design, each condition lasting a week. Tasks representing 8 different aspects of school work, from reading to mathematics, were performed during appropriate lessons and the children marked visual-analogue scales each week to indicate SBS symptom intensity. Increased ventilation rate increased work rate in addition, multiplication and number checking (P<0.05), and subtraction (P<0.06). Reduced temperature increased work rate in subtraction and reading (P<0.001), and reduced errors when checking a transcript against a recorded voice reading aloud (P<0.07). Reduced temperature at increased ventilation rate increased work rate in a test of logical thinking (P<0.03). This experiment indicates that improving classroom conditions can substantially improve the performance of schoolwork by children. [Authors' abstract] 368-372p.

ANFA K-6 Classroom Workshop.
Eberhard, John
(Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
Summarizes the presentations of the Academy for Neuroscience for Architecture's February 2005 conference on K-6 classroom design. The workshop focused on the affect of the learning environment on brain development, with group sessions on acoustics, light, spatial competence, color, visual function, and wayfinding. 43p.

The Impact of School Environments: A Literature Review. Adobe PDF
Higgins, Steve; Hall, Elaine; Wall, Kate; Woolner, Pam; McCaughey, Caroline
(The Design Council, London, United Kingdom; The Centre for Learning and Teaching, School of Education, Communication and Language Science, University of Newcastle. , Feb 2005)
Explores the impact of learning environments on student achievement, engagement, affective state, attendance, and well-being through an extensive review of the literature dating back approximately 25 years. This review finds clear evidence that extremely poor environments have a negative effects on students and teachers, and that improving these has significant benefits. However, once school environments are raised to minimum standards, the evidence of effect is less clear. Citations to the 167 sources reviewed are provided. 47p.

Do Green Schools Improve a Student's Academic Performance? Adobe PDF
(Global Green USA: Green Schools Initiative, Santa Monica, CA, 2005)
Concise information sheet summarizing the findings of several studies correlating the quality of school buildings with better student performance. 2p.

Acoustics in Educational Settings.
Anderson, Karen; Brannen, Susan; Crandell, Carl; Nelson, Susan; Seltz, Anne; Smaldino, Joseph
(American Speech-Language Hearing Association, Subcommittee on Acoustics in Educational Settings, Bioacoustics Standards and Noise Standards Committee , 2005)
ASHA has provided a position statement, guidelines, and acoustical improvement strategies to be considered when adding to, remodeling, or building new schools. Acoustical interference caused by inappropriate levels of background noise and reverberation presents a barrier to learning and communication in educational settings and school-sponsored extracurricular activities, particularly for students with hearing loss or other language/learning concerns. 5p.

New York State School Facilities and Student Health, Achievement, and Attendance: A Data Analysis Report. Adobe PDF
Boese, Stephen; Shaw, John
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2005)
Presents results of a study of two New York counties indicating that school facility condition does affect student achievement. Data regarding school condition, student complaints, and academic achievement in these schools were gathered from local and state sources. When correlated, poorer academic achievement was evident in schools where environmental hazards had been identified. Recommendations for better collection, linking, and distribution of these three data sources are also included. 39p.

Does the Classroom Assist or Impede the Learning Process?
Bradley, J. S.
(Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, Jan 2005)
Even moderate levels of noise and poor room acoustics can impair children's ability to understand clearly spoken words. In many everyday classroom situations, children will only understand a portion of the words that are spoken to them, even if they are clearly spoken simple words. The problem becomes more acute for younger children and others such as hearing impaired and second language listeners. It is therefore very important that the acoustical conditions in classrooms be specially designed to encourage and not impede the learning activities that take place in these rooms. [Author's abstract] 6p.

A Bibliography of Design Value for the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. Adobe PDF
Carmona, Matthew; Carmona, Sarah; Clarke, Wendy
(The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, London , 2005)
Gathers and summarizes significant research that examines the value added by good architectural design in healthcare, education, crime and safety, housing, and social inclusion. 93p.

Design Principles: Creating a More Effective Teaching Facility. Adobe PDF
Davis, Daniel
(American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC , 2005)
Laments that university professors often must teach "around" the architecture, which impede the teaching and learning experience. The author proposes that the school facility must be conceived as a teaching and learning instrument in its own right, and at many American universities, the physical setting is unsuccessful, typically following the passive "egg crate" closed classroom format. Also described are three other closely related principles that also shape many aspects of school facility design: Every aspect of a school facility should be program-driven, the facility should be an expression of the values and goals of the university program that uses it, and the facility should strive to be flexible enough to accommodate the educational changes that will certainly occur in the future. 8p.

The Relationship Between School Design Variables and Student Achievement in a Large Urban Texas School District.
Hughes, Stephanie
(Doctoral Dissertation, Baylor University, Waco, TX , 2005)
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between school facility design variables and student achievement as determined by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. The Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools designed by Kenneth Tanner (1999a) was used to evaluate 21 schools in a large urban district. The design variables included movement patterns, large group meeting places, architectural design, daylighting and views, psychological impact of color schemes, building on student s scale, location of the school, instructional neighborhoods, outside learning areas, instructional laboratories, and environmental. The 2003-2004 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skill 5th grade scores on reading, math, and science were used to determine student achievement. T-tests were used to determine the relationship between design variables and student achievement within TEA designated rating categories. An ANOVA was used to determine if a relationship existed between Texas Education Agency school categories and building design variables. This study concluded all building design variables had a statistically significant relationship with student achievement within each school category. However, there was not a statistically significant relationship between building design variables and school ratings. 109p.
Report NO: 3195290


The Language of School Design: Design Patterns for 21st Century Schools.
Nair, Prakash; Fielding, Randall
(, Minneapolis, MN , 2005)
Presents 25 design patterns, along with plans, sectional views, and photographs that illustrate existing innovative learning environments from around the world. Specific designs are offered for classrooms, common areas, storage, laboratories, the arts, physical fitness, outdoor spaces, dining areas, furnishings, and flexible spaces, with additional recommendations on lighting and ventilation. The impact of the designs on learning, socialization, and health is discussed in each section. Includes 21 references. 118p.

Room Temperature and Its Impact on Student Test Scores.
Perez, Josean; Montano, Julio; Perez, Jose
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2005)
Tenth grade students from Westview High School in Portland, Oregon, decided to tackle the question of whether room temperature affects student performance. Their teachers and club advisors supervised the study. The team conducted several aptitude tests on 9th graders in classrooms with varying temperatures to determine how well they performed. This summarizes how they conducted the test and what they found. The data was not strong enough to conclude exactly the amount of effect that temperature variation has on attention span.

Effect of Indoor Environmental Quality on Occupant's Perception of Performance: a Comparative Study. Adobe PDF
Prakash, Preethi
(University of Florida, Gainesville , Jan 2005)
Reports on a study to documents the difference between the occupant's perception of performance in a LEED-certified higher education building with a higher education building that is not LEED certified. The details of the physical conditions were obtained by measuring the noise levels, lighting levels, and thermal comfort conditions at the two buildings over a period of two days in addition to contextual information on the two buildings. Occupants' perceptions were documented through web-based surveys. It was found that LEED certification did not influence the perception of the occupants. Furthermore, it was found that even though the buildings meet the recommended standards, occupants often complained about various parameters. Daylighting and thermal comfort contributed to better IEQ, and had a positive affect occupant' perception of productivity and performance. Includes 38 references. 68p.

A Study of the Relationship Among New School Buildings and Student Academic Performance and School Climate in Mississippi.
Wicks, George Milan
(Dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2005)
This was a correlational study, conducted in 10 Mississippi schools, built since 1999. It was designed to add to the limited research related to building conditions, amenities, student grade point averages (GPAs), and school climate. The eight categories surveyed were: respect (how individuals treat each other and their sense of importance), trust (honesty, fairness, and good judgment), high morale (pride of school), opportunity for input (valued voice in school operation), continuous academics and social growth (aggressively seeking and linking new ideas to real life), cohesiveness (school spirit, unity, and respect), school renewal (school's promotion of innovation and creativity), and caring (kindness and concern for the school body). The overall group's mean differences were positive and statistically significant differences occurred among variables of old school buildings, new school buildings, and what should be, in all eight categories assessed by the survey. This study could benefit K-12 schools by helping leaders in education make decisions about building and managing new schools. [Author's abstract] 237p.

Investigating Multimodal Interactions for the Design of Learning Environments: A Case Study in Science Learning.
Anastopoulou, Stamatina
(University of Birmingham, United Kingdom , Nov 2004)
This thesis focuses on multimodal interactions for the design of a learning environment, analyzing the structure of the interactive space between the learner and the content to be learnt, and introducing a framework to structure it. It proposes that multimodal interactions can encourage rhythmic cycles of engagement and reflection that enhance learners meaning construction in science concepts, such as forces and motion . The framework was the outcome of an iterative process of analysis and synthesis between existing theories and three studies with learners of different ages. Through these theory-informed studies, the significance of physical manipulation of objects and symbols through the employment of multiple modalities was emphasized as a way to facilitate learners meaning construction, engagement and reflection. 224p.

Secondary School Size: A Systematic Review.
(University of London, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, EPPI-Centre , Oct 2004)
Investigates the impact of school size on a range of student, teacher and school outcomes by an examination of existing studies. The findings suggest that there is no overall relationship between secondary school size and outcomes. However, at the level of the individual outcomes, the findings emerge that suggest a reasonable confidence that examination attainment is maximized and absence is minimized at a certain point in the range of secondary school size. Further, costs per student decline as schools get larger. However, they also suggest that teacher and student perceptions of school climate decline and some kinds of violent behavior may increase. This review would seem to refute some of the more prevalent myths regarding the advantages and disadvantages of smaller and larger schools. For example, that student achievement is universally higher in smaller schools and that student behavior is universally worse in larger schools have been shown to be inconsistent with the current evidence. The relationship appears to be much more complex than such simple arguments suggest. 200p.

A Summary of Scientific Findings on Adverse Effects of Indoor Environments on Students' Health, Academic Performance and Attendance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of the Under Secretary, Washington, DC , 2004)
Summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge about the adverse impacts of school indoor environments on health and performance. Key gaps in knowledge and critical outstanding research questions are also summarized. The report is based on a literature review that examined the relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools and the academic performance, attendance, and health of students. The quality of scientific methods and the consistency of findings among studies were also considered, as were similar studies in other building types, due to the lack of scientific information available specifically from studies in schools. The evidence suggested that poor environments in schools adversely influences the health, performance, and attendance of students, but overall inadequacies in school IEQ have not been systematically characterized. Includes 125 references. The public dissemination of this report is required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Section 5414. Studies of National Significance, subsection (a) (1) Unhealthy Public School Buildings. 36p.

The Effects of School Facility Quality on Teacher Retention in Urban School Districts. Adobe PDF
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; Shang, Yi
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Feb 2004)
The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a great challenge for schools and school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts. Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates why teachers quit and how they might be better induced to stay. The authors build upon this literature by suggesting another important factor: the quality of school facilities. The importance of facility quality is investigated using data from a survey of K-12 teachers in Washington, D.C. The authors find in their sample that facility quality is an important predictor of the decision of teachers to leave their current position. [Author's abstract] 12p.

Best Practice in Classroom Design. Adobe PDF
(Ministry of Education, Wellington, New Zealand , Jan 31, 2004)
Presents detailed results of surveys of New Zealand teachers, students, principals, board members, and design agencies, regarding the effect of good school design on learning outcomes. Survey results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented on the topics of space, shape and layout flexibility; air flow and temperature control; lighting; acoustics and noise management; furnishings; technology; teachers support spaces; student spaces; and grounds and school layout. 174p.

Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Adequacy. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland, Baltimore , Jan 05, 2004)
Prioritizes the 31 criteria for school facilities established by the Maryland Task Force to Study Public School Facilities based on the links beteween conditions in school buildings and student achievement. The author, drawing on a large quantity of research, recommends addressing first the criteria that relate to student health and safety: 1) potable water, 2) fire safety, 3) adequate lavoratories, 4) security systems, and 5) emergency communications systems. Elements directly linked to student achievement should then be addressed as follows: 1) human comfort, 2) indoor air quality, 3) lighting, 4) acoustical control, 5) secondary science laboratories, and 6) student capacity. The 31 criteria may be found at (Contains 75 references.) 66p.

EIS Survey of New and Refurbished Schools. [Scotland]
(Educational Institute of Scotland, Edinburgh , 2004)
Presents the results of a survey of Scottish school teachers working in new or renovated schools. Only 27 percent of teachers believed that their comments had had any impact on the final plans, and numbers for involvement with specific issues (HVAC, accessibility, lighting, safety and security) were considerably lower still. Satisfaction with completed projects, however, was somewhat higher, with ranges between 40 and 60 percent. 42p.

School Construction Handbook.
(Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Mechanicsburg , 2004)
Advises school board members on a variety of school condition and construction issues, including the impact of facilities on student achievement, how to get started with capital improvements, new construction versus renovation, project management, selecting design professionals, key components of school design, "green" construction, financing, and typical legal problems of school construction. 186p.

Perspectives of School Facility Design Held by Planners, Architects, and Educators. Adobe PDF
McMichael, Christopher; Tanner, Kenneth
(University of Georgia, College of Education, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens , 2004)
Presents results of a study that examined the perspectives of elementary school facility designers, elementary school teachers, school district superintendents, and elementary school administrators regarding three progressively specific sets of school facility design characteristics and their influence on elementary education. The research methodology is carefully described, and the varying responses from the study groups to over 125 design principles from different researchers and agencies are compared. 37p.

Teacher's Construction and Use of Space. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
(Texas Tech University, College of Architecture, Lubbock , 2004)
Describes how school architectural design plays a role as a context of teachers’ work in high schools. The paper explores school architectural design supports or constrains teachers’ activity in the classroom and in other workspaces in the school, and gauges the fit between the physical environment and teachers’ conceptions of their work. The paper investigates several questions that consider the variety of activities and interactions that comprise teachers’ daily work lives and how teachers construct and use space as part of that process: 1) How do teachers actually use their work environment? 2) How do teachers’ real use of the school facility compare with expectations about what their experiences should be? and 3) How does school architectural design support or constrain teachers’ execution of current images of teaching and schooling? Ten references are included. 63p.

Identifying Relevant Variables for Understanding How School Facilities Affect Educational Outcomes.
Bosch, Sheila Jones
(Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta , 2004)
Presents the results of research that solicited information from educators and other researchers to develop a set of priorities for guiding future work toward understanding how school facilities affect educational outcomes. The phases of this research included: 1) a literature analysis that provided important physical and outcome variables to seed brainstorming lists used in following phases and served as the basis for a gap analysis to identify unavailable information, 2) a set of educational outcomes identified by educators as important to monitor or otherwise track, 3) a set of hypotheses developed by researchers and selected as priorities for future research enhance the understanding of the relationships between physical school facilities and important educational outcomes, and 4) a proposed research agenda for the field. 358p.
Report NO: 3126217


LAUSD School Facilities and Academic Performance. Adobe PDF
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; Shang, Yi
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2004)
Reports the results of a study within the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) that examined the relationship between a school's compliance with health and safety regulations and its academic performance. Schools were evaluated on fourteen measures of compliance which included aspects of environment, safety, maintenance, and vehicular traffic. The fourteen measures were combined to create an "Overall Compliance Rating" (OCR) for each school. The aurthors found that the OCR was linked to academic achievement. (Includes eight references.) 12p.

A Natural History of Place in Education.
Hutchinson, David
(Teachers College Press, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY , 2004)
Considers the philosophy of "place" in education, the history of and current trends in school design, the school infrastructure crisis, and the relationship between the philosophy of education and classroom design. Strategies for enriching students experience of place are suggested, as are predictions concerning the future of place and "cyberschooling" in education. 171p.

In Sync: Environmental Behavior Research and the Design of Learning Spaces.
Scott-Webber, Lenni
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2004)
Analyzes research relating to the environment's impact on behavior and establishes five different archetypal environments that support learning in the current knowledge age, versus the prevalent but outdated agrarian- and industrial-age models: 1) Environments for Delivering Knowledge; 2) Environments for Applying Knowledge; 3) Environments for Creating Knowledge; 4) Environments for Communication Knowledge; and 5) Environments for Decision Making. 145p.

Impact of Sustainable Buildings on Educational Achievements in K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
Olson, Stephen; Kellum, Shana
(Leonardo Academy, Inc., Cleaner and Greener Program, Madison, WI , Nov 25, 2003)
Defines sustainable schools and its accompanying qualities of good site planning, lighting, indoor air quality, healthy building materials, acoustics, and use of renewable energy. Benefits to student achievement through daylighting and indoor air quality are detailed, and 34 references are included. 14p.

Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Appendix.
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Progam, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
These appendices contain the technical supporting analysis for the conclusions in the report Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. Includes technical definitions, onsite data collection forms, model descrptions and results, the mean temperature radiant analysis, and classroom acoustic analysis. 69p.
Report NO: P500-03-082-A-8

Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment.
Heschong, Lisa
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Sacramento, CA , Oct 2003)
This study investigates whether daylight and other aspects of the indoor environment in elementary school student classrooms have an effect on student learning, as measured by their improvement on standardized math and reading tests over an academic year. The study uses regression analysis to compare the performance of over 8000 3rd through 6th grade students in 450 classrooms in the Fresno Unified School District, located in California's Central Valley. Statistical models were used to examine the relationship between elementary students' test improvement and the presence of daylight in their classrooms, while controlling for traditional education explanatory variables, such as student and teacher demographic characteristics. Numerous other physical attributes of the classroom were also investigated as potential influences, including ventilation, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, acoustics, electric lighting, quality of view out of windows, and the type of classroom, such as open or traditional plan, or portable classroom. The study also utilized on-site observations of classrooms and surveys of teachers to provide additional insight into comfort conditions. This study found that various window characteristics of classrooms had as much explanatory power in explaining variation in student performance as more traditional educational metrics such as teacher characteristics, number of computers, or attendance rates. The study provides a range of likely effect sizes for environmental variables that other researchers can use to refine the needs of future studies. [Authors' abstract] 131p.
Report NO: P500-03-082-A-7

Do Indoor Environments in Schools Influence Student Performance? A Review of the Literature.
Mendell, Mark; Heath, Garvin
(University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Indoor Environment Dept., Berkeley , Oct 2003)
Critically reviews available evidence on relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools and student performance. Because available evidence from schools was limited, the review expanded to include studies on direct relationships between the performance of children and adults and the indoor environments in schools, workplaces, residences, and controlled laboratory settings. The most persuasive available evidence suggests that some aspects of IEQ, including low ventilation rate and less daylight or light, may reduce the performance of occupants, including students in schools. Other evidence identifies additional possible influences, such as pollen and some carpets. (Includes 178 references.) 47p.

Green Schools Initiative: A Summary of Studies related to Student Health and Productivity. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, Westborough , Aug 2003)
Summarizes seven studies on the effect of "green" school initiatives on student health and productivity. For each study, the following characteristics are identified: study type, the research question/hypothesis, the subjects, the physical/classroom variables (independent variables), the methodology and metrics used, The major findings of the study, and weaknesses and criticisms of the particular study. Copies of correspondence and a list of links active as of August 15, 2003 are included. 44p.

The Future of Our Schools: Inside and Out. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , 2003)
The classroom environment is a factor in the instructional process and student performance. In this 60-minute videotape, acoustics, energy, education, and building design experts discuss alternative solutions and ideas used in new school construction and renovation projects. Schools in New York, North Carolina, and Washington, DC that have been renovated or newly built are profiled to demonstrate the results of building intended to address the challenges of more complex education curricula.
TO ORDER: Information Television Network

The Learning Environment as Place: an Analysis of the United States Department of Education's Six Design Principles for Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Fritz, Catherine Mary
(Washington State University, School of Architecture and Construction Management, Pullman , Aug 2003)
Analyzes six design principles that were developed by the U.S.Department of Education in 1998 to help articulate the meaning of 21st century education. It considers the relationships between the built environment and teaching/learning, as viewed through a theory, entitled "The Learning Environment as Place." Its application for this study suggests that schools are special places in the community that are formed from the interactions of people, pedagogy, and the physical environment. Four case studies of actual schools in Juneau, Alaska are utilized to examine such questions as: How does a school support diverse learning? What components of a school reflect its place in the community? How can the design of schools accommodate changes in teaching and social expectations for education over time? The answers suggest that American schools have many complex needs; that they shape, and have been shaped by, changing societal expectations. 192p.

Linking School Facility Conditions to Teacher Satisfaction and Success. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC. , Aug 2003)
School facilities directly affect teaching and learning. Poor conditions make it more difficult for teachers to deliver an adequate education to their students, adversely affect teachers' health, and increase the likelihood that teachers will leave their school. This study documented how teachers in Chicago and Washington, DC rated their working conditions and perceived the affect of those conditions on their job performance and teaching effectiveness. Teachers noted the inadequacy or lack of science, music, and art classrooms. Significant numbers rated physical education and recreational facilities as not very or not at all adequate. Over 40 percent of teachers considered their classrooms the wrong size for the type of education they delivered. Over 25 percent taught in non-classroom spaces. About one-third of teachers had little or no teacher workspace. Most teachers reported fair or poor indoor air quality. Significant numbers noted poor thermal comfort, poor lighting, dirty and inoperable windows, and dirty restrooms. Many teachers felt their classrooms and hallways were so noisy that it affected their ability to teach, and many believed that school conditions affected their career decisions. 4p.

Quality of Education. Educational Facilities Task Force Report on Class Size Amendment.
(AIA Florida (American Institute of Architects), Educational Facilities Task Force, Tallahassee, FL , Jul 2003)
In 2002, Florida voters passed a Class Size Amendment to the state constitution that limits the number of public-school students assigned to each teacher. Many school districts indicated that amid unprecedented budgetary shortfalls they could comply with the new law only by increasing their use of portable facilities and prototype designs. Recognizing the potential harm these temporary solutions could have on school design and the learning environment, an AIA Florida task force developed alternative solutions. This report outlines the pertinent issues and proposes ways to implement the law without compromising standards of education, and suggests ways to provide solutions and ensure implementation in a design-sensitive and cost-effective manner. 12p.

The Impact of Color on Learning. Adobe PDF
Engelbrecht, Kathie
(Perkins & Will, Chicago, IL , Jun 18, 2003)
Presents a compliation of studies conducted by color psychologists, medical, and design professionals. Biological reaction to colors affects vision, mood, and productivity. Thoughtful use of color also aids in wayfinding. Color suggestions for different age groups and room type are offered. (Includes 14 references.) 5p.

The Relationship Between Design of School Facilities and Student Behavior and Academic Achievement.
Broome, Steven
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Mississippi , May 2003)
Examines the bivariate relationships between five predictor variables related to school facilities design (learning environment functionality, adequacy of social areas, quality of transition spaces, visual appearance, and emphasis placed on safety and security) and two criterion variables (student behavior and academic achievement) in schools with eighth-grade students in Mississippi and Tennessee. When socioeconomic status was controlled for using a partial correlation, there was no significant statistical relationship between building design and student academic achievement. The relationship between the five elements of school design and student behavior is not strong or statistically significant in the simple bivariate correlation or the partial correlations controlling for student socioeconomic conditions. However, this study found statistically significant, strong negative Pearson correlation coefficient values for the student socioeconomic status with both the five elements of school design and academic achievement. Thus, this study found that the student socioeconomic status overwhelms the small influence that school design has on student academic achievement. 76p.
Report NO: 3089830


A Study of the Effect School Facility Conditions Have on Student Achievement.
Lair, Susan
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin , May 2003)
Explores the effect school facilities have on student achievement as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in a high-performing, high-poverty school district in Texas. This study contains a presentation of the information and data findings from the Ysleta Independent School District and its decision in 1994 to include school facilities as a component of its student achievement initiative. The schools were randomly selected and the case study research was conducted using a mixed-method approach. Data provided by the schools' principals on building structure, maintenance, and housekeeping were collected using a questionnaire, and student achievement was measured using the percent of students at each school passing the TARS sub-tests of reading, mathematics, and writing and the percent passing all the TAAS tests from 1994 to 2001. The study resulted in findings that merit attention and support previous research that points to building age, overall building maintenance and cleanliness as elements that help explain student achievement. 220p.
Report NO: 3116105


Design Features Of the Physical Learning Environment For Collaborative, Project-Based Learning at The Community College Level Adobe PDF
Wolff, Susan
(National Dissemination Center for Career and Technical Education The Ohio State University, May 2003)
The purpose of the study was to (a) determine the design features of the physical learning environment that support collaborative, project-based learning, and (b) to gain an understanding of the rationale for the selection of the features. The literature review indicated a need for changing learning expectations to prepare learners for rapidly changing roles and responsibilities for the 21st century. Collaborative, project-based learning was identified as a pedagogy that prepares learners for these new learning expectations. Data were collected in three phases using a phenomenological approach. Collection methods included site visits, observations, reflection, text, interviews, and designs. Architects and educators participated in the study. Thirty-two design features were identified and placed into six categories. Upon further reflection and analysis, it appears the essence of the findings is the interrelationship among spaces and people. [Author's abstract]

School Size as a Factor in Elementary School Achievement. Adobe PDF
Alspaugh, John W.; Gao, Rui
(University of Missouri, Columbia. , Apr 28, 2003)
The relationship between elementary school enrollment and fifth-grade achievement was explored using data from a large urban Missouri school district. The district's 39 elementary schools received uniform allocations of resources from the district and used the same instructional materials but varied considerably in K-5 enrollment, socioeconomic status (SES), and student achievement. Statistically significant differences were found among the mean levels of achievement of students in the five school enrollment groups. Smaller schools tended to be in the older inner-city part of the district, while larger schools were found in the newer suburban parts of the district. There was a general decline in achievement as school enrollments increased, for both the inner-city and suburban schools. [Authors' abstract] 25p.

The Esthetics of Education.
Bentley, Miriam
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Advocates clear communication from school architects to clients regarding esthetics. Elements of style, scale, symbolism, color and finishes will affect how students and faculty perceive the school. If these elements are all studied as pieces of a working whole, esthetic design can be integrated more fully with the mission of educators and communities. Good esthetics can take a functional building to a new level of effectiveness, inspiring students and faculty as well as sheltering them. 9p.

Environments for Learning.
Jensen, Eric
(The Brain Store, San Diego, CA , 2003)
Examines aspects of the learning environment the way the student experiences it - through the senses. Maintaining that there is no such thing as a neutral environment, this book guides users towards a classroom environment that encourages, rather than discourages learning. Extensive research on how lighting, temperature, odors, hearing, and seating affect the brain is cited. Suggestions for environmental enhancement that are easy to implement and require minimal financial investment are offered, along with extensive citing of research to help make a strong case to policy-makers. Includes 172 references. 61p.

Facility Condition as an Influence on School Climate: a Study of Two Separate Secondary School Settings.
Kilpatrick, Anita
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , 2003)
Examines school facility condition influences on the perceptions of students, parents, and teachers about the school climate. This study compared the condition of two secondary school settings and the perceptions of school clientele associated with each school. A school climate survey was used to measure the perceptions of clientele at each school setting about the school climate, and the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International (CEFPI) guide for standards asked respondents to assess the condition of the school, whether excellent, satisfactory, borderline, or not adequate. A focus group interview was also conducted to gain further insights into the perceptions of teachers, students, and administrators about the facility condition and the school climate. Data from the interviews indicated safety, space, parking facilities, condition of the building, and maintenance are all factors that influenced the perceptions of the clientele at each school. These findings about the influence of a school facility on school climate highlight the importance of school buildings and physical environments on the perceptions of the school personnel and students. 134p.
Report NO: 3092363


30 Strategies for Education Reform. Adobe PDF
Nair, Prakash
(Fielding/Nair International, Forest Hills, NY , 2003)
This synthesizes key learning theories and current practices into 30 strategies for reforming educational programs and for the facilities that accommodate them. These include interactive "learning studios" and "learning streets" instead of classrooms and halls, project rooms that can accommodate various specialities simultaneously, less "scheduled" use of resource and common areas, multi-age grouping, and areas for parent, community, teacher, and solitary student use. 23p.

The Effects of Spatial Layouts on Students Interactions in Middle Schools: Multiple Case Analysis.
Pasalar, Celen
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , 2003)
Reports on research to indicate how small school environments are spatially organized and how spatial relationships influence students behavior and interactions. Four school buildings with differing spatial layouts were selected, representing both "academic house" and "finger plan" type. The evidence suggests that spatial layout and distribution of educational facilities in school buildings modulate patterns of use, movement, and the potentials for interactions. School building layouts with higher accessibility, shorter and direct walking distances, and highly visible public spaces generated higher rates of incidental interactions among students. Students ability to get to know others in the same grade through interactions was higher in academic house type school buildings. However, the rate to know students from different grade levels was higher in finger plan type schools, which offered better visual and physical access among the public areas. Overall findings indicated that single-story school buildings were the more advantageous for fostering social interactions among students. 292p.

The Impact of Facilities on Student Choice of University. Adobe PDF
Price, If; Matzdorf, Fides; Smith, Louise; Agahi, Helen
(Emerald Group Publishing Limited, West Yorkshire, England , 2003)
This paper asserts that, despite rhetoric of added value, facilities management suffers a dearth of objectively researched, publicly available information concerning the impact of facilities on businesses at the level of market sectors or individual organizations. The paper aims to correct that situation for United Kingdom higher education institutions. A survey of undergraduates starting university in 2001 confirmed, to high levels of significance, earlier research with the 2000 class. For many institutions, facilities factors, where provided to a high standard, are perceived as having an important influence on students' choice of institution. Individual institutions show marked differences, significant at levels of confidence over 95 percent. A comparison of "reputational pull" and "facilities pull" is suggested as a means of differentiating the brand of different institutions. 212-22p.

The Importance of Interior Design Elements as They Relate to Student Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Langford, Ann
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA. , 2003)
This study investigated the following questions: (1) "What are the perceptions that elementary school principals have concerning the influence of interior design elements such as floor and wall coverings, lighting, flexibility, acoustics, color, texture, patterns, cleanliness, and maintenance on student achievement, teacher retention, and student attendance?" (2) "Do the acoustics of the environment relate significantly to student achievement?" (3) What floor coverings in the classroom relate significantly to the acoustics of the classroom?" and (4) "Are there any possible links between floor coverings in the classroom and student achievement?" The study found that in all subject areas studied, students attending schools having carpeted classrooms had higher achievement scores than those attending schools having hard surfaced classrooms. The study also found that the importance of a school's interior design is slightly higher for school principals than for teachers. 49p.

Innovative Pedagogy and School Facilities.
Washor, Elliot
(DesignShare, Minneapolis, MN. Publication based on doctoral dissertation, Johnson & Wales University, Providence, Rhode Island, entitled Translating Innovative Pedagogical Designs Into School Facilities. , 2003)
This research examines the translation of innovative and complex school reform models, based upon nontraditional pedagogy, into school facilities design. Factors facilitating and impeding the process are identified, as are the relationships between the numerous constituencies. The study analyzes the three major forces determined to be at work in the process, which were: 1) political, 2) social, and 3) economic. The school examined is the Metropolitan Regional Career and Technical Center (MET) in Providence, Rhode Island. 93p.

Do K-12 School Facilities Affect Education Outcomes? A Staff Information Report. Adobe PDF
Young, Ed
(Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Nashville , Jan 2003)
This report explains that there is growing evidence of a correlation between the adequacy of a school facility and student behavior and performance. In general, students attending school in newer, better facilities score 5 to 17 points higher on standardized tests than those attending substandard buildings. School facility factors such as building age and condition, quality of maintenance, temperature, lighting, noise, color, and air quality can affect student health, safety, sense of self, and psychological state. The report further explains that research has also shown that the quality of facilities influences citizen perceptions of schools and can serve as a point of community pride and increased support for public education. Of special importance is the effect that facilities have on time in learning, which is universally acknowledged as the single most critical classroom variable. Further, according to the most recent school infrastructure inventory by the Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 26 percent of the state's 1,590 K-12 schools are rated "fair," "poor," or "in need of replacement." However, almost half of all state schools need some upgrading of facilities. The estimated total cost of these needed renovations, repairs, and replacements is $1.5 billion. 46p.

Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Nov 2002)
This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning. Spatial configurations, noise, heat, cold, light, and air quality obviously bear on students' and teachers' ability to perform. Needed are clean air, good light, and a quiet, comfortable, and safe learning environment. The review asserts that this can be and generally has been achieved within the limits of existing knowledge, technology, and materials; it simply requires adequate funding and competent design, construction, and maintenance. 24p.

Public School Facilities and Teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago. Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C.; Building Educational Success Together Initiative. , Nov 2002)
This study was designed to assess the effect of school facilities on teaching. A survey of Chicago and Washington, DC public school teachers was used to: identify what teachers feel supports their ability to teach, assess the adequacy of school conditions and school design as experienced by teachers, examine the distribution of quality school facilities, and identify the impact of facilities on learning outcomes. The study also linked conditions as reported by teachers to student demographics and test scores, official school building assessments, and current research on the effect of K-12 educational facilities on learning. The study concludes that teachers in both Washington, DC and Chicago report many shortcomings in the facilities that are essential to delivering a high-quality education. They further report that much of the infrastructure they work in is inadequate to meet the increasingly strict standards of academic achievement that are now being set by school districts, states, and the federal government. 39p.

School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement.
Earthman, Glen I.
(University of California Los Angeles, Institute for Deomcracy, Education & Access , Oct 2002)
Explains how the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness, particularly where classroom temperature and noise level are concerned. Older buildings typically have more problems in this regard. The report cites a number of studies indicating that students attending schools in good condition outperform students in substandard buildings by several percentage points. School building conditions also influence teacher effectiveness, and school overcrowding makes it harder for students to learn. Analyses show that class size reduction leads to higher student achievement. 18p.

The Acoustical Environment. Adobe PDF
Smith, Melissa
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , May 25, 2002)
Asserting that without an adequate acoustical environment, learning activities can be hindered, this paper reviews the literature on classroom acoustics, particularly noise, reverberation, signal-to-noise ratio, task performance, and recommendations for improvement. Through this review, the paper seeks to determine whether portable classrooms provide acoustically adequate environments for learning. 19p.

A Study of the Relationship Between School Building Conditions and Academic Achievement of Twelfth Grade Students in Kuwaiti Public High Schools. Adobe PDF
Al-Enezi, Mutlaq
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg , May 2002)
Explores the relationship between school building conditions and the academic achievement of twelfth students in selected public high schools in Kuwait. The population of the study was 56 high schools (28 boys' schools and 28 girls' schools). The major research questions in this study were: (a) Is there a relationship between overall, cosmetic, and structural conditions and student achievement? (b) Does the relationship between building condition and student achievement differ between boys' and the girls' schools? and (c) What aspects of physical building components are related to student achievement? The analysis revealed that a positive significant relationship exists between student achievement scores and building conditions in the boys' schools, but building conditions of the girls' schools did not explain student achievement. A significant positive relationship was found between the overall, structural, and cosmetic building condition and student achievement when all 56 school buildings were analyzed. Graffiti and roof leaks were the main predictors of physical aspects of a building's condition that accounted for student achievement. 174p.

Daylighting in Schools: Reanalysis Report.
Heschong, Lisa; Elzeyadi, Ihab; Knecht, Carey
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER), Sacramento, CA. New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA. , Feb 14, 2002)
This study expands and validates previous research that found a statistical correlation between the amount of daylight in elementary school classrooms and the performance of students on standardized math and reading tests. The researchers reanalyzed the 1997–1998 school year student performance data from the Capistrano Unified School District (California) and the Seattle Public School District (Washington) to answer questions from the peer review panel. The reanalysis findings are as follows: (1) overall, elementary school students in classrooms with the most daylight showed a 21 percent improvement in learning rates compared to students in classrooms with the least daylight; (2) a teacher survey and teacher bias analysis found no assignment bias that might have skewed the original results; more experienced or more educated teachers ("better" teachers) were not significantly more likely to be assigned to classrooms with more daylighting; (3) a grade level analysis found that the daylighting effect does not vary by grade; (4) an absenteeism analysis found that physical classroom characteristics (daylighting, operable windows, air conditioning, portable classrooms) are not associated with variations in student absenteeism. This seems to contradict claims that have been made about the health effects of daylight or other environmental conditions, as reflected in absenteeism rates of building occupants. These results, which are consistent with the original findings, affirm that daylight has a positive and highly significant association with improved student performance. These findings may have important implications for the design of schools and other buildings. (Appendices contain the survey and data tables.) 105p.
Report NO: P500-03-082-A-3

How Parents and Teachers Are Helping To Create Better Environments for Learning. Energy-Smart Building Choices. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Feb 2002)
This brochure shows parents and teachers how smart energy choices reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. The brochure reveals how schools have turned energy improvements into powerful teaching tools by incorporating energy features into the curriculum. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation. 7p.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102002-1521

But Are They Learning? School Buildings-The Important Unasked Questions Adobe PDF
Nair, Prakash
(DesignShare , Feb 2002)
This paper asserts that school buildings have been and continue to be places to warehouse children, and that new schools just do it in more comfortable settings. It suggests that an examination of the way most government agencies handle the business of school design and construction illustrates how the system is designed to systematically weed out any potential for a completely creative solution. The paper explains that although research is still sparse when it comes to evaluating the benefits of non-traditional learning spaces on learning outcomes, there is solid evidence that progressive methods of education do work when properly implemented, so it makes sense that school facility design should follow suit and support new teaching and learning modalities. The paper describes some innovative techniques and facilities for learner-centered schools: (1) learning studios instead of traditional classrooms; (2) kivas, atriums, and "learning streets" replace corridors; (3) project rooms for project-based learning; (4) from programmed rooms to resource areas; (5) multiage groupings; (6) learning outside school; (7) parent and community use; (8) teacher workrooms; (9) a place to think; (10) technology as liberator; and (11) living, not static, architecture. (Contains 13 references.) 13p.

Design Features for Project-Based Learning.
Wolff, Susan J.
(DesignShare, Feb 2002)
This publication is a condensed version of a doctoral research study conducted to determine the features of the physical learning environment for collaborative, project-based learning, primarily at the community college level. The characteristics of the physical environment investigated in the study were scale, location, functionality, relationships, and patterns. The findings from the study resulted in 32 design features in the following categories: learning group size; functional spaces for learning activities; adjacencies; furnishings; psychological and physiological support of the learners; and structural aspects. [Author's abstract] 72p.

Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington, DC.
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Jan 12, 2002)
This report presents a case study of the renovation of Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, DC, focusing on how an improved school environment contributed to higher levels of educational performance. The school was chosen as a school revitalization demonstration project for the Urban Schools Initiative. The objective of the project was to: turn a school building with acute indoor environmental problems into a model school environment, assess the resources required for such work, train district personnel in the prevention of future indoor environmental quality problems, and provide guidance to other schools in environmental remediation. 30p.

Schools That Fit: Aligning Architecture and Education. Adobe PDF
(Cuningham Group, Minneapolis, MN , 2002)
This booklet presents one architectural firm's understanding and application of the latest educational research in real-world settings. It asserts that architects can make significant contributions to education by designing schools that uniquely facilitate improvements in organizational structure, learning methods, or both. It presents lessons learned about designing schools and about the process and the planning that are required to align facilities with programs, and architecture with education. The booklet provides examples of environments shaped by attention to communities' individual needs, including small schools, project-based learning, and community schools. Following an introduction, the discussion is broken into the following chapters: (1) "Schools That Fit;" (2) "Toward Better Schools;" (3) "Schools That Fit Communities;" (4) "Schools That Fit Education Leaders;" (5) "Schools That Fit Teachers;" (6) "Schools That Fit Learners;" and (7) "Schools That Fit Children." 64p.

Small Works in Arkansas: How Poverty and the Size of Schools and School Districts Affect School Performance in Arkansas. Summary of Recent Research. Adobe PDF
(Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC , 2002)
This study examined how Arkansas students' achievement is related to poverty, school and district size, and the interaction between these factors. Achievement test scores from grades four through nine in all Arkansas schools were supplied by the Arkansas Department of Education. Poverty levels were determined by percentage of students receiving subsidized meals. Findings indicate that the higher the poverty level in a community, the more damage larger schools and school districts inflicted on student achievement. In more affluent communities, the impact of school and district size was quite small, but the poorer the community, the stronger the influence. The achievement gap between children from more affluent and those from less affluent communities was narrower in smaller schools and smaller districts, and wider in larger schools and larger districts. Smaller schools were most effective against poverty when they were located in smaller districts; they were less effective when located in larger districts. Poverty dampened student achievement most in larger schools located in larger districts. The relationship between school size, poverty, and student achievement was as much as three times greater in schools with the largest percentages of African-American students. Recommendations include retaining existing smaller schools, building new small schools, and breaking up larger schools and districts. 14p.

Dollars and Sense: the Cost Effectiveness of Small Schools. Adobe PDF
Bingler, Steven; Diamond, Barbara M.; Hill, Bobbie; Hoffman, Jerry L.; Howley, Craig B.; Lawrence, Barbara Kent; Mitchell, Stacy; Rudolph, David; Wash
(KnowledgeWorks Foundation, Cincinatti, OH; The Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC; Concordia, LLC, New Orleans, LA , 2002)
This publication summarizes research on the educational and social benefits of small schools and the negative effects of large schools on students, teachers, and members of the community, as well as the "diseconomies of scale" inherent in large schools. It asserts that research shows that measuring the cost of education by graduates rather than by all students who go through the system suggests that small schools are a wise investment. Using data drawn from 489 schools submitted to design competitions in 1990-2001, the publication concludes that small schools can be built cost effectively and that many districts are doing so. 31p.

Teachers' Construction and Use of Space. Adobe PDF
Bissell, Janice
(Texas Tech University, Lubbock , 2002)
Describes the influence of school architectural design on teachers' work by examining how teachers actually use their work environment, how their use of the facility compares with expectations of what their experiences should be, and how school design supports or constrains their work. Extensive diagrams and photographs accompany this case study that examines how 17 teachers in two high schools arrange, use, and move through their teaching spaces. Includes ten references. 63p.

Building Education: The Role of the Physical Environment in Enhancing Teaching and Research. Adobe PDF
Clark, Helen
(Institute of Education, London, England , 2002)
This British publication provides an overview of some of the current themes relevant to school building design. It looks at the relationship between school buildings, attainment, and behavior and describes projects that address ways in which school buildings can support and encourage participatory learning, and enhance both Great Britain's national curriculum and individual schools' curricula. It examines the implications of opening up school buildings to the wider community and the role of the physical environment in the inclusion of children with special educational needs and disabilities. Finally, factors that will have implications for school buildings in the future such as environmental concerns and the impact of multimedia technology are addressed.(Contains 91 references.) 41p.
TO ORDER: Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL, England.

Health, Energy and Productivity in Schools: Measures of Occupant Performance.
Freitag, P.K.; Woods, J.E.; Hemler, B.; Sensharma, N.P.; Penney, B.A.; Marx, G.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Describes ongoing research with questionnaires designed to quantitatively link determine relationships between thermal, acoustic, lighting, and indoor air quality exposures to the performance of teachers and students in elementary schools. Teachers' questionnaire responses, exposure data, student quarterly grade reports, and student standardized test scores are used to quantify the changes in indoor environmental quality and student performance between pre- and post-intervention conditions of each school and classroom. The questionnaire is being validated for use in future studies of schools, as well as to study performance and productivity in other settings. (Includes five references.) 6p.

New High Schools in Ohio: Relationships between School Facilities and Staff Behavior and Attitudes.
Hickman, Paul
(Doctoral Dissertation, Ashland University, Ohio , 2002)
Investigates the relationships between moving from old to new high school facilities and student behavior and staff attitudes in selected Ohio schools. This study comprised 13 rural, small cities, and suburban high schools. Data from two years prior and two years after the move into new school facilities were examined. The major findings of this study, after moving into new facilities, included: 1) A significant reduction in the number of reported student suspensions and student expulsions. 2) No significant increase or decrease in the student attendance or graduation rates. 3) A significant positive change in staff attendance rates. 4) A significant positive change in overall staff perceptions of student pride and morale (attitudes), and staff pride and morale (attitudes). 5) A significant positive change in overall staff perceptions of student behavior. 195p.
Report NO: 3047184


Teachers as Placemakers: Investigating Teachers' Use of the Physical Learning Environment in Instructional Design. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.; Jacobs, Paul J.
(School Design Research Studio at the University of Wisconsin-Madison , 2002)
This paper summarizes research conducted to assess how and to what extent teachers actively use and manipulate the physical classroom learning environment as part of their instructional design. A structured interview and participant observation were used to gather data from several teachers at all grade levels, including national board certified teachers. Preliminary findings include the design principles used by various teachers, which indicate that rather than receiving education on research-based design principles during their formal education, teachers have relied on trial-and-error methods. (Contains 19 references.) 9p.

Teacher Interactions within the Physical Environment: How Teachers Alter Their Space and/or Routines Because of Classroom Character. Adobe PDF
Lang, Dale Christopher
(Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle , 2002)
Through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, this study revealed the degree to which 31 high school teachers altered their classroom spaces and/or adjusted their routines to meet their pedagogical goals at a temporary school site. Teachers emphatically desired: (1) an appropriate amount of space to rearrange student furniture, enabling them better interaction with students for planned activities; (2) an ability to control the location and amount of lighting during those activities; and (3) access to adequate computing tools for their students. The ability to control noise, temperature, and ventilation was also important. Teachers' mediation of classroom spaces appeared to be closely associated with individual teaching goals rather than physiological responses to the environment, although there was evidence of the importance of accommodating teachers' perceptions of their own physical wellbeing. The study also disclosed a noticeable social-cultural need for meeting places within the school for teacher peer interactions and equally negative responses to sharing teaching spaces with those with dissimilar tastes and goal aspirations. Four appendixes include consent forms and approval letters; questionnaire, observation form, and interview questions; data results; and classroom physical measurements. 101p.

Another Brick in the Wall? Pursuing an Alternative Educational Environment for Halifax (Nova Scotia)
McMahon, Catherine Christina
(Dissertation, DalTech - Dalhousie University (Canada), 2002)
Student body demographics, combined with curriculum, and set against a particular architectural backdrop are defining elements of any school; and therefore are the means with which the problems of the urban high school should be addressed. These three elements can frame and reinforce the ideological shift away from viewing education as an individual's preparatory hiatus from society towards viewing education as an integral part of everyday life. Currently there is a plan to demolish Halifax's withering St. Patrick's High School, on Quinpool Road's busy commercial strip and build a new school on this site to accommodate the students of both St. Pat's and the neighbouring Queen Elizabeth High. If alternatively, we allow this site which has had educational facilities on it for over a hundred years, to accommodate a much more architecturally and programmatically innovative building, for an alternative student body; we can begin to look at unifying the students, the curriculum, and the architecture, in order to address the question: What role can architecture play in facilitating responsive educational practice? [Author's abstract]

Essential Learning Conditions for California Youth: Educational Facilities.
Ortiz, Flora Ida
(University of California, eScholarship Repository , 2002)
Describes how California's educational facilities are inadequate because they are crowded, old, and in need of repair and modernization. Pressures from increased enrollment in the state due to demographic changes and class size reduction, an average age of the state's school buildings of over 25 years, and the high cost of facilities have all contributed to the current inadequacies. However, the State's responses to the many problems with educational facilities have been severely limited by flaws in policies establishing the state's relationships with local districts with regard to funding, inventory, and oversight of educational facilities. The State has failed to establish a system of state financing to ensure that funds are available to and used by districts with schools in the poorest conditions. It has failed to promulgate minimum standards for school facility conditions and maintenance, develop systematic ways of monitoring conditions in schools throughout the state, or maintain effective investigation and correction processes when serious deficiencies are reported. 23p.

Learning Environments Designed for the Occupants: Three Case Studies of Innovative Elementary School Design.
Shrader-Harvey, Erika; Droge, Martha
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville , Jan 2002)
This research project examined how educational facilities are perceived and used by the occupants. It sought to inform the design of effective learning environments in elementary schools through a heightened awareness of the needs of the occupants and an understanding of how they use their school facilities. Project objectives included the following: (1) to increase awareness of the needs of facility users by encouraging a dialogue between designers, educators, and facility occupants; (2) to develop a knowledge base that will lead to the design of effective learning environments; and (3) to assemble a set of visual examples of effective learning environments that can be used as a resource to facilitate communication between architects and educators. The project involved the case study of three elementary schools: Irwin Avenue Open Elementary School in Charlotte, North Carolina; Grasonville Elementary School in Grasonville, Maryland; and Cougar Elementary School in Manassas Park, Virginia. In addition to detailed building descriptions with photographs, significant findings were: (1) a sense of community at multiple scales provides students with a sense of belonging and a sense of place; (2) functional spaces that allow for multiple uses and a variety of tasks encourage students to make choices for themselves, fostering the development of individual responsibility; and (3) experiential learning takes place when a student is engaged in an activity; active participation allows students to apply what they learn and helps them define their interests, thereby contributing to a sense of self. 44p.

Do School Facilities Really Impact a Child's Education? IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Facility Issues. Adobe PDF
Lyons, John B.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Nov 2001)
This paper reviews research that correlates student achievement and the condition and utility of school facilities. The discussion focuses on the influence of various facility conditions on students, including building age, temperature and ventilation, acoustics, lighting, curriculum development, and school size. Research shows that older buildings may pose a variety of negative consequences for the learning process, while safe and modern schools with controlled environments enhance learning. More specifically, students who attend better buildings have test scores ranging from 5 to 17 percentile points higher than students in substandard facilities. The paper concludes by quoting a recent report suggesting that a school's condition may have a stronger influence on student performance and achievement than the combined influences of family background, socio-economic status, school attendance, and behavior. 6p.

Aesthetic Code in Early Childhood Classrooms: What Art Educators Can Learn from Reggio Emilia.
Tarr, Patricia
(Design Share, Inc., Minneapolis, MN , Oct 2001)
This article compares the messages contained in the physical environments of early childhood classrooms in Reggio Emilia, Italy, with typical early childhood settings in Canada and the United States. The article examines the classroom’s "aesthetic code,", i.e., the social construction created, consciously or unconsciously, by the classroom’s environment and its impact on student feelings and social perception. The author discusses how these "codes" reflect each culture’s image of the child, cultural values in general, and broad educational goals. Concluding comments explore the implications that these classroom codes have for art educators. 10p.

Sustaining Systems of Relationships: The Essence of the Physical Learning Environment That Supports and Enhances Collaborative, Project-Based Learning at the Community College Level. Adobe PDF
Wolff, Susan J.
(Oregon State University, Corvallis , Sep 07, 2001)
The purpose of this study was to determine the design features of the physical learning environment that support and enhance collaborative, project-based learning at the community college level, and to gain an understanding of the rationale for selection of the features. The characteristics of the physical environment investigated in the study were scale, location, functionality, relationships, and patterns. Aspects of the rationale or purpose for the selected features included: (1) important factors for consideration; (2) sequence of consideration among the factors; (3) relationship among the factors; (4) derivation of the factors; (5) design process considerations; and (6) theories used to make the recommendation. Data were collected in three phases using a phenomenological approach to gain an understanding of the two foci areas of the study. Methods for collecting data included site visits, observations, text, interviews, and designs. Participants included architects, educators, and learners. The findings included the initial identification of 44 design features of the physical learning environment that support and enhance collaborative, project-based learning at the community college level and the determination of the rationale for the selection of the features. Analysis and synthesis of the features resulted in 32 design features that were placed in the following 6 categories: learning group size, functional spaces for learning activities, adjacencies, furnishings, psychological and physiological support of learners, and structural aspects. The study concluded that the essence of designing physical environments that support and encourage collaborative, project-based learning is the interrelationship among the categories and features within the categories. (Appendices contain research forms. Contains 104 references.) 256p.

Better Lighting for Healthier Students.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY., Sep 2001)
This brief highlights the problem that poor or inappropriate lighting in schools can adversely affect children's health and their ability to learn. It discusses the benefits of using daylight or full-spectrum lighting for healthier students, citing studies that reported that students had fewer cavities, gained weight and grew in height more than students in non-daylit classrooms, and demonstrated better work habits and improved academic performance. 4p

The School Design Process: An Opportunity for Change?
Guttormsson, Thomas Bjorn
(Master's Research Project, Southwest State University, Marshall, MN , Aug 23, 2001)
Reports on a study to determine if involving teachers in the design process for school facilities would result in a commitment to change by the whole faculty. In one rural Minnesota school district a majority of the facility planning committee was made up of teachers. This committee was charged with articulating the educational activities that would take place in any new or renovated buildings by outlining seven critical attributes that would set the direction for the physical design and educational programs that would take place in the future. It was found that in this district, which attempted several reform efforts during the past 10 years, teachers agreed to change their teaching to conform to the committee's vision. 71p.
Report NO: 1406234


How School Administrators and Board Members Are Improving Learning and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices Series. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2001)
This brochure shows how school administrators and board members can make smart energy choices to reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102001-1430

Design Standards for Elementary, Middle/Junior High, and High School Counseling Facilities.
Booher, Carrie Ann Colvin
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Aug 2001)
This study sought to increase the knowledge base in the area of the facility needs of school counselors. School conselors were surveyed regarding their perceptions about actual and ideal counseling facilities. The School Counseling Facility Survey was developed from a review of the school counseling and facility literature. Counselors responses were compared across the variables: age of the building, level of facility satisfaction, level of job satisfaction, academic level of the students served, and the type of community. Design standards included counselor-identified design items for counseling offices, reception areas, conference rooms, playrooms, career/college rooms, storage areas, and the location of the counseling facility. 517p.
Report NO: 3025250


Smaller, Safer, Saner: Successful Schools.
Nathan, Joe; Febey, Karen
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C.; Minnesota University, Center for School Change, Humphrey Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota. , Aug 2001)
Provides brief case studies of 22 public school buildings in 12 states, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities, including both district-run and charter public schools. The studies demonstrate these schools' ability to improve academic achievement and behavior in safe, nurturing, and stimulating environments. Case study analysis reveals that on average, smaller schools can provide a safer and more challenging school environment that creates higher academic achievement and graduation rates, fewer disciplinary problems, and greater satisfaction for families, students, and teachers. The studies also suggest that sharing facilities with other organizations can enable schools to offer broader learning opportunities for students, provide higher quality services to students and their families, and present a way to efficiently use tax dollars. 64p.

The Relationship of School Design to Academic Achievement of Elementary School Children. Adobe PDF
Yarbrough, Kathleen Ann
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , May 2001)
This study sought to determine if there are relationships between student achievement and educational facilities. It focused on the question: Does school design influence the academic achievement of elementary school students? Criteria used were scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and 86 variables describing design patterns in various categories such as movement patterns, large group spaces, architectural layout, daylighting and views, color, scale of building, and location of school site. Findings indicated that design does influence student learning, with circulation pattern or movement accounting for the largest percentage of variance for the third grade, and availability of large group meeting areas accounting for the largest percentage of variance in the fifth grade.
Report NO: UMI AAI0802849

National Survey of Public School Teachers. Adobe PDF
(Beth Schapiro and Associates, Atlanta, GA , Mar 2001)
Presents the findings of a national survey of 1,050 public school teachers. The survey, which examines teachers' opinions regarding the relationship between interior design and academic performance, was conducted for the Carpet and Rug Institute and the International Interior Design Association Foundation. Survey results indicate that teachers from all grade levels across the country realize that a well-designed classroom enhances their ability to teach and their students' ability to learn. Results also suggest that most teachers see advantages of carpet in the classroom, particularly in regards to acoustics and comfort as well as the flexibility offered by carpet. 16p.

Children and the Physical Environment in School Settings.
Itoh, Shunsuke
Feb 2001)
Explores children's interactions with the physical environment and what they mean in the everyday life of school. The school was viewed as a setting for children's socio-cultural development, and how space works in this context was studied. Children's interactions with space were viewed in a broad sense, including active, immediate and passive. Since how adults arrange and use space influences children's experience of space, two types of interactions were explored: how space is used in educational activities creating the situations children experience space in, and how children use space in their behavior. 32p.

Building Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the Relationship between Schools Capital Investment and Pupil Performance. Adobe PDF
(PricewaterhouseCoopers; Department for Education and Employment, London, England , Jan 2001)
This report presents empirical evidence about the impact that capital investment has on academic achievement in the United Kingdom public school system. The report presents an overview of the research methodology and the main findings from the existing literature and qualitative studies compared to those found in quantitative studies. Analysis indicates that, while most quantitative studies show that capital spending heightens academic performance, the relationship appears weak. However, qualitative studies and a literature review reveal a stronger link between capital spending and student achievement. The strongest relationship between capital investment and academic performance appears to be in specific school design features and school facility quality. Appendices contain additional information on the qualitative research design, issues related to the study's statistical methodology, and detailed statistical results. (Contains 54 references.) 64p.
Report NO: R-242

Educational Performance, Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments. Adobe PDF
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , 2001)
This paper briefly discusses research on the negative impact of indoor air environments within educational facilities and the positive impact of a scientifically based cleaning process. Included is a form for calculating the environmental performance for a school environment and definitions of relevant terms. Final sections discuss building management and cleaning and list the principles of cleaning effectiveness in school environments. 10p.

Building Better Outcomes: The Impact of School Infrastructure on Student Outcomes and Behaviour. School Issues Digest. Adobe PDF
Fisher, Kenn
(Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Australia , Jan 2001)
This digest reviews a range of research studies that examine the possible causal linkages between school buildings and student outcomes and behavior. It presents findings in support of the theory that facilities make a difference and also presents findings in areas where research to date is relatively inconclusive. The report also examines studies concerning the relationship between student outcomes and behavior based on the overall building condition as well as the influence of individual building elements. A list of websites for additional information is included. 6p.

Bibliography of Empirical Research Investigating the Relationship between the Physical Environment of Educational Settings and Educational Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Lam, Mark
(Texas A&M University, College Station, TX , 2001)
Cites 1955-1998 research, reports, and journal articles on the effect of school facilities on educational outcomes. 19p.

Dropping Out of High School: The Role of School Organization and Structure. Adobe PDF
Lee,Valerie E.; Burkam, David T.
(Paper Prepared for Conference: "Dropouts in America: How Severe is the Problem? What do we Know About Intervention and Prevention?" Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA, Jan 2001)
Explores how high schools, through their size, structures and organizations, may influence their students’ decisions about whether to stay in school until graduation or drop out. Findings center on three features of secondary schools: curriculum, school size, and social relations. Students in schools enrolling fewer than 1,500 students more often stay in school until graduation. 32p.

Facility Conditions and Student Test Performance in the Milwaukee Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Lewis, Morgan
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2001)
This study of 139 K-12 Milwaukee public schools examines the effect of building condition on student test scores compared to other influences such as family background, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, attendance, and student discipline. The study analyzed performance on the Wisconsin Student Assessment System Mathematics, Science, Language, and Social Studies tests of fourth, eighth, and tenth grades of each school in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Results show that student success is significantly related to facility condition. 19p.

A Survey Study of Elementary Classroom Seating Designs. Adobe PDF
Patton, James E.; Snell, Jennifer; Knight, Willis J.; Gerken, Kathryn
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, Washington, DC. , 2001)
This paper presents the results of a two-part study that investigated classroom seating design preferences among elementary classroom teachers. In part one, the researchers mapped and classified seating arrangements that were in actual use across 294 regular classrooms (grades K-5) in 21 public elementary schools. Subsequently, the researchers asked 138 elementary regular classroom teachers (grades K-5) to describe, in a survey, the occasions and their rationales for the seating designs they typically employed. In contrast to outcomes from research conducted a decade ago, and irrespective of grade level and school socioeconomic status, results showed that small group cluster designs were now used pervasively (i.e., in 76 percent of observed classrooms, and by 94 percent of surveyed respondents), apparently because many contemporary teachers believe that this type of seating arrangement contributes directly to students' educational growth through the effects of socially facilitated learning. The study did not specifically address the validity of this belief, but it did yield a number of relevant, testable propositions. 8p.

School Works Tool Kit. Adobe PDF
Seymour, Jane; Cottam, Hilary; Comely, Grace; Annesley, Barbara; Lingayah, Sanjiv
(School Works, London, England , 2001)
The United Kingdom's non-profit School Works project was initiated to respond to the challenges of updating school infrastructure by showing the links between design and education, producing beautiful schools which further learning, and working in new ways with new partnerships. The first part of this "toolkit" guide explains the thinking behind the School Works approach and what it has to offer. The second part discusses how to set up a participatory process step by step from the questions that need to be considered and the focus a school's project might take to the techniques schools can use to get everyone involved. It also refers to the School Works' experience at Kingsdale School in London. The third part explains how to select an architect and gives a broad outline of the processes involved in implementing a building project. 116p.

Differences in School Climate Between Old and New Buildings: Perceptions of Parents, Staff, and Students.
Stapleton, David Barry
(Dissertation, Georgia Southern University , 2001)
The purpose of this study was to determine if the age of a school facility had a significant influence on the perceptions of school climate held by students, staff members, and parents in the school. Jeff Davis High School in Hazlehurst, Georgia, was the target school for this study. Jeff Davis High School moved from an old facility into a new one during the summer of 1999. Results of the study were that, at least during the first year in a new school building, the perceptions of school climate by students, staff members, and parents were negatively influenced. Statistical analysis showed that the decrease was significant. One suggested reason for the decrease was that acclimation to a new building may take longer than a year. Another explanation was that building maintenance and cleanliness may have a more significant influence on school climate than does building age. [Author's abstract]

The Relationship of School Facilities Conditions to Selected Student Academic Outcomes.
Stevenson, Kenneth
(University of South Carolina, College of Education, Dept. of Educational Leadership and Policies, Columbia , 2001)
Reports on research that sought to determine if a relationship exists between school academic outcomes and school facilities characteristics. Data were gathered from a variety of sources including research literature, state data files, principal questionnaires, and focus groups. The major finding showed that students scored better on standardized achievement tests in situations where: 1)The principal gives a better rating to the physical condition and adequacy of his or her school. 2)The school is newer. 3)The school is larger. 4)The student and attendance rate is higher. The socio-economic make up of the student body as measured by the portion of pupils on free or reduced lunch is heavily intertwined with each of these findings. Most principals believe that the condition and adequacy of a school facility has a significant impact on school academic outcomes. They view the relationship as very complex, indicating that facilities affect teacher attitudes, which in turn affect classroom productivity. Among facilities factors adversely affecting the educational process are overcrowding, poor physical condition of the structure, portables, lack of storage, and inadequate laboratory space. 92p.

Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments that Work.
Strange, C. Carney; Banning, James H.
(Josey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, CA , 2001)
This book is organized into two parts. Part One, "Type and Impacts of Campus Environments," offers an overview of models and concepts of human environments, focusing on their manifestations in the college and university setting and their implications for the design of education facilities, systems, and practices. It provides a broad foundation for understanding and assessing the key components of any human environment- physical dimensions, people, organizational structures, and collective social con structions, as well as environments created more specifically in the service of higher education. Part Two, "Creating Environments that Foster Educational Success," focuses on the conditions thought to be important for the design of effective educational nvironments. This section proposes that educational environments are most powerful when they offer students three fundamental conditions: a sense of security and inclusion, mechanisms for involvement, and an experience of community. Includes 301 references. 251p.

The Ultimate Education Reform? Make Schools Smaller
Ayers, William; Bracey, Gerald; Smith, Greg
(University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, School of Education, Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, Milwaukee, WI , Dec 14, 2000)
Article advocating the return to smaller schools after a forty year trend toward school consolidation. The authors claim that a small school can raise student achievement, especially for minority and low-income students, reduce incidents of violence; reduce graffiti on school buildings; increase attendance and graduation rates; elevate teacher satisfaction; operate cost-effectively and increase parent and community involvement.

Research About School Size and School Performance in Impoverished Communities. Adobe PDF
Howley, Craig; Strange, Marty; Bickel, Robert
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Dec 2000)
Many panels and experts have endorsed small schools as educationally effective, often adding the parenthetical remark that smaller size is especially beneficial for impoverished students. A recent series of studies, the "Matthew Project," substantially strengthens the research base on school size and school performance in impoverished communities, adding evidence to bolster these claims. This Digest reviews recent thinking about small school size, describes the aim of the Matthew Project studies, and summarizes findings. Discussion concludes with a brief section on implications. 2p

Where Children Learn: Facilities Conditions and Student Test Performance in Milwaukee Public Schools. IssueTrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educational Issues.
Lewis, Morgan
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Dec 2000)
This paper reviews a study on the relationship between the physical condition of 139 Milwaukee public schools and student achievement in those schools as measured by 1996 test scores from fourth, eighth, and tenth grades. Data show a positive relationship between facility condition and student achievement. When differences in the individual ability of students were controlled (by using the reading scores as an independent variable), measures of school facilities explained more of the differences in test performance across schools than indicators of the family backgrounds and attendance/behavior patterns of the students. These findings suggest that facility condition may have a stronger affect on student performance than the combined influences of family background, socio- economic status, and school attendance and behavior. 4p.

Schoolyard Learning: The Impact of School Grounds. Adobe PDF
(Education Development Center, Global Learning Group, Newton, MA , Nov 2000)
This white paper utilizes a literature review and survey as the basis for comments about the influence of schoolyards on academic learning and child development. The researchers find that school grounds form an important albeit under-utilized part of the built environment. School grounds have a positive impact on social development, academic achievement, and on safety and physical well- being. The study also suggests characteristics that constitute outstanding schoolyards. It assesses the state of research on school grounds and presents a critique of existing knowledge. Appendices contain a partial bibliography, the survey on the impact of schoolyard learning programs, survey data, and a survey research summary table. 38p.

Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise FICAN Position on Research into Effects of Aircraft Noise on Classroom Learning. Adobe PDF
(Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise, San Diego, CA , Sep 2000)
Presents proceedings from a symposium session that examined the effects of external noise from aircraft on the classroom environment. The research focused on the cognitive and mental health effects of noise on children, the acoustical needs of classrooms, and the practical implementation of sound insulation in schools. The report incorporates the full text of the Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise Position on Research into Effects of Aircraft Noise on Classroom Learning. 7p.

Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC , Aug 2000)
This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from building-related illnesses, from mild symptoms of distress, the estimated loss in performance, measured loss in performance, and the measured effects of temperature and humidity. Final comments provide information on the "IAQ Tools for Schools Kit" that schools can use to improve and maintain good indoor air quality. 4p.
Report NO: EPA-402-F-00-009

The Relationship Between School Size and Academic Achievement in Georgia's Public High Schools.
Gentry, Kathy Joy
(Dissertation, University of Georgia , Aug 2000)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school size and academic achievement in Georgia's public high schools. Since research indicated that many factors influence academic achievement, this study controlled for two possible influences on academic achievement: ethnicity of students (through sampling), and percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch (through analysis of covariance). Based on the test of significant differences among the group classifications it was not necessary to control for the percentage of teachers with advanced certification in this sample. This study of Georgia's public high schools found that in the three academic areas analyzed, students in the larger schools scored higher on achievement measures than students in the smaller schools (less that 850 students). Although the results of this study were in favor of the larger schools when cognitive learning was analyzed, affective and behavioral dimensions of learning were not investigated. It is recommended that further investigations consider school size as it relates to the behavioral and affective dimensions of learning before making the overall declaration that "bigger schools are better."

The Impact of School Facilities on Student Achievement, Behavior, Attendance, and Teacher Turnover Rate at Selected Texas Middle Schools in Region XIII ESC.
O'Neill, David John
(Doctoral Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station , Aug 2000)
Explores whether improving school buildings has a direct and positive affect on student learning, attendance, and teacher turnover rates. The study shows a direct relationship between building quality and student achievement. The author’s recommendations include: 1) designing school buildings and classrooms to accommodate the instructional program, including carpeting, utilizing the latest technology, adequate storage for teachers and student projects, and minimizing disruptive noises; and 2) making items such as daily custodial care, maintenance, and needed renovations a priority when administrators are planning a district budget. 228p.
Report NO: 9980195


Daylighting in Schools: Improving Student Performance and Health at a Price Schools Can Afford. Adobe PDF
Plympton, Patricia; Conway, Susan; Epstein, Kyra
(Presented at the American Solar Energy Society Conference, Madison, Wisconsin , Jun 16, 2000)
Discusses evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have implemented daylighting into their buildings in a cost-effective manner. Case studies reveal that design strategies and construction costs associated with designs that provide daylighting do not significantly increase over conventionally designed schools, and that students do benefit in terms of increased performance and better general health when school designs incorporate daylighting techniqes. Includes design tips and provides resources for obtaining further information on daylighting and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for schools. (Contains 25 references). 6p.

Designing Schools Based on Brain Research.[Audiotape]
Chermayeff, Peter; Townsend, Ted
(Presentation at the Learning and the Brain Conference, Washington, DC , May 03, 2000)
An audiotape explains an Iowa rainforest project that promotes experiential learning for children, and explores the effects of the physical environment on the brain. The project is a one-of-a-kind private/public partnership that has created a fully integrated, seamless educational facility that combines a public school (prekindergarten through fifth grade), teacher development/training center, rain forest (five acres), aquarium and mixed-media, and a large screen theater. It is suggested that the school's great drawing power and the profit it generates will allow the combination rain forest/public school facility to be self-supporting without an ongoing tax subsidy.

Daylight Makes a Difference: Daylight in the Classroom Can Boost Standardized Test Scores and Learning. [Audiotape].
Kosik, Kenneth S.; Heschong, Lisa
(Presentation at the Learning and the Brain Conference, Washington, D.C. , May 03, 2000)
An audiotape presents study analysis of the effect of daylighting on student performance. Results from test scores of more than 21,000 student records along with other data sets from three school districts reveal that students with the most daylighting had from 7 percent to 18 percent higher scores than those with the least amount of daylighting. Despite differences in teaching styles, school building design, and very different climates, the three districts show daylighting to have consistently positive and highly significant effects.

Essential Aspects of Designing a School
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(University of Georgia, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA , Apr 2000)
Research on school design variables that influence student achievement. Samples are in the State of Georgia and may not necessarily generalize to other areas. 29 design patterns were found that significantly relate to student achievement. In all cases statistical controls were placed on social and economic variables to eliminate bias. The research represents findings concerning the cognitive aspect of learning.

A Study on the Relationship between Students' Achievement, School Size and Gender.
La Sage, Ed.; Ye, Renmin
( Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, Dallas, TX , Jan 27, 2000)
The relationship between school size and students' achievement in reading and mathematics by school level and gender was studied in order to illuminate issues of school size and equity and alternatives such as school-within-a-school plans. Data on 251,049 students from kindergarten through 12th grade were collected from 291 elementary, middle, and high schools in an urban Texas district. Correlations between academic achievement and school size were determined. For minority students, the effects of school size were mixed, with positive correlations for some groups at some levels that were not sustained at other levels. Findings do show that female students are negatively affected by school size in reading and mathematics at elementary, middle, and high school levels, while negative impact on males is only seen at the high school level. Previous research and the findings of this study suggest that smaller school sizes and smaller class sizes help educators understand and work with their students. 17p.

Heery Millennium School 2000.
(Heery International, Atlanta, GA , 2000)
Presents results from focus groups and telephone surveys concerning the attitudes and opinions of public school educators on the issue of school design and its effect on student performance. Educators from seven different metropolitan areas throughout the United States were surveyed with questions addressing the importance of school design, classroom design, safety, and community involvment. 132p.

The Appraisal of Investments in Educational Facilities Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 2000)
A collection of papers is presented that address, from a European perspective, the basic aspects of investments in physical educational facilities and important issues in the economics of education. Four themes are covered. The first aims at presenting a state of the art of the economic analysis of educational projects. The second focuses on the contribution of performance indicators in the evaluation of education systems. The third concerns the management of physical resources for education, especially the relationship between school environment and student achievement. The last theme addresses the design and equipment of physical facilities for education. It argues for investments in building human capital, and provides the tools for assessing the rates of return on these types of investments. Final comments focus on facility flexibility: what it is and which requirements it is supposed to meet. 234p.
Report NO: OECD-50647-2000

Landscapes of Betrayal, Landscapes of Joy: Curtisville in the Lives of Its Teenagers
Childress, Herb
(State University of New York Press; Suny Series in Environmental and Architectural Phenomenology., 2000)
In this ethnography, the author demonstrates how buildings and landscapes (and the institutions that shape them) systematically shortchange kids, eliminating opportunities for challenge and growth, and encouraging their passivity. After examining the places to which the kids were devoted, where they worked hardest, and where they were at their best, including the design of the high school, the author offers ideas for change. 351p.

Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments.
Dudek, Mark
(Architectural Press, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, Massachusetts , 2000)
This guide focuses on the architecture of primary and pre- school sector in the United Kingdom and broadly considers the subtle spatial and psychological requirements of growing children up to, and beyond, the age of sixteen. Chapter 1 examines the history, origins, and significant historical developments of school architecture along with an overview illustrating the link between progressive educational ideas and experimental architecture. Chapter 2 explores the classroom environment and its importance to child development and learning, including the interweaving of the esoteric factors such as the effects on behavior of color, light, and texture with the practical aspects of designing for comfort, health, and education. Chapter 3 analyzes and discusses the best new examples of school design within the wider architectural and political context. Chapter 4 examines the issues outside the classroom such as environmental factors defining healthy, comfortable buildings for education and the structure of school funding within the United Kingdom. The book also analyzes 20 school or educational buildings in diagrammatic and visual terms revealing how wit and imagination applied in a discerning manner can be as inspiring as cutting-edge technologies adapted in previous eras. 238p.

When It Comes to Schooling...Small Works: School Size, Poverty, and Student Achievement. Adobe PDF
Howley, Craig B.; Bickel, Robert
(Rural School and Community Trust, Randolph, VT, Jan 2000)
This report summarizes a series of studies on school size, poverty, and student achievement. These studies analyzed 29 sets of test scores from various grades in Georgia, Ohio, Montana, and Texas to examine the relationship between school-level performance on tests, school size, and community poverty level. The studies found that as schools become larger, the negative effects of poverty on student achievement increase. The less affluent the community served, the smaller a school should be to maximize the school's performance. The well-documented correlation between poverty and low achievement is as much as 10 times stronger in larger schools than in smaller ones in all 4 states. These benefits of smaller schools seem to be particularly important at the middle grade level where children are approaching the age when they are most at risk of dropping out of school. While children of all races are as likely to be affected by the relationship between school size, poverty, and achievement, minority children are often enrolled in schools that are too big to achieve top performance given the poverty levels in their communities. Nine tables and graphs present findings from the studies. Three Web sites on small schools are listed. 24p.

The Need for Outdoor Recreational Space in Constructed and Natural Environments to Ensure Cognitive and Physical Well-Being.
Johnson, Liz; Steinhagen, Renee
(Education Law Center, Newark, NJ , 2000)
In response to the ruling by the New Jersey Supreme Court on school buildings in the Abbott District, the Public Interest Law Center of New Jersey and the John S. Watson Institute for Public Policy are providing urban school superintendents with the social science research and other support needed to guarantee the inclusion of outdoor educational and recreational space in their 5-year facilities plans. This is the preliminary research on the importance of outdoor play areas and athletic facilities for the cognitive, academic, social, and physical development of children. 11p.

Effects of Student Population Density on Academic Achievement in Georgia Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Swift, Diane O'Rourke
(Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , 2000)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between school density and achievement test scores. Based on comparing test scores and student population density, it was concluded that elementary schools having an architectural square footage of less than 100 square feet per student tend to have significantly lower science, social studies, and composite ITBS scores than schools having more than 100 architectural square feet per student. Schools ranging from 100.27 to 134.1 architectural square feet per student had significantly higher ITBS science, social studies, and composite scores at the third-grade level. 71p.
Report NO: UMI AAI9994129

Small Schools: Great Strides; A Study of New Small Schools in Chicago. Adobe PDF
Wasley, Partricia et al
(Bank Street College of Education, New York, NY, 2000)
According to a new study released by Bank Street College of Education, reconfiguring large urban schools into smaller schools is having a positive impact on student performance, school climate, professional collegiality, and parent satisfaction. Relying on the largest database assembled to date on small schools, this suggests that even though smallness by itself is not the cure to all that ails urban schools, policymakers can have a significant impact on a variety of important education issues if they integrate small schools into a comprehensive reform strategy. 87p.

Why Optimal Learning Environments Matter. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffrey A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Dec 02, 1999)
Keynote Presentation, Annual Meeting of the Alaska Chapter of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Anchorage, Alaska. Describes the attributes of an optimal learning environment as community-based, leadership-dependent, learner-centered, intelligence-embodied, and performance-oriented. 5p.

Energy Smart Schools: Opportunities to Save Money, Save Energy and Improve Student Performance. Adobe PDF
(Environmental and Energy Study Institute, Washington, DC, Dec 1999)
An expert panel at a Congressional briefing chaired by Rep. Mark Udall discusses the benefits of energy smart schools and prospects for their further development. This describes the "whole building" approach to school construction. 4p.

Exploring the Relationship Between High School Facilities and Achievement of High School Students in Georgia.
Ayers, Patti Deann
(Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Georgia, Athens , Dec 1999)
Reports on a study to determine any relationship between selected building design features and results on the Georgia High School Graduation Test. The population of the study included 27 public high schools in two Regional Service Educational Area districts. Variables considered included socio-economic status, educational background of the teachers, average number of years teaching, and the size of the student population in the school. School design variables explained approximately 6% of the variance in English and social studies, 3% in science, and 2% in mathematics and writing. 121p.
Report NO: 9975099


Social Ecology and Environmental Psychology as Applied to the Design and Renovation of American University Campuses. Adobe PDF
Krumwiede, Robert William
(University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN , Nov 1999)
This paper focuses on making specific connections between basic social and psychological needs of campus residents and the principles of architectural design that can be applied to the design and renovation of educational facilities. Various research was used to select six "principles of social ecology" that were cross-referenced with five design elements from Christopher Alexander's " A Pattern Language." The social ecology principles and the architectural design elements formed two axes of a matrix, and analysis of research data produced design criteria for each cell in this matrix. The matrix defines why some features are important in campus design and how these features can best be applied. (Contains 216 references.) 157p.
Report NO: UMI AAI9950297

The School Design Assessment Scale.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(University of Georgia, Dept. of Educational Leadership, School Design & Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA , Nov 1999)
The Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools (DASES) assists educators and architects in the planning and designing of developmentally appropriate learning environments for elementary schools by evaluating existing patterns of schoolhouses and outdoor learning areas. This report describes the development of the DASES and its components; and examines the final step in the instrument’s validation process, the reliability coefficients, and weights assigned by planners and architects. Appendices provide summary data of responses by item. 23p.

The Relationship Between School Design Variables and Scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.
Andersen, Scott
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Oct 1999)
Explores the relationship of 38 middle school design elements, identified in the literature, to student achievement as measured by the eighth grade Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). The purpose of the study was to attempt to determine if any of the 38 school design elements positively or negatively related to the ITBS scores. The setting of the study included 14 contiguous counties in central Georgia. Within those counties, 50 middle schools were identified for the population of the study. Based upon the results of the analysis, recommendations were made. One of the recommendations was that facility planners should give serious consideration to designing learning environments outside of the traditional classroom. Another recommendation was that more attention should be given to the exterior design of school buildings. 76p.
Report NO: 9975098


Impact of Education Trends on School Design
Nair, Prakash
(UEF/PEB/CAE International Symposium and CEFPI International Conference, Baltimore, MD, Oct 1999)
In a powerpoint presentation, the author discusses the impact on facility design of such trends as the constructivist classroom, brain based learning, multiple intelligence theory, class size debate, small schools movement, and the charter schools movement.

The Relationship between Environmental Quality of School Facilities and Student Performance. A Congressional Briefing to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Sponsored by the Environmental Energy Study Institute , Sep 23, 1999)
Congressional testimony is presented concerning school buildings and their connection to student health, behavior, and learning including a review of selected empirical studies conducted over the past 30 years showing an explicit relationship between physical characteristics of school buildings and educational outcomes. It is argued that the factors responsible for student achievement are ecological in that they act together as a whole in shaping the context within which learning takes place. The testimony includes brief examinations on student behavior, health, and academic achievement as influenced by the use of natural lighting, the reduction of noise through proper location and siting of schools, optimal indoor climate, sick buildings and indoor air quality, school and class size, schools placed close to their neighborhoods, and the overall condition and management of the school building. 6p.

Assessing School Facilities for Learning/Assessing the Impact of the Physical Environment on the Educational Process: Intergrating Theoretical Issues with Practical Concerns. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Sep 17, 1999)
This presentation explores a theoretical framework and a practical procedure for assessing the physical environment of urban schools to identify its perceived impacts on the educational process. Models identified in the literature for assessing the quality of the physical environment for learning are reviewed and critiqued. The assessment model presented offers a practical procedure based on a comprehensive theoretical perspective. The Baltimore City Public Schools Environmental Quality Assessment Project, which included five post-occupancy evaluations were to be used as a test case to illustrate the potential use of the assessment procedure in practice. The presentation concludes by emphasizing the value of institutionalizing an on-going process of environmental quality assessment that has implications for integrating facilities management and educational decisions for the benefit of the educational process. 35p.

New Designs for Learning: K-12 Schools
Copa, George, H.
(University of California, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA , Aug 1999)
Project staff have found that designing schools for the future is a learning process in which staff, students, community, and designers work together to discover new ways to design a school's learning experiences and environment. The project staff had several goals for the characteristics and features of the learning experience and school design when the project, New Designs for the Comprehensive High School, was initiated. Goals included: (1) representing the leading edge of a new breed of schools that would create some new "space" in which to think about the operation of high schools; (2) promising the idea of a common set of learner outcomes for all graduates; (3) relating learner expectations to the challenges and opportunities in work, family, community, and personal life; (4) operating the high school more as a learning community; (5) more closely aligning learner expectations, the learning process, the learning organization, and the learning environment; (6) drawing more attention to learning in contrast to teaching; (7) having a positive special character that gives more focus, coherence, and spirit to learning; and (8) wanting schools that don't cost any more to build or operate than existing schools. The design-down process has 12 learning elements: context, audience, signature, expectations, process, organization, partnerships, staff and staff development, environment, celebration, finance, and accountability. Lessons for gaining agreement on decisions include looking inside and outside the school for design group members; involving those members from the beginning; using a clear and powerful process; relying on more than one way; and thinking comprehensively and long-term. 17p.

Daylighting in Schools. An Investigation into the Relationship between Daylighting and Human Performance. Adobe PDF
Heschong, Lisa
(Submitted by the Heschong Mahone Group to Pacific Gas and Electric, on behalf of the California Board for Energy Efficiency Third Party Program , 1999)
This study examines the effects of daylighting on human performance, focusing on skylighting as a way to isolate daylight as an illumination source and to separate illumination effects from other qualities associated with daylighting from windows. The study establishes a statistical connection between daylighting and student performance and between skylighting and retail sales. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, the study examined 21,000 school records from three school districts in three states and daylighting conditions in more than 2,000 classrooms. Data indicate students with the most classroom daylighting progressed 20 percent faster on math tests and 26 percent faster on reading tests in one year than those with the least amount of daylight. Similarly, students with the largest windows progressed 15 percent faster in math and 23 percent faster in reading than those with the least largest windows. In classrooms where windows could be opened, there was a 7 to 18 percent faster educational progress than those with fixed windows, regardless of air conditioning. These findings are reported to be consistent regardless of curricula or teaching styles. 140p.
Report NO: HMG-R-9803

Bibliography of Empirical Research Investigating the Relationship between the Physical Environment of Educational Settings and Educational Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Jul 1999)
A bibliography of research reviews and empirical research citations that address the effects of the educational facility's physical environment on educational outcomes. A total of 123 references are listed dating from 1964 through 1998. 8p.

School Architecture, Curriculum, and Pedagogy: Shifts in the Discursive Space of the "School" as Forms of Governmentality. Adobe PDF
Hennon, Lisa
(University of Madison-Wisconsin , May 19, 1999)
The historical shifts in United States discourses of school architecture as they relate to reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques are examined using Michel Foucault's conceptualization of "governmentality" and related scholarship. It questions assumptions underlying two claims currently being made about school architectural design. The first claim is that the space of the school needs to be more democratic, like a community, and the second is that the space of the school has become more oppressive and controlling. It argues that common school design discourses in the United States incorporated some disciplinary aspects of British monitorial schools. However, in the 1800s, common school discourses governmentalized the "American" school-house with the aim of self- government. Four historical junctures in discourses of school architecture are identified that provide the contingent conditions and reasonings upon which the current debates about reform of school design seem reasonable and make sense. 20p.

Impact of Inadequate School Facilities on Student Learning.
(U.S.Department of Education , 1999)
Studies reveal many school systems that are decaying, particularly in urban and high-poverty areas, endanger student health, safety, and learning opportunities. This report discusses facility decay and overcrowded classrooms and their impact on student achievement and teaching. (Contains 20 references.)

Creating a Learning Environment for Pre-Service Teachers Adobe PDF
Diggs, Laura L.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada , Apr 19, 1999)
This paper presents statistics from ongoing research on a unique learning environment developed at the University of Missouri-Columbia College of Education (MU-CoE). MU-CoE has developed a new approach to space devoted to learning, not teaching. This new concept of progressive learning and performance support integrates interactive networked technology with traditional media resources. The learning environment is based on the notion that learning takes place through providing appropriate facilities, equipment, software/hardware, and support staff. The environment encourages preservice teachers to become reflective practitioners. Data from surveys with user statistics, feedback from preservice teachers and other customers, and findings from student evaluation surveys indicate a strong need for a learning environment and human performance support system within teacher education programs and a strong need for technology in education.

Effects of School Safety and School Characteristics on Grade 8 Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis. Adobe PDF
Gronna, Sara; Chin-Chance, Selvin
(U.S. Department of Education, ERIC Database , Apr 1999)
Reports on a statewide study that examined the extent to which a safe school influences individual student achievement. The study used a two-level hierarchical model that included student characteristics and school conditions used in prior research. The statewide analysis was based on 46 of the 50 schools with grade 8 classes in one western state. The study used scores from the Stanford Achievement Test, along with data obtained from state department of education data bases for the school years 1993 through 1996. The findings suggest that school safety has statistically significant effects on students grade 8 reading and mathematics achievement. Controlling for student background characteristics and differences in school conditions, students who are in safer schools have higher grade 8 achievement scores than students who are in less-safe schools. Additionally, there was a statistically significant negative effect on student achievement associated with increased school disciplinary infractions after controlling for student background characteristics and school conditions. Includes 39 references. 20p.

Influence of the School Facility on Student Achievement: Thermal Environment
Jago, Elizabeth and Tanner, Ken
(University of Georgia, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens, GA , Apr 1999)
This is review of research that examines the hypothesis that the thermal environment affects academic achievement at various grade levels within the school. Some of the research dates back to the 1930's, though most research cited here took place in the 1960's. 3p.

Influence of the School Facility on Student Achievement: Lighting; Color.
Jago, Elizabeth, Comp.; Tanner, Ken, Comp.
(University of Georgia; Dept. of Educational Leadership, Athens, GA , Apr 1999)
Examines the impact that lighting and color in classrooms have on learning and teaching. Provides excerpts from research on the roles of lighting and color in the educational environment, such as their effect on student concentration, performance, health, behavior, and attitudes. Suggests recommendations for improving lighting and color to enhance student productivity and help reduce absenteeism. 4p.

The Jefferson Center Principles of Good Educational Design.
Duke, Daniel L.
(Paper presented at the 1999 Rowlett Lecture Series, sponsored by the CRS Center and the Texas A&M College of Architecture, Feb 12, 1999)
Following each of five principles of good educational design are a checklist of indicators in the form of questions one should ask to determine if good design has been implemented. 5p.

Reading a School Building Like a Book: The Influence of the Physical School Setting on Learning and Literacy. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Jan 1999)
This speech addresses the impact of schools on teaching and learning and explains the need to evaluate the following three influences of physical school settings: health and safety factors; ambient environmental factors; and curriculum-based environmental factors. Also addressed are the influences of school and classroom size, and the need for the school setting to be appropriate for the types of learning activities taking place. Concluding comments highlight the link between literacy, play, and the physical environment. A user rating scale to evaluate classrooms is included. 6p.

School Size and Class Size in Texas Public Schools. Policy Research Report Number 12. Adobe PDF
( Texas Education Agency,Div. of Policy Planning and Evaluation, Austin , 1999)
In response to an enrollment increase of 666,961 students over the past 10 years, Texas public schools have increased in both number and size. The number of Texas high schools with over 2,000 students increased by 35 percent from 1987-88 to 1997-98, and these very large schools now make up 14 percent of all regular instructional high schools. Furthermore, the number of elementary and middle schools with 900 or more students increased by 30 and 53 percent, respectively, during that period. This report presents an overview of findings from school size research conducted nationally over the past two decades. Moreover, school size trends in Texas are described, and the relationship between school size and student academic performance in Texas is analyzed. 33p.

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School
Bransford, John D., Ed.; Brown, Ann L., Ed.; Cocking, Rodney R., Ed.
( National Academy Press, Washington, DC , 1999)
Science now offers new conceptions of the learning process and the development of competent performance. This book presents a contemporary account of principles of learning, and calls into question concepts and practices commonly used in schools. Topics explored include how learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain, the effect of existing knowledge on learning, and the role of technology in education. Chapter 6 covers "The Design of Learning Environments". 342p.

The Condition of School Facilities as Related to Student Academic Achievement and Behavior.
Cervantes, Rachel P.
(Doctoral Disseration, The University of Alabama at Birmingham , 1999)
Examines the relationship between the condition of school buildings and the academic achievement and behavior of students. The school facilities were assessed using Hawkins and Lilley’s Guide for School Facility Appraisal Instrument (1992) in six major areas: 1) school site, structural and mechanical; 2) plant maintainability; 3) school building safety and security; 4) educational adequacy; 5) environment for education; and 6) overall building condition. Study findings indicate a relationship between math and reading achievement and the building category of school site. An inverse relationship existed between the number of suspensions and the building category educational adequacy. The author concluded that providing school facilities that are well maintained and safe and that promote quality learning conditions is an issue that needs to be addressed. 153p.
Report NO: 9956728


Urban Planning and School Architecture: Homologies in Governing the Civic Body and the School Body. Adobe PDF
Hennon, Lisa
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1999)
This paper is a preliminary examination of homologous shifts in U.S. discourses on the design and building of schools and "planning" as they relate to curricular reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques. The purpose is to question underlying assumptions about "space" and historical reasonings about a place called school. Particular historical junctures in discourses of school architecture provide the contingent conditions and reasonings on which the current debates about reform of school design seem reasonable and make sense. Schematically, they are: (1) the common school discourses of the "school house" during the 19th century; (2) the emergence of the "school-plant," which introduced city "planning" discourses into the discourses of school design during the 1920s and 1930s; (3) the "open-plan" in the 1950s that followed as a critique of the "school-plant"; and (4) the enfolding and redeployment of elements of the "school-house," "classroom school-plant," and the "open plan" in the "school-as-community." 25p.

Relating Building and Classroom Conditions to Student Achievement in Virginia's Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Lanham, James W.
(Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1999)
The relationship between student achievement and a number of variables relating to building and classroom conditions in Virginia elementary schools were examined. A systematic random sample of 300 schools were selected from all elementary schools in Virginia with grades three and five. Data on building condition, classroom condition, and demographics were collected. Building principals completed the survey. The scaled scores from the Spring 1998 Standard Learning Assessments for third-grade English, fifth-grade English, third-grade mathematics, and fifth-grade mathematics were used as measures of student achievement. Among the findings, a large portion of Virginia elementary schools are more than thirty years old and have a number of structural and classroom defects. While principals gave high composite ratings to their schools, their responses to individual questions indicate problems with roof leaks and climate control. The percentage of students participating in the free and reduced-lunch program accounted for the largest variance in English, math, and technology achievement. Air conditioning was a significant variable in third-grade English, fifth-grade mathematics, and fifth-grade technology achievement. Other variables found significant in one or more of the analyses were ceiling type, frequency of floor sweeping, frequency of floor mopping, connection to wide-area network, room structure, overall building maintenance, and flooring type. [Author's abstract] 148p.

School Building Renovation and Student Performance: One District's Experience. Adobe PDF
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1999)
A case study explores the importance of the educational setting and its affect on student learning, performance, attitude, and behavior. The study focuses on the facilities planner's perspective and raises important questions needing further study. Among the study's findings are the importance of timing in a school district's renovation projects, and a demonstrated positive relationship between upgraded school facilities and math achievement. Thoughts on facility/ student relationship research needs and design conclude the article. (Contains 14 references.) 11p.

Educational Landscapes: Developing School Grounds as Learning Places Adobe PDF
Takahashi, Nancy
(University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Charlottesville, VA , 1999)
In response to today's concern for the environment and growing curricular demands to teach about the natural world, educators are discovering the power of a school's surrounding outdoors area as a teaching tool. This book presents an overview of educational landscapes and examines the pervasive attitudes and practices that have led to the undervaluing of the schoolyard environment, identifies specific steps to create successful educational landscapes, provides insights for integrating the schoolyard more fully into the school culture and pedagogy, and discusses how to sustain educational landscape programs over time. Examples of built educational landscapes from the United States and Britain are provided to illustrate the range of possibilities for school grounds. 63p.

Where Children Learn: The Effect of Facilities on Student Achievement.
Moore, Deborah P.; Warner, Elisa
(Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ, Dec 1998)
CEFPI believes that the facility in which students learn and teachers teach does affect achievement. Where Children Learn investigates the relationship between the condition of school facilities and student achievement and behavior. CEFPI's research committee has undertaken the task of expanding this research to include a larger population of school districts. This IssueTrak includes a brief sampling of facilities research along with the current projects underway

The Impact of School Building Condition and Student Achievement, and Behavior. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(Paper presented at the International Conference, The Appraisal of Education Investment, Luxembourg , Nov 16, 1998)
This paper examines study findings on the relationship between the educational facility and the student variables of academic achievement and student behavior, revealing the extent that thermal environment, proper illumination, space, and equipment and furnishings have on students. Additionally discussed is the relationship between parental involvement, school building conditions, and student achievement. In almost all cases, the better the built environment, the more positive the impact on students test scores: test scores between students in substandard buildings compared to students in better school environments differed by 5 to 17 percentile points. Also, in cases where there was greater parental involvement in fund raising for school purposes the school buildings were in better condition. The conclusion is that money spent on school building improvement is money well spent. While it is known that better prepared graduates of the local school system are more productive citizens, the degree of influence the school environment has on later life remains unknown. 25p.

Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.
Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.
(University of New Mexico, School of Architecture and Planning, Albuquerque , Fall 1998)
This issue of MASS Magazine, Journal of the School of Architecture and Planning at the University of New Mexico, addresses growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on the new and emerging integrated field which combines elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two- and three-dimensional visual thinking as mainstream educational practices. Following an editorial introduction, the issue's articles are: (1) "Technology and Education" (George Lucas); (2) "Learning Is Being Alive" (Rina Swentzel); (3) "E Pluribus Unum: The New American Community School" (Steven Bingler); (4) "Environments for Children" (Dolf Schnebli); (5) "Beauty, Morality, Sunshine and Freedom" (George Anselevicius); (6) "A Case History of a Community School in Sendai, Japan" (Hiroko Hosoda); (7) "Lessons in High School Planning and Design" (C. William Brubaker); (8) "Ecology and Community" (Fritjof Capra); (9) "The Role of Designers in Design and Education" (Peter Edward Lowe and Phillip I. Nobel); and (10) "Physical Environments Do Affect Learning and Behavior of Students" (Anne Taylor). 56p.

Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. Adobe PDF
Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.
(A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference, Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998)
These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the environment of a center should fit its image of children: as learners and researchers; in constant relationship with their surroundings; as being capable of long investigation of media; as being able to solve important problems; as social beings; as entitled to beauty; as welcome; and as engaged in learning. The second paper, "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" concerns the culture of a private early childhood center in Melbourne, Australia. The paper notes how the center's culture was presented through its physical environment such as interior and exterior architecture and design, and suggests that the design of early childhood centers should: create a conducive environment for learning; provide children with a sense of achievement and ownership in the environment; and allow children a degree of freedom. The third paper, "Packing the Suitcase: What To Pack?" presents the authors' experiences designing an early child care center in Geelong, Australia, inspired by their Reggio Emilia experience. The fourth paper, also titled "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" concerns refurbishment of the Junior School of Melbourne Girls Grammar in Australia. Includes a profile of conference speakers.

Meeting Facility Needs in Rural Schools Adobe PDF
Phelps, Margaret S.; And Others
(Tennessee Technological University , May 02, 1998)
This paper explores the ways in which rural communities can enhance education in their own towns. Further, the paper highlights the conditions necessary for student success, indicating that this is best controlled when schools are the right size, when there is documentation of achievement, and when school buildings are safe and in good condition. It argues that today's increasingly technological sophistication in education requires specialized spaces that match the educational goals of the activities for which these spaces will be used. Such specialized areas, it claims, require enhanced infrastructure if they are to contribute to student learning. Schools in rural communities that are attractive and well-maintained, with quality curricular and extracurricular programming for all ages are investments in the community that do not demand consolidation to meet 21st century needs. 15p.

Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda Adobe PDF
Books, Sue
( Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, 1998)
The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this increase in disease with regard to the welfare of children and the impact on their academic achievement, due to physical and mental impairments. Information is provided about the causes, consequences, and rates of incidence of tuberculosis, lead poisoning and asthma. The article comments on the ways in which society and the schools have responded to these illnesses, and then considers the context of discussion about these illnesses and the social response to them. The article notes that, often, these illnesses are considered an affliction of the poor. The article issues a challenge for school reform that addresses environmentally induced damage to children as an educational issue, as well as a social one. Contains 44 references. 21p

Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment
Ciotti, Paul
(Cato Institute, Cato Policy Analysis No. 298, Washington, DC , Mar 16, 1998)
To improve the education of black students and encourage desegregation, a federal judge invited the Kansas City, Missouri, School District to come up with a cost-is-no-object educational plan and ordered local and state taxpayers to find the money to pay for it. Kansas City spent as much as $11,700 per pupil--more money per pupil, on a cost of living adjusted basis, than any other of the 280 largest districts in the country. The money bought higher teachers' salaries, 15 new schools, and such amenities as an olympic-sized swimming pool with an underwater viewing room, television and animation studios, a robotics lab, a 25-acre wildlife sanctuary, a zoo, a model United Nations with simultaneous translation capability, and field trips to Mexico and Senegal. The student-teacher ratio was 12 or 13 to 1, the lowest of any major school district in the country. The results were dismal. Test scores did not rise; the black-white gap did not diminish; and there was less, not greater, integration.

School Design Factors for Improving Student Learning.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia , Mar 1998)
Both built and natural environments embellish student learning, however, it is believed that there are far too many functional and structural design problems in schools. Basic design factors are presented from three perspectives: environmental; educational; and architectural. Selected developmentally appropriate characteristics of students are reviewed and linked to affective, behavioral, and cognitive learning categories. These characteristics are then matched with learning goals and activities. Appropriate architectural/natural support systems are defined and designs that match the learning goals are recommended. 26p.

Where Children Learn: A Discussion of How a Facility Affects Learning. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda
(Paper presented at the Virginia Educational Facility Planners Annual Meeting, Blacksburg, VA , Feb 23, 1998)
Often school boards face the dilemma of whether to designate funds for teachers and teaching materials or for buses and buildings. Frequently, this leads to the impression that buses and buildings consume too much of the budget and have no direct relationship to the student. This report examines the validity of this impression. It provides a definition of what constitutes part of a facility and includes features such as color, maintenance, age, classroom structure, climate conditions, student density, noise, and lighting. Research on the relationships between facilities and student achievement, as well as performance and attitudes is reviewed. The report describes the difficulties inherent in this kind of research, and examines some of the research syntheses that have focused on the correlation between student learning and the condition of facilities. Studies of facilities' variables reported that student achievement scores were higher when windows, floors, heat, roofs, etc., were rated above standard by school staff. It is also suggested that the place where students learn can encourage good student behaviors. 27p.

Does it Matter Where Our Children Learn? Adobe PDF
Duke, Daniel L.
(National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington, DC , Feb 18, 1998)
Modern demands in education include student safety, the integration of technology, and rising expectations for performance. The quality of learning facilities is one of several complex components that affect these issues, but more quantitative analysis is needed. School condition has some effect on test scores but also entails a moral obligation for students' safety; more research is needed to compare building conditions with achievement. The size of schools is a complex variable, and although some studies have offered ideal school populations, others have shown that both small and large schools have distinct benefits. Contemporary attitudes toward functional adequacy encompass school design, classroom design, and nonclassroom space (such as auditoriums), but these new trends are largely unsubstantiated with studies. Recent examination of air quality, temperature, lighting, and noise has shown that all affect achievement, but combined studies in these areas are lacking. Organization, architecture, and "pride of place" can prevent negative social interactions, but no studies seem to address the question of being "too secure." Modern literature proposes several benefits of school location, but fails to compare these benefits against one another. The effect of an environment's aesthetics is difficult to research because it affects each student differently; however, that often seems to be the most "real" variable. This white paper discusses such issues, examines the research and information available, and proposes a "systematic inquiry" across several fields in order to further substantiate proposed solutions to current educational demands. 36p.

Perceptions of Educators about School Design Issues. Adobe PDF
Beth Schapiro and Associates
(Beth Schapiro & Associates, Atlanta, GA , Feb 1998)
Research results are presented from focus groups and telephone surveys concerning the attitudes and opinions of public school educators on the issue of school design, including an additional report summarizing what educators would want to see in a millennial school design. The first section presents the findings from two focus groups conducted among metropolitan Atlanta educators concerning general school design, schools and their communities, classroom design, common areas, and other design issues. The second section analyzes the results from a telephone survey of educators from seven different metropolitan areas throughout the United States. Survey questions addressed the importance of school design, the teacher's role, rating design elements, time management, and collaboration. Brief summaries of the findings from both study approaches are provided. 43p.

What Difference Do Improved Facilities Make? Adobe PDF
(Project Kaleidoscope, Washington, DC , 1998)
Reports on the Committee of Visitors 1997 visits to eight colleges and universities. Through meetings with faculty, administrators, and students, tours of new spaces, and review of institutional materials, the COV sought to determine if and how investment in the learning environment paid dividends in respect to student learning, as well as the extent of institutional transformation occasioned by the new and renovated spaces. The COV found that improved spaces make a difference for a variety of reasons, including creating the opportunity for more students to participate, enabling flexible use and scheduling, attracting and retaining strong faculty, accommodating emerging interdisciplinary endeavors, and leveraging external support though grants and alumni interest. Recommendations to faculty and administrators are included. 44p.

The Log School: A Case for Appropriate Design Adobe PDF
Barnhardt, Ray; Dubbs, Patrick J.
(University of Alaska, Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, Fairbanks , 1998)
For many remote northern communities, especially Native American communities, the renovation or design construction and heating of the school would be more culturally and technologically appropriate if local materials and expertise were utilized. In addition there would be widespread beneficial outcomes for the quality of life in the local community. This paper focuses on the de-localization of northern rural communities. The second part of the paper explores how the design, construction and maintenance of the log school could reduce de-localization and contribute significantly to the cultural, economic and technical well-being of the community particularly its educational system. 22p.

Children, Spaces, Relations: Metaproject for an Environment for Young Children.
Ceppi, Giulio, Ed.; Zini, Michele, Ed.
(Reggio Children, Reggio Emilia, Italy. , 1998)
This book describes a project on designing spaces for young children; the aim of the project is to enable a "meeting of minds" between the pedagogical philosophy of Reggio Emilia preschools and the innovative experiences within the culture of design and architecture. The book presents the project in three main sections: (1) a critical analysis of the cumulative experience of the municipal early childhood system of Reggio Emilia in an attempt to identify the desirable characteristics of a space for young children; (2) reflections on the tools of design, with indications regarding both the distribution of space and the "soft qualities" (light, color, materials, smell, sound, microclimate), to provide tools for both the interior and exterior design of infant-toddler centers and schools for young children; and (3) essays discussing the pedagogical and architecture/design issues that form the theoretical basis studies carried out in the municipal preschools of Reggio Emilia and at Domus Academy as part of the joint research project. 159p.

Where Our Children Learn Matters: A Report on the Virginia School Facilities Impact Study. Adobe PDF
Duke, Daniel L.; And Others
(Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA , 1998)
This report presents results from a survey designed to better understand the connection between facilities, learning, and teaching in Virginia. The survey questions reflect the following five areas of concern attributable to facility inadequacies: lost instructional time; reduced effectiveness in learning and teaching; diminished curricular options; school facilities and students with special needs; and student health and safety. Findings reveal that facility inadequacies, either through deterioration, obsolescence, or out-of-date mandates, exacerbated each area of concern. Recommendations are provided pointing to the need for greater state supports. 11p.

Shaping the Future: Middle Schools. Adobe PDF
Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc.
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc. Celina, OH , 1998)
Facility design is critical to the success of the educational program at the middle school level. This book presents those facilities that best meet the needs of contemporary middle school programs by allowing teaming; an integration of curriculum initiatives; block scheduling; and an increased focus on such areas as advanced technology, physical fitness and wellness, and consumer science. This architectural firm documents how the buildings can contribute to the learning process, based on the experiences of nearly 200 middle school administrators, teachers, students, and community members, by providing their insights, ideas, and concerns regarding the role of the school building in successfully reaching students. 128p.

Shared Visions? Architects and Teachers Perceptions on the Design of Classroom Environments.
Horne, Sandra
(Loughborough University, Design Education Research Group, Leicestershire, United Kingdom , 1998)
Discusses the classroom environment and its effects on the practice of teachers, examining through interviews the relationships between the designed classroom and how teachers use it. The ways in which architects understand and influence the learning environment are also explored. The interviews were cross-referenced to identify how the two groups perceive the classroom environment and how much interaction teachers and designers have. There are similarities in these perceptions but also conflicting views of how the interactions do happen and what they contribute to the process. 6p.

12 Design Principles Based on Brain-Based Learning Research.
Lackney, Jeffrey
(Design Share, 1998)
Designing successful brain-compatible learning environments requires educators and design professionals to transform traditional thinking. Design must be approached in a holistic, systemic way, comprising not only the physical setting, but also the social, organizational, pedagogical, and emotional environments that are integral to the experience of place. Summary of a workshop conducted by the Council of Educational Facilities Planners International, Minneapolis, MN, May 6, 1998.

School Building Design: Its Relationship to Professional Community, Quality Teaching Practice, and the Pursuit of Higher Standards.
Lorthridge, Connie C.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, NYC , 1998)
Tests the hypothesis that an open-space school building design is positively related to professional community, quality teaching practice, and pursuit of higher standards. A comparative study of two open-space and two-closed space schools in one school district relied on data from a teacher-reported survey and interview results, classroom observation, and building floor plans. Survey results were more similar than different across the four schools on all items because of the use of partitions to divide open-space clusters into individual classrooms, causing these classrooms to resemble closed-space classrooms in appearance and functionality. One remnant benefit of the open-space design was "professional growth" through "seeing and hearing" others, and spontaneously sharing materials and ideas. Another benefit of proximity was "developing a bond." 220p.
Report NO: 9909424


Light, Mood and Performance at School: Final Report. Adobe PDF
Samuels, R.
(Dept. of Education and Training and Dept. of Public Works and Services, Sidney, New South Wales, Australia , 1998)
Reports on how the use of full-spectrum lamps installed in eight experimental classrooms decreased anxiety, depression, and inattention due to Seasonal Affective Disorder (S.A.D.). Biological responses to light and its spectra are detailed, and earlier studies of lighting in schools are reviewed. 63p.

Does Design Make a Difference?
Morris, Audrey Bruchetto
(Committee on Architecture for Education, American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC. , Sep 28, 1997)
The failure of the open classroom concept of the 1960's has not diminished the need for researchers to continue to look at learning and teaching to better understand how educational spaces can be improved for everyone that uses them. This document summarizes presentations made at the 1997 American Institute of Architects (AIA) conference on the importance of school design to those who work and learn within them. The following topics are covered: the learning process; educational technology; storage space; space allocated to other professionals visiting schools and the general community; changes in school design brought on by educational change and facility uses; and use of natural lighting. An additional presentation examines one schools efforts in meeting the diverse needs now demanded of it. A concluding section provides a list of resources resulting from a search of the AIA library and archives addressing the subject of K-12 schools and architecture 24p.

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks? Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International; Scottsdale, AZ , Sep 26, 1997)
Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed to help decision makers improve educational facilities. The research reveals that student achievement scores were higher when windows, floors, heat, roofs, locker conditions, ceilings, laboratory conditions, age of the facility, lighting, interior paint, and cosmetic conditions of the school were generally rated above standard by school staffs. Also examined are research findings on how facility conditions affected student attitudes, behaviors, and achievement. A list of measurements of dependent variables and research summary notations for educators and architects concerning facility/student interaction conclude the paper. (Contains 79 references.) 40p.

Here Come the Teenagers: A Back to School Report on the Baby Boom Echo. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington , Aug 1997)
The increasing number of young people filling U.S. classrooms will be a defining feature of American education for years to come. This report, which includes a message from U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, describes the impact of the rising number of young people and gives special attention to the large number of teenagers who comprise the "baby boom echo." The report makes the following points: (1) there may be no short-term problem of rising enrollment; (2) the majority of young people who make up the baby boom echo will be teenagers; (3) states are meeting the challenge of overcrowded schools with varying success; (4) some research has linked student achievement and behavior to physical building conditions and overcrowding; (5) teacher standards cannot be lowered in times of higher enrollments; (6) a new consensus much be formed to that all citizens see their local schools as "centers of community"; and (7) rising high school enrollments will eventually have a profound impact on higher education. Sidebars highlight the effects of overcrowding in high schools across the nation. 38p.

Educational Facility Age and the Academic Achievement and Attendance of Upper Elementary School Students.
Phillips, Ransel Warren
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens , Jul 1997)
Reports on a study to determine the relationship of the age of the learning facility to the academic achievement of upper elementary school students taught within those facilities. A significant relationship was found between the age of the facility and the academic achievement and attendance of the third, fourth, and fifth grade pupils in three rural Georgia schools. Absenteeism decreased overall by 1% while achievement scores in reading increased an average of 2% and math scores increased an average of 6% after the students moved into brand new replacement facilities in the Fall of 1995 from facilities built in 1929, 1936, and 1945 respectively. 89p.
Report NO: 9807080


Specialties in Educational Facilities.
Rossi, John
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , Jun 21, 1997)
Report from an AIA conference that explored the issues specific to designing specialties in educational facilities caused by educational reforms, emerging methodologies, and teaching philosophies. Discusses creating engaging learning environments for a technology savvy student body; reforming educational curricula to meet 21st century job demands; planning educational facilities, performance spaces, libraries, and media learning centers that includes participation from and consideration of its users; and new media technology in the learning environment. Final comments address how specialties in educational facilities are changing the architectural profession. 11p.

A Synthesis of Studies Pertaining to Facilities, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior.
Lemasters, Linda Kay
(Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , 1997)
This study examines the research on the extent school facilities influence student achievement and behavior. Fifty-three studies conducted since 1980 were synthesized that included the independent variables of noise, facility age, color, lighting, maintenance, density, climate conditions, and classroom structure. Data suggest that all the independent variables have an affect on student achievement and behavior. Additionally, the literature indicates that student attitudes and behaviors improved when the facility improves or is congruous with the facility needs for the instructional program. The study also discusses the theoretical model developed by Cash (1993) that explains the relationship between the condition of the school and student achievement and behavior. 205p.
Report NO: AAG9722616


Early Implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative. [California] Adobe PDF
Illig, David C.
(California Research Bureau, Sacramento , Apr 1997)
A survey of school districts was conducted to determine the initial progress and problems associated with the 1997 Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. Data reveal that most school districts had enough space for smaller classes for at least two grade levels; and small school districts were much less likely to report space constraints. Several policy issues are examined that could impede CSR's future progress, including the ability of smaller classes to actually improve student performance, fading interest from parents and teachers, CSR funding eroding available funding for other programs, space constraints preventing equal implementation within school districts, and teacher supply increasing rapidly enough to prevent bottlenecks. 25p.
Report NO: CRB-97-008

The Organization of Space and Activities among Latinos: A Strategy for Making School More Culturally Familiar. Adobe PDF
Wortham, Stanton; And Others
( Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL , Mar 21, 1997)
In an ethnographic study, teachers investigated a cultural difference between Anglos and Hispanics involving organization of space and activities at home, and applied the findings to high school classroom organization. The research was undertaken in a small community where a significant proportion of Hispanic students have English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction at school. Visits to Hispanic homes and interviews with their inhabitants found that household life often allows more fluid boundaries between spaces and activities than is found in mainstream Anglo homes. Schools in the United States generally favor the Anglo style over the Hispanic, ignoring or even inhibiting Hispanic communication conventions. One high school ESL teacher designed her classroom using Hispanic stylistic parameters, with no clock, an open door, and less rigid use of time, and encouraged students to speak Spanish and help each other. The teacher took a role closer to that of a mother than a supervisor. Observation of interactions within the room found the atmosphere to approximate more closely the fluid Hispanic home environment, with students feeling positively about it, and ultimately treating it as a haven. Attendance and effort of lower-achieving Hispanic students improved. Implications are discussed. Contains 15 references. 13p.

Designing School Facilities for Learning. Probe: Developing Education Policy Issues. Adobe PDF
(National Education Knowledge Association, Washington, DC , 1997)
Researchers have discovered that the physical condition of a school can make a difference in student achievement. To further this knowledge, seven articles on school environments, ranging from school repair to strategies for infrastructure funding, are presented. The first article, "The Cruel Conditions of Our Nation's Schools," (Michael R. Williams) describes how deferred maintenance in school buildings has raised school repair costs to $112 billion over the next 3 years. Some of the questions raised are addressed in the second article, "Probe Roundtable", which reports on a discussion of experts on learning and school facilities and focuses on questions that must be answered so as to help policymakers and community leaders manage their schools' facility needs. School design and consensus is covered in the third article, "Design and Consensus," (Julie Miller) and features an example of an innovative planning process. Ways in which architects and educators have translated research on school reform into workable plans for school facilities are discussed in "School Facilities Fit for Reform" (Anne C. Lewis), followed by details on how color, lighting, and other elements can be combined to aid student achievement in "School Sense" (Ullik Rouk). Many communities need infrastructure funding and ways in which to raise funds, without seeking voter-approved bond issues; these strategies are detailed in "The Question That Won't Go Away" (Lynn W. Zempel). The next article, "Managing in the States" (Brian Curry), describes how school are being forced to find creative solutions to the increasing demands being placed on aging schools. The publication concludes with "A Role for the Federal Government in School Infrastructure?" (Neil Strawser) 64p.

Making a World of Difference: Elementary Schools. Impact on Education Series. Adobe PDF
(Fanning/Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , 1997)
To demonstrate the impact facilities can have on learning, some exemplary elementary schools that made the decision to provide a good educational environment are presented. To assess the impact of these facilities, students, teachers, parents, superintendents, and other administrators were interviewed. The book opens with a discussion of whether the building does make a difference in education and concludes that the physical surroundings wield a profound effect on children and personnel. Discussed next are various philosophies that influence structural design and how classrooms should be constructed to help children learn. The school environment should stimulate and motivate children, and it should support educational initiatives, not hinder them. Some of the specific areas that are discussed at length include communications and technology, enrichment and support space, and outdoor learning and play. The theme of the text, "a place where people want to be", is the focus of the last chapter. Each section features numerous interior and exterior photographs of school buildings. 135p.

The Form of Reform: School Facility Design Implications for California Educational Reform. Adobe PDF
Ong, Faye, Ed.
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, CA , 1997)
The California Department of Education convened a task force to determine how the learning environment can be shaped to support statewide educational reforms designed to make California schools places of community pride that also help students excel. This two-part report outlines design implications common to all grade levels, as well as those specific to certain grade levels, and identifies design implication concepts derived from each of the task force's reform reports. Also included are descriptions of several award-winning schools whose master planning has embraced educational reform in their design. 130p.

The State of Municipal Services in the 1990s: Crowding, Building Conditions and Staffing in New York City Public Schools.
Rein, Andrew S.
(Citizens Budget Commission, New York, NY , 1997)
This report assesses how the NY city public schools performed under the combined pressure of scarce fiscal resources and increased enrollment. Performance is evaluated on three vital measures of education quality--facility crowding, building conditions and class sizes. The results indicate that performance in each of these categories was disappointing. Findings show that crowding increased in school buildings, with almost half of the city's 1,006 public school buildings being utilized at or above 100 percent of capacity. Class sizes also increased. The average class sizes in 1990 were 30 for high school, 28 for grades four through nine, and 25 for kindergarten through grade three. By 1996 the size for these classes grew to 32, 26, and 29, respectively. Furthermore, buildings that were already in poor shape deteriorated. Unfortunately, the School Board was only able to allocate 20 percent of the necessary investment to bring the school buildings up to date. Finally, academic achievement among public school students remained poor -- 66 percent of third graders and 71 percent of sixth graders were reading at one full grade level below their expected level. 31p.

Colour and Light in Schools. Theoretical and Empirical Background. Adobe PDF
Samuels, Robert; Stephens, Harry
It is widely recognised that colour impacts on people, but there is little objective and empirical research confirming such influences on educational performance. Without a “principles guideline”, colourists and educational managers have no means to cross-check and evaluate colour decisions, and choices become personal, fashionable, political and so on, which is not an acceptable way in which to ensure that the quality of the learning environment conforms to the best practice in terms of the available knowledge. Given that colour is inseparable from light, and that light has been shown to have a profound affect on well-being and performance - despite its apparently ethereal nature - no colour principles guideline would be acceptable without a corresponding integration of best practice knowledge currently available concerning the psycho-biological effects of light. The research reported on herein constitutes a review of contemporary knowledge relating to both colour and light. [Authors' abstract] 161p.

School Design.
Sanoff, Henry
(Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1997)
The positive impact from changing the environment of a school as a way of improving the quality of education is often overlooked by educators. This book shows how to create more effective schools through a design process that involves teachers, students, parents, administrators, and architects. The design process creates school environments that develop the whole child, instills enthusiasm for learning, and encourages positive social relationships. The practical methods detailed show how to link behavioral objectives to spatial needs; achieve spatial efficacy without compromising education; match children's developmental needs to facility requirements; promote greater variety in physical facilities to accommodate various teaching and learning styles; and gain more valuable feedback from teachers, parents, students, and local citizens on building performance. Additionally discussed are how relatively minor design modifications can significantly improve school performance; and the cost-effective ways a design can change students' spatial behavior, increase interaction with materials, decrease interruptions, promote more substantive questioning, and improve academic achievement. (Contains 158 references). 215p.

When Money Matters: How Educational Expenditures Improve Student Performance and How They Don't. A Policy Information Perspective. Adobe PDF
Wenglinsky, Harold
(Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ , 1997)
Compiles a national database of school finance information and analyzes the data to address the importance of school expenditures. Expenditures related to capital outlays, school level administration, and teacher education levels were not found to increase achievement. 53p.

Affective and Social Benefits of Small-Scale Schooling. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Cotton, Kathleen
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV , Dec 1996)
This digest summarizes research in the affective and social realms that overwhelmingly affirms the superiority of small schools. Findings on the affective and social effects of school size are extensive and highly consistent, while the research base on outcomes of schools-within-a-school arrangements is smaller and less conclusive. While many small schools are also rural, it is the smallness of schools, regardless of setting, that is beneficial to students. Research on feelings and attitudes indicates the superiority of small schools in the following areas: student attitudes toward school in general and particular subjects, personal and academic self-concepts of students, student sense of belonging, social bonding between teachers and students, teacher and administrator attitudes toward work and each other, and cooperation among colleagues. Research on social behavior shows that compared to large schools, small schools have higher student rates of extracurricular participation, higher attendance rates, lower dropout rates, and fewer behavior and discipline problems. Small schools' superior performance may be related to the need for everyone's involvement, better interpersonal relationships, and easier management of individualized and cooperative practices. Economically disadvantaged and minority students benefit most from small schools, but are frequently concentrated in large schools in large districts. Schools-within-a-school plans have potential for producing results like those of small schools provided they are distinct administrative entities within the buildings that house them. 4p.

Quality In School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environment Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee , 1996)
Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an investigation of five elementary schools in the Baltimore City Public School System. The following issues are addressed: (1) the perception of the nature of environmental quality within the context of schools; (2) the attributes of environmental quality perceived to have an impact on educational outcomes; (3) the impact of facility management, if any, on the perception of environmental quality in schools; (4) whether environmental quality can be assessed in local school contexts; (5) whether environmental-behavior research contributes to the improvement of environmental quality in schools; and (6) the effectiveness of action research in defining problems, providing solutions, and increasing knowledge and awareness of environmental quality in schools. Volume 2 provides a summary of the project objectives, problem and approach, and process and procedures of the Baltimore Environmental Quality Assessment Project. It provides the case reports of each school in the study, documenting specific aspects of environmental quality of concern. Each case study provides a brief analysis of the relationship between the attributes of environmental quality concerns and their potential educational impact. Areas addressed include the school's physical comfort and health; classroom adaptability; safety and security; building functionality; aesthetics and appearance; privacy; places for social interaction; and overcrowding. 521p.

Review of Research on the Relationship Between School Buildings, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen, I.; Lemasters, Linda
( Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Tarpon Springs, FL , Oct 08, 1996)
The most persistent question in the field of school facility planning relates to that of the relationship between the built environment and the performance and behavior of users, particularly students. Ways in which the built environment affects two student variables--student achievement and student behavior--are explored. The first variable is student achievement as measured by some form of standardized or normed test, or examination administered to all students in the schools under study. The other variable is student behavior that can include specific level of student activity or school climate. A survey of research summarizes open-education programs and open-space schools, school building age, thermal factors, visual factors, color and interior painting, hearing factors, open space, windowless facilities, underground facilities, site size, building maintenance, and numerous other factors. All of the studies demonstrated a relationship between student performance--both achievement and behavior--and the condition of the built environment. The relationship varied from very weak in some early studies to a considerable degree of relationship in recent studies. Some of the more important factors that were found to influence learning are those relating to control of the thermal environment, proper illumination, adequate space, and availability of equipment and furnishings, particularly in science education. Some areas of needed research are discussed. 18p.

Turn On the Lights! Using What We Know about the Brain and Learning To Design Learning Environments.
Valiant, Bob
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , Aug 1996)
Developments in the field of brain research that focus on how we learn is beginning to influence the way schools are being built and renovated. This report discusses how the brain learns, explores how this knowledge can be used to inform learning theory, and describes what instruction would be like in a brain- based learning environment as well as the implications on facility design. School designs incorporating house concepts, technology networks, and flexible spaces are examples of designs that are compatible with brain-based learning. Concluding comments provide the questions facility planners should ask their clients who wish to implement some of these design approaches to create brain-based learning environments. 4p.

Building Condition and Student Achievement and Behavior. Adobe PDF
Hines, Eric Wayne
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA , 1996)
This study examines the relationship between the condition of school facilities, and student achievement and student behavior, using selected high schools in urban areas of Virginia. The study found that student achievement scores were higher in schools with better building conditions. Student discipline incidents were also higher in schools with better building conditions. Science achievement scores were better in buildings with better science laboratory conditions. Lastly, varying climate control, locker, and graffiti conditions were factors which were positively related to student achievement scale scores. 141p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9712733

Facility Impact on Learning.
Swartzendruber, Arlis
(Waterloo Community School District; Council of Educational Facilities Planners International , 1996)
A student/teacher survey form is provided that addresses the question of what students' and staff's opinions are on the importance of school learning areas at the elementary school level. Samples of comments from students and teachers are listed as is a copy of the study questionnaire from which teachers expressed their ratings of an educational facility's importance in enhancing artistic expression; interpersonal relations; self-directedness, responsibility, and self-assessment; communication; analysis and problem solving; and questioning, inquiry, and research. Also provided is a list of sources that frequently address the subject of long range site and facility planning. (Contains 21 references.) 42p.

The Design of Learning Experiences: A Connection to Physical Environments. Adobe PDF
Stueck, Lawrence E.; Tanner, C. Kenneth
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia , Apr 1996)
The school environment must create a rich, beautiful, dynamic, meaningful experience for students to learn; however, architects, school boards, and the state focus almost exclusively on the building when making design decisions. This lists specific aspects to developing a visionary campus, including smaller size campuses, multi-age groupings, decentralized buildings, information access that goes beyond written or digital form, and sustainable architecture that is ecologically sound. This was presented at the GASCD Conference, Athens, GA 5p.

Perceptions About the Role of Architecture in Education.
Bradley, William Scott
(Dissertation, University of Virginia, Charlottesville , 1996)
This dissertation was conducted to examine perceptions held by those who influence schoolhouse design about the role of architecture in education. Eleven informants--regionally and/or nationally respected educators, architects, and educational consultants--were interviewed and asked what they perceive to be the role of architecture in education. Very generally, the informants agreed that architecture should "enhance" education; however, they varied greatly on what they meant by "enhance." Five metaphors were developed to describe the role of architecture in education: (1) as a facility: the architecture should provide the school's basic operational necessities; (2) as a place: the architecture should provide a meaningful context for the learning experience; (3) as a signpost: the architecture should communicate implicitly that which may otherwise be communicated explicitly; (4) as a textbook: the architecture should reinforce the curriculum at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels; and (5) as an agent: the architecture should be a medium that affects change. Those informants closest to the field of education were more concerned with providing basic operational necessities than other considerations. In contrast, those informants closest to the field of architecture were more concerned with applying architecture in creative ways to address issues in education. The dissertation concludes that these goals need not be in opposition to one another and that the metaphors are not mutually exclusive; the more of the metaphors that can be incorporated into the designs of schools, the richer the educational experience could potentially be. 155p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9701330


School Size, School Climate, and Student Performance
Cotton, Kathleen
(Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR, 1996)
The author reviewed the research evidence on school size, and repeatedly found small schools to be superior to large schools on most measures and equal to them on the rest. She claims that this holds true for both elementary and secondary students of all ability levels and in all kinds of settings.

Student Performance in Daylit Schools. Adobe PDF
Nicklas, Michael H.; Bailey, Gary B.
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, North Carolina , 1996)
This study investigates the relationships between elementary and middle school student performance and natural daylighting. The performance of students attending three daylit schools designed by Innovative Design for Johnston County Schools in North Carolina was analyzed and compared to the County school system as a whole and other new schools within Johnston County. The daylit schools in the study indicated energy cost reductions of between 22 percent to 64 percent over typical schools. 5p.

Weaving a Tapestry of Resistance: The Places, Power, and Poetry of a Sustainable Society.
Sutton, Sharon E.; Giroux, Henry A., Ed.; Freire, Paulo, Ed.
(Bergin and Garvey , 1996)
This book examines the educational, social, and physical environment of two elementary schools that are located in contrasting socioeconomic settings, revealing the importance of "place" in human lives and learning. It draws from systematic observations conducted over a three-year period, presenting the schools and their inhabitants through a fictionalized narrative intended to help readers better understand how the material conditions of poverty and wealth impact children's world view without compromising the identity of the participants. The book concludes with the author's vision of education in a sustainable society, which is presented through three case studies of innovations in New York City. 236p.

A Statewide Study of Student Achievement and Behavior and School Building Condition. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Dallas, TX , Sep 1995)
This paper presents findings of a study that examined the relationship between student achievement/behavior and school-building condition. A survey sent to all high schools in North Dakota elicited a 60 percent response rate. The Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills was used as a measure of student achievement and the numbers of disciplinary incidents as an indicator of student behavior. Findings indicate that a positive relationship existed between student achievement and building condition and between student behavior and school condition. Study results were compared with other studies that used similar methodologies with different populations. 21p.

An Investigative Study of the Relationship of the Physical Environment to Teacher Professionalism in the State of Mississippi Public Schools.
Williams, Cardell
(Doctoral Dissertation, Jackson State University, Mississippi , May 1995)
Investigates 1994 State Teacher of the Year Nominees’ perceptions of how school facilities enhance their ability to function as professionals. The study revealed that of the 21 identified environmental aspects, the respondents were well satisfied with: location; space utilization; ambient features (heating, ventilation, lighting, acoustics, colors); windows; floor coverings; classroom furnishings; classroom equipment; teacher storage; in-building communication; conference area; teacher restroom; teacher parking; teacher planning area; teacher lounge area; and teacher dining area. The respondents ranked classroom equipment, classroom furnishings, ambient features, space utilization, and location of instruction as the most important environmental aspects. 156p.
Report NO: 9615254


Color and Light Effects on Learning. Adobe PDF
Grangaard, Ellen Mannel
(Paper presented at the Association for Childhood Education International Study Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC , Apr 12, 1995)
This study examined the effects of color and light on the learning of eleven six-year-old elementary school students. The students were videotaped to identify off-task behaviors and had their blood pressure measured while in a standard classroom with white walls and cool-white fluorescent lights, as well as in a classroom with light blue walls and full-spectrum lights. The study found that the students accumulated a total of 390 off-task behaviors in the standard classroom compared to 310 in the modified classroom, a decrease of 22 percent. It also found that students' mean blood pressure readings were nine percent lower in the modified classroom when compared to their readings in the standard classroom. 10p.

A Study of the Architecture and Curriculum of Virginia High Schools.
Worner, Scott Charles
(Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , Apr 1995)
Provides a written and pictorial history of the architectural and curricular features of Virginia high schools. 284 high school buildings which best represented an architectural period, beginning with the oldest high school building still in use to the most recently constructed schools, were surveyed. Seventeen schools were chosen based on: 1) date of original construction; 2) completeness of original structure; 3) overall rating by the building principal; 4) noteworthy architectural or unique educational features; and 5) subjective comparison of floor plans and photographs. Each building was visited to obtain data relating to curricular emphasis in the design. Each architectural period was researched for significant educational and curricular trends that may have influenced high school design. 251p.
Report NO: 9529882


Overcrowding in Urban Schools.
Burnett, Gary
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY , 1995)
The New York City Citizens' Commission on Planning for Enrollment Growth submitted a report on overcrowding in New York City schools that may serve as a guide to other cities striving to provide an effective education for ever-increasing numbers of students. Research on the impact of school overcrowding has been inconclusive, but there is some evidence that, especially in schools with a high proportion of students living in poverty, overcrowding can have adverse impacts on learning. It is unquestionable that it has a direct, and often severe, impact on the logistics of the school day. In cases where increases in school enrollment are expected to continue, the only guaranteed long-term means of relieving overcrowding is the expensive and time-consuming process of building new schools or of renovating and adding to existing schools. In cases where increases in enrollment may be temporary or where stop-gap measures are needed while new schools are being built, there are a number of short-term solutions. These strategies, in general, fall into two categories: (1) finding new space, whether through leasing, collaborative arrangements, relocating administrative space, or the district-wide redistribution of space, and (2) using time to use existing space more fully; extended-day and year-round programs are central to this effort. Adequate space for learning must be recognized as a fundamental educational necessity.

Designing Places for Learning.
Meek, Anne, Ed.
(Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA; Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1995)
This book presents information about the condition of schools around the United States. It also describes the link between architecture and academic success and offers suggestions for improving the design of existing and future school buildings. Eleven articles look at schools as places of deep meaning and show how that view can alter approaches to the design, construction, and renovation of schools. Following the preface, "The Importance of the School as Place," by Anne Meek, the articles include: (1) "Systemic School Reform: Implications for Architecture" (Edward B. Fiske); (2) "Design Patterns for American Schools: Responding to the Reform Movement" (Gary T. Moore and Jeffery A. Lackney); (3) "Place as a Form of Knowledge" (Steven Bingler); (4) "Using Cultural Information To Create Schools That Work" (Sara Snyder Crumpacker); (5) "Revitalizing an Older School" (Harold L. Hawkins); (6) "Crow Island School: 54 Years Young" (Anne Meek with Steven Landfried); (7) "Planning Your School's Technology Future" (Bob Valiant); (8) "How Schools Are Redesigning Their Space" (Anne Taylor); (9) "Opening Doors for Students with Disabilities: A Photo Essay" (Krista W. Barton with DeeLynn Smith); (10) "Buildings Matter: The Connection between School Building Conditions and Student Achievement in Washington, D.C." (Maureen M. Berner); and (11) "Wasting Our Assets: The Costs of Neglecting the Nation's Education Infrastructure" (Andrew C. Lemer). Each chapter contains references. A list of resources (written and contact organizations) is included. 213p.

Middle School Facilities for the Twenty-First Century: An Identification of Critical Design Elements By Selected Architects, Administrators and Teachers. Adobe PDF
Burch, Arthur Lee, Jr.
(Texas A&M University, College Station , 1994)
This study determined the perceptions of selected architects, administrators, and teachers concerning essential design elements for new middle schools. Professionals from 14 south and southeastern states ranked statements from not applicable to essential in the following 5 categories: planning, design, site selections; environmental factors; space utilization; technology; and school and community service. Proactive planning, user-friendly facilities, exploratory spaces, and safe environments were confirmed as essential elements. Architects perceived significantly fewer essential criteria than administrators or teachers indicating that those who use schools are either not providing significant design input, are being ignored in the process, or the data are being filtered. 133p.

The Effects of Teacher Involvement on the Planning of Secondary Schools.
Montoya, Carl A.
(Doctoral Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces , May 1994)
Explores the effects of teacher involvement in the planning of new secondary schools. The study found that the more teachers were involved in planning the new school, the more positive their attitude was towards the facility. The study found that three-fourths of the teachers surveyed were not involved in new school planning. It also found that most teachers, whether or they had previously been involved in planning their schools, wanted an active role in the planning process. 169p.
Report NO: 9510414


Architectural Concerns for Future Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
McMillan, Kelvin Loren
( Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln , Apr 1994)
A research study examined the factors that will affect future educational programs and the resultant effect of these factors on future school facilities. Additionally, the study developed an architectural program for future educational facilities based upon the anticipated educational specifications and determined the underlying themes concerning the development of future education facilities. Surveys were sent to architects, futurists, and educators to gain a reasoned consensus on the factors involved. Following survey rounds, the participants were given either qualitative or quantitative feedback to generate a higher order of responses and group consensus. Findings indicated 28 probable social or technological futures that may affect education. Also revealed were 12 major themes concerning the effect of these futures on school architecture. Each theme has supporting architectural considerations that could be incorporated in future school facilities. Recommendations for other researchers are noted. An appendix, comprising over half the document, includes the survey instruments used in the study. (Contains 132 references.) 584p.

Transforming the Learning Environment.
Christopher, Gaylaird; Lee, Kelvin K.; Taylor, Anne; Jilk, Bruce
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1994)
This explores areas that are considered important factors affecting the educational environment design. These include work spaces for students; innovative modes of assessment for new learning strategies; media centers as supportive assets to learning; the changing scope of physical education; community involvement in the educational process, and the importance of marrying the architectural environment both visually and functionally to the educational vision. It then presents information from four California booklets that offer restructuring guidelines for individual school districts and provide the groundwork for national educational reforms. These booklets address the needs of preschool students and the importance of ensuring that all students are ready to learn by the time they enter kindergarten; suggests a thinking-centered, interactive curriculum for elementary students; addresses quantum changes in middle school education; and explores the complex needs of high school students preparing for vocational and professional endeavors and for the rigors of higher education. Finally, design concepts are discussed that provide a connection between educator and designer that culminates in properly designing a physical learning environment.

Educational Facilities: The Impact and Role of the Physical Environment of the School on Teaching, Learning and Educational Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Architecture & Urban Planning Research , 1994)
This study examines the degree to which frail physical school infrastructures have affected education over the past 10 years and the impact and role of the school building in achieving outcome-based goals of education reform. Chapter 1 examines the scope of deteriorating school buildings in the United States. Chapter 2 offers a case study of the Milwaukee Public Schools Facility Master Plan to illustrate the societal context in which these issues are often resolved (or ignored). Chapters 3 and 4 provide a detailed literature review on public elementary school environments and open space schools. Chapter 5 addresses the process of developing and managing school facilities, and critiquing and reconceptualizing the current educational facility planning model. Chapter 6 synthesizes and builds upon existing models and frameworks developed within the educational, environmental psychology and architectural literature to develop one conceptual framework: a multidimensional model of educational environments. The appendix contains an annotated bibliography of educational environments. 133p.
Report NO: R94-4

Educational Facilities for the Twenty-First Century: Research Analysis and Design Patterns. Adobe PDF
Moore, Gary T.; Lackney, Jeffery A.
(University of Wsiconsin-Milwaukee, Center for Architecture & Urban Planning Research , 1994)
Examines the relationship between school buildings and educational performance. Research has demonstrated that the physical setting has both direct and mediated effects on prosocial and achievement outcomes. Physical, psychological, and social environmental factors that affect student outcomes are presented, as well as an analysis based on a review of empirical research, architectural literature, and educational reform literature to inductively develop a set of 27 design patterns. Two patterns based on environment-behavior research are highlighted--small schools and well-defined activity pockets. 93p.

Special Places; Special People: The Hidden Curriculum of School Grounds. Adobe PDF
Titman, Wendy
(World Wide Fund for Nature, Surrey, England; Learning through Landscape Trust, Winchester, England , 1994)
The research project, Special Places; Special People, is designed to provide insight and advice in the management of schools and their grounds for the benefit of children. This document describes the project's research methodology and findings, explores some of the wider implications arising from the study, and suggests ways in which schools might embark upon effecting change. Research findings are discussed on how children read the external environment and school grounds. Issues arising from these findings examine the importance of school grounds to children in a modern society, the messages school grounds convey about the ethos of schools, and children's attitudes and behavior that are determined by the school grounds and the way they are managed. 140p.

A Study of the Relationship Between School Building Condition and Student Achievement and Behavior
Cash, Carol Scott
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 1993)
This study found the student achievement scores, student discipline incidents, and science achievement scores were higher in schools with better building conditions.. Cosmetic building condition appeared to impact student achievement and student behavior more than structural building condition. Finally, varying climate control, locker, and graffiti conditions were factors which were positively related to student achievement scale scores. The entire population of small, rural high schools in Virginia was used in this study. 158p
Report NO: 9319761


Deteriorating School Facilities and Student Learning. ERIC Digest. Adobe PDF
Frazier, Linda M.
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,Eugene,OR, 1993)
Many facilities in American public schools are in disrepair, a situation negatively affecting the morale, health, and learning of students and teachers. Limited research shows that children's ability to learn is affected by the school environment.Many schools postpone repairs during tight financial times to pay for academic programs. Some school officials and communities are pursuing innovative, grassroots solutions to maintaining school facilities. Billions of dollars are needed to refurbish schools and construct new facilities, requiring strong federal support.

Effects of Color and Light on Selected Elementary Students. Adobe PDF
Grangaard, Ellen Mannel
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nevada , 1993)
This study compared children's off-task behavior and physiological response in a normal elementary classroom setting with those in a prescribed classroom environment. In the prescribed environment, the colors of the classroom walls were changed from brown and off-white to blue, while Duro-test Vita-lite fluorescent tubes without diffusers replaced the standard cool-white fluorescent tubes with diffusers in the lighting fixtures. Eleven first-graders took part in the study, which measured their off-task behaviors, blood pressure, and pulse twice each day at the same time each day for 10-day periods in the original classroom environment, then in the prescribed environment, and back in the original environment. Results indicated that off-task behaviors, as recorded by three observers, dropped 24 percent after the change from the normal to the prescribed environment, and that systolic blood pressure readings dropped 9 percent after the change. Blood pressure readings demonstrated a gradual increase after the return to the normal environment. (Observer credentials and blood pressure and pulse readings are appended. Contains 126 references.) 183p.

Interface between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Northern Alabama K-2 Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Yielding, AC
(Dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , 1993)
This study was designed to observe, record, and describe the interface between educational facilities and learning climate in three elementary schools, comparing the results with results from a 1990 study. Study instruments included the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Observation Form and the Teachers' Educational Facility Perception Questionnaire. Data analysis indicated that school facility had a definite impact on total learning climate. Specific physical features (space, equipment, maintenance, appearance, comfort, and general physical arrangement) had the ability to positively or negatively impact learning climate. Teachers had specific preferences regarding safety, aesthetic, instructional, and equipment features of their classroom. Results found that architectural features and general schematic arrangements relative to the physical location of the school could affect the learning climate in the area of safety and aesthetics. The open space (pod) design negatively impacted the learning climate in the area of comfort and space. Student movement in the classroom and school was affected by available space, learning centers, equipment, and other materials. Space outside the building had to be properly allocated for the ingress and ingress of vehicles and loading and unloading of students to ensure safety at all times. 340p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9417177

Healthy Schools. [Germany] Adobe PDF
Rittelmeyer, Christian
(Paper presented at the International Seminar, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Programme on Educational Building, Vienna, Austria , Oct 1992)
A survey of several hundred German students led to two theses on school environment and learning. First, students find school buildings attractive only if they conform to certain features of the human sensory system such as balance. Second, students consider school buildings attractive and inviting only if their architectural message meets such social needs as warmth and openness. Research shows that to regain their own sense of balance, students use eye movements to compensate for shapes that are displayed obliquely. Oblique structural angles upset the sense of balance and create a hostile architectural geometry. By contrast, balanced structures containing obliques and oblique counterangles are perceived as lively and exhilarating. Students who perceive antisocial messages in architecture may try to ignore, counter, or visually evade the structure. Thus, a school building can be attractive only if it provides various and stimulating structural shapes and colors, liberating and unconstrained configuration, and warmth and softness of colors and shapes. 10p.

New Designs for the Comprehensive High School. Adobe PDF
Copa, George H.; Pease, Virginia H.
(Western Illinois University, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Macomb, IL , 1992)
Intended to influence school districts that have the opportunity to build new schools, this document provides new designs for comprehensive high schools that would overcome the mismatch between school and life, the inequity of educational outcomes, and the lack of organizational effectiveness that plague many contemporary high schools. The designs were developed by teachers, administrators, support staff, state education office staff, teacher educators, and policy makers. Following an introduction, the document contains the following sections: Learning Signature; Learner Outcomes; Learning Process; Learning Oganization; Learning Decision Making; Learning Partnerships; Learning Staff; Learning Technology; Learning Environment; Learning Costs; a summary of unique contributions, lessons learned, and recommended next steps. A list of 81 references concludes this volume. 121p.

A Study into the Effects of Light on Children of Elementary School-Age--A Case of Daylight Robbery.
Hathaway, Warren E.; And Others
(Policy and Planning, Branch Planning and Information Services Division, Alberta Education, Edmonton, Alberta , 1992)
This report describes a 2-year study of the effects of various lighting systems on elementary school students' dental health, attendance, growth and development, vision, and academic achievement. The four light types used were: (1) full spectrum fluorescent; (2) full spectrum fluorescent with ultraviolet light supplements; (3) cool white fluorescent; and (4) high pressure sodium vapor. Data on students were collected before and after the study. Results indicated that over a 2-year period, students who received ultraviolet light supplements had better attendance, greater gains in height and weight, and better academic performance than did students who did not receive the supplements. Students under the high pressure sodium vapor lighting had the slowest rates of growth in height and academic achievement and the lowest attendance. It was concluded that lighting systems have important nonvisual effects on students who are exposed to them over long periods of time. Implications for facility planning are considered and recommendations regarding lighting for classrooms are offered. 68p.

Children, Learning, & School Design. A First National Invitational Conference for Architects and Educators.
Hebert, Elizabeth; Meek, Anne
(Winnetka Public Schools, Winnetka, IL , 1992)
Presents papers from a conference marking the 50th anniversary of Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, held in November, 1990 to examine how collaboration between educators and architects could be advanced to meet the nation's pressing need for new and remodeled school buildings. The conference brought together architects, educators, researchers, and educational facilities planners to define and refine their understandings of the relationship between children's learning and the design of the learning environment. Chapters include: 1. The Importance of Conversation in Designing Schools (Elizabeth Hebert); 2. Working Together (Steven Bingler); 3. School Design in the 1990s: Outlook and Prospects (Lisa Walker); 4. The Connection Between Learning and the Learning Environment (James H. Banning); Crow Island: A Place Built for Children (Elizabeth Hebert). The conference program, list of attendees, and author biographies are included as appendices. 82p.
TO ORDER: Crow Island School, 1112 Willow Road, Winnetka, IL 60093; Tel: 847-446-0353.

Quality Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Kleberg, John R.
(Ohio State University , 1992)
An Ohio State University project studying quality educational environments brought together experts from several fields and various countries to discuss issues and tour facilities in Europe and the United States. In addition, a survey of university staff, students, and faculty found that there is a strong relationship between school environment and learning. Also, physical environment is important in student choice of university. In addition to architecture and building design, quality of maintenance and care of grounds reflect an institution's outlook on learning. Classroom design should be flexible and stimulating and create a positive learning environment. Many factors in addition to architecture influence the learning environment, including inside and outside space, corridors, and interior design. Several fundamental principles should be considered in designing learning spaces: (1) nearly all learning involves use of the built environment; (2) the built environment is a teaching element; and (3) new structures should not be built if existing ones cannot be maintained properly. This project identified several school-design goals: unity and diversity, adaptability, exterior spaces, discipline-specific learning space, unique structures, informal learning space, individual study and meditation space, and school and learning discipline heritage. 13p.

Effective Educational Environments.
Stockard, Jean; Mayberry, Maralee
(Corwin Press, Inc., Newbury Park, CA , 1992)
The existing knowledge of the school environment is reviewed in this book, with a focus on its impact on educational effectiveness and student achievement. Chapter 1 examines how the composition of educational groups affect learning; chapter 2 focuses on the learning climate and cultures--the norms and values that characterize learning environment. In chapter 3 the physical environment of schools is reviewed (how school facilities and expenditures, teachers' qualifications, and school and classroom size affect student achievement). Chapter 4 focuses on how the community environment of schools (consolidation, construction of new schools, school policy). Chapter 5 develops a both academic, achievement-oriented goals (instrumental norms) and emotionally supportive human relationships (expressive norms) is essential for effective schools. The model examines how members of a school create social order and how that social order influences individuals' actions. Chapter 6 discusses the model's implications for policy and social change, stressing the ways in which students, parents, teachers, and administrators can create a positive climate through their relationships and actions to facilitate the achievement of educational goals. 184p.

The Effect of Selected Physical Features of the General Elementary Classroom on the Learning Environment.
Koval, Joseph G.
(Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute , Aug 1991)
Examines the extent to which selected physical, aesthetic, comfort, and health and safety features of Indiana K-6 general classrooms are perceived by the school principals to affect the quality of the learning environment. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) rest rooms and a wet area for arts and crafts are essential physical features in a kindergarten classroom; 2) provision for technology, a silent reading area, an area for storage, and classroom arrangement by grade level are essential for grades K-6; 3) display areas for student work, student-oriented learning centers, and an abundance of maps and globes are aesthetic features to be included in the general classroom; 4) acoustical treatment, control of thermal conditions, the location of the classroom in relation to the media center, and distance from other noise centers are comfort features which affect the learning environment; and 5) appropriate ventilation, more than one electrical outlet per wall, adjustable classroom lighting, windows which open, a science lab area, close proximity to a rest room and an outside exit are features which provide a healthy learning environment. 135p.
Report NO: 9206046


Building Conditions, Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in the D.C. Public School System.
Edwards, Maureen M.
(Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC , 1991)
This paper examines the impact of parental involvement on the overall condition of the Washington (District of Columbia) public school buildings, and then looks at the impact of various variables on student achievement. Although a complete set of data on all schools was not obtained, a sampling of 52 schools indicates that the size of a school's Parent Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the condition of the school building. The relation between the PTA budget per pupil and the overall condition of the school building was statistically significant. The condition of the building is related to academic achievement, and improvement in the condition of the building is associated with improvement in achievement scores. The policy implications of these results are discussed. Although actions such as the support of parents' organizations appear to contribute to maintaining the school in good condition, capital outlays to improve the basic condition of the schools may contribute to student achievement. There are six tables presenting study data. Three appendices contain data about the schools, correlation analysis results, and regression results. There is an 96-item list of references. 100p.

The Design of Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Stueck, Lawrence E.
(University of Georgia, Athens , 1991)
This study, using the Eisner's Educational Criticism Model, examines the role school architecture plays in eliciting creative, self-directed, child-centered responses in elementary school students. An evaluation of 11 play environments; 7 learning environments; an integrated third grade curriculum known as the City Classroom is presented. The relationship of the role school architectural design and art has in developing individuals' capacities to deal with change is explored. A three-dimensional evaluation matrix, comprising the three axes of environment, curriculum, and human needs is proposed for assessing learning environments. Five principles of design used in this study are discussed: environment; perception; conception; diversity; and scale. A hypothetical elementary school design (the Suburban School) is proposed using the matrix with these five principles. The study concludes that children exhibit increases in both ludic and epistemic behavior when interacting with rich and varied school learning environments 261p.
Report NO: UMI AAG9206986

A Tale of Two Institutions: Education and Environment. A Brief History of the Conflicting Values and Objectives of Schools and the Environmental Movement. Adobe PDF
Bomier, Bruce
(Institute for Environmental Assessment, Anoka, MN , 1990)
This paper briefly highlights the past four decades of the relationship between school districts and the environmental movement. It reveals the public's increasing awareness of environmental factors within the school that jeopardize student health and learning, the policies created to curtail these dangers, and the confusion and waste of resources that resulted when unprepared school districts clumsily attempted to comply with often unrealistic policy mandates. 9p.

The Interface Between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Elementary Schools
Lowe, Jerry Milton
(Unpublished dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 1990)
Research was conducted on three campuses during spring, 1989. Results of the study provided the following insights into the six components of the research question. (1) Building age, when considered alone, did not appear to impact learning climate. (2) Design and appearance of the facility appeared to impact learning climate. (3) Building square footage seemed to have a marginal impact upon school learning climate. (4) Size and organization of instructional space had a major impact upon the learning climate of a school. (5) Building maintainability appeared to impact learning climate. (6) Results of the study imply that campus location has a significant impact upon learning climate. Data for the study were obtained from parents, teachers, and administrators. Two forms of instrumentation were developed by the researcher: the Classroom Spatial Utilization and Migration Observation Form was developed by the researcher to enhance the observation of classroom spatial organization and movement patterns of students, and teachers within a specific instructional space. The Teachers' Educational Facility Perception Questionnaire was developed by the researcher to assess the feelings of teachers concerning the school building which they taught. 227p

School Facilities: The Relationship of the Physical Environment to Teacher Professionalism. Adobe PDF
Overbaugh, Betty Lightfoot
(Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station , 1990)
This study determined the perceptions of 38 state Teachers of the Year (1988) had about how school facilities affected their ability to function as professionals. Data from a 105-item questionnaire revealed that, except for space utilization, the teachers were satisfied with all the physical environmental aspects of their school s instructional areas. They were also satisfied with noninstructional features except for telephones for teacher use; teacher to teacher conference areas; teacher professional libraries; and planning, lounge, and dining areas. Statistically significant differences in perception were found by gender, teaching level, and years of experience. The teachers ranked classroom furnishings, equipment, and ambient features as most important environmental features. They were least pleased with space utilization; acoustics; thermal conditions; equipment; and areas for planning, conferencing, and relaxation in their schools. The respondents also suggested features from their present facilities and features to add when planning new schools. 143p.

Navajo Educational Values and Facility Design. Adobe PDF
Dore, Christopher D.
(Human Factors Consultants , 1989)
This document addresses the issue of designing educational facilities that contribute positively to a bicultural educational curriculum of the contemporary Navajo. The study examined traditional Navajo education as seen through the perspective of contemporary Navajo elders. Small group interviews in a loose, open-ended format were used to obtain data on the educational values of the Navajo elders. Navajo elders were concerned with the Navajo language, considering that a knowledge of Navajo was a prerequisite for understanding Navajo values and traditions; at the same time, they felt that English should also be taught. Elders believed that Navajo cultural practices should be taught and practiced and that students should have vocational and professional training, including traditional Navajo craft skills. In traditional education, life-style and education are inseparable, and elders wanted this holistic approach for their children. The final sections of the report are concerned with relating these values to school site location and organization, facility design and scale, space organization, interior decoration, and the use of special rooms, possibly resembling hogans, for Navajo language teaching. The document contains 30 references. 49p.

The Quality of the Physical Environment of the School and the Quality of Education.
Colven, Ronald
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France. Programme on Educational Building. Conclusions of a Seminar Lidingo, Sweden , October 1988)
Proceedings of a meeting of representatives from 13 countries on the effect of the physical environment on educational quality are summarized. Three major issues are addressed: (1) the effect of the physical environment on education; (2) successful school building characteristics; and (3) what can be done to maintain and improve the quality of existing buildings. It was concluded that, because education is a dynamic process, educational environmental management should be a continuous updating process. Successful facilities are characterized by clearness and quality of expression and support of the social aspects of children's development. Recommended changes in the planning process include preplanned adaptability; sensitivity to evolving needs; development of autonomous assessment systems; and active architect participation. Seven architectural drawings and three black and white photographs are included. 25p.

Working in Urban Schools. Adobe PDF
Corcoran, Thomas B.; And Others
(Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC , 1988)
This document on the working conditions of urban teachers reports data from a survey of 31 elementary, middle, and secondary schools in five urban school districts. More than 400 interviews were conducted with teachers, school administrators, central office personnel, district officials, board members, and union officials. The observations, interviews, and analyses confirm that, in most of these schools, the working conditions of teachers are bleak and would not be tolerated in other professions. According to the study, the physical condition of a school has a direct effect on teacher morale, sense of personal safety, feelings of effectiveness, and general learning environment. 175p.

Learning Environments for Children: A Developmental Approach to Shaping Activity Areas Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry; Sanoff, Joan
(Humanics Limited, Atlanta, GA , 1988)
Guidelines are provided for creating learning environments for children centers which can be used for the creation of either new centers, the re-design of existing centers, or when remodeling existing buildings. Each of the activity areas that may be contained in a children center is described in terms of their objectives, design requirements, participants, and the molecular activities engaged in by children. The molecular activities describe what the expected range of behaviors might be in the activity areas. Diagrams are used to illustrate, but not determine, the way in which the activity areas should be organized. An activity factor evaluation chart and advice on playground planning conclude the document. 100p.

Relationship of Student Achievement and Characteristics in Two Selected School Facility Environmental Settings.
Bowers, J. Howard; Burkett, Charles W.
(Paper presented at the 64th Annual International Conference of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada , Oct 03, 1987)
Research findings indicate that students are affected positively or adversely by the visual, acoustical, and thermal characteristics of the classroom environment. During the 1986-87 school year, 280 fourth- and sixth-grade students housed in two separate school facilities--the oldest and the newest in a rural Tennessee county school district--were tested to determine if the physical environment of a school was related to student achievement, health, attendance, and behavior. ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A significant difference existed between students at the two elementary schools in regard to the relationship between the physical environment and student achievement. Scores in reading, listening, language, and arithmetic showed a significant difference, with the students in the modern building performing much better than the students in the older school. The former students proved to have a better record in the areas of health, attendance, and discipline when compared to the latter students. Educational consultants, architects, and administrators should be apprised of the importance attached to the compatibility between physical environment and student learning and other behavior 15p.

Architecture as a Quality in the Learning and Teaching Process
Cold, Birgit
(Paper presented at the Edusystems 2000 International Congress on Educational Facilities, Values, and Contents (Jerusalem, Israel, November 16-21, 1986). , Nov 1986)
Using an outline format accompanied by numerous photographs and sketches, this brochure explores the relationship of "school" to people's conceptions, actions, and physical surroundings, highlighting changes over the past 20 years in Scandinavian school design. Two major conceptual changes are decentralized administration and teaching and learning situations emphasizing teamwork and development of the whole person. Changes in activities and physical environment are also summarized, along with "quality" effects, such as (1) a smaller-scaled, more confidential environment; (2) greater flexibility in learning and teaching interactions; and (3) the opening of schools to the community. A close examination of teacher and student attitudes reveals that school as an institution mediating knowledge contributes much less to students' well-being than school as a social system. Architects and planners must realize the importance of relationships beween people and create functional and inspiring places supporting their work and social life. While architecture can do nothing to help poor teaching, without good architecture, learning and teaching are slowed down. Architecture's role is to accentuate the quality of places, to cultivate sensory awareness, and to interpret and communicate institutional values in time and place. Complementary requirements of architectural design, restraints for school architecture, and architecture's contribution to human development and the educational process are also discussed. 11p.

The Architecture of Schools and the Philosophy of Education.
Lamm, Zvi
(Paper presented at the Edusystems 2000 International Congress on Educational Facilities, Values, and Contents (Jerusalem, Israel, November 16-21, 1986), Nov 1986)
Changes in instructional methods and ideologies depend on simultaneous changes in the physical environment for the practice of those methods. School architecture results from the type of activity dictated by educational theories. One of the principal ideologies of education is socialization, which perceives education as a process of preparing students to fulfill societal roles. The ideal design for buildings reflecting this bureaucratic conception would resemble an industrial factory complete with an assembly line. A second major ideology is acculturation, which asserts that the purpose of education is to inspire students with a sense of culture and traditional values. The exterior architecture for schools supporting this conviction would show a reverence for the past; for example, an elite school might look like a Greek temple. However, this architecture would not penetrate to the classroom. According to a third ideology, individuation, education is intended to serve the intrinsic needs of individual students. The open space architecture and activity centers of open schools reflect the individuation ideology 13p.

Architecture as Determining the Child's Place in Its School.
Sebba, Rachel
(Paper presented at the Edusystems 2000 International Congress on Educational Facilities, Values, and Contents Jerusalem, Israel , Nov 1986)
This paper analyzes the implications of a school's physical environment for children's development. Its purpose is to draw the attention of educators to the implications of the physical environment for the child's development and to invite them to participate in the process whereby the design program of schools is formulated. The paper presents the social implications of the design approach according to which the school is planned. A distinction is made between the two different design approaches (the functional and the territorial) that appear confounded in existing schools. The implications of each of them for the child's development and ability to learn is discussed. Finally, the paper proposes a combined approach to school design based on children's developmental needs. 20p.

Color and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology. Adobe PDF
Wohlfarth, M.
(University of Alberta, Canada , May 1986)
This intensive research study utilized a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served as experimental groups and one as a control group. Independent variables were exposure to full-spectrum light or prescribed cool colors for teachers and prescribed warm colors for students or a combination of light and color treatments, ultraviolet light for a sample of grade five students, and elimination of electromagnetic radiation for a sample of grade three students. Dependent variables were primarily student academic, physiological, and affective outcomes and also included blood pressure as a teacher physiological measure. A pre-experimental static-group comparison design was used in the investigation of mood and noise. Overall results support a call for additional field-based and laboratory research into the effects of color, light, and color/light combinations. Findings regarding the beneficial effects of ultraviolet light and reduction of electromagnetic radiation in the school environment support strong recommendations for further study of these effects. An extensive literature review of research findings on light and color is included in the report, which also contains 58 tables, 12 figures, and a bibliography. 219p.

An Examination of the Classroom Physical Environment.
Poysner, Larry R.
(Indiana University at South Bend , 1983)
This paper examines research on the effects of the physical environment of the classroom, noting that classrooms often are a web of interrelated and interdependent variables. The discussion includes a review of 45 annotated citations grouped under the following categories: (1) importance and description of classroom environment; (2) individual factors of lighting and heating, color and noise, seating, and general variables; (3) impact upon students; (4) designing and planning for classroom environments; and (5) creative use of classroom environment. The writer notes that there seems to be general agreement about the basic affect of spatial arrangement, seating, and general aesthetic appeal of a classroom. Many authors stressed that the environment of a classroom needs to be examined and planned just as any other teaching strategy. Glossary and 63-item bibliography included. 47p.

Lights, Windows, Color: Elements of the School Environment. Adobe PDF
Hathaway, Warren E.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Columbus, OH , Sep 26, 1982)
Discusses recent research indicating the many nonvisual effects of light on people and how physiological and psychological effects vary with the type of artificial light, whether it is from incandescent, cool-white, or full-spectrum fluorescent lamps. Notes that student behavior appears to be favorably affected by full-spectrum lamps, that color also has an effect on people and their behavior, and that research findings suggest that blues and greens tend to foster relaxation while shades of red or orange tend to induce activity. Reports that building occupants seem to favor the ability to view the outside world rather than work in windowless spaces. 28p.

The Design of Educational Environments: An Expression of Individual Differences or Evidence of the "Press toward Synomorphy?"
Ross, Rhonda P.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, March 19-23, Mar 1982)
Research findings demonstrate that the way the classroom environment is arranged can have important consequences on the attitudes, behavior, and achievement of students. The concept of "synomorphy" is used to examine some of the research literature available on classroom design. Synomorphy refers to the similarity of structure or shape between the behavioral aspects of a school activity program and the physical aspects of the environment. Ecological theory predicts that when synomorphy is low, changes will occur in the physical milieu and/or in the kinds of behavior. The first section of the paper applies this theory to open plan schools. The schools were designed for open education, but teachers using traditional educational programs have modified programs and erected physical boundaries to bring the milieu closer to their teaching styles. The paper's next section cites studies of the classroom environments modified in order to improve the degree of synomorphy between the teacher's instructional program and the physical milieu. The final section examines the extent to which teachers ordinarily rearrange the classroom so that the milieu and the program remain in a state of synomorphy throughout the school day and year. An extensive bibliography is appended. 32p.

A Comparative Study of Pupil Attitudes toward New and Old School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung
(School District of Greenville County, Greenville, SC , Jan 1982)
Student attitudes toward the physical environment of a school opened in 1980 are compared to student attitudes toward two older schools: one constructed in 1923, the other in 1936. The control group consisted of all the 119 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1936-era school. The experimental group consisted of all the 96 pupils in grades 2, 3, and 4 in the 1923-constructed building who were later transferred to the new school. Pupil pre-test and post-test scores on the "Our School Building Attitude Inventory" served as the dependent variable. The independent variables were the physical facilities in the three school buildings, and students' sex, race, and socioeconomic status. Analyses of covariance and variance were used to examine the variables. The main finding of the study was that pupils housed in a modern school building have significantly more positive attitudes toward their school building than do pupils housed in an old building. Race and socioeconomic status had no effect on pupil attitudes toward school buildings, though females in the control group scored significantly higher than males in both the pre-test and the post-test. Six pages of selected references accompany the report. 33p.

Effects of Noise on Academic Achievement and Classroom Behavior
Lucas, Jerome
(California Health and Welfare Agency, Dept. of Health Services, Sep 1981)
This study evaluated student achievement in 15 school in Los Angeles located at different distances from freeways with corresponding different traffic-noise-generated background noise levels in the classrooms. The key result of the study , reading scores vs. noise level in the classroom, showed that "grade-equivalent" reading scores began to decrease as the noise level began to exceed about 35 dB(A). There was also evidence of serious cumulative effect of excessive classroom noise on a child's academic achievement level as he/she progressed through school. Another significant effect was that teachers were unable to hear the children more often than the other way around--an expected result consistent with the fact that the children's voice level tend to be lower.

Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung
(School District of Greenville County, Greenville, SC , 1980)
This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Pupil achievement in air-conditioned school buildings was consistently higher than pupil achievement in non-air-conditioned school buildings. This consistent pattern did not exist between carpeted school buildings and noncarpeted school buildings, between school buildings with fluorescent lighting and school buildings without fluorescent lighting, and between school buildings with interior pastel coloring and school buildings without interior pastel coloring. 16p.

The Impact of School Building Age on Pupil Achievement. Adobe PDF
Chan, Tak Cheung
(Office of School Facilities Planning, Greenville School District, Greenville, SC , 1979)
Research conducted in Georgia reveals that pupils in school buildings with modern facilities attain higher achievement than pupils in buildings with older facilities. All public schools in Georgia containing eighth grade students were classified as non-modernized, partially modernized, or modern according to results of questionnaires administered to building principals in 1975-76.. Analysis indicated that when the socioeconomic status variable was statistically controlled, school building age was significantly related to the composite, vocabulary, and mathematics scores on the Iowa Tests. 18p.

The Physical Environment and the Learning Process. A Survey of Recent Research
King, Jonathan; Marans, Robert W.
(Architectural Research Laboratory, Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor , 1979)
The purpose of this report is to review and critically analyze recent research on the relationship between the behavior of individuals and their educational environments. Its intent has been to concentrate on studies dealing with the academic achievements of children in nontraditional settings. The first part of the report describes the approach taken in conducting the search of pertinent literature and the procedures used for organizing the material. The second part presents a brief summary of the research findings within the major organizational categories (nontraditional instructional space, school size, space and density, climate, lighting, acoustics, color, and miscellaneous) and, for each, outlines recommendations for studies that might be undertaken in the future. In the third section, the information gaps in the entire body of research are identified, and approaches to future research on the impact of educational settings on human behavior are discussed. The final section contains abstracts of the most salient research identified by the review. 85p.

Open-Area Schools--Open Pedagogy. An Investigation of Outcomes at the Elementary and Secondary Levels of Open-Area Elementary Schools. Report.
Shore, Bruce M.; Tali, Ronald H.
(Quebec Dept. of Education, Quebec.Montreal Catholic School Commission, (Quebec), Sep 1978)
The four objectives of this study, conducted in the Montreal school system, were (1) to report the effects on students of having attended open-area elementary schools versus more traditionally constructed schools, (2) to report ways in which interests and aptitudes of pupils may affect their suitability for open-area and open schools, (3) to report the pedagogical advantages of open-area schools, and (4) to report areas in which teachers and administrators in open-area elementary schools would benefit from inservice education. Results showed that the secondary school itself seems to be a greater influence on adaptation than is open-area elementary schooling. Students in open-area elementary schools tend to be at a slight advantage in their acceptance of responsibility for learning and in some types of social development. No relation was found between pedagogy and architecture, and systematic inservice training of teachers is essential. 177p.

Individual School Buildings Do Account for Differences in Measured Pupil Performance. Occasional Paper No. 6.
Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Passalacqua, Joseph
(Institute for Research on Teaching, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan , Jul 1978)
In this study it is found that individual school buildings (the complex human social systems found in schools, not the buildings themselves) do affect student performance and achievement. A grade equivalent achievement test (total reading and total math score only) was used to measure achievement of 2,500 Detroit elementary school children in the 1972-1973 school year. Through the use of a multiple regression model, it was found that: (1) previous achievement is significantly predictive of current achievement; (2) knowledge of school attended accounts for about 22% of the variance in reading and 21% of the variance in math test scores; (3) schools are not simple proxy variables for the socioeconomic background of students they serve; and (4) the amount of variance accounted for in reading and math achievement is significantly increased when knowledge of individual school attended is included with prior measures of achievement. Four tables substantiate the findings. It is suggested that educational policy makers take into account research which demonstrates the importance of individual school characteristics, such as positive staff attitudes, strong administrative leadership and instructional strategies which have been proven effective in urban schools with populations of low socioeconomic status. 18p

The Impact of School Building Age on the Academic Achievement of Selected Fourth Grade Pupils in the State of Georgia.
Plumley, Joseph P. Jr.
(University of Georgia, Athens, GA , 1978)
This study was designed to investigate the relationship of the age of the school physical plant and the academic achievement of pupils taught within physical plants of varying ages. The population consisted of all of the standard public schools in the State of Georgia containing Fourth Grade pupils from which was taken a ten percent randomly selected sample. The data were developed from the results of a questionnaire sent to the randomly selected pupils and from the results of scores of selected fourth grade pupils on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills.Statistical analysis indicated that the most significant impact on the academic achievement of pupils in this study were non-modernized buildings (when the SES variables were statistically controlled).In other words, students attending classes in newer (modernized) buildings tended to have higher achievement scores. 141p
Report NO: UMI AAG7910678


An Investigation of the Physical Environment and Its Effect on MR Youth. Adobe PDF
Bartholomew, Robert P.; And Others
Reported are the findings of a research study to determine the effects of physical environment on the learning behavior of 13 institutionalized moderately and severely retarded individuals (14-18 years old). An introductory section covers the need for research in environmental control, the five study objectives, study procedures, data collection methodology, and the specific hypotheses tested. Examined in a review of the literature are such aspects of architectural design as furniture, space, color, and light. A section on the methods and procedures used in the study includes information on the Ss (participants from a residential classroom), apparatus (a cassette tape recorder for recording researchers' observations), lighting (either general illumination alone or both general illumination and tract lighting), color (including "hot" and "cold" colors), space density (ranging from 500-400 square feet), procedure (which entailed the manipulation of four environmental conditions), and the recording of two types of behavior (on-task behavior and ambient-task movements). Among the effects reported from manipulating color, space, lighting, and space-color were that ambient behavior associated with hyperactivity was not increased by color change and that space reduction resulted in increased on-task behavior. The results of a questionnaire survey involving interior designers, architects, and special educators are also provided in the form of guidelines for designing an appropriate physical environment. 70p.

Some Effects of School Buildings Renovation on Pupil Attitudes and Behavior in Selected Junior High Schools. Adobe PDF
Cramer, Robert Joseph
(Doctor of Education Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, GA , 1976)
A study of 2300 junior high school students from three schools were tested to determine the effect of a newly renovated school, a new school environment, and an old dilapidated school environment on their attitudes and behavior. Points were assigned to their answers; high scores indicated a positive attitude. Results show attitudes were lowest in the old dilapidated school; highest in the newly renovated school. Dilapidated schools also generated higher disruptive behavior incident scores. Neither space density or grade level had significant effect on pupil attitudes and behavior. Black students had more positive attitudes toward their school than White students. Sex differences in attitudes toward the school building were not significant, but subsets within each school had significant interactions. Finally, students without free-lunch scored higher on the attitude scores than students receiving free lunches. Appendices provide the Our School Building Attitude Inventory, population group separation statistics from each school, a comparison of physical characteristics of the three schools, and buildings floor diagrams. (Contains 47 references.) 138p.

The Effects of Windowless Classrooms on the Cognitive and Affective Behavior of Elementary School Students. Adobe PDF
Romney, Bryan Miles
(Dissertation, 1975)
Windowless school buildings are currently being proposed as a design solution to the problems of vandalism, energy conservation, and building costs. However, little consideration is being given to the effects of windowless classrooms on the students and teachers inside. This thesis describes the effect of windowless classrooms on three specific areas of cognitive behavior: rote learning, concept formation, and perceptual ability. In addition, a description of student and teacher affective behavior, based on formal observations, is included. Two identical sixth-grade classes were selected for the study. The experimental period was divided into two three-week phases. Each classroom had all existing windows covered during one phase. Students were randomly divided into three test groups for the testing phases of the study. No consistent trends emerged to allow definitive judgment that windowless classrooms are detrimental to student cognition and learning. The only definitive trend is in the realm of affective behavior, indicating that student aggression increases in windowless environment.

School Zone: Learning Environments for Children
Taylor, Anne P.; Vlastos, George
(School Zone Publishing Company, New York, NY , 1975)
Architectural solutions to some educational problems are explored and a systematic method is presented for designing schools as learning environments for children. The book demonstrates a way of using curriculum as a design determinant and offers design ideas based on experimental research. Based on the assumption that physical setting does contribute to learning, it suggests ways to modify indoor and outdoor educational spaces so that they are an integral part of the learning process. 144p.

Places for Environmental Education. A Report. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jul 1971)
Compiles conference discussions on the implications of various types of facilities on environmental education programs. The conference participants included architects, landscape architects, planners, government leaders and educators. The consensus of these 26 participants can be summarized as follows: 1) environmental education is not just a passing fad; 2) facilities facilitate learning; 3) the methodology of environmental education is best centered around an interdisciplinary approach; 4) major capital expenditures are not necessary for schools to mount effective programs in environmental education. 19p.

Sensory Factors in the School Learning Environment. What Research Says to the Teacher Series No. 35. Adobe PDF
McVey, G. F.
(National Education Association, Washington, DC, 1971)
Through proper management of the sensory factors inherent in the classroom environment, teachers can improve the comfort, development, and academic performance of students. Some principles and practical procedures that may be applied directly by the classroom teacher are suggested in this pamphlet. A number of guidelines, references, and suggested readings are included. 36p.

The Open Plan School: Report of a National Seminar. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jan 1970)
Reports on an open plan school symposium co-sponsored by IDEA and the Educational Facilities Laboratories. Seminar participants included architects, teachers, and administrators who have had experience with open plan schools. Participants discussed both the intangible aspects of an open environment, such as individualized instruction, team teaching, student grouping, and the new role of the school administrator, and the tangible aspects of the school building and its furnishings. They emphasized that open schools are only one part of a quality education program and that the attitudes of teachers, administrators, and students must be consistent with the open nature of the physical facilities at such a school. They agreed that the open plan school system holds great promise as a way of training people to think for themselves. 32p.

Environment for Learning: The Application of Selected Research to Classroom Design and Utilization. Adobe PDF
McVey, G.F.
Various factors of the classroom environment that can contribute to a more complete learning atmosphere are explored. The author presents a review of certain research findings that may serve as guidelines in the development of an environmentally coordinated classroom. The importance of providing a classroom which promotes a multisensory approach to instruction is suggested. Among those factors discussed are--(1) visual scanning, (2) the visual field, (3) color, (4) lighting, and (5) seating. Also included are separate sections concerning guidelines for the design of integrated acoustical and thermal environments. In conclusion it is urged that the schoolhouse should provide its occupants with stimuli which are diverse yet within permissible parameters of a coordinated classroom. 38p.

Memorandum on: Facilities for Early Childhood. Adobe PDF
Deutsch, Martin; Ellis, Richard R.; Nimnicht, Glendon P.; Covert, Angela M.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1966)
Discusses providing instructional space that will facilitate intellectual development in the disadvantaged child. The nursery classroom should consist of a series of well-defined, interrelated areas, including a general area for group activities, a reading corner, a doll corner and housekeeping area, block alcove and manipulative toy area, an art corner, tutoring booth, cubicles, toilets, storage, outdoor play area, and observation space. Guidelines are given for these areas and three examples of existing facilities are presented. Floor plans and bibliography are included. 40p.

The Effects of Noise on Pupil Performance
Slater, Barbara Ruth
(Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation , 1966)
Effects of school noise conditions on student written task performance were studied. Three noise levels were examined--(1) irregular interval noise, 75-90 decibels, (2) average or normal noise, and (3) quiet condition, 45-55 decibels. An attempt was made to reproduce noise conditions typical of the school environment. A second controlled experiment used similar conditions of white noise. Subjects were 263 seventh grade children from a small urban complex. The STEP (Sequential Tests of Educational Progress) Reading Test was administered both as a test and as worksheets. Questionnaires were used to determine perceptions of noise and anxiety scale. No significant differences were found in analysis of variance for speed and accuracy on test scores. No significant relationship was found between anxiety and perception measures and performance. Conclusions state that written tasks of relatively short duration are not affected by peaks of noise typically found in a normal school environment. 113p.
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Light, Vision and Learning.
Seagers, Paul
(Better Light Better Sight Bureau, New York, NY , 1963)
Addresses the role of light and sight in learning, explaining aspects of visual development in children, anatomy and physiology of the eye, eye care and protection, the physics of light, light and seeing, and environmental recommendations for schools and home study. 95p.

References to Journal Articles

Inside Stories
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; , p38-46 ; May 2012
A group of design professionals show how a school's interior design can inspire teaching and learning.

Acoustics and Daylighting
Spector, Marc
School Planning and Management; , p50-53 ; May 2012
Clean, quiet, safe, comfortable and healthy environments are an important component of successful teaching and learning.

Re-designing Spaces for Learning
Harris, Stephen
Connected Principals; Apr 2012
Based on case study for education redesign for Northern Beaches Christian School, a co-educational K-12 school of 1300 students in the northern region of Sydney, Australia. NBCS created some new spaces for learning: flowing nooks and crannies; design and production suites; multimodal agile spaces. NBCS renovated existing spaces: The Zone (an open learning environment for 180 students and 6 teachers) and Rhythm & Blues (a shared space for music learning) and the Hub.

School Design and Students’ Relationships with the Natural World
Indira Dutt
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p198-226 ; Spring 2012
This qualitative study is an exploration of intermediate students’ experience of the natural world as mediated by indoor/outdoor elements. The fieldwork for this project was conducted in the spring of 2009 at Bowen Island Community School in British Columbia. The research includes data collected from two focus groups, semi- structured interviews, photographs and fieldnotes. Using thematic analysis, the research found that indoor/outdoor interfaces and the presence of both gardens and forest as play environments provided students with a sense of freedom, joy, social cohesiveness and aesthetic pleasure in relation to their physical learning environment. Results are discussed in terms of future school design and other relevant student impacts. [Author's abstract]

The Role of Objective and Perceived School Building Quality in Student Academic Outcomes and Self-Perception
Maxwell, Lorraine E. and Schechtman, Suzanne L
Children, Youth and Environments; v22 n1 , p23-51 ; Spring 2012
This study examines the role of school building quality, both perceived and objective, in the development of self-efficacy and academic success in young adolescents (mean age =14, range 11-17 years old). Previous research related to school building quality used only adult assessment of building quality. The study interviewed public school students in two high schools and three middle schools about their school and their self-perception. Objective school building quality was assessed by a trained researcher. Academic performance was measured by classroom grades (GPA – grade point average) and state-wide standardized test scores. A series of regression equations indicates that objective and perceived school building quality and self-efficacy are significantly related to GPA scores. Neither measure of building quality, however, predicted standardized test scores. Student self-perception of behavioral conduct as measured by the self-perception profile for adolescents (Harter 1988) was marginally related to standardized test scores. Students’ perception of building safety (compared to degree of crowding, noise, privacy and clutter/mess) was the best predictor of perceived school building quality as well as predicting perceived scholastic competence, behavioral conduct and self-worth. [Authors' abstract]

Changing Spaces: Preparing Students and Teachers for a New Learning Environment
Pamela Woolner, Jill Clark, Karen Laing, Ulrike Thomas and Lucy Tiplady
Children, Youth, and Environments; v22 n1 , p52-74 ; Spring 2012
Physical settings in schools have a complex relationship to teaching and learning practices. Uncomfortable tensions can result when the intentions of learners and teachers conflict with each other or with the affordances of the environment. Yet, change may be difficult to achieve and stressful for those involved. This paper considers a case where there has been minimal involvement of staff or students in the design of a new school, but there is a desire to prepare them for the changed environment. Changes will include an integrated curriculum and an “enquiry approach,” which it is hoped will be facilitated by large, shared spaces in the new premises. We discuss an “experimental week” of enquiry learning that took place in the middle of the 2010-11 school year with half of the Year 8 group (12-13 years old) in an existing large space (a school hall). The alteration to the learning environment included changes to both the use of space and the organization of learning time. We concentrate here on the student experience of learning in this new way, rather than the views of the teachers. An enquiry-based approach was enabled by the more fluid, flexible use of school space and time. Overall, students enjoyed the experimental week, but they understood it to be a limited experience. If these changed practices are to be successful they will need to be accepted as more permanent. The challenge for those managing the change process is to remain mindful of the differing needs of students, and continue to develop a shared understanding among staff and students of what learning is or could be. [Authors' abstract]

Community-Oriented Architecture in Schools: How Extroverted Design Can Impact Learning and Change the World
Quirk, Vanessa
Arch Daily; Mar 05, 2012
According to this article, the design of a school cannot just incorporate the necessary physical conditions for students; it must be designed with its cultural value to the community in mind, cognizant of the fact that a young mind’s commitment to learning is affected greatly by his/her family, society and culture’s value of education.

Impact on Learning. Solving Real-World Problems One Piece at a Time.
School Planning and Management; , p31-51 ; Mar 2012
Descriptions and photos of real-life examples of how leading educational institutions solved their toughest problems — meeting sustainability goals, handling maintenance issues, selecting the proper furniture and equipment, ensuring student safety, integrating technology, and more. Includes St. Elizabeth Ann Seton School in Keller, Texas; Farrington Field, Fort Worth, Texas; Douglas County School District, Nevada; Fridley High School, Fridley, Minnesota; Dartmouth College; Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, Irving, Texas; Roadrunner Elementary School, Phoenix, Arizona; Nettlehorst School, Chicago; Revere Local School District, Bath, Ohio; and Dublin High School, Dublin, California.

Citizens Fit for the 21st Century? The Role of School Design in Facilitating Citizenship and Self-Governance in Young People
Brown, Jane
Education, Citizenship and Social Justice; n1 , p19-31 ; Mar 2012
This article explores the relevance of school design in providing an important social-spatial context for promoting citizenship in young people. Drawing on a small-scale study that investigated the perspectives of pupils and teachers, it contrasts the ways in which the social control and monitoring of pupils differed in two secondary schools. Comparing features of everyday life in one new and one old-build school, this study found that school design could either heighten or lessen the need for teacher control of pupils. As a consequence the layout of the schools could enable or restrict young people's opportunities for self-determination, as well as encourage the normalization of the acceptance of control by others. The implications of this for the production of autonomous and self-governing citizens will be addressed. [Author's abstract]

Design of Learning Spaces: Emotional and Cognitive Effects of Learning Environments in Relation to Child Development
Arndt, Petra A.
Mind, Brain, and Education; v6 n1 , p41-48 ; Feb 2012
The design of learning spaces is rightly gaining more and more pedagogical attention, as they influence the learning climate and learning results in multiple ways. General structural characteristics influence the willingness to learn through emotional well-being and a sense of security. Specific structural characteristics influence cognitive processes, from visual and acoustic perceptions, via attention to the model, to processes of comprehension and reflection. Aspects of the design of the learning space also modify the interaction among students and between students and their teacher. Furthermore, the different requirements that have emerged through the development toward a learning society and the explosive increase of available information in our society require changes in the design of learning processes and thus of learning environments. Taking biological needs and neurobiological processes into account when designing learning spaces can provide a beneficial learning environment with regard to mental resources. This article will highlight relevant (neuro)biological fundamentals and try to describe resulting conclusions for the design of learning spaces.

Well-Being at School: Does Infrastructure Matter?
Cuyvers, Katrien; De Weerd, Gio; Dupont, Sanne; Mols, Sophie; Nuytten, Chantal
CELE Exchange; , 7p ; Dec 2011
Study investigates the impact of educational spaces on their users and identifies empirical evidence supporting the importance of school infrastructure on the well-being of Flemish secondary students

The Future of the Physical Learning Environment; School Facilities That Support the User
Kuuskorpi, Marko; Gonzalez, Nuria Cabellos
CELE Exchange; , 8p ; Dec 2011
This paper presents the conclusions of a study, carried out in collaboration with schools in six European countries, which focused on tomorrow's physical learning environments. It resulted in the creation of a learning space model that is flexible, modifiable, and sustainable while supporting the teaching and learning processes.

Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century. Adobe PDF
Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George and Bannourah, Riyad
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p12-15 ; Dec 2011
Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. Describes a transcendent school as creating connectivity among students and their surroundings.

A Brave New Campus--Marysville Getchell High School Campus 2011 MacConnell Award Winner. Adobe PDF
Yurko, Amy and Mason, Craig
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p5-8 ; Dec 2011
Extensive case study of award winning high school outside Seattle, Washington that redefines high school education. Discusses communities of learners, taking chances, starting with the learner, being brave, scenario planning, environments for teaching and learning, and a shell-and-core approach.

21st-Century Learning Q&A
American School and University; Nov 2011
Twenty-five architects comment on the latest innovations in designing for future learning, as well as how design can support these trends. Questions answered include: What are the latest ideas/innovations in designing to support 21st-century learning?; How can the built environment support emerging trends in education?' What are some design trends in specialized classrooms or programs to support future learning styles/methods? and How is technology for today’s learning affecting school design?

When Money Matters: School Infrastructure Funding and School Achievement.
Crampton, Faith and Thompson, David
School Business Affairs; , p14-18 ; Nov 2011
Discusses a new paradigm for analyzing the effect of investment in physical capital on student achievement. Includes a comprehensive definition of school infrastructure as including deferred maintenance, new construction, renovation, retrofitting, additions to existing facilities, and major improvements to grounds. Pointing to the limitations of previous research, describes a new paradigm that reinforces the importance of investing not only in human and social capital but also physical capital to insure student success.

Classroom Acoustics Affect Student Achievement.
Ronsse, Lauren M. and Wang, Lily M.;
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Sep 19, 2011
Findings from a study comparing unoccupied classroom noise levels and reverberation times to the age of the school buildings and the elementary student achievement scores attained by students using those classrooms. Recommends that classroom mechanical systems should be designed with lower noise levels to optimize student reading comprehension.

Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A 2-Level Hierarchical Linear Model.
Bowers, Alex J., Urick, Angela
Journal of Education Finance; v37 n1 , p72-94 ; Summer 2011
The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall independently rated structural and engineering aspects of schools have been shown to not be related to achievement. However, more recent research has suggested that facility maintenance and disrepair, rather than structural issues, may be more directly related to student achievement. If there is a relationship, addressing facility disrepair from the school, district, or state level could provide a potential avenue for policymakers for school improvement. We analyzed the public school component and the facilities checklist of the ELS:2002 survey (8,110 students in 520 schools) using a two-level hierarchical linear model to estimate the independent effect of facility disrepair on student growth in mathematics during the final two years of high school controlling for multiple covariates at the student and school level. We found no evidence of a direct effect of facility disrepair on student mathematics achievement and instead propose a mediated effects model. [Authors' abstract]

Impacting Learning.
Harris, Bill; Lambert, Chip
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p44-46 ; May 2011
Discusses the negative effect of classroom noise on teaching and learning, standards for classroom acoustics, and HVAC design that minimizes noise while using less energy.

The Future of Evidence-Based Design.
Whitemyer, David
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p48-50 ; May 2011
Discusses how the pairing of data on building performance and on occupant behavior has gained traction in the school building industry.

Engineering Sustainable Schools. Linking Design Quality and Education
Leiringer, Roiner; Cardellino, Paula; Clements-Croome, Derek
CIBSE Magazine; , 5p ; Apr 10, 2011
Reports on how design quality can be fostered to achieve educational transformation. The majority of the reports target the architectural aspects of the building design and prescribe an architectural approach towards the assessment of design quality.

Classroom Learning Environments and the Mental Health of First Grade Children.
Milkie, Melissa A.; Warner, Catherine H.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior ; v52 n1 , p14-22 ; Feb 28, 2011
Study finds that between inadequate supplies, rundown school buildings, and disrespected teachers buried in paperwork, school can be stressful for 1st graders, who are in a fragile place in their educational lives. The study is based on interviews with more than 10,700 1st-grade parents and teachers in spring 2000.

Public School Desegregation and Education Facilities.
Hunter, Richard
School Business Affairs; v77 n2 , p24-26 ; Feb 2011
Reviews 1968-1995 school desegregation court cases that have impacted school facilities, noting how the perceived impact of school facility condition on education has carried weight in the courts. 12 references are included.

Effect of Education Buildings' Spatial Quality on Child's Academic Achievement.
Selda AL, Hatice Odaci, Ayse Sagsöz
American Journal of Scientific Research; , p100-109 ; 2011
Education buildings are the most important factor after the home in development of children. Teaching resources, teachers' skill and curriculum play a vital role in a child's education. In addition, there is another important factor that the physical condition and design of the actual school facility have an important effect on the child’s academic achievement. There are numerous studies positive or negative effects of spatial quality of building groups on people. However, there is no comprehensive study about how spatial quality of education buildings effects child’s educational performance, whether it is enough for child’s social, psychological and biological needs, how much it supplies child’s demands. This investigates the effect of spatial quality of schools in Trabzon and their physical conditions on a child’s academic achievement.

Can the Physical Environment Have an Impact on the Learning Environment?
Lippman, Peter
CELE Exchange; 2010/13 ; Nov 2010
Advocates for the reform of learning environment design, so that technology is integrated into a collaborative classroom arrangement, rather than as simply an overlay of an existing teacher-centered arrangement. Incorporation of sustainability, and attention to the “social design” are encouraged. Ten references are included.

The Impact of School Building Conditions on Student Absenteeism in Upstate New York.
Simons, Elinor; Syni-An Hwang; Fitzgerald, Edward F.;Kielb, Chrstine; Lin, Shao
American Journal of Public Health ; v100 n9 , p1679-1686 ; Sep 2010
Authors investigated Upstate New York school building conditions and examined the associations between school absenteeism and building condition problems. They merged data from the 2005 Building Condition Survey of Upstate New York schools with 2005 New York State Education Department student absenteeism data at the individual school level and evaluated associations between building conditions and absenteeism at or above the 90th percentile. The results shows that schools in lower socioeconomic districts and schools attended by younger students showed the strongest associations between poor building conditions and absenteeism. They found that there are associations between student absenteeism and adverse school building conditions. Future studies should confirm these findings and prioritize strategies for school condition improvements.

Improving the Physical and Social Environment of School: A Question of Equity.
Uline, Cynthia L.; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Lin, Chii-Dean
Journal of School Leadership; v20 n5 , p597-632 ; Sep 2010
This study explored the interplay between quality facilities and school climate, charting the effects of facility conditions on student and teacher attitudes, behaviors, and performance within schools slated for renovations in a large metropolitan school district. The research applied a school leadership-building design model to explore how six characteristics of facility quality--movement, aesthetics, play of light, flexible and responsive classrooms, elbow room, and security--interact with four aspects of school climate: academic press, community engagement, teacher professionalism, and collegial leadership. Because the schools were older and participants in the research perceived them as being in great need of maintenance and repair, the school building characteristics were often described as absent qualities. The survey data revealed moderate to strong relationships between the quality of school facilities and school climate. The interviews further explicated these relationships. Two additional themes--counterbalance and equity--emerged as being significant to occupants' interactions with their current facilities. This study used a mixed-methods triangulation design-data transformation model. Specifically, school climate surveys, photo interviews with students, walking tours of the school facility, and formal interviews were triangulated to obtain complementary data and a more complete understanding of the educational facility to be renovated and its impact on occupants. [Authors' abstract]

Space to Develop: How Architecture Can Play a Vital Role in Young Children's Lives. Adobe PDF
Cohen, Bronwen
CELE Exchange; 2010/6 , p1-5 ; Jul 2010
Describes the background to Scotland's "Making Space 2010" program, which aims to focus international vision on the importance of school space. Awards that will be given and upcoming conferences are featured.

A Gender Perspective on Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Lang, Sara
CELE Exchange; n2010/10 ; Jul 2010
Explores the planning and design of educational facilities from a gender perspective, with a view to guiding future research and policy analysis. The article argues that social relations are influenced by the physical environment, and that social and physical aspects are often interlinked. The article reflects on how men and women use educational spaces, drawing on examples of completed school projects. It then explores gender-related issues and related research, and considers how to incorporate a gender perspective on educational facilities. 54 references are included.

Investment in Education Pays Off.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p6 ; Jun 2010
Describes how investment in education paid large dividends for students in the Kalamazoo, Michigan, School District.

The Impact of School Design on Academic Achievement in the Palestinian Territories: An Empirical Study. Adobe PDF
Matar, Mohammed; Brighith, Imad
CELE Exchange; n2010/05 , p1-4 ; Mar 2010
Outlines a research project that aimed to gather first-hand data from school users (pupils, teachers, school principals), as well as academic performance data from pupils. The project compared data obtained from users of "new and site-specific" and "standard" schools in order to show whether more attractive and site-specific designs have a positive effect on learning. Factors that may contribute to inconclusive results are discussed.

The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity.
Cellini, Stephanie; Ferreira, Fernando; Rothstein, Jesse
Quarterly Journal of Economics; v125 n1 , 215-261 ; Feb 2010
Estimates the value of school facility investments using housing markets: standard models of local public goods imply that school districts should spend up to the point where marginal increases would have zero effect on local housing prices. Our research design isolates exogenous variation in investments by comparing school districts where referenda on bond issues targeted to fund capital expenditures passed and failed by narrow margins. The results indicate that California school districts underinvest in school facilities: passing a referendum causes immediate, sizable increases in home prices, implying a willingness to pay on the part of marginal homebuyers of $1.50 or more for each $1 of capital spending. These effects do not appear to be driven by changes in the income or racial composition of homeowners, and the impact on test scores appears to explain only a small portion of the total housing price effect.

Kids Know Their School Best. Adobe PDF
Carlson, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p13-16 ; 2010
References the many reasons that students might drop out of high school, especially poor learning learning environments. The article offers suggestions from students about school design that foster interest in education and offer ideas for forums to gather student input.

Relationship Between School Facility Conditions and the Delivery of Instruction: Evidence From a National Survey of School Principals.
Duyar, Ibrahim
Journal of Facilities Management; v8 n1 , 8-25 ; 2010
Investigates the effects of school facility conditions on the delivery of instruction from the perspective of school principals in the USA. The paper empirically investigated whether the quality of ten facility conditions affects the delivery of instruction after controlling three school and three student characteristics that also may affect the delivery of instruction. The conceptual framework of this paper envisions the physical capital, along with the human and social capitals, as one of the three main core elements for effective teaching and learning. The findings of the study indicated that six of the ten facility conditions are statiscally and positively associated with the delivery of instruction. These six facility conditions significantly predicted the delivery of instruction after controlling other extraneous or plausible variables.

Architectural Design and the Learning Environment: A Framework for School Design Research.
Gislason, Neil
Learning Environments Research; v13 n2 , 127-145 ; 2010
Develops a theoretical framework for studying how instructional space, teaching, and learning are related in practice. It is argued that a school's physical design can contribute to the quality of the learning environment, but several non-architectural factors also determine how well a given facility serves as a setting for teaching and learning. Supporting evidence for this argument is drawn from research on school climate and organization, as well as from the author's study of three open-plan high schools. Facilities design, educational practice, school culture, and student learning are found to be interrelated aspects of a school's total learning environment. [author's abstract]

Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblocks. Adobe PDF
Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p38-43 ; 2010
Reports results of study measuring noise levels in elementary, middle, and high school physical education settings, and compare them to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for acoustics in educational settings. The findings show that all of the settings were significantly higher than the established standards. Strategies for reducing high noise levels in physical education settings are discussed.

Form Follows Engagement.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p6 ; Dec 2009
Discusses how student engagement is on the increase, and how physical space supports it.

The Creative Classroom: The Role of Space and Place toward Facilitating Creativity.
Warner, Scott A.; Myers, Kerri L.
Technology Teacher; v69 n4 , p28-34 ; Dec-Jan 2009
The authors focus on one important component of the dynamics of making creativity an integral part of the teaching and learning experience. That component is the importance of space and place toward facilitating creativity in the classroom or lab.

When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research, Oct 2009)
Examines the impact that the closing of some Chicago schools had on the students who attended these schools. The research focused on regular elementary schools that were closed between 2001 and 2006 for underutilization or low performance and asked whether students who were forced to leave these schools and enroll elsewhere experienced any positive or negative effects from this type of school move. Student outcomes, including reading and math achievement, special education referrals, retentions, summer school attendance, mobility, and high school performance were examined. Also examined were characteristics of the receiving schools and if the differences in these schools had any impact on the learning experiences of the students who transferred into them. Students ages eight and older who were displaced by school closings were compared to a group of students in similar schools that did not close. 48p.

Marching Forward to the 19th Century.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p46 ; Aug 2009
Advocates for school facilities that do not encourage teaching aimed at better test scores, but that instead inspire students; teach math, science, and the environment; support the arts; encourage reading because they make students curious; and make technology universally available.

Impact on Learning.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p6 ; Aug 2009
Cites studies in Virginia and Canada indicating higher student achievement in new schools and schools in good condition.

Test Case.
Rydeen, James
American School and University; v81 n13 , p146,147 ; Aug 2009
Cites research indicating a correlation between school facility quality and student test scores. New and modernized facilities improve test scores, student and teacher attitude, teacher retention, and community engagement.

Mapping School Design: A Qualitative Study of the Relations among Facilities Design, Curriculum Delivery, and School Climate
Gislason, Neil
Journal of Environmental Education; v40 n4 , p17-33 ; Summer 2009
The author conducted a 3-week qualitative case study at the School of Environmental Studies (SES), a senior public school with an environmental studies focus. He argues that SES's physical design facilitates collaborative, multidisciplinary teaching practices especially suited to the school's environmental studies curriculum. He also shows that the school's open plan architecture positively contributes to the social climate at SES. Students who were interviewed as part of the study expressed a preference for the open plan setting over conventional classrooms because the open design helps them socially connect with a larger number of peers than would be possible in a more enclosed environment. Students consequently felt more socially accepted at SES and better enjoyed their time in school in comparison with other high schools they had attended. [Author's abstract]

The Power of Place on Campus.
Broussard, Earl
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n34 , pB12 ; May 01, 2009
Discusses the importance of "sacred" spaces on campuses, either for ceremony, exploration, perspective, or refuge. Examples of notable and historic campus spaces are offered along with advice on identifying, cultivating, and preserving meaningful campus places.

The Users in Mind: Utilizing Henry Sanoff's Methods in Investigating the Learning Environment.
Salama, Ashraf
Open House International; v34 n1 , p35-44 ; Mar 2009
Analyzes reactions of teachers and students to classroom and cluster prototypes, among other aspects, against a number of spatial requirements and educational objectives. The results of this investigation support the assumption on how the school environment has a direct impact on the way in which teaching and learning takes place. A conclusion envisioning the need for going beyond adopting prescriptive measures to address the quality of the learning environment is conceived by highlighting the need to utilize knowledge generated from research findings into school design process, to pursue active roles in sensitizing users about the value of the school environment in reaching the desired academic performance while increasing teachers productivity.

Is Our Children Learning? Often Is the Question Asked: Are New Haven's New Schools Making Kids Smarter?
Yagla, Betsy
New Haven Advocate; Feb 2009
New Haven is hundreds of millions of dollars into a $1.5 billion campaign that began in 1995 to rebuild or renovate every one of its 47 public schools. When the program began, national researchers were focusing on the impacts school buildings had on children's learning abilities. Since then, the school rebuild scheme has been a hot topic. In order to analyze whether the program is working or not, the Advocate examined a decade's worth of Connecticut Master Test data from new and rebuilt schools and from the district as a whole.

An Application of "Broken-Windows" and Related Theories to the Study of Disorder, Fear, and Collective Efficacy in Schools.
Plank, Stephen B.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Young, Hollie
American Journal of Education; v115 n2 , p227-247 ; Feb 2009
This article considers school climate and perceptions of social disorder. When a school is characterized by disorder or physical risk, basic educational goals and processes are jeopardized. We use survey data from 33 public schools serving grades 6-8 in a large mid-Atlantic city to examine relationships among physical disorder (e.g., broken windows and poor building conditions), fear, collective efficacy, and social disorder. Path analyses reveal a direct association between physical disorder and social disorder even when prior levels of collective efficacy are controlled--a finding consistent with traditional broken-windows theories. Further, there is evidence that the effects of physical disorder may be operating through increased fear and decreased collective efficacy to affect perceptions of threatening or violent interactions among people. [Authors' abstract]

Do Portable Classrooms Impact Teaching and Learning?
Chan, Tak
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p290-304 ; 2009
Examines the possible impact portable classrooms have on the teaching and learning process by exploring current related literature. The article takes a synthesis approach, analyzing current studies to assess the impact of portable classrooms on teaching and learning. The research found no significant impact of portable classrooms on teacher perception, teacher morale, teacher job satisfaction, student achievement, and behavior. Negative student attitude is found in one of the studies reviewed. Technical testing shows negative relationships between portable classrooms and health and safety conditions, but the permanent structures are sometimes worse. Still, the negative effects of deterioration or lack of maintenance cannot be underestimated; making implementation strategies, maintenance schedules, relocation plans, and plans for ultimate replacement vital.

Spending on School Infrastructure: Does Money Matter?
Crampton, Faith
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p305-322 ; 2009
Furthers development of an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital. The author uses canonical analysis, a multivariate statistical approach that allows for multiple independent and dependent variables. Level of student poverty is added as a control variable given an extensive body of research that supports its negative impact on achievement. Descriptive statistics are generated as well as a Pearson product moment correlation matrix to diagnose and address potential issues of multicollinearity and simultaneity. Three national databases are used: United States Census Bureau, US Department of Education s National Assessment of Educational Progress test score data, and the US Department of Education s Common Core of Data. Years analyzed are 2003, 2005, and 2007. The findings indicate that investment in human, social, and physical capital accounts for between 55.8 and 77.2 percent of the variation in student achievement in fourth and eighth grade reading and mathematics. Investment in human capital is consistently the largest influence on student achievement followed by social and physical capital.
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Teacher Attitudes about Classroom Conditions.
Earthman, Glen; Lemasters, Linda
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p323-335 ; 2009
Investigates the possible relationship between the attitudes, teachers have about the condition of their classrooms when the classrooms were independently assessed. Previous research reported teachers in unsatisfactory classrooms felt frustrated and neglected to such an extent that they sometimes reported they were willing to leave the teaching profession. Eleven high schools in which the principals state the buildings are in unsatisfactory condition are identified and matched with 11 schools assessed as being in satisfactory condition. The differences between the responses of teachers in satisfactory buildings were significantly different than those of teachers in unsatisfactory buildings. The findings indicate that the physical environment influences attitudes of teachers, which in turn affects their productivity. Such effects could cause morale problems in the teaching staff.
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Building Schools, Rethinking Quality? Early Lessons from Los Angeles.
Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke; Hosek, Adrienne; Kirschenbaum, Greta; McKoy, Deborah; Rigby, Jessica; Vincent, Jeffrey
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p336-349 ; 2009
Explores how the designers of newly built schools in Los Angeles--midway into a $27 billion construction initiative--may help to rethink and discernibly lift educational quality. This may be accomplished via three causal pathways that may unfold in new schools: attracting a new mix of students, recruiting stronger teachers, or raising the motivation and performance of existing teachers and students. The research tracks basic indicators of student movement and school quality over a five-year period (2002-2007) to understand whether gains do stem from new school construction. Initial evidence shows that many students, previously bussed out of the inner city due to overcrowding, have returned to smaller schools which are staffed by younger and more ethnically diverse teachers, and benefit from slightly smaller classes. Student achievement appears to be higher in new secondary schools that are much smaller in terms of enrollment size, compared with still overcrowded schools.
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Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Ornstein, Sheila; Moreira, Nanci; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana; Nogueira, Roselene
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p350-367 ; 2009
Describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POE?s) as a method for assessing school building performance. The authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of Sao Paulo s schools. The various methods of POE, including expert walkthroughs, physical measurements, observations, behavioral mapping, user interviews, focus groups, and survey questionnaires were applied within a purposefully selected case study school were examined. The findings indicate that the POE carried out at Fernando Gasparian High School revealed limitations in the building s design, particularly in light of the neighborhood context, thus raising significant concerns about safety and security. Users gave the construction quality of the building, a generally positive evaluation, however, there were some important aspects of the building design judged as deficient. In particular, researchers observed a significant mismatch between the building design and the realities of the surrounding community. This sort of incongruity introduced important challenges to principals, teachers, and staff, as they worked to ensure the safety of students who attend the school.
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Measuring School Facility Conditions: An Illustration of the Importance of Purpose.
Roberts, Lance
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p368-380 ; 2009
Argues that taking the educational purposes of schools into account is central to understanding the place and importance of facilities to learning outcomes. The paper begins by observing that the research literature connecting facility conditions to student outcomes is mixed. A closer examination of this literature suggests that when school facilities are measured from an engineering perspective, little connection to learning outcomes is evident. By contrast, when school facilities are rated in terms of educational functions, a connection to learning outcomes is apparent. Using the schools in a Canadian division, the condition of school facilities was measured in two ways, including both conventional, engineering tools and a survey capturing principals assessments. School facility ratings using these alternate measurement methods were correlated with schools' quality of teaching and learning environments (QTLE). Two central findings emerge. First, engineering assessments of facilities are unrelated to the QTLE in schools. Second, educators' assessments of school facilities are systematically related to the QTLE in schools.
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Educational Facility Design and Project Based Learning: "The Real Connection."
Schrader, David; Sole, John
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p19-23 ; 2009
Discusses the relationship of project-based learning to school facilities, abandoning the familiar double-loaded corridor design and seeking flexible learning spaces that are part of the curriculum. A brief history of school design and encouragement of student inclusion in the school design process are included.

Effects of School Design on Student Outcomes.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p381-399 ; 2009
The purpose of this study is to compare student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. Significant effects are found for Reading vocabulary, Reading comprehension, Language arts, Mathematics, and Science. The study's findings regarding movement and circulation patterns, natural light, and classrooms with views have implications for designing new schools or modifying existing structures.

Effects of School Design on Student Outcomes.
Tanner, Kenneth
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p381-399 ; 2009
Compares student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. From a sample of 71 schools, measures of these three school designs, taken with a ten-point Likert scale, are compared to students outcomes defined by six parts of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS): Reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science. This result, in each case, is defined as the effect of the school s physical environment on students' outcomes represented by achievement scores on the ITBS. The research finds significant effects reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, language arts, mathematics, and science. The study's findings regarding movement and circulation patterns, natural light, and classrooms with views have implications for designing new schools or modifying existing structures.
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Lighting and Discomfort in the Classroom.
Winterbottom, Mark; Wilkins, Arnold
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v29 , p63-75 ; 2009
Examines aspects of classroom lighting and decor that can promote discomfort and impair task performance through glare, and imperceptible 100 Hz flicker from fluorescent lighting. In 90 United Kingdom classrooms, variables measured included flicker, illuminance at desks, and luminance of whiteboards. Results showed that 80% of classrooms are lit with 100 Hz fluorescent lighting that can cause headaches and impair visual performance. Mean illuminance was in excess of recommended design illuminance in 88% of classrooms, and in 84% exceeded levels beyond which visual comfort decreases. Ceiling-mounted data projectors directed at whiteboards mounted vertically on the wall resulted in specular reflection from the whiteboard, visible as a glare spot with luminance high enough to cause discomfort and disability glare. Ambient lighting, needed for close work at pupils' desks, reduced image contrast. Venetian blinds in 23% of classrooms had spatial characteristics appropriate for inducing pattern glare. There was significant variation between schools and local authorities. The findings may provide insights into small-scale reports linking pupils' attainment, behavior and learning to classroom lighting, and may also help explain some of the benefits of colored overlays for pupils' reading.

Learning Spaces in Higher Education: An Under-Researched Topic.
Temple, Paul
London Review of Education; v6 n3 , p229-241 ; Nov 2008
The connections between the design and use of space in higher education, and the production of teaching and learning, and of research, are not well understood. This paper reports on a literature review on these topics, and shows that higher education spaces can be considered in various ways: in terms of campus design, in terms of how space can support the development of a university community, the needs of specialist spaces, and the impact of technology on space use. Space issues are central to the operation of universities, and further research is needed to illuminate the connections between space and institutional effectiveness. [Author's abstract]

School Building Condition, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in New York City Public Schools: A Mediation Model.
Durán-Narucki, Valkiria
Journal of Environmental Psychology ; v28 n3 , p278-286 ; Sep 2008
Examines the role of school attendance as a mediator in the relationship between facilities in disrepair and student grades in city and state tests. Data on building condition and results from English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics (Math) standardized tests were analyzed using a sample of 95 elementary schools in New York City. Variables relevant to academic achievement such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, teacher quality, and school size were used as covariates. In run-down school facilities students attended less days on average and therefore had lower grades in ELA and Math standardized tests. Attendance was found to be a full mediator for grades in ELA and a partial mediator for grades in Math. This study provides empirical evidence of the effects of building quality on academic outcomes and considers the social justice issues related to this phenomenon. [Author's abstract]

A Thoughtful Blend.
Rogers, Wendy
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p22-24 ; Aug 2008
Discusses three keys to the successful partnership of school curriculum and construction. These are: concepts that cross grade and subject boundaries, hands-on experiences, and relevant core values. The incorporation of the school facility into each of these concepts is particularly stressed.

Cleanliness and Learning in Higher Education.
Campbell, Jeffrey; Bigger, Alan
Facilities Manager; v24 n4 , p28-35 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Summarizes a publication with the same title that presents the results of a survey of college students to determine any correlation between five levels of cleanliness and academic achievement. The methodology and size of the survey are discussed, and graphs illustrate the the students' opinions of the effect of cleanliness on the ability to learn, their tolerance for levels of cleanliness, the impact of various building elements on their perceived ability to learn, and the impact of cleanliness on health. Six recommendations for improving cleanliness are included.

The Importance of Place: Facility Conditions and Learning Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Roberts, Lance; Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey
Education Canada; v48 n3 , p48-51 ; Jul 2008
Examines the problem of assessing the effect of school facility condition on student achievement in Canada. While insufficient Canadian research exists to make a correlation, results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) research indicates that student achievement is lower in schools where the principals report substandard facility conditions.

Planning for Positive Impact: Facility Design and Student Achievement.
Heinhorst-Busby, Jennifer; Hunter, Richard
School Business Affairs; v74 n4 , p24-26 ; Apr 2008
Briefly summarizes the findings of several recent studies indicating the effect on student achievement of school building condition, thermal factors, lighting , acoustics, school and class size, and inclusive planning.

Explaining Relationships among Student Outcomes and the School's Physical Environment. Adobe PDF
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Journal of Advanced Academics; v19 n3 , p444-471 ; Spring 2008
Investigated the possible effects of selected school design patterns on third-grade students' academic achievement. A reduced regression analysis revealed the effects of school design components (patterns) on ITBS achievement data, after including control variables, for a sample of third-grade students drawn from 24 elementary schools. The independent variable set for developing a possible explanation of student achievement was the school's physical environment, defined as four sets of design patterns: movement and circulation, large group meeting places, day lighting and views, and instructional neighborhoods (e.g., large and small group areas that accommodate wet and dry activities). Each of the four full regression models, which included subsets of the design elements, explained between 2% and 7% of additional variance in achievement when compared to the reduced model, which included a measure of school SES. Therefore, each of the four design variables was positively related to student achievement, even after controlling for school SES. [Author's abstract]

The Shape of Learning.
Horstman, Eric
School Planning and Management; v47 n3 , p26,28-30,32 ; Mar 2008
Reviews physical and sensory needs for school interiors, including carbon dioxide reduction, access to water fountains, thermal comfort, and the color selection and placement.

Building Green for Better Education.
Hoffman, Paul
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p17-19 ; 2008
Discusses the positive impact of sustainable school building features on learning, attitudes, staff morale, and attendance, illustrated with a profile of Wisconsin s LEED Gold certified North Pines High School.

Association between Physical Environment of Secondary Schools and Student Problem Behavior: A National Study, 2000-2003.
Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Environment and Behavior; v40 n4 , p455-486 ; 2008
This article examines various aspects of school physical characteristics relating to problem behavior among students. We hypothesize that an attractive physical environment will be associated with less truancy, cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas a negative physical environment will be associated with higher levels of these behaviors. Analyses use data from nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who participated in annual surveys conducted by the Monitoring the Future project from 2000 to 2003. Analyses also use data collected from principals and field interviewers of the same schools. Results based on multilevel logistic and linear regressions indicate that students are sensitive to schools' ambience and that the association of various aspects of the school's physical environment with students' problem behaviors is greater for 10th-grade students than for 8th and 12th-grade students. The implications of these findings for school policies and practices are discussed. [Authors' abstract]

Space Matters: Experiences of Managing Static Formal Learning Spaces.
Montgomery, Tim
Active Learning in Higher Education; v9 n2 , p122-138 ; 2008
Managing the space in which learning takes place is subject to ongoing debate. Spatial management and movement can impact upon the construction of meaning within education and upon the dynamic of learning. It is suggested that there are now different learning goals and expectations and consequently a need for different learning environments. Many constraints, however, result in everyday experience not being of high-tech, impressively designed formal and informal spaces. This article contributes to a navigation of the realities of learning space. It recognizes that the literature may be leaving the profession behind and that for many educators the opportunities of design are merely aspirations. Taking as its focal point the small seminar room with sparse furniture, it presents two studies to contribute ideas on how such non-ideal spaces might be managed; one looking at an alternative education space, the museum, and the second drawing on interviews with colleagues about their experiences. [Author's abstract]

Swivel Seating in Large Lecture Theaters and Its Impact on Student Discussions and Learning.
Ogilvie, Craig A.
Journal of College Science Teaching; v37 n3 , p50-56 ; Jan 2008
Well-designed university buildings and physical environments have a documented positive impact on student participation, engagement, and feelings of support and belonging. These factors are known to improve learning; however, it is hard to document the direct impact architecture has on student learning outcomes. This paper compares two different designs of remodeled, large lecture-theater designs: one with traditional tiered rows and one with swivel seating to facilitate face-to-face discussions during lectures and the impact these designs had on student learning. Both high- and low-performing students appear to have benefited from the swivel-seat discussions by the end of the semester, with potentially a larger benefit for stronger students.

Correlating Indoor Air to Student Academic Performance.
Shaughnessy, Richard
The School Administrator; v65 n1 , p22,23 ; Jan 2008
Briefly reviews studies indicating links between classroom ventilation and student performance, and offers five easy steps to take for improved air quality.

Maximize learning and Optimize Space with Small Learning Communities.
Hirth, Marilyn
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p12-14 ; Dec 2007
Reviews eleven benefits of smaller learning communities within larger schools, as well as four concerns for potential negative consequences. Several recommendations to districts considering creating them are included, along with nine references.

Designer Schools: The Role of School Space and Architecture in Obesity Prevention. Adobe PDF
Obesity; v15 n11 , p2521-2530 ; Nov 2007
Discusses the link between school space and architecture and obesity prevention by reviewing and synthesizing available literature in architecture, environmental psychology, and obesity research, in an effort to propose promising ideas for school space design and redesign. The school environment is defined through 5 dimensions: physical, legal, policy, social, and cultural domains. Theories underlying environmental interventions and documented associations between the environment and health behaviors and outcomes are reviewed to illustrate how existing environmental research could translate to obesity prevention. Design strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthful eating are proposed, with particular emphasis on the design of cafeterias, activity spaces, connectivity with the larger community, and student health centers. Includes 52 references.

Spending Dollars for Excellence.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p58 ; Nov 2007
Responds to a New York state program to give extra funding to school districts, to be spent on any of five strategies to improve student achievement. The author considers the positive and negative aspects of each strategy, discusses how the districts are planning to use the money, and the often-unfunded facility implications of some of the strategies.

Achievement by Design.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; v194 n10 , p39-41 ; Oct 2007
Discusses some of the negative effects of poor classroom arrangement on learning, advising teachers on how to become better placemakers. Desirable features of schools that directly contribute to learning are listed, and an example of how a district with crumbling schools proposed expensive new school buildings, but in the face of opposition, ultimately submitted scaled-back plans that involved extensively renovating the existing schools.

The Ecology of Learning: The Impact of Classroom Features and Utilization on Student Academic Success.
Herzog, Serge
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p81-106 ; Oct 2007
Illustrates how data from the facilities planning office were used to further enrich institutional research efforts to better understand factors that may influence first-year student success and persistence at the University of Nevada-Reno, a medium-size, moderately selective public university.

The Impact of Facilities on Recruitment and Retention of Students.
Reynolds, Gary
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p63-80 ; Oct 2007
Summarizes a research project to determine the level of influence physical assets such as buildings, landscape, and other tangible resources exert over student recruitment and retention and whether this influence affects students of various demographic backgrounds. Three outcomes were identified in the current study, and indicate the need for further research: 1) What other variables could be used to determine which facilities affect student recruitment and retention? 2) What planning and policy measures could be developed as a result of this research? and 3) Should allocation of resources be planned using the results of quantitative analysis of student choice?

Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions.
Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators; v21 n1 , p21-25 ; Sep-Oct 2007
School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks.

Four Strong Schools: Developing a Sense of Place through School Architecture.
Upitis, Rena
International Journal of Education & the Arts; v8 i1 , p1-16 ; Jun 2007
The premise is that students should be schooled in built and natural environments that afford them ways of understanding how their daily physical actions and social choices affect the earth. Views of prominent philosophers and scholars in support of this premise are described. Next, four cases illustrate how schools can provide students with opportunities to develop ecological mindfulness through practical activities that are enhanced by natural and built environments. The examples--from Canada, the United States, and Australia--span the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. It is concluded that schools and curricula that focus on a sense of place are able to support the practical activities that lead to meaningful relationships between members of the community, and between people and the land. [Authors' abstract]

A Sound Foundation? What We Know about the Impact of Environments on Learning and the Implications for Building Schools for the Future
Woolner, Pamela et al
Oxford Review of Education; v33 n1 , p47 - 70 ; Feb 2007
This paper reports on a literature review conducted in the UK for the Design Council and CfBT (Higgins et al., 2005) which looked at the evidence of the impact of environments on learning in schools. It reviews the available evidence regarding different facets of the physical environment and provided an analysis based on different areas of effect, including the extent to which different facets interact (positively and negatively) with one another. Conclusions suggest that, although the research often indicates the parameters of an effective environment, there is an overall lack of empirical evidence about the impact of individual elements of the physical environment which might inform school design at a practical level to support student achievement. However, at a secondary level of analysis, there are indications that environmental change can be part of a catalytic process of school development and improvement. The implications of these findings for Building Schools for the Future are discussed. [Authors' abstract]

Designing for Achievement: Processes, Principles and Patterns.
Bergsagel, Victoria
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n2/3 , p3-6 ; 2007
Explores how a school's physical space can influence philosophy and culture. Three recommended patterns are display of student work, transparency within the structure, and learning clusters. Several guiding principles for smart school design are offered, and perpetuation of comprehensive high school system is discouraged. Includes three references.

Schools Designed to Leave No Child Behind.
Crockett, Marsha
School Business Affairs; v73 n1 , p28-30 ; Jan 2007
Explores school design features that help meet the objectives of No Child Left Behind, beginning with 15 significant points, and connecting renovation, flexibility, lighting, and acoustics with student performance. Examples of Arizona schools addressing academic disparity between ethnic groups and income levels, as well as community use schools are included.

Our Kids' Future Depends on Us.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p10 ; Jan 2007
Briefly reviews the growing body of research supporting the influence of school facilities on learning.

Planning for Learning Space in Existing Structures.
Rundle, Susan
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n2/3 , p18-21 ; 2007
Explores how students are the same, how they are different, and what this implies for creating learning environments. Perceptual, psychological, environmental, physiological, emotional, and sociological elements of students and learning spaces are considered.

Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools. You Can't Ignore the Benefits of Eco-friendly Schools.
Whelan, Debra Lau
School Library Journal; v53 n9 , p44-48 ; Jan 2007
Discusses the benefits of going eco-friendly schools and features Great Seneca Creek Elementary School in Germantown, Maryland. The school's 296,000-square-foot building--which runs on wind and solar power and boasts an irrigation pond--recently earned a silver rating from the U.S. Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System.

Environmental Design and Educational Performance, with Particular Reference to "Green" Schools in Hampshire and Essex.
Edwards, Brian W.
Research in Education; v76 , p14-32 ; Nov 2006
Examines the argument that "green" schools enhance educational performance. Having set the context of the relationship between environmentalism and the design of schools in the twentieth century, the article explores the performance of a number of green schools built in the UK between 1980 and 1995. The aim is to discover whether attention to environmental or ecological design produces measurable benefits in terms of learning levels in the classroom and the general performance of the school. The methodology consists of comparing the performance of green schools with that of orthodox schools which share similar characteristics of size, location and socio-economic features, and then relating variables of educational performance to design features. Three initial findings are highlighted: first, the importance of classroom daylight levels to learning; second, the benefits to the school of secondary sun spaces; third, the need for attention to the relationship between ventilation and acoustic control in open-plan solar schools. [Author's abstract]

Do You Have a Strategy?
Kalina, David
Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers; v81 n6 , p34-36 ; Sep 2006
Education is undergoing a transformation across the country as it responds to new understandings of the mechanisms for learning. These changes are affecting the physical environments where learning occurs, from individual rooms to entire building complexes. The impact of these trends on facilities is dramatic. Old classroom models will not support these new paradigms. This article offers strategic planning on facilities management as a way to boost student performance. The author proposes a change in the traditional thought process by focusing on a strategic plan to a facilities concept. A facilities project can be used to reinforce a culture of experimentation, assessment and implementation. Facilities should be designed with the purpose of empowering faculty and students to capitalize on change and explore alternative relationships between pedagogy, technology, curriculum, furniture and the encompassing architectural environment. In addition, rapidly changing technology should be evaluated to determine how technology can best support faculty and student exploration into more effective ways to learn

Facility Planning: Pricing Aesthetics
Rydeen, James E.
American School and University; , p52 ; Sep 2006
Aesthetics will enhance the teaching and learning environment. Aesthetics involves balance, order, integrity and meaning, which include scale, proportion, symmetry, asymmetry, light and shadow, pattern, texture and color. A school can be aesthetically pleasing without adding significant costs.

The Community College Classroom Environment: Student Perceptions.
Veltri, Sandra; Banning, James H.; Davies, Timothy Gray
College Student Journal; v40 n3 , p517-527 ; Sep 2006
This qualitative case study investigated how community college students perceived specific classroom attributes as contributing to or hindering their learning. The study addressed three questions: What has been the role of students in classroom design within the community college campus? How do students assess the classroom's physical design impact on their learning? And, what can students tell us about their needs for future classroom design? Students were able to clearly identify classroom attributes that enhanced their learning as well as those aspects of the built environment that inhibited their learning. Students completed "wish drawings" that depicted what they believed the ideal built environment would be for them. The article closes discussing how past, present, and future students can be used by community college facilities planners to better design the built environments to make them more conducive to optimal student learning. [Authors' abstract]

‘This Place Could Help you Learn’: Student Participation in Creating Better School Environments.
Flutter, Julia
Educational Review ; v58 n2 , p183 - 193 ; May 2006
This paper examines the role of student consultation and participation in the process of improving the physical environment in schools. Although quantitative studies suggest that there are some links between the learning environment and school performance, direct causal relationships between these factors remain unclear. However, as Clark points out: ‘… qualitative research on the indirect influences of school buildings on student learning and behaviour is of use in enhancing our understanding of the factors involved’ (Clark, 2002, p. 11). Evidence from qualitative studies of students' perspectives on the school environment is presented to illustrate the important insights that can be gained through listening to the student voice. The argument for student voice is taken further through a discussion of recent projects and initiatives in which students are given an active role in designing and improving school buildings and facilities. The paper concludes with a discussion of the problems and benefits in involving students in the process of improving their learning environments. [Author's abstract]

High-Performance Schools Improve Learning.
Garibay, Pat
School Business Affairs; v72 n5 , p18,19 ; May 2006
Discusses the attributes and benefits of high performance schools, with particular attention to energy-efficient HVAC systems that deliver comfort, high indoor air quality, and quiet operation at an affordable price.

School Facility Quality and Student Achievement in Wyoming.
Glenn, William; Picus, Lawrence; Marion, Scott; Calvo, Naomi
School Business Affairs; v72 n5 , p12-14,16 ; May 2006
Discusses an unsuccessful attempt to correlate school facility suitability and condition with student achievement in Wyoming. Using three years of test scores and building data, the researchers found no significant relationship between the two, in spite of their careful methodology, which is described. Includes five references.

School Facilities: Social, Technological and Educational Trends Are Driving Change in the Design and Use of Schools. Adobe PDF
The Progress of Educational Reform; v7 n1 , p1-4 ; Apr 2006
Highlights the findings of four recent reports that reveal the extent of facility impact on the performance of teachers and students; the essential components of well-designed learning environments; and demographic, social, and educational trends that will have a major impact on the design, development, and use of school facilities over the next 10 to 20 years. Online links to the reports are provided.

Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: A Case Study of Awareness and Participation of Users.
Bernardi, Nubia; Kowaltowski, Doris
Environment and Behavior; v38 n2 , p155-172 ; Mar 2006
This paper presents the results of an extensive post occupancy study of 15 schools in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. The learning environments were analyzed as to thermal, acoustical, visual, and functional comfort and possible simple solutions to improve the quality of the learning environment. Classrooms and recreation areas were observed and critical comfort conditions were measured with equipment. School directors, teachers, employees and students were questioned as to their perception and evaluation of the comfort conditions and given the opportunity to express their satisfaction and desires about their learning spaces. A low level of intervention toward comfort on the part of users was attributed to discipline codes that restrict student behavior.
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The Impact of Facilities on Recruitment and Retention of Students.
Cain, David; Reynolds, Gary
Facilities Manager; v22 n2 , p54,55,57-60 ; Mar 2006
Reports on research to determine the importance of facilities in higher education recruitment. Of nearly 14,000 college students responding to the research survey, two thirds indicated that when selecting their school, campus facilities were essential or very important to their decision. Half of the respondents also indicated that campus attractiveness was essential or very important. Charts are included that illustrate the relative importance of the different campus building types considered, as well as which facilities were missing or deemed inadequate at institutions that the students rejected.

Child Development and the Physical Environment.
Evans, Gary
Annual Review of Psychology; v57 , p423-451 ; Jan 2006
Discusses characteristics of the physical environment that influence child development, including behavioral toxicology, noise, crowding, housing and neighborhood quality, natural settings, schools, and day care settings. Socioemotional, cognitive, motivation, and psychophysiological outcomes in children and youths are reviewed. Necessary methodological and conceptual advances are introduced as well.

School Design Effects on Cognitive Learning: Defining "Equal Educational Opportunity."
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v72 n1 , p15-18 ; Jan 2006
Urges consideration of the learning process when designing classrooms, and not just stopping with abundant natural lighting and good looks. Students should be equitably seated around instructional media, without extreme distances or viewing angles. Schools should be sited and designed so that traditional and gifted students will intermingle.

Impact of School Facilities on Working Behavior of Teachers. Adobe PDF
Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, John; Wang, Zhaohong
International Journal of Strategic Property Management; n10 , p79-91 ; Jan 2006
Presents the results of a survey of teacher working behavior in new versus old Hong Kong schools. The study was conducted with teachers who had worked in old traditional school buildings and then moved to new school buildings. Since staff rooms are the major working areas for teachers, the study focused on the levels of satisfaction with the performance of facilities management in the staff rooms of primary schools and on the working behavior of primary teachers. The results showed that facilities management in the staff rooms of the new millennium schools in Hong Kong was remarkably different from facilities management in the old schools. However, the teachers did not consider that their working behavior was significantly better in the new schools

An Assessment of the Impact of the Sensory Environment on Individuals' Behaviour in Special Needs Schools.
Shabha, Ghasson
Facilities; v24 n1/2 , p31-42 ; Jan 2006
Presents analysis of teaching layouts and the sequence of activities in ten selected special needs schools, using questionnaire research directed at caregivers and teachers. The effects of several sensory parameters were observed in the teaching environment, inclduding bright colours and light, pattern glare, echoing, higher and low-pitch sound and background noise level. The study identified numerous factors having a negative effect on children's behavior.

Impressions Count.
Koenigsknecht, Scott
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p28,30,31 ; Nov 2005
Describes results from a survey of newly-hired teachers revealing the role of facilities condition in their job decisions. Facility newness, smallness, and cleanliness were positive influences that were shown to affect a teacher's decision to accept employment at a school.

Sustainable Schools: Renovating Educational Processes. [Australia]
Gough, Annette
Applied Environmental Education & Communication,; v4 n4 , p339-351 ; Oct 2005
This article discusses findings from a recent evaluation of the experiences of six Sustainable Schools in Australia engaged in Stormwater Action Project in terms of their achievement of educational, environmental, economic, and social indicators of quality education. It also discusses the change strategies of the Sustainable Schools initiative within the broader context of quality education for a sustainable future, and the relationship between visions of environmental education/education for sustainable development and visions of quality education. The article concludes that Sustainable Schools is a most appropriate strategy for renovating educational processes and achieving quality education.

The Next Wave.
Bingler, Steven
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p18,20,21 ; Jul 2005
Envisions future learning environments designed in response to recent advances in educational thought and practice, which is in turn a response to emerging theories of brain activity and connectivity.

Student-Centered Sustainable Design.
Hall, Michael; Wilczynski, Stephen
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p22,24-27 ; Jul 2005
Outlines options for prioritizing and funding the sustainable school design options that most directly benefit students: indoor air quality and ventilation, thermal comfort, daylighting, acoustics, physical condition of facilities, smaller learning communities, and connectivity to the community.

The Power of Place in Learning.
O'Connor, Richard; Bennett, Scott.
Planning for Higher Education; v33 n4 , p28-30 ; Jun 2005
Advocates for the physical campus by describing its virtues, including collegiate, academic, and campus cultures. The connection of the mind to the physical body is compared to the connection of knowledge to the physical campus.

Radically Rethinking Education.
DesignShare; , 7p. ; May 2005
Presents an interview with school planner and design Prakash Nair, in which he discusses his views on the effect of the school built environment on learning, a specific successful project where a progressive attitude toward the students shaped the building, and what is needed to create progressive thinking in schools

Fix It and They Might Stay: School Facility Quality and Teacher Retention in Washington, D.C.
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; and Shang, Yi
Teachers College Record; v107 n5 , p1107–1123 ; May 2005
The attrition of both new and experienced teachers is a challenge for schools and school administrators throughout the United States, particularly in large urban districts. Because of the importance of this issue, there is a large empirical literature that investigates why teachers quit and how they might be induced to stay. Here we build upon this literature by suggesting another important factor in the teacher decision to stay or leave: the quality of school facilities. We investigate the importance of facility quality using data from a survey of K–12 public school teachers in Washington, D.C. We find in our sample that facility quality is an important predictor of the decision of teachers to leave their current position, even after controlling for other contributing factors. [Authors' abstract]

Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture K-6 Classroom Workshop
CAEnet; Apr 06, 2005
Proceedings of a workshop aimed to identify the knowledge gap between the design of K-6 classrooms and research findings from neuroscience—creating testable hypotheses relating the development stages in the brains of young children to the classroom settings in K-6 schools.

School Building Investment and Impact on Pupil Performance.
Green, Daniel; Turrell, Patricia
Facilities; v23 n5/6 , p253-261 ; Apr 2005
Reports on British research that consisted of questionnaires sent to a selected sample of state schools together with interviews with the Local Education Authority and a case study of a single school. The results clearly indicate that although direct benefits are difficult to measure accurately, the schools perceive a benefit of facility investment which can be illustrated in pupil attainment, motivation and pupil behavior, with an additional benefit to staff, who find that better environments improve teacher morale and motivation.

Classrooms and Their Impact on Learning.
Gardner, Dwayne
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p44,42 ; Feb 2005
Discusses the importance of classroom design on learning. Teaching methodology should inform design, as should the non-traditional ways that classrooms are used by teachers, students, after-school programs, parents, and volunteers. Size, flexibility, accessibility, scale, layout, environment, security, and aesthetic issues are also discussed.

Facility Design Enhances Learning.
Cecil, Daniel
Learning By Design; n14 , p160,161 ; 2005
Describes spatial configurations that divide large schools into small and cohesive learning communities, glazing that allows small children to see around an out of the school, and corridor configurations that energize socialization.

Let the Walls Teach.
Chan, Tak Cheung; Arasi, Anthony
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p35,36 ; Jan 2005
Suggests many uses for classroom walls that enhance teaching. Displays can be used for educational, aesthetic, promotional, competitive, celebratory, and teaching of values functions. Suggestions on wall finishes, colors, and display aesthetics are offered.

Do Indoor Pollutants and Thermal Conditions in Schools Influence Student Performance? A Critical Review of the Literature. Adobe PDF
Mendell, M; Heath, G.
Indoor Air; v15 n1 , p27-32 ; Jan 2005
Presents a critical review of evidence for direct associations between these aspects of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and performance or attendance. Evidence on indirect connections potentially linking IEQ to performance or attendance is also summarized. Regarding direct associations, little strongly designed research was available. Persuasive evidence links higher indoor concentrations of NO2 to reduced school attendance, and suggestive evidence links low ventilation rates to reduced performance. Regarding indirect associations, many studies link indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants (primarily in homes) to asthma exacerbations and respiratory infections, which in turn have been related to reduced performance and attendance.

Schools Good for Children?
Nair, Prakash
DesignShare; , 6p. ; Jan 2005
Challenges the notion that conventional school buildings naturally create a quality learning atmosphere and reviews India's nurturing Gurukul School.

Understanding the Relationship Between Student Achievement and the Quality of Educational Facilities: Evidence from Wyoming.
Picus, Lawrence; Marion, Scott; Calvo, Naomi; Glenn, William
Peabody Journal of Education; v80 n3 , p71-95 ; 2005
Using the results of standardized test scores from Wyoming students and a detailed assessment of every school building in the state of Wyoming, this study concluded that there was essentially no relationship between the quality of school facilities and student performance when other factors known to impact student performance are accounted for. This does not suggest investments in school facilities are not important-all children are entitled to attend school in safe, clean, and appropriate educational environments. However, policymakers should be aware that investments in facilities by themselves are unlikely to improve student learning.

The Impact of an Intelligent Classroom on Pupils' Interactive Behaviour.
Tibúrcio, Túlio; Finch, Edward F.
Facilities; v23 n5/6 , p262 - 278 ; 2005
The purpose of this research is to determine whether new intelligent classrooms will affect the behaviour of children in their new learning environments. A multi-method study approach was used to carry out the research. Behavioural mapping was used to observe and monitor the classroom environment and analyse usage. Two new classrooms designed by INTEGER (Intelligent and Green) in two different UK schools provided the case studies to determine whether intelligent buildings (learning environments) can enhance learning experiences. Several factors were observed in the learning environments: mobility, flexibility, use of technology, interactions. Relationships among them were found indicating that the new environments have positive impact on pupils' behaviour. [Authors' abstract]

The Wise Man Builds His House Upon the Rock: The Effects of Inadequate School Infrastructure on Student Performance.
Branham, David
Social Science Quarterly; 85p ; Dec 2004
Using data from 226 Houston schools, this report indicates that schools in need of roof repair, schools with a high percentage of temporary buildings, and schools with inadequate custodial staffs have lower attendance, higher drop-out rates, and lower accountability than schools without such problems. Includes nine references.

One Step Beyond.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n4 , p16-18,21-14 ; Dec 2004
Cites several school systems' endeavors to enhance learning through the built environment. An elementary school that presents itself as a museum of knowledge, an advance learning center for "middle majority students," and a junior high that accommodates 4,000 students in two schools under one roof are described.

Advancing Concepts About Activity Settings Within Learning Environments.
Lippman, Peter C. [Originally issued: CAE Net Quarterly Newsletter for the Committee on Architecture for Education PIA]; , 1-9p. ; Dec 2004
This paper considers the physical environment of the school setting as a transactional system. The concepts of interactionalism and probabalism is examined to support this perspective. The notions of an integrated, flexible, and mediating system are described and evaluated in relationship to the social and learning environments. The purpose of this article is to explore and gain an understanding of schools as activity settings in which people acquire knowledge, and as a tool to extend the understanding so that these perspectives may be considered and used to produce, as opposed to reproduce, learning environments. [Author's abstract]

School Architecture and Complexity. Adobe PDF
Upitis, Rena
Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education; v1 n1 , p19-38 ; Dec 2004
Addresses the influence of facilities on learning non-core subjects (the arts), on skills that go untested, and on the way students and teachers function in the "learning collective." These issues are first explored through a brief discussion of the main themes in school architecture research, followed by a description of how Froebel kindergartens, Reggio Emilia schools, and Waldorf schools have given attention to some of the physical elements that affect learning. Then follows a discussion of the ways that schools can be seen as collectives, using complexity science theory as a theoretical framework. Finally, the complexity science model is extended by including the actual physical spaces as important ‘agents’ in influencing a non-linear and dynamic system, and by drawing implications for school design based on the principles of complexity.

The L-Shape Classroom: A Pattern for Promoting Learning.
Lippman, Peter C.
DesignShare; , 9p. ; Oct 01, 2004
Re-examines the "Fat L" classroom as a design that supports a range of classroom activity settings, defines the activity settings, examines the shape in practice, evaluates examples from the United States and the Netherlands, and considers how this classroom shape might influence learning activities throughout the school environment.

Educational Equity and School Structure: School Size, Overcrowding, and Schools- Within-Schools. Adobe PDF
Ready, Douglas; Lee, Valerie; Welner, Kevin
Teachers College Record; v106 n10 ; Oct 2004
Discusses educational equity in relation to school size, school overcrowding, and schools-within-schools. The article is an interpretive summary of existing studies of these topics, concentrating on how these structural issues relate to social stratification in student outcomes, particularly academic achievement. Evidence is cited that define which size high schools are best for all students, which responses to school overcrowding are appropriate, and how creating smaller learning communities in high schools can work well for everyone by reducing the potential for internal stratification. California policies are shown to have actually exacerbated inequality in educational outcomes and assisted the transformation of the social differences students bring to school into academic differences.

Spotlight: The Education-Facilities Link
Maintenance Solutions; Aug 2004
Three recent reports focus on what tough economic times have done to the nation’s K-12 public schools, and,just as importantly, how the resulting condition of school buildings affect education.

The Facility Factor: Can Buildings Boost Productivity?
Kozlowski, David
Building Operating Management; Aug 2004
A whole new industry of researchers, product manufacturers, and building owners is working on ways to manipulate the built environment to improve productivity in this increasingly knowledge-worker economy. This examines the research that acoustics, fresh air, daylight, nature and window views, among other design aspects, lend themselves to productivity increases.

A Beautiful School Is a Caring School.
Jarman, Delbert; Webb, Linda; and Chan, T.C.
School Business Affairs; v70 n6 , p37-38 ; Jun 2004
Beautiful school buildings are often associated with higher cost, extravagance, or both. This article reviews several studies on school building aesthetics and concludes that, in addition to promoting student achievement, a beautiful school building sends the message to parents and community leaders that the school district cares about the education of the children by creating an attractive environment to support student learning. The community’s appreciation may lead to constructive support of the school and its educational process. Consequently, the positive effect of constructing an attractive school for educational use cannot be underestimated.

Does the Indoor Air Quality in Schools Impact Student Performance?
School Business Affairs; v70 n4 , p18-20 ; Apr 2004
Describes the effects of common indoor pollutants on human performance and suggests programs that can improve indoor air quality in schools.

Public School Facilities: Providing Environments that Sustain Learning. Adobe PDF
(Campaign for Fiscal Equity, New York, NY, Winter 2004)
ACCESS: The Quarterly Journal of the Advocacy Center for Children's Educational Success with Standards; v4 n1 , 4p. ; Winter 2004
Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of quality facilities, a number of obstacles impair efforts to build and maintain schools that are conducive to learning, including: state funding systems that limit financial support and provide incentives to build schools cheaply and defer maintenance; a growing number of facilities requirements; and significant enrollment growth. Urban and rural districts face additional challenges due to dense and sparse populations, respectively, and state policies that limit funding specifically for their school facilities. As a result of these barriers, countless students across the country, and particularly those in urban and rural areas, attend school in substandard facilities that negatively affect their education.

Perceived Restorative Components: A Scale for Children.
Bagot, Kathleen
Children, Youth and Environments; v14 n1 , p107-129 ; 2004
Reports on the development and psychometric validation of a perceived restorative components scale for children. Children aged 8 to 11 years completed an initial pool of 23 items addressing the components of a restorative environment to assess two familiar, everyday environments- their school playground and their school library. Factor analysis indicated a five-factor model (Being Away Physical, Being Away- Psychological, Fascination, Compatibility and Extent) of 15 items best fit the data. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for four of the five factors. School playgrounds had significantly higher restoration potential than school libraries, when compared with school classrooms, indicating divergent validity of the measure. Results were examined by sex and age and differences reported as a broad indicator of the measure s ability to differentiate between groups of people s reports of perceived restorativeness and possible developmental differences.

Healthy Buildings: The Keystone of High Performance Schools.
Bates, Thomas
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p15-19 ; 2004
Describes effects of temperature, humidity, indoor air pollutants, and ventilation on learning. Also included is a lengthy checklist of design and maintenance considerations for good indoor air quality.

The Use of Space in 21st Century Education Culture.
Campion, Helena
Forum; v46 n1 , p39,40 ; 2004
Examines the current British government initiative, "Schools of the Future," and asks how it might influence pedagogy and practice in 21st century schools. The Schools of the Future project was launched in 2002 and brings together the issues of emerging pedagogies and curriculum changes in primary and secondary education, with the possible impact of learning technology and provision for all the learners in the community. It goes on to tackle the design issues of space, the learning environment, and how to plan in a sustainable way. Includes 11 references.

The Forgotten Side of School Finance Equity: The Role of Infrastructure Funding in Student Success.
Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.; Vesely, Randall S.
NASSP Bulletin; v88 n640 , p29-52 ; 2004
Traditionally, local school districts have shouldered the burden of funding school infrastructure in the name of local control, relying upon local property tax revenues and the willingness of local voters to approve bond issues. Given vast disparities in school districts' property wealth, gross inequities in school facilities will remain without new state or federal funding. With emerging research establishing the critical role of the physical environment of schools in student success, adequate and equitable funding of infrastructure takes on new urgency.

High Performance Schools Equals High Performing Students. Adobe PDF
Gertel, Steven; McCarty, Paul; Schoff, Lorenz
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n2 , p20-24 ; 2004
Reviews the results of a multi-year study, in which sound enhancement systems were introduced into a selected K-12 schools. Improved test scores resulted in schools where the systems were in place. Includes ten references.

Space, Power and the Classroom. Adobe PDF
McGregor, Jane
Forum; v46 n1 , p13-18 ; 2004
Examines the spatial relationships of teachers and pupils in the classroom, showing how space is used to create and maintain particular forms of relationship and power structure, and illustrated with examples. Includes 25 references. (Scroll down in PDF for article.)

Color in Education.
Thompson, Sheri
School Planning and Management; v42 n12 , p30,32 ; Dec 2003
Discusses the psychophysiological effects of colors and their appropriateness in educational settings. Color selection varies according to age group, room use and the geographical location of the facility. Changing the palette is a relatively economical way to improve an educational facility's environment.

Associations Between Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Student Attendance in Elementary Schools in Washington and Idaho.
Shendell, Derek G.; Prill, Richard
Indoor Air Quality in Northwest Schools; , p6-9 ; Fall 2003
This article is based on a Lawrence Berkeley National Lab report. The study involves CO2 measurements inside and outside the 436 classrooms of 22 schools in Washington and Idaho. According to the authors, "In this study, 1,000 [parts-per-million] increases in the difference between indoor and outdoor CO2 concentration were associated with 10 percent to 20 percent relative increases in student absence, and the associations were statistically significant. This study confirms previous findings of high CO2 concentrations in classrooms, which indicated classroom ventilation rates were often below the minimum rates specified in codes." [Authors' abstract]

Why Do We Need Facilities Research?
Weidner, Theodore J.
Facilities Manager; v19 n5 , p57-58 ; Sep-Oct 2003
Describes the APPA's research endeavors, beginning in 1989 and continuing to the present, with emphasis on the APPA's creation of the Center for Facilities Research (CFaR), a new research arm of the association.

Environmental Design: Focusing on Human Factors.
Rydeen, James E.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p158-61 ; Aug 2003
In designing schools, planners must use the criteria of health and safety, performance, comfort, and aesthetics to create a humanized physical environment that stimulates interest and provides motivation for learning and teaching. The human factors in design are sense of place, ownership, community, presence comfort, security, aesthetics, performance, and privacy. Students must feel valued to stimulate performance. This occurs through psychological and physiological humanizing of spatial design elements.

Home and School Density Effects on Elementary School Children: The Role of Spatial Density.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.
Environment and Behavior; v35 n4 , p566-578 ; Jul 2003
Reports findings of an investigation into classroom spatial density effects on elementary school children. The research indicates that amount of space per child in the classroom may be as important as the number of children in a classroom.

Human Performance: Does Indoor Environmental Quality Make a Difference?
McIntosh, E. Ken
Facility Management Journal; v13 n4 , p36-38 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Asserts that the primary objective of every school must be an indoor environment that creates a sense of wellbeing in order to facilitate learning (e.g., adequate space, good lighting, friendly conditions, an inviting exterior, a consistent climate/temperature, traffic control and parking, and sanitary conditions), noting that the messages sent to students and teachers by the indoor environmental quality affects teaching, learning, and attitudes.

Sound Levels in Classrooms and Effects on Self-Reported Mood Among School Children
Lundquist, P; Holmberg, K.; Burstrom, L.; and Landstrom, U.
Perceptual and Motor Skills; v96 , p1289-99 ; Jun 2003
The principle of this field study is an investigation of recorded sound levels in 24 classrooms and relations between sound level measures and aspects of children's rated annoyance, task orientation, and inattentiveness. Results do not support the hypothesis that lower background-sound level and fewer students per class would improve the sound environment by generating a lower activity noise or the hypothesis that higher sound levels should increase annoyance and inattentiveness as well as deteriorate task orientation ratings.

Fads, Fancies and Fantasies: An Educator's Perspective on Current Educational Facility Issues.
Ryland, James
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p16-24 ; Jun 2003
Explores educational facilities issues from the personal perspective of being both an educator and an owner. Topics discussed include aligning curriculum and instruction with facilities design, green school rating systems, the relationship between facilities and achievement, longitudinal facilities research, post-occupancy evaluation, and communication during the planning and design phases between construction professionals and educators.

Take My Chair (Please): Experts Say Students Learn More If They Are Comfortable, But Few Colleges Listen
Bartlett, Thomas
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v49 n26 , A36-A38 ; Mar 07, 2003
Experts on classroom design argue that even the most fascinating lecture or stimulating discussion can be undermined by a bad classroom where temperature, lighting, acoustics, and furniture are inadequate. Experts say it's time colleges finally realized the pedagogical value of a comfortable chair, the ability to see the blackboard, hear the teacher, etc.

The Role of Permanent Student Artwork in Students' Sense of Ownership in an Elementary School.
Killeen, Jennifer Platten; Evans, Gary W.; Danko, Sheila
Environment and Behavior; v35 n2 , p250-63 ; Mar 2003
Sought to determine if the physical design of learning environments can foster a sense of student ownership in the learning process. Found that the stronger students' perceptions are that their artwork can be permanently displayed, the greater their sense of ownership.

Activity-Enhancing Arenas of Designs: A Case-Study of the Classroom Layout.
Amedeo, Douglas; Dyck, James
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research; v20 n4 , p323-343 ; Winter 2003
Perceptions of how five different classroom spatial layouts differ in the way they influence teaching and learning activities were elicited from primary teachers and evaluated in terms of their educational perspectives. Teachers' beliefs about properties of various spatial designs were assessed by evaluating their spatial layout preferences and by evoking their comments about the relative merits each layout has with respect to facilitating the conduct of activities in the classroom. Results suggest that teachers perceive the influences exerted by various classroom spatial layouts on teaching and learning activities to differ, but their perceptions of such differences are clearly qualified by their educational perspectives.

School Physical Environment and Teacher and Student Morale: Is There a Connection?
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Morris, Roy F.
School Business Affairs; v68 n10 , p4-8 ; Nov 2002
Proposes methodology to investigate the relationship between a school's physical environment and the morale of teachers and students. Includes questionnaire on morale and school facilities. (15 references)

Improving Performance.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v75 n2 , p32-35 ; Oct 2002
Describes how using skylights and other daylighting methods can improve the efficiency of a school facility, enhancing the learning environment and simplifying maintenance.

Evaluating Effects of the Classroom Environment: Development of an Instrument for the Measurement of Self-Reported Mood Among School Children
Lundquist, P.; Kjellberg, A.; Holmberg, K.
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v22 n3 , p289-293 ; Sep 2002
Describes the construction, analysis, and validation of a new questionnaire for assessing children's mood in the classroom. The questionnaire is recommended for use in studies of the effects of noise on scholastic performance.

A Guide to Lowering Test Scores.
Rosenblum, Shelly; Spark, Barbara
Leadership; v32 n1 , p30-31 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses the adverse impact of poor classroom air quality on student performance and how school officials can eliminate the sources of indoor air pollution. Describes Environmental Protection Agency's "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" program.

Practice Theory, Pedagogy, and the Design of Learning Environments.
Lippman, Peter C.
CAE Net. The Quarterly Newsletter of the Committee on Architecture for Education PIA ; v2 ; Jul 2002
This article focuses on what might be achieved for school design in the 21st century. Practice Theory is examined for an understanding of the how individuals become engaged within their environments. Pedagogy is explored in relation to Practice Theory as a means for understanding how activities are organized to facilitate learning. From these perspectives on how learning occurs within these activity settings, an approach for design is produced.

Flow--Optimal Experience Theory and the Built Environment.
Dyck, James
CAE Net: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Architecture for Education PIA; v1 ; Apr 2002
This article suggests that attributes of the built environment can significantly enhance or detract from the learner's ability to achieve "flow." The term "flow" describes moments when a person is fully concentrated on a task at hand, relatively oblivious to the passage of time, and feeling clear about what needs to be done from one moment to the next.

The Relationship Between School Climate and Student Success.
Holt, Carleton R.
Arkansas Educational Research & Policy Studies Journal; v2 n2 , p52-64 ; Spring 2002
Discusses the role of facilities in school climate by considering research concerning the relationship of culture to organizational success in business and education, research suggesting some linkage between school facilities and student achievement, teacher perceptions concerning the importance of an inviting learning environment, and the attention that factories and retail planners place on design. While the authors recognize other aspects such as the quality of teachers and leadership of the principal as more important to school success, they cite evidence that even if there were no positive relationship, facilities throughout America need attention. This becomes more critical as schools incorporate technology into learning units.

Space Matters: The A+ Schools Program and the ABCs of Education.
McKinney, Monica B
Educational Foundation; v16 n2 , p77-91 ; Spring 2002
This looks at the need to include the design of school buildings and other physical aspects of the learning environment when attempting to transform pedagogy and make other systemic reforms. The article explores how deeply held cultural assumptions, physically manifested in how space is organized, allocated, and used in schools, influenced one elementary school's efforts to implement a voluntarily adopted arts-based initiative known as the A+ Schools Program. This article presents an ethnographic case study of Rolling Meadow Elementary School (a pseudonym) that illustrates the school's struggles and successes with two simultaneous and sometimes conflicting reforms, the A+ Schools Program and an accountability system mandated by the state, the ABCs of Public Education. The intent of this paper is to show how Rolling Meadow serves as an example of how reform implementation can introduce new spatial challenges and inhibit implementation.

Color and Light in Learning.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v41 n2 , p57-58,60-61 ; Feb 2002
Discusses studies showing that color and light have a significant influence on how students learn and retain information (for example, daylight is much more beneficial than fluorescent light). Describes how many architects and designers are now incorporating these findings into their work in schools.

Inadequate School Facilities Impact Student Learning
Iowa Association of School Boards [IASB] Compass; v7 n1 ; Winter-Spring 2002
Good facilities appear to be important to student learning, provided that other conditions are present that support a strong academic program in the school. A growing body of research has linked student achievement and behavior, as well as staff morale, to physical building conditions.

The Link Between Buildings and Learning
Iowa Association of School Boards Compass; v7, n1 ; Winter 2002
A school building is an important tool to support learning. Experts agree that school facilities should be designed to facilitate what we know today about providing the best possible education for all students. IASB interviewed a number of experienced school architects and reviewed several articles to learn more about trends affecting school building design. This article summarizes what was found.

The Impact of Change in Teaching and Learning on Furniture and the Learning Environment.
Cornell, Paul
New Directions for Teaching and Learning; n92 , p33-42 ; Winter 2002
Explores ways in which furniture is at the heart of the flexibility needed to use new approaches to teaching and learning, and to provide for the comfort of learners of different ages and different physical needs.

Designed To Maximize Learning and Minimize Costs.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v41 n1 , p27-29 ; Jan 2002
Describes how the Durant Road Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina sets a new standard in environmental school design. "Daylighting," bringing daylight into the building for psychological, health, and energy-saving benefits, plays a central role in the design.

The Built Environment's Effect on Learning: Applying Current Research.
Dyck, James A.
Montessori Life; , p53-56 ; Winter 2002
This article focuses on six physical attributes of the Montessori "prepared" environment that should be addressed in environmental design: aesthetics, spatial factors, light, noise, color, and thermal factors. Current literature is reviewed.

Designing Collaborative Learning Places: Psychological Foundations and New Frontiers.
Graetz, Ken; Goliber, Michael
New Directions for Teaching and Learning; n92 , p13-22 ; Winter 2002
Considers the modern context of collaborative learning and information technology, detailing implications for space design, primarily from the field of environmental psychology--the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment.

Daylighting Makes a Difference.
Heschong, Lisa; Knecht, Carey
Educational Facility Planner; v37 n2 , p5-14 ; 2002
Examined the role of daylight in student achievement in three schools and found a uniformly positive and statistically significant correlation between the presence of more daylight and better student test scores. Offers guidelines on designing daylit classrooms.

The Learning Environment: Do School Facilities Really Affect a Child's Education?
Lyons, John B.
Learning By Design; n11 , p10-13 ; 2002
Explores how the physical condition and design of school facilities can shape a child's learning experience. Discusses school environments' connection to asthma, heating and ventilation problems, noise problems, full-spectrum lighting, trends in teaching methods requiring different building designs, optimum school size, portable classrooms, and the now-substantiated link between a school's physical environment and learning.
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How Is Technology Impacting Student Performance?
Pflaum, Bill
School Planning and Management; v40 n12 , p41-43 ; Dec 2001
Examines the impact of educational technology on student performance by reviewing the extent to which classroom computers are oversold and underused. The review concludes that the lack of computer use in teaching, even when computers are present, stems from technology promoters ignoring teachers' motivations, needs, and institutional constraints.

New Courses: Unlocking the Mysteries of Productivity, Air Quality, and the Indoor Environment in Schools.
Raiford, Regina
Buildings; v95 n11 , p40-42 ; Nov 2001
Discusses the relationship between indoor air quality and productivity and a three-year research project to measure productivity within an educational setting. Also discusses research showing the impact of good indoor air quality on increasing productivity. Ten ways to manage asthma in a school environment are highlighted.

The Relationship Between Capital Investment and Pupil Performance: An Analysis by the United Kingdom. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n44 , p8-9 ; Oct 2001
Discusses a United Kingdom comparative study showing a positive link between educational capital spending and student performance. The study, which compared both qualitative and quantitative research, further reveals a positive link between capital spending and teacher and pupil motivation.

Building Blocks; How Schools are Designed and Constructed Affects How Students Learn.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; v188 n10 , p44-47 ; Oct 2001
Studies show that deteriorating school facilities take their toll on students' and teachers' health and morale. Classrooms should be accessible to the outdoors; clustered around a commons; adaptable and flexible; and aesthetically pleasing. Architects say natural lighting and noise reduction are routine parts of their job. Research studies support the concept of small schools or subdivisions that create a sense of smallness. Sidebars list factors school officials should keep in mind when choosing an architect, and selected references.

Homes to Powerful Learning & Delight.
Childress, Herb
Horace; v18 n1 ; Fall 2001
In America, school facilities usually promote economies of scale, separation of kids and adults, passivity of learning, and standardization of practice and outcome. Architecture almost never causes behaviors directly, but it certainly makes some actions easier and others harder. The author believes that schools can be helpful, satisfying, and equitable places. Architecture alone will not make them so, but buildings can be used to assist us in creating schools that are homes to powerful learning and delight.

Effects of Noise, Heat, and Indoor Lighting on Cognitive Performance and Self-Reported Affect.
Hygge, Staffan; Knez, Igor
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v21 n3 , p291-299 ; Sep 2001
Reports the result of experiments that tested the effect of temperature, lighting, and noise on cognition and sense well-being in high school students. Students remembered fewer words at 27 degrees Celsius than at 21 degrees. 1500 lux illumination yielded better long-term recall than 300 lux, as did a noise level of 38 decibels versus 58 decibels.

The Feng Shui of Schools.
Zernike, Kate
New York Times; Aug 05, 2001
A growing number of architects, educators and environmental psychologists now point to research showing clear links between elements of design and student achievement. This article discusses lighting, noise factors, color, school size, and flexible classroom arrangements. [Free registration required]

A Model Program in a Remodeled Building.
Muir, Maya
Northwest Education; v6 n4 , p28-31 ; Summer 2001
Renovations contributed to academic improvement at an Issaquah (Washington) elementary school. Enclosing an open-air corridor enabled it to be used for educational activities. Double doors connected classrooms for team teaching, and carpet improved acoustics. A music room, library, and computer lab were also added. Student and community participation in planning increased ownership and school pride.

Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments=Classroom Management?
Dunne, Diane Weaver
Education World; Apr 04, 2001
Explores comments from classroom management experts and experienced educators about decisions teachers make on whether students will be allowed to select their own seats and about the impact on classroom discipline and effectiveness of instruction created by the physical arrangement of the classroom.

So, Where Are We With Class Size?
Johnson, Donald R.
School Business Affairs; v67 n4 , p12-13,18 ; Apr 2001
The conventional assumption from lay and professional people alike is that small class sizes produce better student performance. However, educational research on class size has been inconclusive. Successful class size reduction programs share key characteristics: class size reduction should be concentrated in the primary schooling years; classes should be reduced to fewer than 20 students; urban students, particularly minority students, benefit more than their peers do from smaller classes; class size reduction works best when coupled with teacher professional development.

School Design and Management: Three Examples In France. Adobe PDF
Alt, Patrick
PEB Exchange; n42 , p8-12 ; Feb 2001
Presents three examples of large-scale school construction and renovation projects in France where a link has been established between school design and successful teaching and learning. Further discussed are the conclusions that can be drawn from these projects in preparatory work prior to building.

School Physical Environment and Structure: Their Relationship to Student Outcomes
Stevenson, Kenneth
School Business Affairs; v67 n2 , p40-44 ; Feb 2001
Research confirms that a child educated in a run-down school, with poor lighting, overly hot or cold classrooms, inadequate acoustical treatment, unattractive or bleak environment, and outdated fixtures and equipment is less likely to be academically successful than a child educated in a school with an optimum physical environment.

Where Our Children Learn Matters. A Report on the Virginia School Facilities Impact Study.
Duke, Daniel L.; Griesdorn, Jacqueline
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n3 , p23-26 ; 2001
Describes the methodology, findings, and recommendations of a survey to determine how overcrowded and deteriorating facilities affect learning and teaching. Survey questions sought information about lost instructional time, instructional effectiveness, available curricular options, student health and safety, and the pressure on facilities resulting from state and federal mandates.

The Evolution of School Design: Thirty Years of Change in Public Classrooms.
Focke, John
Texas Architect; v51 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Reviews the evolution of changing educational needs and school design solutions that have enriched public education and provided new, and flexible schoolhouses which can be integrated into the community. Some of the struggles encountered during this evolution are discussed.

The Impact of School Facilities on Student Achievement, Behavior, Attendance, and Teacher Turnover Rate in Central Texas Middle Schools.
O'Neill, David J.; Oates, Arnold D.
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n3 , p14-22 ; 2001
Discusses a study that explores whether improving school buildings has a direct and positive affect on student learning, attendance, and teacher turnover rates. Identifies the environmental aspects of the school facility that have the potential to enhance learning. The study shows a direct relationship between building quality and student achievement.

Bricks and Mortarboards.
Stricherz, Mark
Education Week; v20 n14 , p30-31 ; Dec 06, 2000
Research shows that student achievement lags in shabby school buildings—those with no science labs, inadequate ventilation, and faulty heating systems. But it does not show that student performance rises when facilities go from decent buildings to those equipped with fancy classrooms, swimming pools, television-production studios, and the like. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments Through Energy Performance Contracting
Birr, David
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p34-36 ; Dec 2000
Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average daily attendance).

The Influence of School Architecture on Academic Achievement
Tanner, C. Kenneth
Journal of Educational Administration ; , p309-330 ; Oct 2000
Limited, dated information is available to school administrators concerning the influence that the built learning environment has on academic achievement. Given the population increases, volatile standardized test scores, demand for new schools, and deplorable conditions of school facilities in the United States, it is timely to investigate this neglected aspect of educational research. In the face of radical technological changes and curriculum innovations, much of the new public school architectural design is tied firmly to past and outdated practices. Currently reform advocates push for program change to occur, while voicing minimal concern for the often obsolete and shabby physical environments of the schools where the program improvement is to evolve. With these problems representing the educational need, the specific purpose of this study was to determine how school architectural design factors might influence student achievement scores in elementary schools. A total of seven design factors were found to correlate with student learning outcomes. [Author's abstract]

Class Size and Student Performance: A Framework for Policy Analysis.
Addonizio, Michael F.; Phelps, James L.
Journal of Education Finance; v26 n2 , p135-56 ; Summer-Fall 2000
A survey of one national and three statewide studies (in Tennessee, Texas, and Alabama) of class-size achievement effects revealed no consistent pattern across various subjects and grade levels. However, smaller classes can improve student achievement, particularly in early grades and when teacher quality remains constant. (Contains 36 footnotes.)

The Costs and Benefits of Smaller Classes in Wisconsin: A Further Evaluation of the SAGE Program Adobe PDF
Hruz, Thomas
Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Reports; v13 n9 , 47p. ; Sep 2000
When it comes to improving academic achievement, class size reductions achieved through the Wisconsin Student Achievement Guarentee in Education (SAGE) program have not been as significant as is commonly argued and assumed. This study found that smaller classes in the second and third grades had a minimal impact; African-American students in smaller second and third grade classes in particular did not gain relative to their gains made in the first grade or in regular-sized classrooms; smaller classes appear to not have any effect on students who are not African-American; the actual magnitude of the gains experienced by students in SAGE are, on average, relatively meager.

Disparities in Public School Financial Support.
Ritchey, David
School Business Affairs; v66 n9 , p29-30,32-36 ; Sep 2000
Shifts in state funding, improved school facilities, and changes in other measurable resources do not lead directly to improved student achievement. Choice may be exacerbating existing disparities. School business officials can expect increased pressures to provide more parental choice opportunities and innovative funding solutions.

How Educational Design Enhances the Learning Process.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v3 n6 , p20-22 ; Sep-Oct 2000
Discusses designing schools that blend intense educational planning with school architecture and the notion of shared school and community facilities. Additionally discussed are differences between urban and rural school designs, technology in school design, differences in design requirements of foreign schools, and the direction of the school design industry.

Place and Space in the Design of New Learning Environments. Adobe PDF
Jamieson, Peter; Fisher, Kenn; Gilding, Tony; Taylor, Peter; Trevitt, A.C.F.
Higher Education Research and Development; v19 n2 , p221-237 ; Jul 2000
Highlights examples of recent developments of new learning environments which have been enhanced by the contribution of educational developers at several Australian universities. A set of pedagogically-informed principles to guide the development of on-campus teaching and learning environments are detailed. These principals emphasize flexibility of space, use of vertical space, integration of previously discrete campus functions, and design to maximize user access, control and alignment of curricula. Includes 26 references.

Jungle Gym or Brain Gym. Playgrounds Can Improve Academic Readiness.
Parks and Recreation; v35 n6 , p84-91 ; Jun 2000
A well-developed playground in a park or school setting can greatly enhance childen's overall development, making playgrounds more than just fun. Playgrounds offer children opportunities to develop physically, mentally, and socially, improving academic readiness as well as overall health. The paper discusses the importance of movement, how children develop movement through play, and how physical and mental strength develop.

Does Your Facility Promote Educational Success?
McGovern, Matthew
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p35,38,40,42 ; May 2000
Explains that schools must be maintained to ensure children have a good environment in which to learn and explores the following three components affecting a learning environment: site improvements; building shell; and interior spaces and systems. A building assessment form is included.

Progressive Designs for New Curricula.
Turner, William A.; Belida, Loren; Johnson, William C.
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p58-59 ; May 2000
Explores how school building design influences the success of children in preparing for the future. Considerations when renovating and upgrading school design to enhance learning are discussed, including issues of sustainability, collaboration, lighting, and ventilation.

New Standards Should Help Children in Noisy Classrooms
Dunne, Diane Weaver
Education World; , 7p. ; Apr 17, 2000
Recognizes the challenge that noisy classrooms present to students and teachers, reviews obstacles that have muddled or masked the problem, and reviews standards and organizations that are helping to ameliorate the situation. Offers links to additional online resources about noise and classroom acoustics as well as links to related articles.

High School Size: Effects on Budgets and Performance in New York City.
Stiefel, Leanna; Berne, Robert; Iatarola, Patrice; Fruchter, Norm
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis; v22 n1 , p27-39 ; Spring 2000
Combines budget and performance information to study the effects of high school size. Suggests that since small high schools are more effective for minority and poor students, and the budget per student is found to be similar for small and large schools, policymakers might support the creation of more small high schools.

A Well Designed School Environment Facilitates Brain Learning
Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth
Educational Facility Planner; v35 n3 , p12-15 ; 2000
Examines how school designs can facilitate learning by offering environments that complement the way students actually learn. Discusses mechanisms for learning and ways that learning can be supported through an artistic environment, spacious learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments. School design suggestions conclude the article.

Nature's Design Rules.
Reicher, Dan
Learning By Design; n9 , p16-18 ; 2000
Discusses school design considerations for energy-efficient schools that provide learning environments that lead to improved student performance. Design myths are addressed as are use of daylighting and designing schools that can teach students and adults about the importance of conserving energy and money. Two online resources are included.
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Lighting the School of the Future.
Clanton, Nancy
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1999
Discusses the Austin Independent School District's (Texas) school redesign efforts to allow more daylight in its schools, increase the students' comfort and productivity, and lower utility costs. Return on investment potential from savings in maintenance, replacement, and productivity of the school are highlighted.

How Small Schools Increase Student Learning (and What Large Schools Can Do About It).
Cushman, Kathleen
Principal; v79 n2 , p20 ; Nov 1999
As research continues to show that bigger schools are not necessarily better, educators are finding innovative ways to shrink them.

Color: An Unsuspected Influence
Scargall, Hollie
Library Talk; v12 n5 , p11-12 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Discusses appropriate use of colors in school libraries and the ways that color affects learning, behavior, and mood. Also examines the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes of a space and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories.

Schools as Place: Research Increasingly Links Building Conditions to Student Achievement.
SHW Concepts; Oct 1999
Research in the field is bringing to light the impact school facilities have on student achievement.

Impact on Learning Award, 1999.
Edwards, Tom
School Planning and Management; v38 n10 , p39, 40, 42 ; Oct 1999
Presents the 10 educational facility award winners of the Impact on Learning Award for 1999 and explains the ways they demonstrate how real-world problems can be solved with innovative design. The design challenge facing each facility and a critique of how it was met accompanies each entry.

Making an Impact.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n1 , p16-17,20,22,24,26 ; Sep 1999
Argues that school classroom design affects learning and advocates that planners can look at students' developmental needs and the curriculum in order to redesign and expand classrooms to fit those needs and requirements. Different lighting effects on students are examined as are classrooms without walls and building flexibility into space design. Final comments explore redesigning schools as centers of community.

Schools That Teach: A Blueprint for the Millennium
Stanton, Michael J.
USA Today; , 5p. ; Jul 1999
This discusses the updating of school building designs, citing examples of safe, well-designed, and stimulating classroom environments in Chicago, Washington, DC, San Francisco, and North Carolina.

Children's Behaviour and the Design of School Furniture.
Knight,Grenville; Noyes, Jan
Ergonomics; v42 n5 , p.747-760 ; May 1999
Compares the effects on children's behaviour and sitting position of traditional classroom furniture with a recently designed chair known as 'Chair 2000' and associated tables. It was found that children showed a modest but significant improvement in on-task behaviour and a marked change in sitting positions following the introduction of the newly-designed furniture. However, these benefits need to be considered in the light of polarized opinion for and against the new furniture, and a high level of reported incidence of back pain significantly related to the frequency of non-standard sitting. In the absence of radically redesigned furniture, it is suggested that children should be given more choice in their seating, and better guidance should be given to individuals involved in education in order to inform their decision-making about classroom furniture and the postural, anthropometric and orthopaedic aspects of sitting and related activities. [Authors' abstract]

Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.
School Planning and Management; v38 n2 , p64,65,68,69 ; Feb 1999
Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design that made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Four challenges are addressed: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure and flexible; and improving lighting in an urban school.

The Impact of Playground Design on the Play Behaviors of Children with Differing Levels of Physical Competence.
Barbour, Ann C.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly; v14 n1 , p75-98 ; 1999
Investigated the impact of the outdoor-learning environment on play behaviors and peer relationships of second graders with different levels of physical competence. Found that playground design influenced children's social- and physical-skill development by facilitating or constraining the strategies they used to manage their play with peers. A theoretical model for these interactions was developed.

A Study of Disparities among School Facilities in North Carolina: Effects of Race and Economic Status.
Burton, Ramona L.
Educational Policy; v13 , p280-295 ; 1999
This study examines the relationship between the physical state of elementary school facilities in North Carolina and the proportion of low-income and African-American children attending each schools. Finding suggest that as the proportion of low-income students increases (other things being the same) the condition of facilities worsens. However ironically, as the proportion of black students increases the condition of facilities appears to improve modestly. North Carolina's black and white children generally attend school buildings of equal quality. Yet a disparity exists between the maintenance of facilities where poor and nonpoor are educated. Whether this difference stems from discrimination or fiscal disparities, reflected by the ability of some districts to raise taxes, the need for equal educational facilities remains.

Classroom Learning Environments and Students' Approaches to Learning
Dart, Barry; Burnett, Paul; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Campbell, Jenny; Smith, David; McCrindle, Andrea
Learning Environments Research; v2 n2 p137-56 1999 ; v2 n2 , p137-56 ; 1999
Describes a study conducted at two Australian secondary schools that investigated relationships between perceptions of the classroom learning environment, approaches to learning, and self concept as a learner. Examines gender and age differences, describes measurement techniques used, and considers results of statistical analyses. (Contains 59 references.)

The Impact of Lecture Theatre Design on Learning Experience. Adobe PDF
Fleming, David; Storr, John
Facilities; v17 n7/8 , p231-236 ; 1999
Investigates the impact of lecture facilities on the student learning experience by examining student responses to three lecture halls. Students were invited to rate the importance of 16 lecture theatre components. Tables illustrate the responses for each component, along with demographic information for the respondents. 33 references are included.

How Educational Expenditures Relate to Student Achievement: Insights from Texas Elementary Schools
Harter, Elizabeth A.
Journal of Education Finance; v24 n3 , p281-302 ; Winter 1999
Examines detailed school spending and achievement data for over 2,800 Texas elementary schools for 1992-93. A school's student poverty rate is the most important factor influencing student performance. Results emphasize the importance of spending for exemplary teaching, basic supplies, and maintenance. Certain expenditures correlate with lower student performance. (20 footnotes)

Constructing a Learning Environment That Scaffolds Science Inquiry in First Grade
McGonigal, Judith A.
Learning Environments Research; v2 n1 , p21-41 ; 1999
Describes how students, parents, and teachers identified specific characteristics of a classroom learning environment that provided a scaffold for first graders to engage in science inquiry. Discusses the physical environment, material resources, social interactions, intrapersonal habits of engagement in learning, and the co-participation by students and teachers. (Contains 45 references.)

Impact of Space and Color in the Physical Environment on Preschool Children’s Cooperative Behavior
Read, M. A.; Sugawara, A. I.; Brandt, J. A.
Environment and Behavior; v31 n3 , p413-428 ; 1999
Design elements within child care facilities are thought to have important effects on children's behavior. Empirical studies that examine features of the physical environment, such as color, wall surfaces, and vertical space, and how they affect development are sparse. Using Gibson's Ecological Theory of Visual Perception, this study investigated the impact that differentiated space, including changes in ceiling height and wall color, has on children's cooperative behavior.

Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v2 n1 , p85-86 ; Jan 1999
Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project to energize a campus. It explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present.

Building Schools That Enhance Learning.
American School and University; v71 n3 , p. 275-276 ; Nov 1998
It is a daunting task to determine how learning is affected by physical factors such as building age, visual factors and lighting. To make the task more manageable, identify elements that affect the learning environment, such as: structural condition, size and capacity, environmental quality, safety and security, site location, and symbolic value and aesthetics.

The Brain and Well-Designed School Environments.
Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth F.
Classroom Leadership Online; v2 n3 ; Nov 1998
Explores how the environment affects learning, noting that these effects cannot be underestimated and that people learn faster in challenging, creative, accommodating, and healthy environments. Related topics discussed include energy for learning, artistic environment, activity areas, color and light, and thermal and acoustical environments.

The Netherlands Study House: New Designs for New Pedagogies. Adobe PDF
Fisher, Kenn
PEB Exchange; n35 , p12-13 ; Oct 1998
Discusses the Netherland's approach to help students meet the basic competency requirements of employers and tertiary institutions. The new pedagogical approach, called Study House, integrates a nontraditional curriculum delivery that fosters students working in teams and setting their own tasks within an innovative classroom design.

Building for Learning: School Facilities and School Reform
SEDLetter [Southwest Educational Development Laboratory News]; v10, n4 ; Sep 1998
This edition of SEDLetter looks at some of the challenges of matching school facilities design, construction, or renovation to the goals and values of people in schools and communities. Constructing Knowledge by Design draws on the expertise of SEDL staff and of two Texas districts to discuss five principles of facilities design in light of principles of good teaching and learning. Financing Alternatives Call for Flexibility, Creativity briefly examines some financing options for districts. Corridors for Change tells how some Texas schools are putting comprehensive school reform models into practice and into their existing facilities. TAPping into Technology" describes SEDL's new program to work with teachers to integrate technology into learning environments that engage students. Resources You Can Use points out some facilities-related resources available on-line and in print.

Constructing Knowledge by Design.
Blair, Leslie
SEDLetter [Southwest Educational Development Laboratory]; v10 n4 , 9p. ; Sep 1998
Despite the financial challenges the need for new schools presents, new school design provides the opportunity to improve the educational environment by using the school building as a tool for positive change. This article distills recent information on facilities design and provides insight on some of the issues impacting facility design.

Design Matters: How School Environment Affects Children
Hebert, Elizabeth A.
Educational Leadership; v56 n1 , p69-70 ; Sep 1998
The organization of space profoundly affects learning. Students feel better connected to a building that anticipates their needs and respects them as individuals. Built in 1971, Crow Island School, in Winnetka, Illinois, is a prize-winning facility that has provided generations of children with windowed classrooms, skylights, adjacent workrooms, courtyard access, and spacious hallways.

The Effect of School Size on Exam Performance in Secondary Schools
Bradley, Steve; Taylor, Jim
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; v60 n3 , p271-325 ; Aug 1998
Examines the effects of school size on exam performance for pupils in their final year of compulsory education in England. Background information about English secondary schools and the determinants of exam performance are discussed along with a description of the variables used in the econometric analysis and their expected effects on exam performance.

An Integrated Approach to Interior Master Planning: How Place Communicates and Affects Mission.
Worthington, Beth
Facilities Manager; v14 n2 , p11-17 ; Mar-Apr 1998
Discusses the importance of the physical environment of colleges and universities in communicating the school's mission and promoting its academic reputation. Lists elements addressed and the objectives met by the interior master plan. Includes five illustrative charts.

School Grounds Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; n33 , p11-14 ; Feb 1998
Describes the direct effect between the way school grounds are designed and managed, and the behavior and attitudes of the pupils. Discusses several countries' initiatives regarding school grounds, the "Learning through Landscape Trust" program of the United Kingdom, and findings from a conference regarding the importance of school grounds in education.

A Blueprint for Change. A Learner-Focused Curriculum Drove the Design of Minnesota's Chaska High School
Sabo, Sandra R.
Techniques: Making Education and Career Connections; v73 n2 , 16-19 ; Feb 1998
The state-of-the-art Chaska High School in Minnesota has an environment that epitomizes learner-focused, self-directed, technologically advanced learning. It focuses on the "house" or school-within-a-school concept.

Cost, Design and Climate: Building a Learning Environment
Maiden, Jeffrey; Foreman, Bill A.
School Business Affairs; v64 n1 , p40-44 ; Jan 1998
Research has shown that a school building's condition affects student achievement and behavior and that certain facility design elements can improve the learning climate. An ideal CDC (cost-design-climate) associative environment has a balanced interrelationship among the three elements. Unnecessarily emphasizing one or more elements may seriously compromise intended results. Facility design components (lighting, ceilings, floors, and other elements) are discussed.

Solitaire Confinement: The Impact of the Physical Environment on Computer Training.
McDermott, Irene E.
Computers in Libraries; v18 n1 , p22,24-27 ; Jan 1998
Institutions spend millions of dollars on computer training rooms yet give little thought to lighting, temperature, ambient noise, furniture arrangement, and other physical factors that affect learning. This article examines some problems and suggests remedies: changing furniture, controlling monitors, and redesigning rooms. Lists selected computer-training hardware and software suppliers and products.

Architecture Can Teach
Taylor, Anne; Aldrich, Robert A.; Vlastos, George
In Context; n18 , p31 ; Winter 1998
Since 1972 Taylor and Vlastos have been studying the effects of learning environments on the behavior and learning of children. This discusses the contention that school environments have a largely untapped potential as active contributors to the learning process, and that every teacher, administrator and child is a potential designer.

Architecture for the Whole Child: Celebrating Change!
Baker, Bartlett J.
Schools in the Middle; v7 n2 , 22-27 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Argues well-designed middle schools support the physical, social, cognitive, and emotional changes students experience. Promotes a design that is a hybrid of the home-based, child-centered elementary model and the elective-based, campus high school model. Focuses on enabling cross-curriculum, interdisciplinary team instruction in smaller, clustered student groupings.

Making the Best Decisions: Designing for Excellence!
Bullock, Ann Adams; Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.
Schools in the Middle; v7 n2 , p.37-39,60-61 ; Nov 1997
The authors suggest that classrooms must provide an appropriately stimulating environment that supports learning and provides teachers and students with a comfortable place to learn. Lists requisite factors of the school environment including furniture, aesthetics, color, carpet, building maintenance, decorating detail, comfort, space/design, lighting, classroom elements, instructional items, and professional items. According to the authors, color is the least expensive investment and the fastest change agent available.

Managing Schools Better: Educating From the Heart!
White-Hood, Marian
Schools in the Middle; v7 n2 , 40-42 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Argues middle schools must focus on students in its space, textures, color, furnishings and materials used to address academic and emotional needs. Describes Kettering Middle School's mission to accomplish this goal by providing small learning communities, mentoring, opportunities for parental involvement, innovative instructional approaches, and a model of respect.

Chronic Noise Exposure and Reading Deficits: The Mediating Effects of Language Acquisition.
Evans, Gary; Maxwell, Lorraine
Environment and Behavior; v29 n5 , p638-656 ; Sep 1997
Reports that first- and second-grade children chronically exposed to aircraft noise have significant deficits in reading as indexed by a standardized reading test administered under quiet conditions. Also discussed is evidence that the adverse correlation of chronic noise with reading is partially attributable to deficits in language acquisition. Children chronically exposed to noise also suffer from impaired speech perception, which, in turn, partially mediates the noise-exposure-reading deficit link.

Parents Speak Out: What Should Schools & Classrooms Look Like?
Foster-Harrison, Elizabeth S.; Peel, Henry A.
Schools in the Middle; v7 n1 , p.42-47 ; Sep-Oct 1997
Examines attributes of middle level classrooms and schools perceived by parents as inviting, and attributes related to student behavior and achievement. Notes that inviting schools/classrooms are characterized by a clean, neat building, student work displays, and pleasant wall colors. Environmental features that parents believe are related to student behavior and achievement include appropriate furniture, learning centers, and manual temperature control.

Have You Heard? Noise Can Effect Learning!
Hopkins, Gary
Education World; Jul 18, 1997
A handful of research studies confirm that noise has a negative effect on a child's ability to learn. Also, "noise education" should be part of the school curriculum; kids should know how to protect their ears from harm.

The Best Possible Environment for the Most Productive Learning
Earthman, Glen I.
School Business Affairs; v63 n7 , p21-24 ; Jul 1997
There has been no significant legal action to force states or localities to equalize school facilities, despite U.S. public education's equal treatment philosophy. Another facilities issue is provision for access to the latest technology. Strategic planning can help educators create a positive learning environment by maintaining and improving existing facilities, and raising necessary funding.

Classroom Design and How It Influences Behavior
Colbert, Judith
Early Childhood News; v9 n3 , p22-29 ; May-Jun 1997
Presents suggestions for organizing the early childhood classroom, focusing on play unit assessment and creating accessible areas that hold children's interest. Discusses how classroom design influences teacher behavior, children's independence, and social interaction. Examines the connection between classroom design and developmental and program goals, children's play, and educational philosophy. Presents tips and resources for effective classroom design

Designing New Schools: The Race for Space
Firlik, Russ
Principal; v76 n4 , p.38-41 ; Mar 1997
Research shows that for effective learning to occur, children must be actively involved. They need space to work with a wide variety of materials, share ideas, and present their findings. Architects are working to produce designs featuring large common areas or large complexes devoted to specific interests. Working in an open environment encourages discussion, cooperation, and experimentation.

The Impact of School Buildings on Student Achievement and Behavior
Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda
PEB Exchange; n30 , p11-15 ; Feb 1997
Examines the school building's impact on student performance and behavior in 15 categories followed by a synthesis of findings from four studies demonstrating a relationship between student achievement and behavior and the condition of the built environment. Thermal environment, lighting, adequate space, and availability of equipment and furnishings are deemed particularly influential in affecting student performance and behavior.

Environment Tied to Successful Learning.
Cash, Carol S.; et al.
School Planning and Management; v36 n1 , p12-14 ; Jan 1997
Technology available to schools includes a broad spectrum of voice, data and video equipment. Planners need to consider the following subsystems individually and collectively: (1) technology-based products; (2) communications and power distribution to support the equipment; and (3) ergonomics, lighting, acoustics, environmental controls, and fire-safety.

Pictures at an Exhibition.
Kunz, Walter S., Jr.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n2 , p5+ ; 1997
Describes the Youth Art Month exhibit in Howard County (Maryland) where students submitted their art focusing on school buildings and their interiors. Their art reveals concerns and desires about overcrowding, space utilization, school building height, outside lighting, solitude needs, and visual stimulation. The artwork is discussed in terms of the importance of learning environments and future facilities planning.

School Is Like an Ant's Nest: Spatiality and Embodiment in Schools.
Gordon, Tuula; Lahelma, Elina
Gender and Education; v8 n3 , p301-10 ; Oct 1996
The significance of a school's physical environment is explored through a discussion of a metaphor used by some students in a study in Finland and England in which students characterized their schools. The "ant's nest" metaphor communicates the lack of spatial and embodied autonomy that students experience in school.

Fitting New Technologies into Traditional Classrooms: Two Case Studies in the Design of Improved Learning Facilities
Green, Edward E.; et al.
Educational Technology; v36 n4 , p27-38 ; Jul-Aug 1996
Examines research on the influence of classroom design on student learning attitudes and behavior and presents two case studies on the remodeling of five classrooms in two high schools to accommodate new instructional technology for teaching algebra. Highlights include lighting, color, surface materials, noise, climate control, and seating.

Designing Classroom Spaces: Making the Most of Time
Tegano, Deborah W.; And Others
Early Childhood Education Journal; v23 n3 , p135-41 ; Spring 1996
Summarizes three studies on the effects of physical environment on preschool children's play and cognitive development, and discusses implications for classroom design. Notes that size of play area, and the extent to which the size of structures in that area was proportional to children's size, affected the rate at which children entered complex play.

Landscape for Learning: The Impact of Classroom Design on Infants and Toddlers. Adobe PDF
Torelli, Louis; Currett, Charles
Early Childhood News; v8 n2 , p12-17 ; Mar-Apr 1996
Offers guidelines for a developmentally designed environment for infants and toddlers. Notes that a developmentally designed classroom environment supports children's individual and social development; encourages exploration, focused play, and cooperation; provides choices for children that support self-directed learning; and supports the caregiver-child relationship.

Elementary School Student Capacity: What Size Is the Right Size?
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n4 , p10-14 ; 1996
Discusses and analyzes the relationship between school size and student achievement in South Carolina elementary schools. Schools with high student achievement were determined by the winners of the South Carolina Department of Education cash incentive award -- an award based upon student gains and standardized test scores. Contrary to popular opinion, results show smaller is not necessarily better when it comes to learning. The bigger schools were more likely than the smaller schools to show higher student achievement. Similarly, smaller schools were more likely to be "dysfunctional" than the bigger schools. However, while a positive relationship between size and achievement did exist, the relationship was not strong. Socioeconomic status seemed to be an intervening variable.

Learning Modalities: Facility Design Impacts on Performance.
Hill, Franklin
Educational Facility Planner; v33 n4 , p.8-9 ; 1996
Describes how educational facility design impacts learning style needs that act as the basis for cognitive learning. Recommends involving cognitive learning specialists, interior environmental planners, and creative engineering personnel in the planning and design process to enhance learning, maximize technology use, and improve educational outcome of students.

Early Nineteenth Century School Space and Ideology
Markus, Thomas A.
Paedagogica Historica; v32 n1 , p9-50 ; 1996
Articulates the ideological and social relationships reinforced by the spatial design of urban children's schools in the early 19th century. Describes the purpose and function of the four types of schools: Sunday, monitorial, infant, and workhouse. Includes numerous illustrations from a variety of sources.

Restructuring and the Physical Context: Designing Learning Environments.
Huse, Donna
Children's Environments; v12 n3 , p10-42 ; Sep 1995
Discusses how the educational restructuring movement of the 1980s and 1990s affected the relation of teachers and learners to the physical context of learning: how people are located, related to each other, move, speak, and use their bodies. The movement from a disciplinary to a meaning-centered pedagogy is described. Successful models of educational reform dispense with the homogeneous space designed for large groups engaged in uniform behavior. Order, once achieved by isolating, silencing, immobilizing, monitoring, and rating individuals, is now sought in sustained relationships and commitment to shared meaningful projects. The new sources of order permit amenities once prohibited: conversation, freedom of movement, comfort of the body, enhancement of relations to family and community, independent activity, responsibility for performance. Includes 33 references. Free registration required.

Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance
Hathaway, Warren E.
Journal of Educational Research; v88 n4 , p228-42 ; Mar-Apr 1995
This study collected data on the physical development, attendance, and school performance effects of four types of school lighting on elementary students over a two-year period. Results indicated that regular exposure to the lights had important nonvisual effects on students. Full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet supplements were found to be the most beneficial.

School Size and Student Outcomes.
Fowler, William
Advances in Educational Productivity; v5 , p3-26 ; Jan 1995
Reviews literature examining the relationship between secondary school size and student achievement. A variety of sources spanning thirty years are summarized, and their findings on the effect of school size on student attitude, achievement, non-academic participation, and dropout rate compared. Includes 44 references.

Space, Education, and Socialization.
Peatross, Frieda; Peponis, John
Journal of Architectural and Planning Research; v12 n4 , p367-385 ; Winter 1995
Examines the question of whether the layout and use of architectural space plays a pedagogical role by impacting social interaction and discourse in educational institutions. The idea that the configuration of space can affect the spatial pattern of socialization and generate pedaogical tensions and shifts is illustrated through case studies of two design schools: The Atlanta College of Art and the Georgia Tech College of Architecture.

Breaking New Ground.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v67 n1 , p.40-42 ; Sep 1994
Community School's ambitious study aims to measure how the building environment affects learning and behavior.

Architecture's Impact on Learning
Christopher, Gaylaird
School Administrator; v51 n6 , p14-18 ; Jun 1994
Recent studies show that built environment is a key element in a school's overall success. Since today's educators promote a thinking-based, integrated curriculum, the learning environment is especially important. Landscape architects can create ecosystems for students to explore, study, and adapt. Structural engineers can create lessons in physics, geometry, and stress analysis, illustrating plutonic principles in a meaningful way.

Future School Facility Design: Clues from Emerging Definitions of Teaching and Learning Plus New Thoughts about Learning Organizations
Keck, Dan
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n3 ; May-Jun 1994
When looking at future school facility design, the lesson to be learned, according to the author, is that planners "need to pay as much attention to the direction in which the educational organization is evolving, as to the direction in which the instructional pedagogy is evolving." It is just as important to learn what is going on in a school's organizational space as it is to learn what is going on in the teaching space; knowledge of the latter alone is not enough. Planners need an understanding on the instructional side of three basics which he describes: 1. the effective learner; 2. the effective teacher; and 3. the effective organization. He then describes five organizational trends which he believes are impacting learning environments: 1. hierarchical to hetrarachical; 2. linear to mutual causality; 3. mechanical to holographic; 4. assembly to morphogenisis; 5. determinant to indeterminant.

Classroom Environment and Student Affective Performance: An Effective Profile
Journal of Experimental Education; v62 n3 , p221-39 ; Spring 1994
The relationships between student affective performance and classroom physical environment, social climate, and management style were studied for 21,622 students, mostly sixth graders, in Hong Kong. Perceived quality of physical environment and class master's expert, personal, and coercive power were the strongest predictors of affective performance.

Learning Environments for the Twenty-First Century.
Taylor, Anne; Warden, Michael G.
Curriculum in Context; v22 n1 , p12-14 ; Spring-Summer 1994
Discusses how the revolution in education demands the rethinking of school facilities. Emphasizes the importance of listening to the clients (students and teachers) when designing a new school, and outlines the potential that schools have to become intergenerational community centers. Focuses on the environment in facilitating learning.

Emergent Educational Facility Planning Issues. What Are They? How Are They Dealt With?
Hathaway, Warren E.
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n4 ; 1994
The planning and design of educational facilities is impacted by developments in information technology and telecommunications. Potentials for improving education, the realities facing educational facilities planners, and achieving these potentials are examined. Planning principles followed by the influences educational facilities may have on learning are outlined. (Contains 9 references.)

The Learning Environment as a Three-Dimensional Textbook.
Taylor, Anne
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p104-117 ; Dec 1993
Describes how learning environments can be more educationally and optimally useful if the architecture of the built, natural, and cultural environments are used as teaching tools. Discusses how structures and the surrounding landscape can be used to teach physics, geometry, and other disciplines, enabling students to learn how to evaluate the environment. Includes ten references.

A Model for Building Condition and Student Achievement and Behavior
Cash, Carol S.
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1993
Based on business studies concluding that a better environment is related to higher production and greater employee satisfaction and on research conducted in schools, the author has constructed a theoretical model for use in schools. Developed to show the relationship between school physical environment and student variable outcomes this model can be applied to any school, thus enabling school leaders to make informed decisions which would potentially affect student behavior and achievement. Topics addressed include: Leadership and Financial Ability; Maintenance and Custodial Staff; Direct Effects (lighting, acoustics, climate control, color, density); and Indirect Effects Through Attitude. Model diagram and references are included.

Building Conditions, Parental Involvement, and Student Achievement in the District of Columbia Public School System.
Berner, Maureen M.
Urban Education; v28 n1 , p6-29 ; Apr 1993
Little research has been done on the need to repair and refurbish school buildings because of the impact that the condition of buildings has on the students, rather than just the need to maintain local government's capital investment. This study uses Washington, DC, as a case study showing that the size of a public school's Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) budget is positively related to the school building 's condition. The condition is, in turn, shown to be statistically related to the student's academic achievement. An improvement in the school's condition by one category, say from poor to fair. is associated with a 5.5 point improvement in average academic achievement scores. [Author's abstract]

The Columbine School: A Principal Reflects on the Influence of School Design.
Galvin, Michael
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p81-87 ; 1993
Explores the interplay between various educational and environmental factors associated with this elementary school's design. The design was originally intended to create support for a bond issue that would allow the school to be built, to promote an exciting "tree house" feeling in each classroom, and to encourage a feeling of integration with the surrounding environment. In the five years since the school was built, the design has exerted a continuing influence on educational programs, activities and events. This paper presents examples of some of the recent issues that demonstrate the persistent and often prevailing influence of design on school climate and function.

School Design: Crisis, Educational Performance and Design Applications.
Moore, Gary; Lackney, Jeffrey
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p1-22 ; 1993
Explores the relationship between educational outcomes and the architectural design of educational facilities. Following a brief review of the crisis in school buildings in the United States, an attempt is made to clarify the issues involved in the research literature bearing on the relationship between educational performance and school facilities and to critically review some of that literature. Two physical environmental factors are found that directly impact academic achievement in elementary schools (school size and classroom size) and another two that impact "non-achievement" behaviors (location and secluded study spaces). Two of the 27 design patterns developed in response to these findings are presented and discussed. Includes 49 references.

Changing the Architecture of Teachers' Minds.
Nelson, Doreen; Sundt, Jule
Children's Environments; v10 n2 , p88-103 ; 1993
Presents a collection of case studies that point toward the vital importance of multi-use architecture in the not-as-yet-realized symbiosis between architects and educators. The article argues that only architects as teachers, and teachers as architects, can begin to educate young minds to hypothesize, envision and invent the future instead of replicate it. It also underlines the fact that the classroom talked about, dreamt of, and designed with students and colleagues does not yet exist. Includes nine references. Free registration required.

Redesigning Schools: Architecture and School Restructuring.
Goldberg, Bruce, Ed.
Radius; v3 n1 , 16p ; Apr 1991
School architecture should be redesigned to match the vision for overall school restructuring. After explaining the need for improving educational facilities, this document describes the role of environmental variables in motivating and assessing improved student performance. The relationships between the environment and social attitudes and between the environment and future demographic, safety, and health concerns are mentioned and restructuring is defined as both product and process. Next, the conventional design process, in which the architect is the primary designer, is compared with the collaborative design process that involves educators, administrators, and community members in the building design. The "interactive environment,""learning community," and "activity appropriate environment" are described as constructs that need architectural expression. Three successful collaborative design projects are described: (1) The design of the Saturn School in St. Paul, Minnesota; (2) the physical redesigning of Hammond Public Schools in Indiana; and (3) the Saturn Project in Florida that led to the construction of 49 new schools. Last, questions regarding the process, design, implementation, and evaluation of school construction that fits restructuring visions are addressed.

Effect of Architecture on Education
Christopher, Gaylaird
Educational Facility Planner; v29 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1991
Christopher explores the effect of school buildings on education. Although a quality building cannot make up for a poor curriculum, an exceptional environment can improve a program's implementation and inspire its users to perform better. An school building design should be an extension of its educational program, and create an environmentally friendly environment for students and teachers.

Young Children's Preferences for School-Related Physical-Environmental Setting Characteristics.
Cohen, Stewart; Trostle, Susan
Environment and Behavior; v22 n6 , p753-766 ; Nov 1990
The hypothesis of this research study is that children are influenced by such environmental characteristics as color, shapes, light, and the complexity of their surroundings. The study reports that the test results as related to color, multidimensional shapes, brighter lighting combinations, and more detailed use of scenic arrangements were very significant for the study participants.

Psychological Aspects of Classroom Planning
White, Ernest K.
CEFP Journal; v28 n5 ; Sep-Oct 1990
The physical environment has a psychological impact on teachers and students; and consequently, on teaching and learning. Shape, size, arrangement and decor of the room can be inviting or repulsive and can affect communication, sight, and hearing. A carefully designed classroom includes specific elements to maximize learning and minimize those factors that are detrimental to health and comfort. Elements to be considered include spatial relationships, climate control, visual and acoustical environments including colors of walls, floors, etc. Surface finish and colors not only affect psychological attitude, but significantly alleviate or worsen glare as a cause of fatigue and poor learning environment.

Contributions to an Empirical Phenomenology of School Architecture.
Rittelmeyer, Christian
Zeitschrift fur Padagogik; v36 n4 , p495-522 ; Jul 1990
Examines how architectural forms affect the inner sensual system, presenting several studies looking at the influence of school architecture on student perception and reaction. Describes empirical investigations that attempt to identify how an observer physiologically responds to elements in architectural design. Includes graphs and architectural sketches.

The Physical Environment of the College Classroom and its Affects on Students.
Griffin, Tim
Campus Ecologist; v8 n1 ; 1990
This article investigates the impact of a variety of physical attributes on student behavior in the college classroom. Skinner's commonly accepted assumption among person-environment interaction theorists that "a person does not (primarily) act upon the world, the world acts upon him (or her) (Conyne, 1975) is taken as a given for the purposes of this discussions as is Moos' s (1987) position that there are a certain amount of similarities between residential and classroom settings.

The Physical Environment of Art Classrooms: A Basis for Effective Discipline
Susi, Frank D.
Art Education; v42 n4 , p37-43 ; Jul 1989
Looks at the impact of the classroom environment on student emotions and behavior, offering suggestions for using the physical features of the environment to calm or stimulate students. Shows how the factors of environmental arousal, classroom robustness, and spatial settings may be used to create art classrooms that minimize chances for confusion, distraction, and misbehavior.

Research and Application: Non-Traditional Instructional Space
Rydeen, James E.
Educational Facility Planner; v27 n3 ; May-Jun 1989
Whether a facility is a traditional or open-space classroom design, there is impact upon learning, behavior and a sense of pride (ownership, belonging, comfort). School size, space and density, climate, lighting, acoustics and color play major roles in learning and in behavioral reactions of both students and teachers. When students feel welcome (impact of color, compact openness) vandalism and graffiti are minimized.

Cathedral of Culture: The Schoolhouse in American Educational Thought and Practice Since 1820.
Cutler, William W., III
History of Education Quarterly; v29 n1 , p1-40 ; Spring 1989
Discusses the importance of the school building in U.S. education from 1820 to the present. Notes that the schoolhouse became a representation of U.S. cultural values and ideals. Explores how this reverence for the place of learning has affected and been affected by educational change.

Effects of Physical and School Environment on Students and Faculty
Bowers, J. Howard; Burkett, Charles W.
Educational Facility Planner; v27 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1989
This article reports on a research study to determine if the physical environment of the school was related to student achievement, attendance, behavior, and self-concept. Two schools, one modern and one older facility, in one school system in Upper East Tennessee were used in the study. In all hypotheses there were found to be significant differences between the effects of the modern school and the older school. Students in the modern facility scored higher in achievement, had better attendance, fewer incidences of disciplinary action, and higher self-concepts as measured on the Piers-Harris Children's self-concept scale.

Effects of Preschool Environments on Nonverbal Social Behavior
Burgess, J.W.; Fordyce, W.K.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines; v30 n2 , 261-276 ; 1989
Toddler's interpersonal distances to teachers and classmates change with environmental density, classroom design, and parent-child interactions.

The Interface between Facilities and Learning
Hawkins, Harold L.; Overbaugh, Betty Lightfoot
Educational Facility Planner; v26 n4 , p.4-7 ; Jul-Aug 1988
In-depth observations in three American schools and three Japanese schools for the Interface Project revealed six major areas of interface between facilities and student learning. The interface profile is presented.

The Ecology of Learning Environments for Children.
Taylor, Anne; Gousie, Gene
Educational Facility Planner; v26 n4 , p.23-28 ; Jul-Aug 1988
The authors claim that the architecture and physical setting of most schools in the United States is in deplorable condition, often outmoded and based on designs and philosophies of yesteryear. The revolution in education demands the rethinking of the architecture. The School Zone Institute has developed a process used to bring together all elements that should be considered in designing educational facilities. Appended are 44 references.

Light and Color Research Finalized
Sydoriak, Diane E.
CEFP Journal; v25 n3 ; May-Jun 1987
This article describes research conducted in the North Little Rock School District on the effect of color and lighting conditions on student health and achievement. The researchers found that students in classrooms with blue walls had lower blood pressure than students in classrooms with white walls. Furthermore, teachers reported less behavior problems in the blue classrooms. No effect was found on student achievement

School Facilities and Pupils' Academic Achievement.
Mwamwenda, Tuntufye S.; Mwamwenda, Bernadette B.
Comparative Education; v23 n2 , p225-35 ; 1987
Interviews with head teachers gathered information to study the relationship between academic achievement and variables such as availability of classrooms, furniture, and books in Botswana primary schools. In contrast to some studies carried out in the West, research supported the view that school facilities are integral to academic achievement.

Light Up Their Lives: A Review of Research on the Effects of Lighting on Children's Achievement and Behavior
Dunn, Rita; And Others
Reading Teacher; v38 n9 , p863-69 ; May 1985
Cites research showing individual reactions to bright and dim light in the classroom. Shows individual susceptibility to extreme negativism in inappropriate lighting conditions and suggests that students' predispositions for illumination be identified. Notes that restless, fidgety youngsters should be placed into softly lit sections, with the procedure reversed for listless, unresponsive ones.

Evaluating the Effect of Image on the Success of a Facility
Lilley, H. Edward
CEFP Journal; v23 n3 , p7-9 ; May-Jun 1985
Both the design and image have an effect upon the success of an educational facility in that they affect motivation for both teaching and learning. The components of image include nondeceptive appearance, information availibility, logical location, attractiveness, personality, and human needs. Seven references are provided.

Distraction, Privacy, and Classroom Design.
Ahrentzen, Sherry; Evans, Gary
Environment and Behavior; v16 n4 , p437-452 ; Jul 1984
Examines the effect of elementary classroom environment on distraction and sense of privacy among teachers and students. Teacher adjustments to curriculum to prevent distraction, the effect of student private study areas, and explanations for different reactions from students and teachers are also discussed. Includes ten references.

Effects of School Architectural Design on Student and Teacher Anxiety.
Cotterell, John L.
Environment and Behavior; v16 n4 , p455-479 ; Jul 1984
Reports on junior high school student and teacher anxiety, which was higher in open-plan schools than in conventional plan schools. In the open plan schools, transition to new activities were more frequently needed and student off-task behavior was greater. Includes 35 references.

Environments and Interaction in Row-and-Column Classrooms.
MacPherson, J.
Environment and Behavior; v16 n4 , p481-502 ; Jul 1984
Reports findings of an ethnography of Australian high school stduents showing the importance of pupil definition of the classroom arrangement. These categories include control over classmates and teachers, sociability, and academic commitment. Includes 19 references.

Effects of Classroom Lighting on the Behavior of Exceptional Children
Fletcher, Donna
Exceptional Education Quarterly; v4 n2 , p75-89 ; Summer 1983
The effects of classroom lighting methods on activity level, achievement, visual acuity/fatigue, and health of nonhandicapped and handicapped students are reviewed. Effects of different levels of illumination on behavior also are discussed. Methodological deficiencies and lack of replication have resulted in few tenable conclusions.

Learning Environments: A Review of Physical and Temporal Factors.
Zentall, Sydney S.
Exceptional Education Quarterly; (Effects of the Physical Environment on Learning) ; v4 n2 , p90-115 ; Summer 1983
The impact of classroom stimuli, such as novelty, color, noise, and proximity to teacher or peers on both normal and exceptional children is reviewed. The relation between these sources of classroom stimulation and information sources (i.e., type of task and access to material, person, and role resources) is also discussed.

Research Review: Impact of Physical Environment on Academic Achievement of High School Youth
Burkhalter, Bettye B.
Educational Facility Planner; v21 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1983
Burkhalter reports on research involving high school students who were immersed in a high-tech vocational program at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center and students who participated in traditional career exploration programs at their respective vocational centers. Significantly greater growth in career awareness was reported for the youths in the experimental environment setting than those in the traditional setting.

Increasing Children's Use of Literature through Program and Physical Design Changes
Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Weinstein, Carol Simon
Elementary School Journal; v38 n2 , 131-37 ; Nov 1982
Results are reported from a study designed to determine whether children's use of literature during free-play time could be increased by implementing changes in the kindergarten classroom's program and physical design.

Inside School Spaces: Rethinking the Hidden Dimension.
Sitton, Thad
Urban Education; v15 n1 , p65-82 ; Apr 1980
Considers the spatial arrangements of public schools as culturally derived characteristics that reflect particular traditional expectations in regard to the learning process and teacher student interactions. Discusses fixed spatial arrangements as well as the territorial manipulation of school space by students.

The Physical Environment of the School: A Review of the Research.
Weinstein, Carol S.
Review of Educational Research; v49 n4 , p.577-610 ; Oct 1979
Research on the impact of classroom environment on student behavior, attitudes, and achievement is reviewed. The review is divided into three areas: environmental variables; ecological perspectives; and open space school designs. Research needs are discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of various research designs are summarized.

The Physical Form of the School
Evans, Kate
British Journal of Educational Studies; v27 n1 , p29-41 ; Feb 1979
From her study of traditional and open-plan British infant schools, the author shows how school buildings and playgrounds can express social and educational principles by controlling freedom of access; the destruction of defenses by open plan architecture being countered, on occasion, by creation of new defenses by teachers.

Location and Interaction in Row-and-Column Seating Arrangements.
Koneya, Mele
Environment and Behavior; v8 n2 , p265-282 ; Jun 1976
Reports on the connection between high- and low-verbalizing students and classroom seat selection, and the effect of seat location on students with moderate verbalizing behavior. Includes 26 references.

The Effect of Elevated Train Noise on Reading Ability.
Bronzaft, Arline; McCarthy, Dennis
Environment and Behavior; v7 n4 , p517-527 ; Dec 1975
Reports on reading scores for students in a New York City public school located near an elevated train. Scores for students on the noisy side of the building that faces the train lagged behind those for students on the quiet side, possibly due to lost teaching time when trains pass, and the fact that reading tests were administered in the same rooms. Includes ten references.

The Effect of Windowless Rooms and Unembellished Surroundings on Attitudes and Retention.
Tognoli, Jerome
Environment and Behavior; v5 n2 , p191-201 ; Jun 1973
Reports on higher education students' learning responses in various combinations of decorated and undecorated, windowed and windowless classrooms, containing both upholstered and unupholstered chairs. Includes 15 references.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).