NCEF Resource List: Indoor Air Quality in Schools
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Information on indoor air quality issues in school buildings, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, including building materials, maintenance practices, renovation procedures, and ventilation systems.

References to Books and Other Media

Are Schools Making Kids sick?
Martin, David S.
(CNN, Jan 16, 2012)
Reports on how school air is sickening students in schools. Describes a New York study that finds correlation between building maintenance and illness. Refers to studies that estimate one-third of U.S. schools have mold, dust and other indoor air problems. Profiles a Connecticut school that was so plagued with mold officials decided to tear it down. Provides five simple checkpoints for problems: mold; dust; idling buses; heating/air conditioning units; certified green cleaning products. Includes a video showing parents outrage when sickness shuts a school in the Bronx, New York.

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

EPA: Healthy School Environments Resources
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
These web pages are intended to serve as a gateway to on-line resources to help facility managers, school administrators, architects, design engineers, school nurses, parents, teachers and staff address environmental health issues in schools. Topics covered include chemical use and management; design, construction, and renovation; energy efficiency; facility operations and maintenance; indoor environmental quality; legislation and regulation; outdoor air pollution; portable classrooms; safety/preparedness; waste; and waste reduction.

EPA: IAQ Design Tools for Schools
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
Website developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help school districts and facility planners find the information resources they need to design new school facilities, and repair existing facilities. Topics include: high performance schools, school siting, pre-design, materials selection, HVAC, controlling pollutants, moisture control, construction, commissioning, operations and maintenance, renovation and repair, portable classrooms, IAQ Tools for Schools.

Improved Academic Performance. Student Health and Academic Performance: Using Research to Make the Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2012)
Provides links to research reports that link key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Includes the latest scientific data on indoor environmental quality, health and academic performance. Discusses why the physical environment of a school is important; what environmental factors are important and practical to address; and how much improvement can be expectec in academic performance and health.

Proximity of Public Elementary Schools to Major Roads in Canadian Urban Areas
Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; and Allen, Ryan W
(International Journal of Health Geographics , Dec 21, 2011)
Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads outside of the US. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances <75 m from major roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Conclusions: asubstantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children. [Authors' abstract]

Care for Their Air: Asthma Pilot Project for Head Start and Child Care Learning Settings
(Asthma Community Network, Oct 24, 2011)
Listen to Heidi LeSane and LaShon Blakely (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), Dorothy Mabry (Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families), Stephanie Hall (Georgia Department of Public Health) share their experiences working with Head Start and Child Care communities in two Georgia counties to better integrate asthma education into program activities. Learn how you can apply their best practices and resources to create effective partnerships with federal, state and local agencies and integrate asthma education into your local Head Start and Child Care programs. Includes a pdf of the presentation slides.

School Siting Guidelines.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Oct 02, 2011)
Voluntary school siting guidelines can help local school districts and community members evaluate environmental factors to make the best possible school siting decisions. Includes overview, environmental siting criteria considerations, environmental review process, evaluating impacts of nearby sources of air pollution, quick guide for environmnetal issues, and frequent questions.

Radon in Schools: What You Need to Know. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Aug 24, 2011)
Slides from a webinar that provided a basic overview of radon as an environmental health threat. Includes a practical look at how Colorado Springs School District 11 applied the IAQ Tools For Schools' Six Key Drivers to radon testing and mitigation. 61 slides

Absence Of Classroom Ventilation At A Large Pre-k To 12 School District: Classroom Measurements, Equipment Configuration, Technical Challenges.
Kasher, Brian T.
(Presented at Indoor Air 2011, Austin, TX, Jun 08, 2011)
Classroom ventilation is recognized as a fundamental environmental component associated with the education process and academic performance. This presentation discusses classroom ventilation challenges of a large K12 school district. The district has 179 schools serving greater than 140,000 students. Thirty-one of the district’s schools are known to have an absence of mechanical ventilation to some or all educational space. Unventilated classrooms result from four primary causations. 1) Passive ventilation included in original design and construction of schools is rendered inoperable by retrofit air conditioning systems without ventilation components. 2) Economizer mode only outside air intake limits outdoor air to a few hours per year if system operates. 3) HVAC technicians called to remedy occupant temperature complaints, resulting in part from HVAC systems beyond their useful life cycle, close outside air intakes increasing HVAC heating/cooling capacity. 4) Sealing outdoor air intakes to avoid coil freezing and minimize outdoor air component maintenance requirements. District Maintenance has removed sheet metal covers over air intakes and Capital Program Services has updated a number of complete HVAC systems correcting the condition at a number of sites. Thirty-one remaining sites are subject of debate relating to ventilation necessity, definition of ventilation adequacy in terms of quantification, building configuration limitations, fiscal considerations and prioritization of competing physical plant resource need. Inadequate attention to HVAC systems often result from both competing fiscal interests and inadequate technical competencies. School occupants are generally not trained to ascertain the effects of inadequate ventilation; temperature is most often voiced concern relative to HVAC. School districts do not generally consider ventilation effects on academic performance when developing operations and capital budgets. This presentation includes discussion on internal school district considerations relative to improvement in ventilation promoting research potentials and practitioner understanding of the dynamics associated with problem resolution. [Author's abstract]

The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America's Schools.
(USA Today , Jun 2011)
This special report website includes articles and videos on air pollution at America's school sites. An overlay of school site and Environmental Protection Agency air pollution data provides a tool for finding a school and its air quality standing. A map illustrates clusters of schools where toxic air is the highest.

EPA: Assessing Outdoor Air Near Schools.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Apr 26, 2011)
Provides information on an EPA initiative to monitor outdoor air around schools. The project will collect samples of outdoor air near selected schools over 60 days, analyze those samples for air toxics of potential concern, report on levels of air toxics found and their potential for long-term health impacts, evaluate actions that may be needed to reduce levels of pollutants of concern, and take action as needed to ensure that nearby industries are in compliance with clean air regulations. When monitoring results are available, EPA will post them on this site. This webpage also provides information on the schools where monitoring will occur, background information on air toxics, and links to other programs EPA has in place to protect communities and school environments.

Managing Indoor Air Quality. Fifth Edition
Burroughs, H.E.; Hansen, Shirley J.
(Fairmont Press, Apr 2011)
Practical, hands-on reference guide on applicable air quality control measures and preventative strategies. Includes complete response and step-by-step investigation tactics and tools. Specific symptoms of building-associated illnesses are detailed, along with practical guidelines for identifying and controlling the associated pollutant or source of the problem. Provides the results of a decade of new indoor air quality research and experience, as well as updated references and contacts, an update on standards, a new chapter on filtration, the latest research results on causes of indoor air quality problems, and innovative new investigation strategies. 350p.

Environmental Law Institute Database of State Indoor Air Quality Laws, Database Excerpt: IAQ in Schools. Updated.
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Feb 2011)
Presents a collection of laws in the Institute's database that deal with school indoor air quality. The chart includes laws that address schools directly or exclusively, but does not include general laws that may also affect schools. States without such laws are not represented in the chart, and the list does not claim to be exhaustive compilation. 23p.

Envisioning Excellence. IAQ Strategies in Action. Accelerating Action to Create Healthier and Safer School Environments. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IAQ Tools for Schools Program., Jan 2011)
Describes step-by-step actions that successful school districts have taken to build effective and enduring IAQ management programs. Includes actionable guidance, program strategy suggestions, examples from leading programs, and detailed descriptions of approaches school districts can take to apply the IAQ Tools Framework in their environmental, health and safety programs. 12p.

Improved Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality for Relocatable Classrooms.
(Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, U.S. Department of Energy , 2011)
Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environmental Energy Technologies Division teamed with stakeholders including a manufacturer of relocatables, and school districts to find out if relocatable classrooms could be built that are energy-efficient and provide good indoor air quality (IAQ) for their occupants. This describes the results of that effort.

Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators
(California State Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, CA , 2011)
Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air contaminants that are considered harmful and the steps for removing them, including tips on housekeeping, ventilation, and air filtration and purification systems. Concluding comments address specific school design considerations that can significantly affect indoor air quality. 10p.

Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems During Construction and Renovation. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Division of Occupational Safety, Occupational Hygiene Program, West Newton, MA , 2011)
Handy list of recommendations that have been successful in reducing indoor air quality complaints during building renovation activities, including 1) coordinate construction schedule; 2) separate construction and occupied areas; 3) prevent dust from migrating to occupied areas; 4) prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals in construction products; 5) inspect areas for lead and asbestos; 6) respond to acute episodes of indoor air quality complaints; 7) check building ventilation. 3p

The Virtual School Walkthrough: Identifying and Solving Common Indoor Air Quality Problems.
(Northwest Clean Air Agency, 2011)
Online training focusing on the importance of conducting effective and thorough walkthroughs of school buildings designed to help prevent and solve common IAQ issues a school may face. Click on the following chapters located on the right hand side bar of this webpage: Getting Started; Walkthrough; Outside; Inside; Classrooms; Fixes; and Debrief.

Performance Evaluation of Indoor Environment towards Sustainability for Higher Educational Buildings Adobe PDF
Khalil, Natasha; Husin, Husrul Nizam; Wahab, Lilawati Ab; Kamal, Kamarul Syahril; Mahat, Noorsaidi
(US-China Education Review , 2011)
The indoor environmental factors considered in higher educational building must be determined in order to meet the user's requirement. Disruption of indoor environment may reduce occupants' efficiencies and their learning process and activities. But the question is, how to ensure that the provision of indoor environmental aspects achieves high satisfaction to the building user. Therefore, POE (post occupancy evaluation) is a prominent tool that indicates satisfaction and comfort level needs by the building occupants as lessons learned to identify problems in the indoor environment. The information of the building's condition is gained by reviewing what the occupants' feelings are and how they response to their needs by using and occupying the building. With relation to the title, the main aim of this study is to determine the occupants' satisfaction levels and the probability of learning process, which can be affected due to poor environmental conditions, based on analytical study on concept and process of POE. A survey on occupants' satisfaction of 100 students in University Technology of MARA, Perak, Malaysia, has revealed that there is significance of providing good quality of indoor environmental conditions, that will affect the learning process of the students. It is concluded that POE is effective to be used in evaluating performance of environmental conditions in a building, especially to apply the relative impact of aspects towards the design of future buildings. By introducing POE in evaluating environmental conditions in higher educational buildings, it is hoped that it helps to move the industry towards sustainable, healthy and comfortable learning areas. [Authors' abstract]

Application of a School Building Thermal Response Numerical Model in the Evolution of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort Level in the Mediterranean Environment.
Conceição, Eusébio; Nunes, Abel; Gomes, João; Lúcio, Manuela
(International Journal of Ventilation, v9 n3, Dec 2010)
Reviews the adaptive thermal comfort model and then applies and compares it with the performance of the conventional thermal comfort model for a school located in a Mediterranean weather environment. Measurement data, combined with a building thermal response numerical model, are used to define the comfort performance under ambient natural ventilation and passive conditions for various classrooms. These results can then be used to identify the locations that require further measures to improve comfort, such as extra passive heat load and shading measures. The school design is based on that of an actual school and consists of three buildings, with 94 rooms. Envelope construction consists of opaque panels, 307 glazed window units and concrete floors and ceilings. The adaptive method uses external and internal environmental variables. Input data include occupation pattern and ventilation strategies. External environmental variables include air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and wind direction. Internal parameters include occupancy cycle, occupant activity level, clothing level, airflow rate and flow velocity. Indoor ventilation conditions are based on the airflow rate and the air velocity values measured in real classrooms. [author's abstract] 287-304

IAQ & Student Performance
(, Aug 29, 2010)
Video explains that good physical conditions in schools can reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and improve teacher retention rates. Studies that measure school conditions using an index of several variables consistently show improved scores on standardized tests as school conditions improve. On the other hand, schools with major unmet repair needs and fewer custodial workers per square foot have higher absentee rates and higher dropout rates. IAQ problems can cause increased absences due to respiratory infections, allergic diseases from biological contaminants, or adverse reactions to chemicals used in schools.

Managing Asthma in the School Environment. Adobe PDF
(United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 2010)
Discusses reducing the incidence of asthma in schools through continuous evaluation of indoor air quality, a district-wide asthma management program, and a reduction of asthma triggers. Case studies of three districts efforts in these three areas are included, as are links to seven sources of further information. 16p.
Report NO: EPA 402-K-10-004

Managing Radon in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. , Jun 2010)
Explains why testing for radon should be a part of any school’s IAQ management program and how schools have successfully applied radon mitigation strategies to control indoor radon levels. 3p.

California Portable Classrooms Study
(California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board (ARB) and Calidornia Department of Health Services (DHS), Apr 01, 2010)
Comprehensive study of the environmental health conditions in portable (relocatable) classrooms. This study investigated classrooms in kindergarten through 12th grade public schools and included a large representative sample. A number of environmental problems were found in classrooms throughout California. The Report to the California Legislature: Environmental Health Conditions in California's Portable Classrooms has been submitted to the Legislature, and is available for download.

How Does Indoor Air Quality Impact Student Health and Academic Performance? The Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 2010)
This fact sheet explains how good IAQ in schools is a critical component of a healthy and comfortable learning environment. Briefly cites evidence to support school indoor air quality management. Basic advice on establishing a school indoor air quality management program is offered, as are 18 references. 2p.

Northeast-CHPS Operations and Maintenance Guide. Adobe PDF
(Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA , Apr 2010)
Advises on a wide range of topics from energy and water efficiency in a school, to incorporating renewable energy systems, as well as technologies for improved school indoor environmental quality. Additionally, there are detailed guidelines for implementing environmentally friendly policies and practices for existing buildings, such as anti-idling policies, recycling programs, using green cleaning agents, and developing training for building operators. 90p.

Strategies to Enhance School Air Toxic Monitoring in Environmental Justice Communities. Adobe PDF
(National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, Washington, DC , Apr 2010)
Offers advice and recommendations about how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can most effectively promote strategies that would improve EPA's long-term school and community outreach approach in the future. The 19 recommendations outlined in this report identify ways in which EPA can work with its partners and stakeholders at the national, state, tribal, and local levels to enhance the Agency's engagement with all school communities, but especially with low-income and people of color communities. Key recommendations address the employment of of EPA's regulatory clout as needed to mitigate pollution sources around schools, development of community outreach and interagency coordination, and expansion of research and monitoring, 24p.

Tenth Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools National Symposium.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jan 24, 2010)
This website provides summaries and visual presentation from this conference, covering facets of school indoor air quality, and the history and implementation of the IAQ Tools for Schools program.

Education Case Studies.
(Lennox, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2010)
Provides case studies for ten schools that variously improved indoor air quality, saved energy, and improved thermal comfort with Lennox equipment.

Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank.
(Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, 2010)
Provides information for public health professionals, building professionals, and others who seek scientific information about the effects of IAQ on people's health or work performance. School-specific sections include Temperature and School Work Performance, Ventilation Rates and School Performance, Ventilation Rates and Absences in Offices and Schools, and Daylight, View, and School and Office Work Performance.

Window Opening Behaviour in a Naturally Ventilated School. Adobe PDF
Dutton, Spencer; Shao, Li
(International Building Performance Simulation Association , Jan 2010)
Reports on a post occupancy assessment of a new primary school was performed over a period of over one year. Concurrent measurement of window open state, CO2 concentration, temperature, and exterior environmental conditions were taken at a frequency of two minutes. In addition, classroom daily occupancy levels and monthly building energy usage were recorded. A probabilistic model of the proportion of windows open throughout the day as the occupants interact with the windows was developed based on the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis. The model was used to schedule window opening in the EnergyPlus simulation program. Predictions of both CO2 concentration and building energy performance, using the occupant behavior model, were shown to give more accurate predictions than a model based on temperature set points. [author's abstract] 9p.

Cleaning, Indoor Environmental Quality and Health: A Review of the Scientific Literature.
(Minnesota Dept. of Health, St. Paul , Aug 2009)
Advises on the relationship between cleaning, indoor environmental quality, and health. The report discusses allergens in school dust, the effect of poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on learning, reservoirs of allergens in chronically under-cleaned areas and what these areas typically are, the role of cleaning in improved IEQ, actions that can be taken by school staff, and calculating the number of custodians needed for cleaning. 15p.

School Indoor Air Quality: State Policy Strategies for Maintaining Healthy Learning Environments.
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
This report discusses how state policy can ensure that all K-12 schools address basic indoor air quality (IAQ) issues as part of their ongoing operations and maintenance activities. The report examines leading state policy models and identifies key considerations for developing an effective policy. Individual chapters consider how to address school IAQ through state laws governing health, labor, and education. Each chapter is accompanied by an overview of minimum state laws in that area, as well as case studies from selected states. 52p.

Winter Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Acoustic Performance of Newly Built Secondary Schools in England.
D. Mumovica, et al
(Building and Environment, Volume 44, Issue 7, Jul 2009)
Previous studies have found that classrooms are often inadequately ventilated, with the resultant increased risk of negative impacts on the pupils. This paper describes a series of field measurements that investigated the indoor air quality, thermal comfort and acoustic performance of nine recently built secondary schools in England. The most significant conclusion is that the complex interaction between ventilation, thermal comfort and acoustics presents considerable challenges for designers. The study showed that while the acoustic standards are demanding it was possible to achieve natural ventilation designs that met the criteria for indoor ambient noise levels when external noise levels were not excessive. Most classrooms in the sample met the requirement of limiting the daily average CO2 concentration to below 1500 ppm but just a few met the need to readily provide 8 l/s per person of fresh air under the easy control of the occupants. It would seem that the basic requirement of 1500 ppm of CO2 is achieved as a consequence of the window areas being just sufficient to provide the minimum of 3 l/s per person at low and intermittent occupancy. Thermal comfort in the monitored classrooms was mostly acceptable but temperatures tended to be much higher in practice than the design assumed. [Authors' abstract] p1466-1477

Building and Grounds Maintenance Checklist and Background Information Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides the building and grounds maintenance staff in assessing products, practices, equipment, and building conditions that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 5p.

Green Existing Schools Implementation Workbook.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Assists with the evaluation and improvement of current school operations and maintenance practices and policies. The workbook is organized by LEED for Existing Buildings: O&M prerequisites and credits, though not all prerequisites and credits in the rating system are addressed by the workbook. The guidance and tools contained in the workbook correspond to prerequisites and credits that lend themselves to a campus- or district-wide application. The workbook includes sample policies, programs, plans, and surveys, along with data collection forms, worksheets, and tables. 108p.

Green Existing Schools: Project Management Guide.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Helps schools and school districts "green" their existing facilities and achieve LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. The guide outlines the process for navigating LEED certification for existing schools and provides details on how to conduct organizational assessments,educate and train staff, initiate the certification process, and manage a campus- or district-wide plan. It is designed to be used in concert with additional resources contained in the Green Existing Schools Toolkit ( 85p.

Green, High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2009)
Provides an overview of the positive impacts these schools have on student learning, comprehension and test scores, improved student health, greater productivity, and improved cost-efficiency. The paper begins by defining green schools, discussing obstacles and myths surrounding green schools, and then detailing green school elements of indoor air quality. These include particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), asthma, autism, energy conservation, green cleaning, and mold prevention. Various federal and non-profit sector green school resources are also described. 25p.

How Do I Select an IAQ Consultant?
(State of California Indoor Air Quality Program, Richmond , 2009)
Briefly describes desirable qualifications for an indoor air quality consultant. These include experience, assessing a proposal, building knowledge, and reputation. 1p.

Impacts of Building Dampness on Indoor Air Quality.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Discusses the effect of indoor humidity on mold, bacteria, and house dust mites. Thirteen recent studies are summarized. 8p.

Indoor Air Quality Checklists and Topic Backgrounders.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Offers 11 checklists to engage school staff and key stakeholders in the process of school inspections and sustaining an indoor air quality management program. Each checklist is accompanied by a "checklist backgrounder" that describes the purpose of the specific checklist. Checklists and backgrounders are available for: teachers, administrative staff, health officials/school nurses, school officials, and for specific school functions, including building maintenance, food service, waste management, ventilation, renovation and repairs, walkthrough inspections, and pest management. (The checklists are found at the bottom of the web page.) 59p.

Integrated Pest Management Checklist. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides the pest control staff in assessing products, practices, and scheduling that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. Indoor and outdoor preventive strategies, as well as storage and use of chemicals and recordkeeping are discussed. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 6p.

Renovations and Repairs Checklist and Backgrounder. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises on maintaining good indoor air quality when renovating or repairing schools. Planning and preparation for asbestos, mold, off-gassing, painting, flooring, and roofing is discusses, as is project cleaning and commissioning. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 7p.

Sick Schools 2009. America’s Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children. Adobe PDF
(Healthy School Networks, Albany, NY , 2009)
Reviews the status of state laws to protect children from environmental hazards at schools. After an introduction citing the prevalence of unhealthy schools nationwide, each state is presented with information describing the demographics of their current school population and efforts to improve their school environmental health. Appendices address school water quality, other resources, school equity funding laws nationwide, and a position statement from the publisher. 72p.

Teacher's Classroom Checklist. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides teachers in assessing products, practices, equipment, supplies, and building conditions that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 7p.

Temperature and School Work Performance.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Reports results of studies revealing the effect of too cool or too warm classrooms on student performance. Speed and accuracy of work were assessed and found to be affected differently. 2p.

Toxic Chemical Pollution Releases and Schools.
(, 2009)
This website enables users to investigate facilities listed in the EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), number of schools within 1 mile within 5 miles of the facility, plus link to a database about the toxic history of the facility. Users can also research a chemical to learn more about associated risks, and can find icons naming individual schools.

Ventilation Checklist and Background Information. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides the maintenance staff in assessing HVAC products, practices, and equipment that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 13p.

Ventilation Rates and School Work Performance.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)
Summarizes results of studies showing statistically significant student performance increases in classrooms where ventilation rates were increased. 2p.

Indoor Environmental Quality within an Elementary School: Measurements of Felis Domesticus I, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides Farinae I, And Blatella Germanica in Carpeting.
Fowler, Jennifer
(University of South Florida, Tampa , 2009)
Quantifies the concentrations of cat (Felis domesticus I), dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus I, Dermatophagoides farinae I), and cockroach (Blatella germanica) allergens in carpeting in an elementary school kindergarten class and documents student group activities that are floorbased. One Florida elementary school classroom was identified as the study site. A total of eight reservoir dust samples were collected during the school year to be analyzed. The sampling reservoir was the carpeting used for group floor-based activities by the school children. Dust samples from the carpet were analyzed by The Johns Hopkins University Reference Laboratory for Dermatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology (DACI). Following discussions with the kindergarten teacher regarding curriculum and scheduled classroom activities, group floor activities were identified. The kindergarten class was observed periodically throughout a school year to document and quantify classroom activities that were floor-based. The information documented includes: occupancy of classroom, occupied floor area, occupant density, and time spent on carpeting. Based upon the DACI criteria, dust mite concentrations were moderate to high and cat concentrations were low to moderate. Kindergarten children spent approximately 38% of classroom time in floor-based activities. [author's abstract] 57p.

Greening Our Built World: Costs, Benefits, and Strategies.
Kats, Greg
(Island Press, Washington, DC , 2009)
Reports the results of a large-scale study based on extensive financial and technical analyses of more than 150 green buildings in the United States and ten other countries. Using modeling techniques, the study analyzes the costs and financial benefits of building green on both large and small scales, and addresses the role of the built environment in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The author reports that green buildings cost roughly 2 per cent more to build than conventional buildings - far less than previously assumed - and provide a wide range of financial, health, and social benefits. In addition, green buildings reduce energy use by an average of 33 per cent. The book also evaluates the cost-effectiveness of "green community development." 280p.

A Snapshot of What's in the Air.
Hubbard, Garrett; Elfers, Steve; Gainer, Denny; Piggott, Rhyne
(USA Today, Dec 2008)
Examines testing methods for air pollutants at schools situated in industrial areas, where the occupants are potentially at risk for health problems. The latent nature of these potential health issues, the need to address the situation nationally, and advice to parents who suspect that their children are at risk are discussed.

Underfloor Air: Better Models, Better Performance. Adobe PDF
(Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramanto, CA , Jun 2008)
Discusses a new whole-building simulation software tool from the U.S. Dept. Of Energy that designers can use to calculate the energy use of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems and compare their performance to conventional overhead air distribution systems. This improved understanding of UFAD systems can lead to better system design and increased efficiency for both new buildings and retrofits. 2p.

TDV Improves Efficiency and Classroom Environment. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento, CA , May 2008)
Describes the benefits of thermal displacement ventilation (TDV), which delivers cool air just above the floor at a very low velocity, after which it falls toward the floor and spreads across the room. As the air picks up heat from occupants and equipment, it rises to the ceiling and is exhausted from the space. Contaminants, including germs from the occupants, are carried up and out of the space instead of being mixed with the room air as they are with conventional ventilation schemes. TDV systems differ from underfloor air distribution systems in that they do not require a raised floor and they supply air at lower velocities. 2p.

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms.
Apte, Michael, et al
(Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , Apr 04, 2008)
An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. [Authors' abstract]

Ventilation Rates in Schools.
D.J. Clements-Croomea, H.B. Awbia, Zs Bakó-Biróa, N. Kochhara, M. Williams
(Building and Environment, Volume 43, Issue 3, Mar 2008)
Research shows that poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in school buildings can cause a reduction in the students’ performance assessed by short-term computer-based tests; whereas good air quality in classrooms can enhance children's concentration and also teachers’ productivity. Investigation of air quality in classrooms helps us to characterise pollutant levels and implement corrective measures. Outdoor pollution, ventilation equipment, furnishings, and human activities affect IAQ. In school classrooms, the occupancy density is high (1.8–2.4 m2/person) compared to offices (10 m2/person). Ventilation systems expend energy and there is a trend to save energy by reducing ventilation rates. We need to establish the minimum acceptable level of fresh air required for the health of the occupants. This paper describes a project, which will aim to investigate the effect of IAQ and ventilation rates on pupils’ performance and health using psychological tests. The aim is to recommend suitable ventilation rates for classrooms and examine the suitability of the air quality guidelines for classrooms. The air quality, ventilation rates and pupils’ performance in classrooms will be evaluated in parallel measurements. A total number of 20 primary schools in the Reading area are expected to participate in the present investigation, and the pupils participating in this study will be within the age group of 9–11 years. On completion of the project, based on the overall data recommendations for suitable ventilation rates for schools will be formulated. [Authors' abstract] p362-367

Cleaning Chemicals and Their Impact on Indoor Environments and Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Examines the health impacts associated with cleaning products and systems, especially chemical and particulate emissions that can be inhaled. It also discusses the importance of cleaning products in the green building movement and examines the various third party certification programs that are used to ensure products are safe for both the outdoor and indoor environments. In addition, the technology and testing protocols for measuring VOC emissions and for establishing the health risks associated with these emissions are highlighted. Includes 49 references. 15p.

Clearing the Air on Indoor Air Cleaners/Purifiers. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Reviews the common types of contaminants found in indoor air and examines the use of air cleaning as an effective IAQ strategy. The report also describes different air cleaning methods, clarifies how these methods differ, which air cleaning devices may cause more harm than good and what to look for when selecting an air cleaner, including the importance of third party product testing to ensure air cleaners are operating as intended and are not contributing to indoor air pollution. 25 references are included. 15p.

Healthy Schools: Lessons for a Clean Educational Environment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2008)
Helps school employees and parents recognize potential environmental health issues at schools, both indoors and outdoors. It includes basic information about mold, radon, VOCs, ventilation, asbestos, lead, mercury, chemicals, pesticides, PCBs, UV radiation, diesel fumes, air quality forecasts, and oil storage. Also provided are links to web sites that offer more information and guidance on how to have a healthier school environment and comply with relevant laws. 16p.

IAQ and Children's Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Promotes awareness about how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can affect children's health by answering the following questions: 1) Why are children at more risk than adults? 2) How many children are at risk? 3) Which indoor air pollutants are of most concern? 4) What are the possible connections between the alarming increase in childhood asthma and autism and indoor air pollution? 5) What can be done to protect children?s health against indoor air contaminants, particularly in schools? 37 references are included. 14p.

IAQ and Sensitive Population Groups. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Provides an overview of which indoor air contaminants are of most concern and the health effects associated with them, who is at risk, and what type of indoor environments are most impacted. The technology and strategies to provide healthy indoor environments for people who are especially vulnerable to indoor air pollution are addressed, and noted as widely school administrators and facility managers. 36 references are included. 19p.
Report NO: AQSM166.R0

Protecting Vermont's Children from Poor Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Report Card on Act 125.
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 2008)
Reviews progress with Vermont's Act 125, a law designed to protect children's health in the classroom. Under Act 125, the State was required to create a model school environmental health plan and award environmental health certificates to schools that voluntarily excelled in improving indoor air quality. Only 7% of schools had received a certificate by the end of 2006. The report recommends that Vermont turn to new opportunities and solutions for creating healthy learning environments including: 1) implementing a comprehensive healthy schools program; 2) requiring schools to purchase environmentally preferable cleaning products; and 3) eliminating high-risk pesticides and establishing strong integrated pest management programs at schools. 5p.

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program Assessment.
(Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison , 2008)
These assessment forms are designed to help schools identify what types of healthy, safe, and environmentally sound activities are already in place and where the school can improve its efforts. The Wisconsin program requires that the energy, waste, and recycling, and water sections be done along with any two of the remaining sections that cover chemicals, community involvement, facilities and grounds, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, mercury, and transportation.

Toxic Chemicals Outside Our Schools.
Hubbard, Garrett; Elfers, Steve; Gainer, Denny; Piggott, Rhyne
(USA Today, 2008)
Examines the impact of industrial pollution outside the nation's schools and explores how toxic chemicals shuttered one elementary school in Addyston, Ohio. Interviews with plant managers, city officials, parents, and affected students are included.

Relocatable Classrooms: Less Energy, Better Air. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento , Nov 2007)
Summarizes research aimed at improving indoor air quality and reducing noise and energy consumption of relocatable classrooms. Researchers have developed specifications for an improved heat-pump air-conditioning system that provides a seasonal energy-efficiency rating (SEER) of 13. Field tests revealed that the units are superior to conventional units that are currently used in relocatable classrooms because they improve indoor air quality, save energy, operate more quietly, and provide similar or better thermal comfort. Although the study primarily focused on relocatable classroom applications, the wall-mounted packaged units are designed to fit on any modular or portable buildings for both new construction and retrofit applications and can be used in most U.S. climates. 2p.

Improving Energy Performance of School Buildings While Ensuring Indoor Air Quality Ventilation.
Beckera, ,Rachel ; Goldbergera, Itamar; Paciuk, Monica
(Building and Environment, Volume 42, Issue 9, Sep 2007)
The paper deals with the energy performance, energy classification and rating and the global environmental quality of school buildings. A new energy classification technique based on intelligent clustering methodologies is proposed. Energy rating of school buildings provides specific information on their energy consumption and efficiency relative to the other buildings of similar nature and permits a better planning of interventions to improve its energy performance. The overall work reported in the paper, is carried out in three phases. During the first phase energy consumption data have been collected through energy surveys performed in 320 schools in Greece. In the second phase an innovative energy rating scheme based on fuzzy clustering techniques has been developed, while in the third phase, 10 schools have been selected and detailed measurements of their energy efficiency and performance as well as of the global environmental quality have been performed using a specific experimental protocol. The proposed energy rating method has been applied while the main environmental and energy problems have been identified. The potential for energy and environmental improvements has been assessed. p3261-3276

Five Clean and Green Healthy Schools Tips.
(ABC News, New York, NY, Apr 2007)
Draws on the serious impact of an unhealthy building environment on children at Hastings Elementary School to make suggestions for improving existing facilities. During summer clean-up and repair, schools should make construction activity separate from the existing instruction areas; use certified green cleaning products; install durable (no carpet) floors; install operable windows; and repair all leaks to minimize mold.

LEED for Schools for New Construction and Major Renovations.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , Apr 2007)
Based on the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for new construction, the LEED for Schools Rating System considers the unique nature of the design and construction of K-12 schools, addressing issues such as classroom acoustics, master planning, mold prevention, and environmental site assessment. By addressing the uniqueness of school spaces and children's health issues, LEED for Schools provides a tool for schools that wish to build green, with measurable results. LEED for Schools is a third-party standard for high performance schools that are healthy for students, comfortable for teachers, and cost-effective. It provides parents, teachers and the community a "report card" for their school buildings, by verifying that schools are built healthy, efficient, and comfortable. 77p.

Building Success, Leading Change: Stories of Healthy School Environments.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 2007)
Highlights the accomplishments of Charlotte Mecklenburg School District and Milwaukee Public Schools using superintendent leadership to create healthier learning environments, particularly in the areas of indoor air quality. The publication includes a CD-Rom with forms, action plans, checklists and other resources. 8p.

Designing Quality Learning Spaces: Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality. Adobe PDF
(New Zealand Ministry of Education, Wellington , 2007)
Advises on school building ventilation, discussing types of ventilation, natural and artificial ventilation methods, heat recovery, passive ventilation, indoor air quality, specialized teaching spaces, and extra considerations for special needs students. A flow diagram and survey for ventilation and indoor air quality assessment, are included, as are 24 references. 60p.

Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning.
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines the potential of environmentally-conscious school design for improving education. This book provides an assessment of the potential human health and performance benefits of improvements in the building envelope, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustical quality. The report also presents an assessment of the overall building condition and student achievement, and offers an analysis of and recommendations for planning and maintaining green schools including research considerations. Includes 390 references. 180p.

LEED for Schools Registered Project Checklist.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides a checklist for estimating potential Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)certification, listing the attributes of site selection and design, water efficiency, energy use, effect on atmosphere, building materials, indoor air quality, and innovation in design that are considered under the LEED system. The number of required points in each category are shown, with an opportunity to indicate whether or not features within that category are in place, and then add up the points. 2p.

Physical School Environment. Adobe PDF
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2007)
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Text, graphs, and tables illustrate percentages of states, districts, and individual schools setting requirements for indoor air quality, pest management, drinking water, hazardous materials handling, foodservice facilities, and cleaning procedures. 2p.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

Ventilation of School Buildings (Building Bulletin 101).
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , Jul 2006)
Provides the regulatory framework in support of the United Kingdom's building regulations for the adequate provision of ventilation in schools. These guidelines consider the design of school buildings to meet the ventilation requirements of both The School Premises Regulations and the Building Regulations Part F (Ventilation). Sections of the document address ventilation of special areas, indoor air quality and ventilation, ventilation strategies, acoustics, fire precautions, natural ventilation, and system design options. 62p.

School Conditions Will Continue to Earn Failing Grades.
Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Vieira, Robin K.; Cummings, James B.
(Florida Solar Energy Center; Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, July 24-26, 2006 Orlando, FL. , Jul 2006)
This study addresses indoor air quality and general conditions problems in schools throughout the United States. Tools employed to investigate conditions include a nationwide, web-based survey, characterization of actual operating conditions in schools through field audits and diagnostic tests, and retrofits in problem schools. Survey results found temperature to be by far the greatest comfort complaint in regular classrooms, with indoor air quality (IAQ) and then humidity being the next greatest areas of complaints. Ventilation problems were found at each of eight audited schools. These problems appear to be occurring due to a combination of factors including lack of maintenance, lack of knowledge of the systems and in some cases poor system design. Four small retrofit projects were also completed. The results from this project indicate that without substantial funding for and prioritization of school maintenance, widespread significant school improvements will not be realized. [Authors' abstract] 17p.

A Cancer Risk Assessment of Inner-City Teenagers Living in New York City and Los Angeles.
Sax, Sonja; Bennett, Deborah; Chillrud, Steven; Ross, James; Kinney, Patrick; Spengler, John
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Washington, DC , Jun 15, 2006)
Presents the results of a study of forty-six high school students in New York City and and forty-one in Los Angles in 1999 and 2000. The students wore backpacks equipped with air monitors that measured what each was exposed to throughout the day. Although outdoor air in both cities is heavily polluted, home and school indoor air was responsible for 40% to 50% of the teenagers' cancer risk from the compounds measured. The median cumulative risk from personal VOC exposures for this sample of New York City high school students was 664 per million and was greater than the risks from outdoor exposures by a factor of about 5. In the Los Angeles sample, median cancer risks from VOC personal exposures were 487 per million, about a factor of 7 greater than outdoor exposure risks. Sources and types of pollutants collected and their carcinogenic risk are also described. Includes 37 references. 42p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools, Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Provides guidance concerning the use and implementation of displacement ventilation (DV) for K-12 schools. It serves architects, engineers, and educators seeking to understand why DV is beneficial, addresses the implications of installing DV in schools, and details a design procedure for DV systems in school applications. It contains recommendations from a range of sources, including PIER research, ASHRAE Guidelines and Standards, and practical experience gained in the design, installation, and performance monitoring of DV systems in two California schools. Topics covered include general design requirements for classrooms, air supply characteristics, diffuser specifications, architectural design issues, load calculations, system sizing, HVAC design options, and estimating energy savings. Case studies from six installations are included, as are 42 references, a glossary, and numerous figures and tables. 123p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Draft / Final Research Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Covers HVAC design considerations for displacement ventilation systems, drawn from completed research of the project, a computational flow dynamics analysis, and the results of the first demonstration classroom. The report addresses diffuser selection and layout, load calculations and system sizing and energy modeling options. The report also describes HVAC system requirements for displacement ventilation and control options. For the design phase, this report covers design requirements for TDV, load calculation procedures, energy modeling, and equipment selection. For the construction phase, the report documents show typical diffuser locations, ductwork layout, control details, and installation requirements. 23p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Final Classroom Documentation Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the performance monitoring results of a displacement ventilation demonstration project at Kinoshita Elementary in San Juan Capistrano, California. The report also documents the processes of design, financing and construction of the demonstration classrooms. The unit is designed to supply a steady 65-degree supply temperature, with variable air volume to maintain comfort in the space. This report assesses the performance of the unit in meeting specifications, and a comparison of comfort, indoor air quality, and energy use with a control classroom that is served by a conventional 4-ton packaged rooftop unit. 36p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools:Combined Document for Product Engineering Efforts Report, Research Summary Report, and Production Readiness Plan. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the development of a unit that can tightly control supply air temperature in a classroom thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) cooling system, in response to varying load and outdoor conditions. Also described are the steps that the manufacturer has taken towards making it a production unit. The report provides an evaluation of the unit with all available data, and identifies the steps required to make this a production unit. 20p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools, Project 2 Final Report: Thermal Displacement Ventilation. Adobe PDF
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Serves as the final project report for Project 2, Thermal Displacement Ventilation (DV) in Schools, under California's PIER IEQ-K12 Program. Key outcomes included the following: 1)Two demonstration DV systems were installed, commissioned, and monitored in two classrooms; one in southern and one in northern California. 2)Results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed that significant energy savings are possible. 3)Other results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed improved IAQ and acoustics with acceptable humidity levels. 4)Teacher feedback was positive for the DV demonstration classrooms. 5)The demonstration classrooms confirmed that DV provides good thermal comfort for classrooms with normal ceiling heights (9 feet). 6)A supply of 1,100 cfm of 65-degree air is sufficient for most classrooms in California climates. 7)The use of a tuned VAV control strategy will optimize energy savings. 8)DV can be achieved today using a variety of HVAC system designs. 9)DV provides many compelling benefits including energy savings. 43p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: Applications Guide for Off-the-Shelf Equipment for Displacement Ventilation Use.
Blatt, Morton
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , May 2006)
Provides background information on the potential energy use, indoor air quality and acoustic benefits of displaced ventilation as well as field experience with DV in schools and commercial buildings. The applications that could benefit from use of displacement ventilation are described including facility requirements, acoustic requirements, climate-related factors, and indoor air quality. Displacement ventilation system requirements for K-12 schools are defined, including diffuser requirements, HVAC requirements, and optional HVAC system features. Mechanical system options are described including central (chiller-based) plants, packaged direct expansion (DX) variable air volume systems and packaged single zone direct expansion units. Alternative control strategies are discussed and diffuser options are presented. Includes nine references. 15p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools:Project 3 Final Report: UVC Technology. Adobe PDF
Okura, Stacia
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , May 2006)
Summarizes a study quantifying the impact of ultraviolet irradiation in the "C" band (UVC) on evaporator coil disinfection of California K-12 Schools, with the goal to determine if UVC is effective in reducing mold and mildew in HVAC systems, thereby improving airflow, indoor environmental quality, energy savings, and attendance. The study concluded that the UVC technology is effective in reducing microbial growth on air conditioning cooling coils. Since microbial activity is correlated with the amount of moisture present, the more humid the climate, the more applicable this technology. Additionally, this technology is more applicable in regions with high annual cooling hours, or inland climate zones, where the potential for mold growth is greater. The study team could not conclusively determine if there were any improvements in air flow or efficiency of the air conditioning units with UVC disinfection systems. 66p.

Energy Conservation and Indoor Air Quality: Lessons from the Past Have Relevance for the Future. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Presents an historical look at energy use and indoor air quality, from prehistoric times to the present. The introduction of air conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is described, and the manner in which HVAC technology transformed building in the 20th century is noted. The largely negative impact of these various technologies, as introduced, on indoor air quality is addressed, and 22 references are included. 12p.

Energy Conservation and Indoor Air Quality: Partnering to Protect Public Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Briefly reviews the history of indoor air quality and energy conservation during the past 40 years, and how indoor air contaminants can affect human health. Issues addressed include the OAPEC oil embargos, energy conservation, tight buildings, poor IAQ, mold, volatile offgassing compounds (VOCs), climate change, "green" building, and complimentary goals of indoor air quality and energy conservation. 21 references are included. 12p.

Integrated Building Evaluation and Assessment Model.(I-BEAM) [Software]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 2006)
I-BEAM is computer software for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in buildings. I-BEAM contains text, animation/visual, and interactive/calculation components that can be used to perform several tasks including: conducting an indoor air quality (IAQ) building audit; diagnosing and resolving IAQ related health problems; establishing an IAQ management and maintenance program to reduce IAQ risks; planning IAQ compatible energy projects; protecting occupants from exposures to construction/renovation contaminants; and calculating the cost, revenue, and productivity impacts of planned IAQ activities.

Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report.
(National Academy Press, Washington , 2006)
Details findings and recommendations of a National Research Council study that discovered a lack of evidence-based studies on the benefits of green schools, a large number of confounding factors and variables complicating the research, a need for more attention to moisture control in green school guidelines, considerable evidence concerning the effect of indoor air on occupant productivity, inconsistent results on the association between daylighting and student performance, and a link between decreased noise levels and increased student achievement. Includes 146 references. 80p.

Reviewing and Refocusing on IAQ in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Reviews which indoor pollutants in schools are of most concern, how poor IAQ impacts children's health and ability to learn, and new resources that can help turn the tide towards healthier indoor learning environments. 37 references are included. 16p.

School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software. (SAVES)
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2006)
SAVES is a free software package that architects, engineers, school officials, and others can use to determine what type of ventilation equipment provides the best advantages for their unique applications. SAVES incorporates two software tools for the school design community: 1) the ERV Financial Assessment Software Tool (also referred to as ‘EFAST’) assesses the financial characteristics of energy recovery ventilation systems for school applications; and 2) the Indoor Humidity Assessment Tool (also referred to as ‘IHAT’) helps school designers assess the moisture control characteristics of ERV systems, along with other building design decisions that can impact indoor moisture levels and indoor air quality.

Strategies for Addressing Asthma within a Coordinated School Health Program. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2006)
Offers suggestions for schools working to improve the health and school attendance of students with asthma. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified six strategies for schools and districts to consider when addressing asthma within a coordinated school health program. The six strategies detailed are: (1) Establish management and support systems for asthma-friendly schools; (2) Provide appropriate school health and mental health services for students with asthma; (3) Provide asthma education and awareness programs for students and school staff; (4) Provide a safe and healthy school environment to reduce asthma triggers; (5) Provide safe, enjoyable physical education and activity opportunities for students with asthma; and (6) Coordinate school, family, and community efforts to better manage asthma symptoms and reduce school absences among students with asthma. This revised edition includes a list of resources covering each of the six strategies. 10p.

Humidity Control in Minnesota Schools. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Dept. of Commerce, St. Paul , Oct 2005)
Offers guidance to help school building managers and operators understand the process of moisture management. It explains why controlling humidity is important and what settings to choose. It also advises on how to operate and maintain various types of humidity control systems, minimize both occupant complaints and energy bills, improve operations and maintenance of existing equipment, and make selections for equipment replacement. 30p.

Powerful Practices: A Checklist for School Districts Addressing the Needs of Students with Asthma. Adobe PDF
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , Oct 2005)
Offers guidance to help school districts identify areas of strength and weakness in accommodating asthmatic students. Topics assessed include providing school district leadership, identifying and monitoring students with asthma, ensuring that students with asthma receive appropriate care and reducing environmental contributors. Education of staff, students, families, and caregivers, along with collaboration with health-care providers and the community is also covered. 4p.

School District Liability for Indoor Air Quality Conditions: A Review of Selected Legal Issues.
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Aug 2005)
Provides an overview of the central legal issues at the heart of current litigation involving IAQ in schools, as well as the ways in which courts have addressed those issues. The report describes the principal types of legal actions brought by students and employees against public school districts to address injuries related to school IAQ problems and analyzes selected legal issues in IAQ-related claims brought against public school districts by parents or school staff in three areas of the law: (1) state workers' compensation schemes; (2) common law tort; and (3) federal disability rights/non-discrimination statutes. 62p.

The Effects of Classroom Air Temperature and Outdoor Air Supply Rate on Performance of School Work by Children.
Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Matysiak, B.; Irgens, S.
(Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005, The 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Beijing, China , Aug 2005)
A field intervention experiment was conducted in two classes of 10-year-old children. Average air temperatures were reduced from 23.6oC to 20oC and outdoor air supply rates were increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s per person in a 2x2 crossover design, each condition lasting a week. Tasks representing 8 different aspects of school work, from reading to mathematics, were performed during appropriate lessons and the children marked visual-analogue scales each week to indicate SBS symptom intensity. Increased ventilation rate increased work rate in addition, multiplication and number checking (P<0.05), and subtraction (P<0.06). Reduced temperature increased work rate in subtraction and reading (P<0.001), and reduced errors when checking a transcript against a recorded voice reading aloud (P<0.07). Reduced temperature at increased ventilation rate increased work rate in a test of logical thinking (P<0.03). This experiment indicates that improving classroom conditions can substantially improve the performance of schoolwork by children. [Authors' abstract] 368-372p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.5c Final Outline Specification and Schematic Design Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Summarizes a general HVAC load calculation for a hypothetical single-level classroom building in coastal Southern California, and an identical building in Sacramento, including accommodations for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV). Subsequent sections of the report provide a schematic description of three design options for applying TDV in the hypothetical classroom building. For each of the three options, a summary of the system design, major components, HVAC sequences of operation, and estimated capital costs are indicated. For each design option, an effort has been made to address the relative advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each TDV design option, and to highlight differences from conventional HVAC design approaches. A general schematic of the system layout, room layout and room section are included for each system design. 18p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.8b Final Equipment List and Performance Specification.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Documents the requirements for new products designed specifically for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV), with the objective of identifying new products for TDV that are not currently available. The identification of new products springs from the TDV design charrette, system design options study, and market barriers study performed in this California research project. 12p.

Indoor Air Pollution in California.
(California Air Resources Board, Sacramento , Jul 01, 2005)
Details the sources and health effects of poor indoor air quality in California's schools, homes, and public buildings. The estimated cost of indoor pollution to California's economy and the piecemeal, ineffective nature of the state's mitigation efforts are described, as are approaches for prevention and reduction of the problem. Opportunities for mitigation are prioritized, with highest priority going to those that are most toxic and those which lack any existing regulatory oversight. 363p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D3.2c Microbial Sampling and Engineering Plans, D3.4b Site Survey, and D3.7b Teacher and Director of Facilities Survey. Adobe PDF
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 21, 2005)
Presents the research plan to quantify the impact of ultraviolet C-band (UVC) light on coil disinfection and indoor air quality of California K-12 Schools. The plan includes research on biological sampling, school selection, qualification of HVAC units, pre-installation microbiological testing, pre-installation air conditioning performance testing, installation of UVC lamps, post-installation testing, analysis, and reporting. 43p.

Reducing Asthma Triggers in Schools: Recommendations for Effective Policies, Regulations, & Legislation. Adobe PDF
Parker, Joan
(Asthma Regional Council of New England, Dorchester, MA , Mar 2005)
While 31 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma, children are most severely affected. Asthma also is common among teachers, indicating that the school building environment may be associated with asthma prevalence among occupants. This provides concise recommendations for laws and regulations that control indoor air quality problems, with the goal of reducing the occurrence and severity of asthma and other respiratory diseases. The recommendations address ventilation, maintenance, chemicals and products, and building design, construction, and renovation. 18p.

Create a Healthy Indoor Environment.
(Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ for Schools, Washington, DC, 2005)
Describes the role facility managers play on the indoor air quality action team as providing energy-efficient facilities that have quality lighting, comfortable temperatures, and good indoor air quality (IAQ) -- all within a tight budget.

New Asthma Study Links VOCs and Allergens to an Increase in Childhood Asthma. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2005)
Reviews a recent study investigating the link between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and asthma in young children. The study determined which VOC's presented the highest risk, and that the most common allergy among both asthmatics and non-asthmatics was house dust mite. Sources and types of VOC's commonly found in schools are listed, along with several measures for maintaining good school indoor air quality. Includes nine references. 6p.

The Healthy School Environmental Action Guide. Adobe PDF
(New York City Healthy Schools Working Group, Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2005)
Informs parents, advocates, and school personnel about existing laws and resources available to ensure that every school in New York is an environmentally safe and healthy school. The guide reveals how to recognize air quality and other environmental problems and who to contact when adverse conditions are discovered. It examines problems associated with asbestos and lead, the importance of proper ventilation, fire hazard identification, hazardous structural problems, playground safety, and bathroom sanitation. Also included are ways of making a school free of pesticides. Each environmental hazard highlights the applicable laws involved and lists who to contact when these specific problems are uncovered. Appendices provide sample of complaint letters, the affirmative steps that can be taken to make a school safer and healthier, and Congressional contact information. 42p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

Openluchtscholen in Nederland: Architectuur, Onderwijs en Gezondheidszorg 1905- 2005. (Open-Air Schools in the Netherlands: Architecture, Education, and Healthcare 1905- 2005)
Broekhuizen, Dolf
(Uitgeverij 010, Rotterdam , 2005)
Profiles 100 years of outdoor, open-air, and abundantly daylit Dutch schools. Principles of the necessity of fresh air to health and sanitation are discussed, accompanied by a chronologically arranged selection of supporting school projects. 239p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Final Memo on the Alternative Technology and Literature Review. Adobe PDF
Okura, Stacia
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jan 2005)
Presents the research plan to quantify the impact of UVC Light on coil disinfection and indoor air quality of California K-12 Schools, including a technology assessment, literature review, and study design, and ten references. 25p.

California Portable Classrooms Study.
Whitmore, Roy; Clayton, Andy; Phillips, Michael; Akland, Gerry
(California Air Resources Board, Research Division, Sacramento, CA; California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , Nov 2004)
The purpose of this study was to assess environmental conditions in California's portable classrooms. This report describes the sample design, the survey instruments, the data collection process, the data analysis procedures, and the results that show and compare the major characteristics of the populations of eligible public schools as well as portable and traditional classrooms. Results from this survey suggest that there are major issues associated with environmental conditions in California K-12 schools. Environmental factors, complaints, and health symptoms reported by teachers and facility managers are often different between the traditional and portable classrooms. Measured levels of formaldehyde are significantly higher in the portable classrooms. More extensive monitoring and classroom assessment are required. [Authors' abstract]

Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy. Adobe PDF
Apte, Michael; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred; Sullivan; Douglas
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Scientific & Techincal Information, Washington , Oct 14, 2004)
The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many clasrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously and remotely, while other IEQ measurements will be performed seasonally. The study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors. 16p.
Report NO: LBNL-56527

Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors. Adobe PDF
Storey, Eileen; Dangman, Kenneth; Schenck, Paula; DeBernardo, Robert; Yang, Chin; Bracker, Anne; Hodgson, Michael.
(University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, Farmington , Sep 30, 2004)
Explains the current understanding of the relationship between mold exposure and illness, approaches to diagnosis, approaches to environmental assessment, and strategies for clinical management and preventive intervention. Three case studies of teachers affected by mold in their schools are provided. 120p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.2d Final CFD Analysis and Documentation Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 16, 2004)
Presents conclusions from computational flow dynamics analysis of various classrooms in this California research into displacement ventilation in schools: 1) Sufficient cooling and thermal comfort can be provided through two displacement diffusers, providing 65- degree supply air. 2)A 9-foot ceiling is sufficient for thermal displacement ventilation. Benefits of stratification are seen with high (12-foot) ceilings; as a result, less air is required to maintain the same room setpoint, for the same design cooling loads. 3)Marginal comfort is maintained at locations close to the diffusers. The temperatures at floor level are cool (67-68 degrees). Seated students should be situated at a distance of at least 4 feet from the corner diffusers, to stay comfortable. 4) Lighting loads contribute less heat to the occupied zone than occupant or equipment loads. 5) Displacement ventilation shows improvements in ventilation effectiveness, as evidenced by lower CO2 levels and a lower mean age of air in the occupied zone. 66p.

A Summary of Scientific Findings on Adverse Effects of Indoor Environments on Students' Health, Academic Performance and Attendance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of the Under Secretary, Washington, DC , 2004)
Summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge about the adverse impacts of school indoor environments on health and performance. Key gaps in knowledge and critical outstanding research questions are also summarized. The report is based on a literature review that examined the relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools and the academic performance, attendance, and health of students. The quality of scientific methods and the consistency of findings among studies were also considered, as were similar studies in other building types, due to the lack of scientific information available specifically from studies in schools. The evidence suggested that poor environments in schools adversely influences the health, performance, and attendance of students, but overall inadequacies in school IEQ have not been systematically characterized. Includes 125 references. The public dissemination of this report is required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Section 5414. Studies of National Significance, subsection (a) (1) Unhealthy Public School Buildings. 36p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools:D2.1b-TDV Research Coordination Final Report.
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Feb 03, 2004)
Presents a report on the coordination of research for this study of thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) in California schools. The existing literature was reviewed to determine important design factors on TDV performance. The ceiling height, the location of the heat sources, and the convection heat flow at the wall impact the temperature stratification. Design guidelines were formed from results of computational flow dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental data. These guidelines consist of predictions of floor temperature, the temperature difference between head and foot level, and ventilation effectiveness. The CFD and experimental results can support the existing design guidelines, or serve as the basis for new guidelines. Includes 30 references. 12p.

Environmental Health & Safety Issues in Massachusetts' Schools.
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Dept. of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment, Boston , Feb 2004)
Assists school systems in identifying and remedying indoor environment health and safety problems. Chapter 1 contains a checklist for schools to use to identify important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a school building. By maintaining the checklist for each issue, school personnel will be able to determine if there are any specific areas that may warrant attention. Chapter 2 contains references that provide specific regulations for each issue and any industry standards/guidelines that are available. This section also provides a quick resource guide for additional assistance. Chapter 3 provides a list of resources for further guidance. 24p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools, Technology Transfer Plan (Revised).
Blatt, Morton
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Feb 2004)
This technology transfer plan provides a time-phased tabulation and description of documents to be published and distributed to disseminate the results and to increase the market penetration of the thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) and ultraviolet-c (UDV) technologies being studied in this The plan addresses market barriers that often impede the adoption of new technologies and analyzes the roles of influential market participants in the funding, specification, installation and operation of these technologies. Potential advantages and disadvantages TDV and UVC technologies are tabulated. Information dissemination channels are outlined for each set of market participants, including publications, periodicals, web sits and upcoming meetings. Technology transfer materials are described that can overcome market barriers for the influential market participants. Anticipated technology transfer deliverables are tabulated with the expected delivery date and channel to be used. 43p.
Report NO: CEC-500-03-003

Take a Deep Breath and Thank Your Custodian.
(National Education Association, Washington, DC , 2004)
Two brochures discuss ways to improve indoor air quality in schools. The first (9 pages) presents six steps for organizing a school indoor air quality action plan. The second (15 pages) presents ideas for furnishings, cleaning, and renovation that will reduce mold, dust, lead, asbestos, and other hazardous materials contamination. 26p.

School Indoor Air Quality in Construction and Remodeling.
Dunlap, Chris
( , 2004)
Advises that indoor air quality control measures be incorporated into construction bid documents. Work zones should be properly insulated from occupied areas to prevent infiltration of construction particulates and fumes, construction materials should be kept dry and off of the ground to prevent mold, and contractors should have proper storage that isolates toxic materials from the occupied area. After construction, proper regulation and maintenance of the HVAC system can help prevent expensive future remediation. 3p.

Geology and Indoor Radon in Schools of the Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District, Palos Verdes Peninsula, California
Duval, Joseph; Fukumoto, Lauren; Fukumoto, Joseph; Snyder, Stephen
(U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey , 2004)
The purpose of this publication is to provide information about indoor radon with specific information about radon in schools of the Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District and general information about the potential for indoor radon elsewhere in California. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is produced as a daughter product of the decay chain of uranium. Radon in soil gas can enter into buildings through cracks or openings in foundations and does so primarily by advection. Following entry into a building, radon decays to produce a series of alpha-emitting isotopes. If those isotopes are inhaled and decay in the lungs of a person, cell damage caused by the alpha particles can ultimately lead to lung cancer

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D2.2B Classroom Prototypes Developed Draft Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Dec 05, 2003)
Discusses the full-scale mockup classrooms developed to determine the supply airflow and supply air temperature conditions necessary to meet classroom cooling loads and maintain thermal comfort in this California research. Specifications for prototypical classrooms were developed to be representative of cooling loads and operating conditions found in modern classrooms. These specifications were translated into building models, and energy simulations were run to determine boundary conditions for a range of cooling loads and conditions. 17p.

Impact of Sustainable Buildings on Educational Achievements in K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
Olson, Stephen; Kellum, Shana
(Leonardo Academy, Inc., Cleaner and Greener Program, Madison, WI , Nov 25, 2003)
Defines sustainable schools and its accompanying qualities of good site planning, lighting, indoor air quality, healthy building materials, acoustics, and use of renewable energy. Benefits to student achievement through daylighting and indoor air quality are detailed, and 34 references are included. 14p.

Indoor Air Quality in Canadian Schools: Final Report. Adobe PDF
(Dalhousie University, Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre, Indoor Air Quality in Canadian Schools Project, Halifax, NS , Nov 2003)
Presents data on IAQ perspectives and experiences from parents, students, teachers, staff, Teachers Federations/Unions, IAQ consultants, community-based advocacy groups, school boards/districts, government policy makers and deputy ministers from most jurisdictions across Canada. It includes a discussion of perceptions, issues, views, and experiences associated with IAQ; problems experienced with IAQ across the country; current policies or practices in place at the school board/district levels; an overview of current funding programs, policies and practices by federal, provincial, and territorial government jurisdictions; a description of best practices and keys to successful IAQ management; barriers and contributing factors to good IAQ management; suggestions for implementation of good IAQ management practice; and current and proposed communication practices. Recommendations are made based on participant suggestions to achieve and maintain good IAQ in school environments. Includes 103 references. 249p.

Report to the California Legislature: Environmental Health Conditions in California's Portable Classrooms. Adobe PDF
(California Environmental Protection Agency, California Air Resources Board; California Department of Health Services, Sacramento , Nov 2003)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive study and review of the environmental health conditions in portable classrooms; identify any potentially unhealthy environmental conditions, and their extent; and, in consultation with stakeholders, identify and recommend actions that can be taken to remedy and prevent such unhealthy conditions. The study also included a review of design and construction specifications, ventilation systems, school maintenance practices, indoor air quality, and potential toxic contamination including mold and other biological contaminants. Results and recommendations are detailed. 220p.

School Indoor Air Quality Best Management Practices Manual. Adobe PDF
Hall, Richard; Ellis, Richard; Hardin, Tim
(Washington State Dept. of Health Services, Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Olympia , Nov 2003)
This manual focuses on practices that can be undertaken during the siting, design, construction, or renovation of a school; recommends practices to help ensure good indoor air quality during building occupancy; and suggests protocols and useful reference documents for investigating and handling indoor air quality complaints and problems. Sections cover why indoor air needs management; factors influencing indoor air quality; basic strategies for good indoor air quality; siting, designing, and constructing of schools for good indoor air quality; and operating and maintaining heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Final sections examine air contaminant sources and control in classrooms, offices, and special use areas; and planning and management methods to maintain indoor air quality. Appendices provide the Washington State Department of Health School Indoor Air Quality Survey, and an HVAC Checklist. 126p.

Senate Bill No. 352: Schoolsites: Sources of Pollution. [California]
(California State Senate , Oct 02, 2003)
In response to studies that show significantly increased levels of pollutants in schools near highways, this bill was passed prohibiting school districts from locating schools within 500 feet of the edge of closest traffic lane of a freeway or other busy traffic corridor. The bill also restricts locating schools on or near hazardous and solid waste disposals and pipelines. 7p.

Do Indoor Environments in Schools Influence Student Performance? A Review of the Literature.
Mendell, Mark; Heath, Garvin
(University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Indoor Environment Dept., Berkeley , Oct 2003)
Critically reviews available evidence on relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools and student performance. Because available evidence from schools was limited, the review expanded to include studies on direct relationships between the performance of children and adults and the indoor environments in schools, workplaces, residences, and controlled laboratory settings. The most persuasive available evidence suggests that some aspects of IEQ, including low ventilation rate and less daylight or light, may reduce the performance of occupants, including students in schools. Other evidence identifies additional possible influences, such as pollen and some carpets. (Includes 178 references.) 47p.

Mold Remediation Legislation and Litigation.
Frisman, Paul
(Connecticut General Assemply, Office of Legislative Research, Hartford , Sep 16, 2003)
Describes recent mold remediation legislation in Connecticut, California, Montana, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas, including a discussion of some recent cases of mold litigation, theories of liability, and admissibility of expert testimony. 6p.

Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Star Program, Washington , Sep 2003)
Describes how to protect and enhance school indoor air quality while improving energy efficiency. Common threats to indoor air quality are described, as is the energy cost of outdoor ventilation, energy recovery ventilation, and energy efficiency measures where adjustments may be necessary. 5p.

Assessment of Organic Compound Exposures, Thermal Comfort Parameters, and HVAC System-driven Air Exchange Rates in Public School Portable Classrooms in California
Shendell, Derek Garth
(Thesis (Ph.D.)Submitted to University of California, Los Angeles, CA , Aug 2003)
The prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables, relocatables, RCs) has increased due to class size reduction initiatives and limited resources. Classroom mechanical wall-mount heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may function improperly or not be maintained; lower ventilation rates may impact indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ). Materials in portables may off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, as a function of age, temperature, and humidity. For a pilot study, public K-12 schools located in or serving target areas within five Los Angeles County communities were identified. In two communities where school districts (SD) consented, 1-3 randomly selected portables, one newer and one older, and one main building control classroom from each participating school were included. Sampling was conducted over a five-day school week in the cooling and heating seasons, or repeated twice in the cooling season. Measurements included passive samplers for VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and air exchange rate (AER) calculation; indoor air temperature and humidity; technician walk-through surveys; an interview questionnaire above HVAC system operation and maintenance (O and M). Measured classroom AER were low, formaldehyde concentrations were below the state indoor air guideline 'target level', and concentrations of most target VOCs were low. O and M questionnaire results suggested insufficient training and communication between custodians and SD offices concerning HVAC systems. Future studies should attempt larger sample sizes and cover larger geographical areas but continue to assess multiple IEQ parameters during occupied hours. Teachers, custodians, and SD staff must be educated on the importance of adequate ventilation with filtered outdoor air. [Author's abstract] 448p.

Building Material Emissions Study.
Alevantis, Leon
(California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, Indoor Air Quality Section, Sacramento, CA, May 15, 2003)
This study, funded by the California Integrated Waste Management Board, adopted the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Section 01350 indoor air quality guideline as the testing protocol to test emissions of products common to classrooms and State construction in comparison to the emissions of alternative materials such as recycled-content and environmentally preferable products. The products studied included acoustical ceiling panels, carpeting, fiberboard, gypsum board, paints, particleboard, plastic laminates, resilient flooring, tackable wall panels, thermal insulation, and wall base. The findings included: 1) both standard and alternative products exceeded section 01350 concentration limits more or less equally; and 2) the concentration limits most frequently exceeded were naphthalene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. Among the conclusions were: 1) low-emitting, sustainable building materials are available within each of the categories studied; 2) many products tested emitted chemicals at rates that result in calculated concentrations that exceed the concentration limits used in this study; and 3) manufacturers should be encouraged to reduce emissions of certain chemicals from their products. An executive summary of this study is available. 315p.

School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. , Apr 09, 2003)
The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and linguistically diverse children in grades 2-5 from two Minneapolis, Minnesota, elementary schools. The enrollment rate for English-speaking, predominantly African American families was 42 percent, compared to 71 percent for non-English-speaking families (predominantly Somali and Hispanic). Most SHIELD households were low income, and 44 percent had no occupant with a high school degree or equivalent. These preliminary results indicated that there were ethnic/racial differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in two economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. African American children tended to have the highest exposure, and Hispanic and Somali children had the lowest exposure. Both the baseline questionnaire and time-activity log did a reasonably good job of predicting urine total cotinine levels. Measured urine total cotinine levels were relatively good predictors of urinary NNAL+ NNAL-Gluc. Temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels were comparable inside an older and newer elementary school. Differences were noted on several of the measures by race or language group. 9p.

Model Legislation on Indoor Air Quality in Schools.
(The Consumer Federation of America , 2003)
This model legislation adressing indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools includes the following key components: 1)the state department of education has sole authority for the implementation of an Indoor Air Quality Management Plan, and the plan is developed in collaboration with the state department of health, state Environmental Protection Agency and an IAQ Schools Task Force; 2) a 13 member IAQ Task Force is appointed representing prescribed stakeholder groups and findings of the Task Force are reported to the state legislature; 3) training is required for relevant personnel within 3 years of enactment; 4) school-specific IAQ information is made available to students and parents and non-compliance is reported.

Eliminating Humidity and Condensation Problems in University Dormitories: Case Study.
Chen, Hui;Hugghins, Joel; Bruner, Homer; Zhu, Yiwen; Turner, W. D.; Deng, Song Deng; Claridge, David.
(California Commissioning Collaborative, Sacramento , Jan 2003)
Presents the investigation and follow-up efforts that identified reasons and corrective measures for high humidity levels in the living areas of two Texas A&M dormitories. The paper describes how the dormitories were affected by excessive humidity by verifying design and existing HVAC systems, diagnosing humidity problems, and then recommending continuous commissioning measures implemented to deal with these problems. High humidity was attributed to largely to excess infiltration of unconditioned outside air, and to lack of effective airflow pathways within the buildings. 10p.

Improving Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Training Program.
Csobod, Eva; Heszlenyi, Judit; Schroth Agnes
(Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest, Hungary , 2003)
Presents a European outlook on school indoor air quality, with special attention to procedures an substances used to clean schools. 31p.

Improved Air Quality and Energy Efficiency with Displacement Ventilation. Adobe PDF
Dunham, Chuck
(3D/I, Houston, TX , 2003)
Explains the function and deficiencies of current traditional school HVAC systems that mix air, comparing these to displacement ventilation and underfloor air distribution (UFAD), which avoids many of these deficiencies. Advantages of displacement ventilation and UFAD are increased comfort, improved air quality, reduced energy consumption, quieter operation, decreased life cycle cost, increase flexibility for adaptive reuse, and enhanced student and teacher performance. 4p.

Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.
Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.
(Design Share, Minneapolis, MN. , 2003)
This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient filtration, and poor hygiene of air handling units are the main reasons for poor indoor air quality. The article examinines a case study done as part of a product demonstration in the Exhibit Hall of the Austin Convention Center during the 2002 USGBC conference. Carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring was performed in accordance with sampling guidelines from ASTM D6245, Standard Guide for Using Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Evaluate Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation. The CO2 monitoring values indicated that in the morning, the amount of ventilation provided to occupants was only about half of the recommended minimum. This inadequacy was communicated to operators of the building's HVAC system, who increased the opening of the outdoor air dampers to provide more ventilation to the Exhibit Hall. This resulted in significant increases in the ventilation rate at the breathing zone. Overnight monitoring data revealed that the Exhibit Hall's ventilation system failed to flush the space out before occupancy the next day. 7p.

My School Makes Me Sick: Cheap Solutions to Environmental Problems in Schools. Adobe PDF
Wiley, Robert
This paper presents 19 solutions to problems within the school environment: (1) ventilation (e.g., keep the thermostat fan on whenever the room is occupied); (2) filters (e.g., get rid of 20 percent cheap filters); (3) clean the ductwork; (4) avoid car and bus fumes by keeping vehicles 50 feet from the building; (5) sewer vents (vents must terminate at least 10 feet from a powered fresh air intake); (6) furnace exhaust pipes (if the furnace vent or other vent is closer than 10 feet from a powered fresh air intake, it must extend at least 3 feet above the intake); (7) floor and roof traps; (8) unvented science labs (which can send fumes into classrooms); (9) cosmetology odors (when there is no lab hood for ventilation); (10) CO2 testing (e.g., CO2 builds up when there are several persons in a room over several hours with inadequate ventilation); (11) asthma and respiratory ailments (e.g., carpeting should not be in schools, and ductwork needs regular cleaning); (12) UV lights (which kill most organisms in the air that pass through the ductwork); (13) cold temperatures (an adequate thermometer is important); (14) increased complaints about cold when proper ventilation blows air into the room; (15) asbestos testing; (16) radon testing; (17) lead paint testing; (18) water quality; and (19) mold. 5p.

Healthy School Design and Construction.
(Citizens for a Safe Learning Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia , Dec 2002)
Provides a point-by-point compilation of design, building product, and construction practice recommendations for controlling indoor air quality in schools. All school areas and building systems are covered in checklist format intended to assist clients, designers, and builders in working together before and during the design and construction process. 30p.

Strategies for Addressing Asthma Within a Coordinated School Health Program.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA , Nov 2002)
Report highlights six strategies identified by the CDC for schools and districts to consider when addressing asthma within a coordinated school health program, including creating a healthy school environment. 9p.

Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? Adobe PDF
Schneider, Mark
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Nov 2002)
This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning. Spatial configurations, noise, heat, cold, light, and air quality obviously bear on students' and teachers' ability to perform. Needed are clean air, good light, and a quiet, comfortable, and safe learning environment. The review asserts that this can be and generally has been achieved within the limits of existing knowledge, technology, and materials; it simply requires adequate funding and competent design, construction, and maintenance. 24p.

Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Washington, DC. , Oct 2002)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and triggers for asthma, identify sources of mold, improve comfort and performance levels, avoid costly repairs, avoid negative publicity and loss of parent and community trust, and avoid liability problems. The publication offers an overview of IAQ issues, offers examples of successful school efforts, and presents action items. 20p.
Report NO: EPA-402-K-02-005

Testimony of E. Ramona Trovato, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Environmental Information, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , Oct 01, 2002)
This testimony provides an overview of health and environmental issues in U.S. schools and describes efforts by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in concert with other federal agencies, to help schools address environmental issues. These include the Clear Skies Initiative, Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools, High Performance Schools, promotion of integrated pest management, SunWise School Program, Healthy School Environments Web portal, and President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children. 11p.

Renaissance of the American School Building. Adobe PDF
Bomier, Bruce
(Environmental Resource Council, Ramsey, MN , Sep 2002)
This is a non-technical reader on how school buildings, health, and environment are entwined. The author provides a reasonable road map to consider when making decisions related to indoor air quality and other health concerns of school building environments. The author takes a look at unwise decisions that were made in the recent past, and believes that the previous emphasis on standardized, low-bid design and modular, environmentally indifferent school construction is undergoing a renaissance. In particular, chapter five discusses federal asbestos policy for schools in the late 1980s and early '90s. The author recommends an environmentally responsible analysis of traditional building construction or remodeling methods using the following criteria: 1) financial value and life cycle costs; 2) occupant health and comfort; 3) ecosystem impact; 4) educational value; and 5) common sense and integration. 63p.
TO ORDER: Environmental Resource Council, 5909 167th Avenue, N.W., Suite #2, Ramsey, MN 55303. Tel: 763-753-9713

Creating Safe Learning Zones: The ABC's of Healthy Schools. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Aug 2002)
This primer was prepared by the Healthy Buildings committee of the Child Proofing Our Communities campaign. The campaign aims to connect local efforts across the country, raise awareness of toxic threats to children's health, and promote precautionary approaches most protective of children. Following an introduction, chapter II, "Special Vulnerabilities of Children," discusses why children are more susceptible to toxins and how inadequately they are protected. Chapter III, "Toxins in Schools and Building Materials," explains the threat from the most common toxic substances found in schools. While the threats from building materials such as lead and asbestos are subsiding, mold, vinyl, and toxic fumes from carpeting present a new generation of hazards. Chapter IV, "Building Materials: From Hazardous to Healthier Choices," puts the hazards identified in Chapter III in context, identifying especially problematic building materials. Chapter V, "The Indoor Environment," discusses ways to improve indoor air quality and lighting as well as maintenance practices that avoid the use of toxic chemicals. Chapter VI, "Designing a Healthy School," outlines the lengthy process of designing and renovating a school from conception to completion. It explains how to construct or renovate a healthy school to avoid or minimize toxic hazards. Chapter VII, "Getting Your School Community Involved," explains how to mobilize support for a healthy school building and work with architects, school boards, and contractors to ensure that children's health is protected at school. Finally, chapter VIII, "The Safety of Our Children Is in Our Hands," describes steps that parents can take to identify and address some of the most common environmental health problems in schools. 58p.

From the Ground Up: Floorcovering Recommendations from an IAQ Consortium. Issuetrak: A CEFPI Brief on Educationaly Facility Issues. Adobe PDF
Frank, David
(Council of Educational Facilities Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Aug 2002)
This brief describes the findings of a consortium on indoor air quality (IAQ) in educational facilities held in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The objective was to determine the impact floorcoverings have on indoor air quality in schools relative to maintenance, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), airborne contaminants, moisture, surface contaminants, and product construction. As each type of floorcovering was discussed relative to the issues, participants began to formulate a consensus defining the proper floorcovering conducive to improved IAQ in schools. Floorcoverings reviewed were vinyl composition tile, conventional carpeting, and vinyl cushion tufted textile. The consortium also addressed preventing mold and mildew, controlling dust and particles, and eliminating VOCs. 4p.

Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools. Adobe PDF
(Pennsylvania Dept. of Health, Harrisburg , May 2002)
Offers practical guidance to prevent IAQ problems in schools and resolve or alleviate such problems when they do arise. It describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources and includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems; additional guidelines on specific indoor contaminants; recommendations on IAQ management approaches; recommendations on seeking professional assistance; and selected resources and references. 17p.

IAQ Tools for Schools 2002 Award Winners.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2002)
A description of the 2002 Excellence Awards and 2002 Special Achievement Awards for schools around the country that have adopted programs to improve indoor air quality in their buildings. The schools receiving these awards used EPA's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit to improve air quality.

Tools for Schools - Filtration for Improved Indoor Air Quality.
(Camfill Farr, 2002)
Camfill Farr, a company that manufactures HVAC/HPP air filters and air filtration equipment, provides helpful information on school air quality issues, including air filtration advice for classrooms, corridors, gynmasiums, labs/darkrooms, libraries, pool areas, and shops.

Inflammatory Potential of Dust from Schools Associated with Building Related Symptoms. Adobe PDF
Allerman, L.; Meyer, H.W.; Poulsen, O.M.; Gyntelberg, F.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports how the inflammatory potential of dust might be used to differentiate schools with high and low prevalence of building related symptoms (BRS). 10 schools with a high prevalence of BRS and 10 with a low prevalence were selected. The potency of dust samples to stimulate an secretion from a cell line was associated with the organic content of the dust. Dust from schools with low prevalence of symptoms had a significantly lower potency than high prevalence schools, and the potency of the floor dust correlated with the prevalence of symptoms (high or low). The substances in the dust causing the inflammatory potential are unknown. (Includes nine references.) 6p.

Multidisciplinary Evaluation of a Public High School.
Anderson, R; Anis, W.; Feeney, M.; Goldman, M; Gregor, R.; Nichols, S.; Oleary, T.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on an evalaution of a large Boston high school building erected in 1963 to serve 1600 students. The investigation included a written questionnaire, evaluation of air using the ASTM E981 (modified) bioassay, fungal and bacterial testing, real time monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, respirable particulate, total volatile organic compounds, relative humidity and temperature. The survey and testing enumerated many potential causes for poor IAQ. The walkthrough included evaluations by a building envelope specialist, HVAC specialists, non-industrial indoor air quality investigators and filter use specialists. The reported human data, the animal bioassay data, the microbial data, real time monitoring and observations provided strong support for remediation actions. 5p.

Comparison of the Perceived Indoor Climate and Symptoms Reported by Students and Personnel in 16 Senior High Schools in Sweden.
Andersson, K.; Stridh, G.; Fagerlund, I.; Aslaksen, W.; Rudblad, S.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study where 1,023 personnel and 8,853 students from 16 senior high schools answered the same questions about the perceived indoor climate and sick building syndrome symptoms. Both personnel and students reported high prevalence of annoying indoor air quality, dust and dirt and temperature problems. The symptom prevalence was strongly related to sex and allergic constitution. The students reported much higher prevalence of general symptoms compared to the personnel, while the personnel reported somewhat higher prevalence of mucous membrane irritations and skin symptoms. (Includes three references.) 6p.

Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality in Relocatable Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Apte, M.G.; Hodgson, A.T.; Shendell, D.G.; Dibartolomeo, D.; Hochi, T.; Kumar, S.; Lee, S.M.; Liff, S.M.; Rainer, L.I.; Schmidt, R.C.; Sullivan, D.P.; Diamond, R.C.; Fisk, W.J.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports the preliminary results of a study of four energy-efficient relocatable classrooms, designed and constructed to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each relocatable had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. (Includes eleven references.) 6p.

The Relationship Between Humidity and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Adobe PDF
Bayer, C.W.; Hendry, R.J.; Crow, S.A.; Fischer, J.C.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on indoor air quality differences among five schools with and five schools without active humidity control systems. The active humidity systems provided approximately 15 cfm/person of ventilation air, while the schools without the active humidity control systems averaged less than five cfm/person. The humidity levels varied widely in spaces without active humidity control, and rose to unacceptable levels during summer shut-down periods. Field data and modeling showed that if the schools without active humidity control systems were operated at ventilation rates above five cfm/person, >70% relative humidity levels might occur for extended time periods. (Includes nine references.) 6p.

Vertical Profile Particulate Matter Measurements in a California Daycare. Adobe PDF
Beamer, P.; Castano, A; Leckie, J.O.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study measuring the difference between children's and adults' particulate matter exposure due to differences in their respective vertical position within the room. The experiments measured particulate concentrations in two rooms with children of different ages (12-24 and 24-36 months). The results showed that the children were exposed to higher amounts of particulate than the adults in the same room, and indoor particulate concentrations were considerably higher than those measured outdoors on the same day. (Includes twelve references.) 6p.

Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality.
Bernstein, Tobie
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Jan 2002)
Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies discussed illustrate approaches that states can consider when developing legislation, regulations, guidance documents, and programs to create healthier indoor environments in schools. The report provides detailed information on existing policies, with an emphasis on policy strategies aimed at preventing indoor air quality problems. Thus, the report focuses on policies that promote better maintenance and management of existing school facilities, as well as better design and construction practices in new and renovated schools. Additionally, since an IAQ policy has little value unless implemented, the report highlights significant implementation activities and notes potential strengths and weaknesses of individual policies in this regard. 51p.
Report NO: ELI-Project-No-96090

TO ORDER: Environmental Law Institute, 1616 P St., N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 202-939-3800

The Contribution of Restoration and Effective Operation and Maintenance Programs on Indoor Environmental Quality and Education Performance in Schools. Adobe PDF
Berry, M.A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a the link between effective facility management programs for cleaning and maintenance, and environmental quality of schools. The quality of the school environment, to include air quality, determines an overall sense of well-being, and shapes attitudes of students, teachers and staff. Attitudes affect teaching and learning behavior. Behavior in turn affects teaching and academic performance. (Includes four references.) 6p.

The EFA Project: Indoor Air Quality in European Schools.
Carrer, P.; Bruinen de Bruin, Y.; Franchi, M.; Valovirta, E.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reviews the few European indoor air quality policies and preventive programs, and makes recommendations aimed at providing a healthy school environment. (Includes 17 references.) 6p.

Carbon Dioxide Levels and Dynamics in Elementary Schools; Results of The Tesias Study.
Corsi, R.L.; Torres, V.M.; Sanders, M.; Kinney, K.A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on one phase of the Texas Elementary School Indoor Air Study (TESIAS), consisting of single-day continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 120 randomly selected classrooms in two school districts. The median time-averaged and peak CO2 concentrations were 1,286 ppm and 2,062 ppm, respectively. The time-averaged CO2 concentration exceeded 1,000 ppm in 66% of the classrooms. The peak CO2 concentration exceeded 1,000 ppm in 88% of the classrooms and 3,000 ppm in 21% of the classrooms. Mean and peak occupied CO2 concentrations were statistically different (  = 0.05) between the two districts, and peak CO2 concentrations were statistically greater in classrooms that employed packaged terminal air conditioning (PTAC) systems. Statistically significant differences in both mean time-averaged and peak CO2 concentrations were not observed for portable vs. traditional classrooms, classrooms with outside vs. inside entries, or when data were separated amongst teacher responses to questions related to classroom odors. (Includes four references.) 6p.

NJ IAQ Tools for Schools Network: an Innovative Approach to Achieving Good IAQ. Adobe PDF
Feola, J.; Hiester, M.; McGuinness, M.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reviews New Jerseys IAQ Tools for Schools Network, created in 1999 to overcome barriers to implementing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program by offering specialized training, technical support, and incentives to New Jersey schools. Currently in its fourth year, the Network is a replicable model for providing hands-on guidance to schools, without placing unreasonable time and resource burdens on school and/or government program staff. (Includes five references.) 6p.

Humidity Control in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Fisher, John; Bayer, Charlene
(DOAS-Radiant, University Park, PA , 2002)
Presents a synopsis of research on humidity control in various school HVAC systems, its relationship to comfort, ventilation, and the learning process. Packaged HVAC equipment was typically unable to produce proper ventilation in humid environments. Includes 21 references. 7p.

Health, Energy and Productivity in Schools: Measures of Occupant Performance.
Freitag, P.K.; Woods, J.E.; Hemler, B.; Sensharma, N.P.; Penney, B.A.; Marx, G.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Describes ongoing research with questionnaires designed to quantitatively link determine relationships between thermal, acoustic, lighting, and indoor air quality exposures to the performance of teachers and students in elementary schools. Teachers' questionnaire responses, exposure data, student quarterly grade reports, and student standardized test scores are used to quantify the changes in indoor environmental quality and student performance between pre- and post-intervention conditions of each school and classroom. The questionnaire is being validated for use in future studies of schools, as well as to study performance and productivity in other settings. (Includes five references.) 6p.

Education, Indoor Environmental and HVAC Solutions in School Buildings - Consequences of Differences in Paradigm Shifts. Adobe PDF
Hansen, H.L.; Hanssen, S.O.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Investigates educational methods, school architecture, and the choice of HVAC solutions in school buildings from different eras, to discern whether there is a connection with respect to paradigm shifts. By taking into account the limitations of different HVAC solutions, and the various maintenance requirements, one should be able to achieve a better educational environment. Many of today's school buildings were not planned to accommodate any dynamic changes of internal life or activities, and therefore performing the remedial actions can be a great challenge. (Includes two references.) 6p.

Evaluating Effects of Moisture Damage Repairs in the Students' Health Using Questionnaires. Adobe PDF
Haverinen, U.; Pekkanen, J.; Nevalainen, A.; Husman, T.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a Finnish questionnaire study conducted among upper secondary and high school students before comprehensive repairs of moisture damage in their school, then repeated one year and three years after the repairs. The data was analyzed both cross-sectionally including all respondents, and longitudinally including paired observations for those individuals who had responded both before and after the repairs. Compared to the situation before the repairs, the situation after the repairs was significantly improved in most of the 20 symptoms studied among the whole population. However, the improvement was not so clear in the paired analysis and regression analysis among the students who had responded to all three questionnaires. (Includes six references.) 6p.

Respiratory Infections among Children in Moisture Damaged Schools. Adobe PDF
Husman, T.; Meklin, T.; Veps,l inin, A.; Vahteristo, M.; Koivisto, J.; Halla-aho, J.; Hyvrinen, A.; Koponen, V.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study of the association between respiratory infections and moisture damage in different types of school buildings. Both old and new buildings with wooden and concrete/brick frame were included. An association was found between occurrence of common colds and moisture damage in all school buildings. In addition, sinusitis, tonsillitis and bronchitis were more common in concrete/brick buildings than in buildings with wooden frame irrespective with moisture observations. Occurrence of respiratory infection was also strongly correlated with background factors such as age, female gender, smoking, atopy and moisture damage in home environment. (Includes 12 references) 4p.

Comparison of Airborne Microbial Levels in School Kitchen Facilities And Other Schools Areas.
Kalliokoski, P.; Lignell, U.; Meklin, T.; Koivisto, J.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a comparison of airborne microbial conditions of the kitchens, dining halls, and main study areas in six moisture damaged subject schools and two non-damaged control schools. The average fungal concentrations were lower in the control than in the subject schools in all three types of spaces investigated. However, the difference was statistically significant only for the main study areas. The levels were always rather low. The bacterial concentrations increased in this order: kitchens, dining halls, and other spaces. This was mainly due to differences in cleaning, occupant density, and ventilation efficiency. (Includes ten references.) 5p.

Effect of Indoor CO2 Concentrations on Wheezing Attacks in Children. Adobe PDF
Kim, C.S.; Lim, Y.W.; Yan, J.Y.; Hong, C.S.; Shin, D.C.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on findings that in children with an asthma history, wheezing attacks were associated with indoor CO2 concentrations (p=0.01). In multivariate analysis, the indoor CO2 concentrations for children with an asthma history were still associated with wheezing attacks even after adjusting for other factors (OR=1.12 per 10 ppm increase, p<0.05).(Includes 7 references.) 6p.

Occurrence and Characteristics of Moisture Damage in School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Kovisto, J.; Haverinen, U.; Meklin, T.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on the investigation of moisture damage in 41 Finnish school buildings. 31 buildings had notable moisture damage observations and 10 buildings did not. This distinction was used in order to evaluate the effect of different building characteristics, such as age of the building, predominant building materials, and type of structural assemblies, on the occurrence of moisture damage. Moisture damage characteristics, such as location of damage, damaged structure type, and presence of mold/mold odor, were analyzed in order to assess their distribution and inter relationships. (Includes seven references.) 6p.

Indoor Air Pollutants, Limited Resource Households and Childcare Facilities. Adobe PDF
Laquatra, J.; Maxwell, L.E.; Pierce, M.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Presents findings from an indoor air quality study of homes and childcare facilities in nonmetropolitan counties of New York State. Specific pollutants examined were lead, radon, carbon monoxide, asbestos, and mold. High levels of pollutants were observed homes and childcare facilities, raising questions about constant pollutant exposure to children. Recommendations are made for lowering exposure levels in low income households and childcare facilities. (Includes eleven references.) 6p.

Effects on Health-Related Symptoms of Carpet Removal and Ventilation in Eleven Schools-A Controlled Intervention Study. Adobe PDF
Mathisen, H.M.; Jenssen, J.A.; Johnsen, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on an intervention study was carried out in eleven Norwegian elementary schools. Three schools with poor ventilation standard, four schools with carpets, and four control schools participated. Carpets were replaced by vinyl flooring and the poor ventilation systems were upgraded. 1100 children aged twelve to thirteen years and 400 teachers were included in the study. A baseline registration of health related symptoms were performed before the intervention, and repeated afterward. Compared to control schools, the results from the intervention schools showed that the number of health related symptoms were reduced for both children with and without hypersensitivity. (Includes four references.) 5p.

Effects of Moisture Damage Repair on Microbial Exposure and Health Effects in Schools. Adobe PDF
Meklin, T.; Husman, T; Pekkanen, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M-R; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports the results of an intervention study designed to show the effects of the remediation of moisture and mold damaged school building on the student health. Microbial sampling from indoor air of the school and a health questionnaire study were performed before and after renovation. The results were compared to those from a non-damaged control school. The renovated school showed decreased concentrations of airborne fungi and decreased diversity of mycoflora. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of the respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren after the renovation. (Includes ten references.) 5p.

Indoor Allergens in Schools: a Comparison Between Sweden and China. Adobe PDF
Mi, Y-H.; Elfman, L.; Eriksson, S.; Johansson, M.; Smedje, G.; Tao, J.; Mi, Y-L.; Norb?ck, D.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on measurements of allergens levels in 23 classrooms in Uppsala, Sweden, and 30 classrooms in Shanghai, China. Dust was collected by vacuum cleaning, and analysed for allergens from cat, dog, horse, house dust mites, cockroach, and mold. All Swedish classrooms had cat allergen, and most had dog and horse allergens. In Shanghai, 13% had cat allergen, and 7% dog allergen, while none had horse allergen. House dust mite, cockroach and Alternaria allergen were not detected in any sample from either country. Pet allergy and current asthma were less common in Shanghai. Causative factors could be less furry pets at home, wearing of school uniforms resulting in reduced influx of allergens, and less fittings and textiles. (Includes twelve references.) 6p.

Clearing the Air: a Model for Investigating Indoor Air Quality in Texas Schools. Adobe PDF
Petronella, S.A.; Thomas, R.; Stone, J.A.; Goldblum, R.M.; Brooks, E.G.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reviews a pilot project focused on indoor air quality assessment at a local school, utilizing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program. Findings from this approach were compared with an air-sampling program to determine if use of Tools for Schools was sufficient to identify conditions related to adverse health effects. Data were gathered for formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, particulate matter (PM10), mold, relative humidity, and temperature. Levels of ozone and PM10 and all VOC levels except formaldehyde were found to be within government standards. Mold, however, was widespread, including those associated with allergy and asthma. (Includes 19 references.) 6p.

School Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Program Implementation. Adobe PDF
Prill, R.; Blake, D.; Hales, D.
This paper describes the effectiveness of a three-step indoor air quality (IAQ) program implemented by 156 schools in the states of Washington and Idaho during the 2000-2001 school year. An experienced IAQ/building science specialist conducted walk-through assessments at each school. These assessments documented deficiencies and served as an on-site training opportunity for the schools' facilities and administration staffs. Schools used the assessment findings, along with guidance from the specialist, to adopt indoor air quality practices and procedures from a "menu" of options. At least 22 options were selected by all schools, with most schools adopting more, up to as many as 58. The findings from the assessments and the specific options selected were compiled into a database to be used by school officials and agencies. A survey of schools confirmed the program's usefulness. 6p.

Indoor Air Quality in Two Urban Elementary Schools: Comfort Parameters and Microbial Concentrations in Air and Carpets.
Ramachandran, G.; Adgate, J.L.; Church, T.R.; Jones, D.; Fischer, G.; Frederickson, A.; Sexton, K.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Compares indoor air quality two urban Minneapolis schools. One school is a new building constructed to minimize indoor air quality problems, while the other is older and of more traditional construction. CO2, CO, temperature, and relative humidity were measured continuously over three seasons (fall, winter, and spring) in four classrooms and one outdoor location per school. Air concentrations of saprotrophic fungi as well as carpet levels of fungi and three allergens (cat, cockroach, and dust mite) were measured once every two weeks at the same locations. CO2, CO, temperature and relative humidity were not significantly different between the two schools. Bioaerosol levels were similar between the schools during winter and spring, while the newer school had lower levels in the fall. No differences between the schools were observed in terms of carpet fungal or allergen levels. All measurements, except for carpet fungi and cat allergens, were within currently acceptable guidelines. (Includes eight references.) 6p.

Indoor Air Pollution by Volatile Organic compounds (VOC) Emitted from Flooring Material in a Technical University in Switzerland. Adobe PDF
Reiser, R.; Meile, A.; Hofer, C.; Knutti, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports the results of a case study at a technical university where employees and students complained about deteriorated indoor air after the building had been renovated. Some employees even suffered from sickness and headache. Indoor air concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were elevated in both laboratory halls and reference rooms. Concentrations of most chemicals decreased considerably after six months. The smell intensity decreased in parallel but still was rated as highly annoying. The source of the odorous compounds and most probably of the health problems was identified to be the vinyl (PVC) flooring. The vinyl flooring emitted, among others, phenol and 2-ethylhexanol. Emission factors correlated inversely with the frequency of room usage. The results provide an example of the use of unsuitable building products with respect to healthy indoor air. (Includes 22 references.) 6p.

Indoor Air Quality in Schools: the Impact of Ventilation Conditions and Indoor Activity. Adobe PDF
Riberon, J.; O'Kelly, P.; Maupetit, F.; Robine, E.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Documents the indoor air quality of two nursery schools and one primary school of Paris suburb regarding ventilation strategy and occupants behavior. Measurements were performed indoors in two classrooms of each school and outdoors. Indoor air quality was better in mechanically ventilated classrooms than in operable windows classrooms. (Includes seven references.) 6p.

Preliminary Study of Flooring in School in the U.S.: Airborne Particulate Exposures in Carpeted vs. Uncarpeted Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Shaughnessy, R. J.; Turk, B.; Evans, S.; Fowler, F.; Casteel, S.; Louie, S.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on analysis of data from 16 schools (grades K-6 and a Junior High), spanning 5 southwestern states to examine classroom airborne particulate levels and the buildup of contaminants on flooring systems. Data were collected from 2 separate sites (one carpeted, one hard flooring) within each of the schools. Measurements included indoor/outdoor airborne particulate mass concentration, indoor/outdoor particulate counts, and CO2/T/RH to characterize ventilation in the classrooms. A comparative analysis of the limited data sets suggests that school carpeted floor covering may present an increased exposure risk to children from particulate matter harbored on the flooring material as compared to hard-surfaced flooring. The study emphasizes the need for fastidious maintenance of all types of floor coverings in schools. (Includes fifteen references.) 6p.

Air Quality and Ventilation Rates in Schools in Poland - Requirements, Reality and Possible Improvements. Adobe PDF
Sowa, J.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Compares indoor air quality in classrooms in Poland with national and international standards. The evaluation is based on measurements in 28 classrooms in Warsaw. Both temperature and carbon dioxide concentration were measured at 1 minute intervals during a week. Measurements of formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were used to characterize level of air pollution caused by building materials and furnishing. A questionnaire helped collect information about localization, construction and furnishing. The investigation indicated that Polish regulations on indoor air quality not only seem to drop behind similar regulations in developed countries as far as their rigidity is concerned, but also, generally, are not observed. (Includes five references.) 6p.

Total Dust Exposure and Size Distribution of Air Borne Particles in Day- Care Centers, Schools, and Offices.
Stridh, G.; Andersson, H.; Linder, B.; Oscarsson, J.; Sahlberg Bang, Ch.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study to establish guidance values for dust and particle distribution in buildings recognized as healthy buildings. Values for total dust concentration in indoor air in day-care centres, offices and schools with no reported problems are offered. 6p.

Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency in the Design of Building Services Systems for School Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Tam, K.L.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Introduces Hong Kong's proposed Indoor Air Quality Management Programme, its achievements, and proposed target objectives. The design approaches taken to tackle the issues both from maintaining good air quality and energy efficient usage in school classrooms are outlined. (Includes two references.) 5p.

Texas Elementary School Indoor Air Study (Tesias); Overview and Major Findings. Adobe PDF
Torres, V.; Sanders, M; Corsi, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on a study of 120 randomly selected classrooms in 30 schools in central and south Texas. Part I of the study consisted of questionnaires sent to all teachers and staff in the schools to obtain information about the use of their rooms, room contents and their perceptions of its indoor air quality. Part II consisted of walkthroughs in each school and the 120 classrooms to obtain information on the building design, HVAC system and condition of the space/building. It also included making measurements of temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the selected classrooms. Additionally, air samples were analyzed for fungal and bacterial genera, counts of airborne particles, and volatile organic compound levels in 18 classrooms. (Includes two references) 6p.

Real-time Measurement of Dust Levels in a Carpeted and Non-carpeted School Gym Room.
Turner, W.A.; Caulfield, S.C.; Ellis, T.; Lewia, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on research where particle data were collected in two school gyms for fifteen weeks in Kennebunk, Maine. The floor coverings of the two gyms were vinyl composition tile (VCT) and vinyl cushioned tufted textile (VCTT), or high-grade commercial carpet, respectively. Intensive one-minute data was also collected during three "experiments" that evaluated the measured effect of typical sweeping, vacuuming, and burnishing of VCT. It was concluded that advances to contain breathable dust during burnishing activities are needed and that modern vacuum cleaning devices likely produce the least impact on indoor air quality. In the two rooms studied, dust levels were similar in the hard and soft-surface floors. (Includes three references.) 6p.

Health, Energy and Productivity in Schools: Overview of the Research Program. Adobe PDF
Woods, J.E.; Penney, B.A.; Freitag, P.K.; Marx, G.; Hemler, B.; Sensharma, N.P.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Describes a research program that has been initiated to quantify the effects of simultaneous control of indoor exposures (i.e., thermal, indoor air quality or IAQ, lighting, and acoustics) on specific measures of human response, student and teacher performance, and productivity. The pilot study is being conducted in six elementary schools in Montgomery County Maryland. Two matched triplets of schools have been selected, each with three 3rd grade and three 4th grade classrooms. Exposure, questionnaire, and system performance data are being acquired periodically before and after interventions. (Includes five references.) 6p.

Predicted Concentrations in New Relocatable Classrooms of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Standard and Alternate Interior Finish Materials.
Hodgson, Alfred; Fisk, William; Shendell, Derek; Apte, Michael
(E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Technologies Division, Berkeley, CA , Jul 18, 2001)
Reports on a laboratory study evaluating emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used to finish the interiors of new relocatable classrooms. The study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were tested for emissions of VOCs using small scale environmental chambers. Working with a manufacturer of conventional relocatables and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new relocatables predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other relocatables based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. 36p.

Recommendations for School Air Quality.
(Maine Indoor Air Quality Council , Jan 17, 2001)
The purpose of this document is to outline guidance regarding the best practice principles for achieving and maintaining healthy indoor air quality in Maine's schools. These recommendations are based on the public health principle that prevention of indoor air quality problems is of prime importance to overall lung health.

School HVAC Design Manual. Adobe PDF
(McQuay International, Staunton, VA , 2001)
Provides a variety of HVAC solutions for classrooms. Indoor air quality, energy efficiency, unit ventilators, water source heat pumps, fan coil units, a variety central units, duct design, and controls are discussed and illustrated with drawings and charts. 54p.

School Renovation: Protecting Staff and Students. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers. , 2001)
If renovations are undertaken when a school is in session, precautions should be taken to avoid exposure to roofing fumes, dust, paint, and adhesive vapors among others. This discusses control options, good work practices, project control specifications, and commissioning the area. 4p.

The IAQ Tools for Schools Walkthrough Video: Four Schools Making a Difference.
(U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2001)
This video illustrates one of the key components of the Environmental Protection Agency's "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" (IAQ TfS) process--the school walkthrough. Videotaped at a North Carolina school built in 1999, hosts Keith Flippen and Debra Terry describe what schools in Nebraska, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Iowa found during their walkthroughs and how they were able to use that information. The video also illustrates some of the most common IAQ problems found in schools, and is particularly intended for schools that are beginning to implement IAQ TfS.
Report NO: EPA #402--V-01-004

TO ORDER: Environmental Protection Agency; Toll free: 800-438-4318

Active Humidity Control and Continuous Ventilation for Improved Air Quality in Schools.
Bayer, Charlene W.; Hendry, Robert J.; Fischer, John C.; Crow, Sidney
(Paper presented at IAQ 2001: Moisture, Microbes, and Health Effects: Indoor Air Quality and Moisture in Buildings. , 2001)
A research project was undertaken, investigating the impact on school indoor air quality of active humidity control and continuous ventilation, with the objectives of (1) measuring the importance of humidity control and continuous ventilation on school indoor air quality, (2) developing baseline indoor air quality data for schools in hot and humid climates, (3) providing data and recommendations for HVAC designs for improving indoor air quality in schools, and (4) documenting the role of desiccant technologies to actively control humidity in schools. A literature review of school indoor air quality was the first task followed by a field investigation of the indoor air quality in ten noncomplaint Georgia schools in matched pairs of schools with conventional systems and schools with desiccant-cooling systems. Continuous monitors for carbon dioxide, temperature, and humidity were placed in one location in each school for approximately one year. In the same room with the continuous monitor, time-weighted volatile organic compound (VOC) samples were taken for approximately 30- day periods throughout the investigational period. Additionally on-site samples were collected at least four times during the year for VOCs, particles, bioaerosols, aldehydes and ketones, CO2 , carbon monoxide, temperature, humidity, and air change rate to more thoroughly assess the indoor air quality in the schools. Using discriminant analysis, statistically significance differences between the indoor air quality in the two groups of schools, those with the conventional HVAC systems versus those with the desiccant cooling systems, was found when looking at each sampling period. This paper presents an overview of the ventilation and temperature findings. [Authors' abstract]
TO ORDER: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Healthy Schools for Healthy Kids. A Parents' Guide for Improving School Environmental Health.
Davis, Ben
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 2001)
Every day students, teachers and staff miss school or are less productive because their health is affected by exposure to contaminants in the school environment. This guide helps the community develop a systematic approach to the problem. Its chapters are: (1) "Indoor Air Pollution is a National Problem"; (2) "School Environmental Health in Vermont"; (3) "Act 125: The School Environmental Health Bill"; (4) "Health Implications of School Indoor Air"; (5) "The Precautionary Approach to School Environmental Health"; (6) "Getting the School Community Involved"; (7) "Basics of Indoor Air Quality and School Environmental Health"; (8) "Evaluating Products for Health and Environmental Impacts"; (9) "Pesticides"; and (10) "General Guidelines." (Appendices contains the School Environmental Health Act, an environmental health audit form, and the draft school diesel idling policy for Vermont schools.) 68p.

Sick Schools: A National Problem.
Dunne, Diane Weaver, ed.
(Education World, 2001)
Five-part special report on the environmental conditions of the nation's school buildings, the health consequences for students and staff, and what school officials can do. Series titles are: 1) Environmental Problems Blamed for Making Kids Sick; 2)Environmental Injustice: Poor and Minorities Suffer Most from Sick Schools; 3) Schools + Landfills Might Add Up to Health Problems; 4) Causes and Effects of Sick Schools Vary; 5) Sick Schools Create Dilemma for School Districts.

Guide to Protecting Vulnerable Students in "Sick" Schools.
Goldberg, Ellie
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2001)
Asserting that school buildings under renovation and even newly built schools may have polluted indoor environments that cause health problems and hinder learning, this guide introduces special education and anti-discrimination laws designed to remove barriers to education for children with disabilities such as chronic health impairments. The guide addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, effective communication and advocacy, some signs and symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how to address a problem. The guide also includes organizational and published resources. [Free registration required.] 8p.

Effects of New Carpet Emissions on Indoor Air Quality and Human Health.
Hedge, Alan
(Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2001)
This report reviews evidence on new carpet emissions. It compares emissions data from several studies, and describes the dominant compounds found in these emissions. The toxicity of each of these compounds is assessed for both animal and human exposure data. Differences and similarities between health responses caused by toxicity and/or by immunological reactions are described. Possible neurogenic pathways and associations between these and immune changes are considered. Factors affecting human odor responses are described. The roles that a variety of psychological factors also may play in the etiology of possibly related phenomena, such as the sick building syndrome, psychogenic illness, and multiple chemical sensitivity, are described. Gaps in the literature are identified and suggestions for future research are offered. Based on the present information available, it is concluded that under normal circumstances there is no evidence to suggest that emissions from new carpet pose any significant health risk to people.

Quality of Indoor Air and Functionality of Ventilation in Finnish Schools and Day-Care Centres. Adobe PDF
Jalas, Johanna; Kimari, Pirjo; Railio, Jorma
(Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Stuttgart , 2001)
Summarizes the results of two research projects that examined improvement in indoor environment after renovations to HVAC systems. The positive health effects were quantified by surveying teachers after the retrofits. 3p.

Indoor Air Quality. Tools for Schools. [With Videotape].
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. , Dec 2000)
This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. Along with the IAQ coordinator’s guide, the kit contains IAQ coordinator forms; an IAQ backgrounder; and a variety of checklists for administrators, teachers, and school health workers. The checklists focus on ventilation, building maintenance, waste management, food service, renovation and repairs, and inspection. Also provided is a problem-solving wheel that assists school teachers and others in identifying indoor air problems and correcting them. A 14-minute videotape is included which explains the importance of good indoor air quality and shows how to properly operate and maintain school ventilation systems.
TO ORDER: Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 37133, Washington D.C. 20013-7133; Toll free: 800-438-4318.

Issue on Gas Cooling in Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
(American Gas Cooling Center, Washington, DC , Sep-Oct 2000)
Several articles are presented covering the development and use of gas/electric cooling solutions for public schools and colleges. Articles address financing issues; indoor air quality (IAQ)problems and solutions; and the analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Three examples of how schools solved their cooling problems are included, as are technology advances in gas cooling, and legislative issues. Concluding articles provide resources for school IAQ, discuss gas cooling as a solution to power crises, and presents a progress report on the University of Maryland's research of an advanced air conditioning system designed to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 45 percent and achieve 30 percent higher energy efficiency. 22p.

Energy Efficiency and Indoor Environmental Quality in Schools Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Washington, DC. , Aug 2000)
This paper describes how to protect and enhance indoor environmental quality without sacrificing energy performance, lists the common pollutants and their sources, and explores how energy efficiency projects affect indoor environmental quality. Also highlighted are study figures showing the energy costs of outdoor air ventilation and an explanation of energy recovery ventialation technology that can help lessen these costs. An annotated list of areas where adjustments in energy-efficiency measures may be needed is provided. Two resources for additional information are provided. 5p.

Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC , Aug 2000)
This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from building-related illnesses, from mild symptoms of distress, the estimated loss in performance, measured loss in performance, and the measured effects of temperature and humidity. Final comments provide information on the "IAQ Tools for Schools Kit" that schools can use to improve and maintain good indoor air quality. 4p.
Report NO: EPA-402-F-00-009

Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Case Studies.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC, Aug 2000)
Schools and school districts across the nation are reaping the benefits of improved indoor air quality by successfully implementing the IAQ Tools for Schools Kit and program. EPA has developed case studies describing the experiences and processes associated with implementing good Indoor Air Quality strategies and practices. Each school profiled has overcome different barriers -- financial, legal, managerial, health-related, or community-related -- through teamwork and a strong commitment to providing a healthy learning environment for students and staff. 5p.

Teacher's Guide to Indoor Air Pollutants. Adobe PDF
(National Safety Council, Washington, DC , Jun 2000)
This guide, which includes lesson plans and activities, was developed as a companion tool to EPA's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit, and is designed to help students increase their knowledge of indoor air quality problems and solutions. Includes informative fact sheets on alternatives to household chemicals, asbestos, asthma, biological contaminants, carbon monoxide, environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, lead, pesticides, radon, and sick building syndrome. 109p.

Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Adobe PDF
Torres, Vincent M.
(University of Texas, Texas Institute for the Indoor Environment, Austin , Jun 2000)
Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building equipment maintenance and repair; housekeeping practices and equipment; and wind velocity. It includes recommendations on parameters within these areas which can provide optimal air quality. 14p.

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools. Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition. Adobe PDF
Bayer, Charlene; et al
(Semco, Inc., Columbia, MD , May 2000)
Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive. This revised report provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. It focuses primarily on school facilities because for numerous reasons they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities, and the occupants--children--are more significantly affected than adults are. This revised report contains summaries of more recent IAQ articles, with 50 new items added to the references. In addition, it expands the discussion of carbon dioxide in response to concerns about this section in the first version of the report. (Contains 154 references.) 72p.
Report NO: ORNL/M-6633/R1

Designing Smarter Schools. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , Apr 2000)
This videotape highlights the degree of school-building deterioration in America and the problems this causes for teaching and learning. It also describes the Energy Smart School campaign and details the factors needed in building an Energy Smart School. The video suggests that to build schools that last and to recoup some of the building expense, schools should be designed to be more energy efficient. Energy efficient strategies are detailed under the following energy saving categories: building envelope features; renewable energy sources; and indoor air quality. Several schools are highlighted for their energy savings features: a California school successfully addressed its Urban Heat Island problem; an elementary school in New Hampshire improved its poor indoor air quality; a Massachusetts school improved its lighting to not only be cost effective but also better meet students' learning needs. The video also examines how innovative design techniques helped a renovated school become a community center.

IAQ Tools for Schools: Managing Asthma in the School Environment.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 2000)
This manual provides tips on improving indoor air quality within the school environment by removing the elements that trigger asthma attacks in children, and presents a list of organizations where asthma resource information can be obtained. Air quality management tips cover removing of animal and cockroach allergens, cleaning up mold and controlling moisture, eliminating secondhand smoke exposure, and reducing dust mite exposure. Additionally covered are administrative initiatives to support clean indoor air efforts such as the development of a school asthma management plan and a school-based asthma education program, and the creation and filing of student asthma action cards. A sample asthma card is included. 20p.
Report NO: EPA-402-K-00-003

In Focus: Clean Air, Efficient Energy Use.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , Apr 2000)
The American Association of School Administrators joined forces with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy to help school districts ensure that students and staff are able to work and learn in safe, comfortable environments. This occasional paper discusses how indoor air quality affects the learning process, and how schools that adopt smart energy policies in their buildings, buses and classrooms not only save money but also reap other benefits. 16p.

Acceptable Indoor Air Quality for School Construction Projects.
(Minneapolis Public Schools, MN , Mar 22, 2000)
Outlines architectural specification recommendations developed to improve indoor air quality in school buildings, for both new construction and remodeling. The recommendations are organized by CSI Masterformat divisions 20p.

Poor Indoor Air Quality Interferes with the Learning Environment.
(Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools, Washington, DC, 2000)
Describes the role that teachers, staff, and parents play on the indoor air quality action team as taking action to ensure comfort, health, and reduced sick days for teachers and students, and helping lower the risk of long-term health problems related to indoor air quality in a school.

Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin. Adobe PDF
(Farr Company, Riverdale, NJ , 2000)
This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, examines the filtration needs of various school areas, and presents several applicable filtering systems. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors is discussed. Air filtration requirements and standards are examined for classrooms, corridors, auditoriums, libraries, gymnasiums, pool areas, industrial technology (shops), and laboratories and darkrooms are examined. Several filtering systems that are applicable to educational facilities are presented. (Contains 20 references.) 8p.

Environmental Action Guide for New York State Schools. Help for Parents and Others in the Absence of Standards Just for Children.
Barnett, Claire, Ed.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide addresses existing New York laws and available resources to ensure that every child and school employee has an environmentally safe and healthy school. Topics discussed involve indoor air quality; toxic and hazardous chemicals; pests and pesticides; mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria; asbestos; lead; radon; exhaust fumes from idling vehicles; renovation and construction pollution; structurally sound buildings; heat; classroom size and environment; fire hazards; usable and sanitary restrooms; safe playgrounds; and emergency management. Appendices present resource information by topic area, a form for information from the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids Information and Referral Clearinghouse, examples of toxic and hazardous products used in New York schools, information on right-to-know laws concerning school environments, laws concerning access to public school-related meetings, rights to participating in health and safety committees, guidelines for school facility report cards, sample complaint letters to agencies about unsafe schools, a list of New York State Board of Regents/legislators, and New York State Environmental Conservation Regional Office locations and occupational health resources. (Contains 62 references.) 79p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.,773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208. Tel: 518-462-0632.

Schools, Mould, and Health - An Intervention Study.
Nevalainen, Aino et al
(Finnish Research Programme on Environmental Health, 2000)
The aim of the intervention study was to find out whether the moisture and mould repairs of the school buildings have an effect on the exposure to indoor air pollutants, on the respiratory health of the school children, studied with both questionnaire and clinical methods. This intervention study had a core design around which several connected studies were carried out, and a basic characterisation of moisture damage and associated microbial growth in school buildings were performed. As a part of the clinical study the association between serum mold-specific IgG levels of schoolchildren and the microbial exposure in their school environment was measured. [Authors' abstract]

Indoor Air Quality Manual. Adobe PDF
(Baldwin Union Free School District, Baldwin, NY , Sep 1999)
This booklet identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality and discusses alternative methods for managing this issue. Includes sources and prevention, training of staff, renovation and repair, painting procedures, animals in classrooms, barrier matting, vacuum cleaners, IPM, chemical hygiene program, univents, IAQ flow chart, board policy, administrative procedures, and report forms. 28p.

Environmental Health Consultation: Review of Environmental and Clinical Laboratory Information: Saugus Unified School District. [California] Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Health Services, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Oakland , Aug 1999)
Parents of children in the Saugus Union School District in California were concerned about the safety of classrooms, particularly portable classrooms. Their concerns were amplified by assertions of a local medical toxicologist following evaluations of some teachers and students, and by an Environmental Working Group report about alleged problems with portables throughout California. Efforts by the school district, environmental consultants, and Los Angeles County health authorities were not sufficiently reassuring to some parents. This report discusses results from an evaluation of the classrooms by the Environmental Health Investigations Branch (EHIB) of the California Department of Health Services. Findings indicated no elevated health risks to students. The report's first part details evaluation methods and findings, while the second part directly answers each of the questions posed to EHIB staff at a parent meeting. Data tables provide results of environmental sampling at each school. (Consultations with outside authorities are appended. Contains 68 references.) 70p.

An Approach to Management of Critical Indoor Air Problems in School Buildings [Finland]
Haverinen, Ulla; Husman, Tuula; Toivola, Mika; Suonketo, Jommi; Pentii, Matti; Lindberg, Ralf; Leinonen, Jouni; Hyvarinen, Anne; Meklin, Teija
(Environmental Health Perspectives, v107, n3. Based on a presentation at the International Conference on Indoor Mold and Children. , Jun 1999)
This study was conducted in a school center that had been the focus of intense public concern over 2 years because of suspected mold and health problems. Because several attempts to find solutions to the problem within the community were not satisfactory, outside specialists were needed for support in solving the problem. The study group consisted of experts in civil engineering, indoor mycology, and epidemiology. The studies were conducted in close cooperation with the city administration. Structures at risk were opened, moisture and temperature were measured, and the causes of damage were analyzed. Microbial samples were taken from the air, surfaces, and materials. Health questionnaires were sent to the schoolchildren and personnel. Information on the measurements and their results was released regularly to school employees, students and their parents, and to the media. Repairs were designed on the basis of this information. Moisture damage was caused mainly by difficult moisture conditions at the building site, poor ventilation, and water leaks. Fungal genera typical to buildings with mold problems (e.g., Aspergillus versicolor, Eurotium) were collected from the indoor air and surfaces of the school buildings. Where moisture-prone structures were identified and visible signs of damage or elevated moisture content were recorded, the numbers of microbes also were high; thus microbial results from material samples supported the conclusions made in the structural studies. Several irritative and recurrent symptoms were common among the upper secondary and high school students. The prevalence of asthma was high (13%) among the upper secondary school students. During the last 4 years, the incidence of asthma was 3-fold that of the previous 4-year period. p509-514

Reading, Writing, and Risk: Air Pollution Inside California's Portable Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Ross, Zev A.; Walker, Bill
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, D.C. , May 1999)
A California report examines the air pollution risk levels in the State's portable school facilities, the State's response, and recommendations for protecting children's and teacher's health in these types of classrooms. The report reveals that over two million California students spend the school day in buildings that may be harmful to their health. It states that some portable classrooms can expose children to toxic chemicals at levels that pose an unacceptable risk of cancer or other serious illness, but that California has no indoor air health standards for most toxins found in types of buildings and has has failed to exercise effective oversight over air quality. What types of pollution health risks exist in portable classrooms are detailed, particularly risks from formaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Additionally reported are the unintended consequences of the State's push for the use of portables to address student population increases. (Contains 59 references.) 37p.

Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories. Adobe PDF
Hays, Steve M.
(Gobbell Hays Partners, Inc., Architects, Engineers, Environmental Consultants, Nashville, TN , Mar 10, 1999)
This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. The paper reviews design considerations for good indoor air quality in new laboratories using two recently designed projects as examples. The program document, used by architects and engineers to design a building according to the requirements of the facility's users, is explained as it relates to indoor air quality. There is also a discussion of how the program information is translated into design strategies and equipment selection for good indoor air quality. The paper concludes with a summary of conditions that often contribute to poor air quality in laboratories, and it offers suggestions for addressing these situations. 7p.

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Schools and Universities: Overview of Indoor Air Quality Issues and Preliminary Design Guide. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Buildings International, Inc., Fairfax, VA , 1999)
This guide document is intended as an educational tool and reference manual for building design, engineering and maintenance staff of school buildings. Discusses environmental associated illnesses related to buildings; factors impacting school environments; preventing indoor environmental problems; role of the school administration in preventing IAQ problems; buildings systems approach to provide good IAQ control; and seven main indoor environmental issues to consider during the program, design, and construction phases of a new school. 11p.

Healthy Building Design for the Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Marketplace. Adobe PDF
Turner, William A.
(H.L. Turner Group, Inc., Concord, NH , 1999)
Examines building design and construction that helps deliver both superior air quality, occupant thermal comfort, and minimize energy consumption. Explores an integrated building systems approach that combines the principles of "directed air flow control" and "demand controlled ventilation" where ventilation is effectively delivered to the occupant, based on loading, that can be applied to all types of indoor air quality situations in all types of buildings. Highlighted are savings and return of investment data for the traditional "green building" general design strategy. Case studies provide examples of this high performance IAQ design. Key differences and advantages of a displacement ventilation design classroom versus conventional mixing ventilation systems are examined along with the expected benefits of a heating, ventilation, air conditioning school displacement design. 15p.

Advisory on Relocatable and Renovated Classrooms. IAQ Info Sheet. Adobe PDF
(California Department of Health Services, Indoor Air Quality Section , Dec 1998)
Many California school districts, in complying with the Class Size Reduction Program, will obtain relocatable classrooms directly from manufacturers who are under no specific guidelines or codes relative to indoor air quality (IAQ). This document, designed to aid school facility managers in minimizing potential IAQ problems, summarizes the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) considerations regarding the purchase/lease of relocatable classrooms and the contracting for renovation of existing space. The key IEQ concerns and preventive measures are provided for relocatable classroom design, construction/installation and first-use, and maintenance. Some issues apply to both relocatable and renovated classrooms. Resource information providing further technical details is provided. 5p.

Indoor Environmental Quality in California Schools: Critical Needs.
(California Interagency Working Group on Indoor Air Quality, Sacramento, CA, Aug 1998)
This report evaluates the current status and critical needs of California schools' facilities with respect to indoor environmental quality (IEQ). It presents a review of available information and a set of recommendations and proposals. Contains a section on portable (relocatable) classrooms.

Building Air Quality. Action Plan. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs, Washington, D.C. , Jun 1998)
Building managers and owners often confront competing demands to reduce operating costs and increase revenues that can siphon funds and resources from other building management concerns such as indoor air quality (IAQ). This resource booklet, designed for use with the Building Air Quality Guide, provides building owners and managers with an 8-step, easy-to-understand path for taking their building from current conditions and practices to the successful institutionalization of good IAQ management practices. These steps cover the following areas: designating an IAQ manager; developing an IAQ profile of the building; addressing existing and potential IAQ problems; educating building personnel about IAQ; developing and implementing a plan for facility operations and maintenance; managing processes with potentially significant pollutant sources; communicating with tenants and occupants about their role in maintaining good IAQ; and establishing procedures for responding to IAQ complaints. 31p.
Report NO: EPA-400-1-91-033; DH

Indoor Air Quality: Federal and State Actions To Address the Indoor Air Quality Problems of Selected Buildings. Adobe PDF
Guerrero, Peter F.
(United States General Accounting Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, Washington, DC , May 1998)
U.S. House of Representative members have requested that the General Accounting Office determine what federal and state actions have been taken in addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns raised in certain school, state, and federal buildings within Vermont, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. This report responds to this request and describes the investigation process, the level of federal agency involvement, and the role of Vermont officials in addressing IAQ problems. 42p.
Report NO: GAO/RCED-98-149R

Survey of Indoor Radon Concentrations in California Elementary Schools.
Zhou, Joey Y.; Liu, Kai-Shen; Waldman, Jed
(California Deparment of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, Indoor Air Quality Program, Berkeley, CA , May 1998)
This paper reports on the concentrations of radon found within a sample of 378 schools. Long-term alpha-track radon detectors were placed in 6,485 classrooms within participating schools to detect radon levels for between 220 to 366 days. Only classrooms were tested. Results show that about 5.6 percent of the schools tested had at least one classroom with more than the maximum level of radon (4pCi/1) as recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; the maximum measured classroom radon level was 12.8 pCi/1. Affected schools had from one to six classrooms exceeding the level. An adjusted analysis suggests statewide rates of excessive radon to be in 4.7 percent of the schools. Recommendations and statistical data conclude the report. 12p.
Report NO: CA/DOH/EHLB/R-400

Parents' Guide to School Indoor Air Quality.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY. , 1998)
This parents' guide presents articles on school indoor air pollution, children's health and the symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how schools can improve their air quality. Also included are tips on what to do if the school ignores air quality problems, and some examples of what school districts should be doing to improve their air quality. Several web sites are listed for more information on school environmental health.[Free registration required.] 6p.

School Indoor Air Quality Questions
( University of Minnesota Extension Service and Department of Environmental Health and Safety, 1998)
This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) was developed as a response to indoor air quality questions generated by Minnesota K-12 school health and safety personnel and school custodians. It attempts to address a variety of issues in indoor air quality including health and other effects, prevention, diagnostics, and mitigation. The responses are intended to aid school officials in implementing a cost-effective indoor air quality management plan.

A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools. IEQ Strategies. Adobe PDF
Daisey, Joan M., Angell, William J.
(California Univ.,Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley , 1998)
This survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools is a concise guide to the published literature on IAQ in schools, with an emphasis on Californian schools. Conclusions of the survey include the following: 1. The types of health symptoms reported in schools are very similar to those defined as "sick building syndrome." Where complaint and noncomplaint buildings were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms. 2. Formaldehyde, total VOCs, CO, and microbiological contaminants are the most commonly measured air pollutants in schools. 3. The few scientific studies on causes of symptoms in complaint schools indicate that exposure to molds and allergens contributes to asthma, SBS, and other respiratory symptoms. 4. The major building-related problem identified is "inadequate ventilation with outside air." Water damage to the building shell, leading to mold contamination, was the second most frequently reported problem. 5. The root cause of many of the ventilation and water-damage problems in the schools is inadequate and/or deferred maintenance of buildings and HVAC systems. 105p

Toxic Chemical Exposure in Schools: Our Children at Risk. Adobe PDF
Sterling, Peter; Paquette, Nicole
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 1998)
Asserting that toxic chemicals can be found throughout school grounds in pesticides, building materials, school supplies, cleaning products, office equipment, and personal care products, this report details the prevalence of toxic chemicals within schools and recommends methods for reducing exposure. Following an executive summary, the report address indoor air quality in U.S. schools, sources of toxic chemical pollution, Vermont case studies, and state-level and individual school recommendations. 26p.

Self-Evaluation Instrument: Awards Program for Indoor Air Quality Management in Schools.
(Maryland State Department of Education, Baltimore, MD , 1997)
This self-evaluation instrument is used to nominate schools for the Indoor Air Quality Management in Schools award. The evaluation contains three categories: Communications/Training; Design; and Operations/Maintenance. Communications/Training pertains to school systems only. The Training principle focuses on the maintenance of the knowledge and skills necessary to support and implement an IAQ management program through training. The Design category pertains to nominated schools only and addresses principles that cover air cleaning (filtration) design that results in greater removal of respirable particulates. The Operations/Maintenance category pertains to nominated schools and addresses the issues of carpet, integrated pest management, moisture control, documentation and inspections, volatile organic compounds, renovation/maintenance, and cleaning materials and processes. 16p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Is This Your Child's World? How You Can Fix the Schools and Homes That are Making Your Children Sick.
Rapp, Doris J.
(Bantam Books , 1997)
The Federal Government reports that one-third of the nation's public schools are environmentally unsafe in ways that cause health problems to teachers and students and detract from educational quality. These problems jeopardize those who already have health problems and deteriorates student learning ability. This book addresses a vast number of school environmental health hazards and ways of eliminating them. Part I provides guidance on determining if a child has environmental illness and its cause. Part II addresses the ways of correcting a sick school based on what type of environmental problems exist. Part III describes how some schools have addressed their building environmental problems. Part IV discusses helpful, simple, as well as sophisticated, tests and treatments for special indoor health problems. Parts IV and V address legal and insurance options and explore the possibility of chronic illness along with some tips for parents, teachers, and school administrators. Appendices list the chemicals frequently found in schools and homes, their sources, health effects and precautions; and additional resources. 635p.

Schools' Environmental Assessment Methods (SEAM). Adobe PDF
(Department for Education, Architects and Building Branch, London ,England , Oct 1996)
Responding to the need for users of schools to use their buildings in a way that creates a better internal environment for children and reduces harm to the environment, this document lists environmental issues and corrective recommendations. Environmental issues include sources of noxious fumes, water and air quality, lead-free paint, recycling and waste disposal, ventilation, lighting, energy management, and legionnaires' disease. 38p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 83

Indoor Air Quality Basics for Schools. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC , Oct 1996)
This fact sheet details important information on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in school buildings, problems associated with IAQ, and various prevention and problem-solving strategies. Most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, therefore the Environmental Protection Agency ranks IAQ in the top four environmental risks to the public. The consequences surrounding poor IAQ affect not only the health and productivity of students and staff but also the physical school plant. Four factors affecting IAQ are: sources of indoor pollutants; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC); pollutant pathways; and the building occupants. Six basic control strategies for lowering concentrations of indoor air pollutants include (1) removing, substituting, and encapsulating the source; (2) the effective use of local exhaust; (3) ventilation to dilute contaminated air; (4) exposure control using the principles of time and location use; (5) cleaning the air by filtration; and (6) education to help reduce personal exposure. Diagnosing indoor air quality problems involves identifying short-term symptoms typically associated with colds, flu, and allergies. Long-term symptoms such as cancer are more difficult to identify. Preventive indoor air programs need to be established to minimize students and staff exposure to pollutants. 5p.
Report NO: EPA-402-F-96-004

Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore. , 1996)
Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed in this bulletin. The focus is on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these parameters is warranted, along with guidance for the interpretation of the data obtained, are covered. This is followed by an overview of equipment types that are available to quantify the specific parameters; a comparison table presents key factors that differentiate the types of equipment available. Various measurement techniques, such as measuring a room s air velocity, are summarized along with the methodologies recommended for obtaining useful data. Some of the common problems encountered when measuring IAQ are described. It is claimed that with a good understanding of the dynamics of the key IAQ parameters and a modest investment in monitoring equipment, school facilities staff can provide quick, cost-effective responses to IAQ complaints and establish a program that can identify potential IAQ problem areas. (Contains 5 tables and 10 references.) 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Indoor Air Quality in Schools.
Etkin, Dagmar; Vogt, Carlton
(Cutter Information Corp., Arlington, MA, 1996)
This explains the function of heating and ventilation systems and describes the range of chemicals, particles, and microorganisms found in schools -- and their health effects. The guide is designed to give teachers, parents, and administrators the authoritative, unbiased information they need to prevent costly and dangerous problems in their schools. It answers the following questions: 1) What are the real costs of poor indoor air quality? 2) What's the best way to find a qualified indoor-air consultant? 3)What chemicals are emitted by particleboard, photocopiers, wallpaper paste, carpets, adhesives, and other materials? 4)What harmful emissions are produced by window cleaners, furniture polish, and pine- or lemon-scented products -- and how can you control them? 5)What can classroom teachers, shop instructors, art teachers, and phys ed instructors do to prevent IAQ problems? 106p

Healthy Buildings? Adobe PDF
Grubb, Deborah
(Morehead State University , 1996)
Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas. The House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and Environment (1993) determined that serious environmental threats exist in the air of American schools. Comparative risk studies conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1990 concluded that indoor air pollution is among the top four environmental risks to public health. Solutions depend upon the specific contaminant. Most, however, can be controlled by installing and using appropriate HVAC systems. Contains 19 references. 22p.

HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Wheeler, Arthur E.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1996)
Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control systems are categorized according to their means of data processing, transmission, and power source: pneumatic, electric, electronics, direct digital, and self-powered. Likewise, the HVAC system is composed of various components: sensors, controllers, actuators (the system's power elements), and controlled devices, (e.g., dampers, valves, and speed regulators). All of these control elements work together to form a control loop. An overview of HVAC systems controls is offered, which focuses on unit ventilators, variable air volume systems, rooftop air conditioning, and supplemental systems. Monitoring the HVAC is also important, and methods such as multiple location supervision are explored. It is suggested that control system maintenance is another important component of any HVAC system, which entails the inventorying of tools and parts. Some control problems that may affect IAQ are provided. 9p.

Maintaining Acceptable Indoor Air Quality During the Renovation of a School. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1995)
Various contaminants may be generated by renovations, including volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, dusts and fibers (e.g., asbestos), gases (e.g., sulfur dioxide), bioaerosols (e.g., mold and fungus spores), and physical agents (e.g., noise and uncomfortable temperatures). Some IAQ control strategies include the inspection of all building materials; overseeing heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning considerations; scheduling classes around construction; relocating persons who may be particularly susceptible to airborne agents; and notification/communication, which includes early involvement of the school principal, responding to problems and emergencies, and informing all affected parties. 9p.

The Healthy School Handbook. Conquering the Sick Building Syndrome and Other Environmental Hazards In and Around Your School.
Miller, Norma L., Ed.
(National Education Association, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
This book compiles 22 articles concerning sick building syndrome in educational facilities in the following three areas: determining whether a school is sick; assessing causes and initiating treatment; and developing interventions. Articles address such topics as managing the psycho-social aspects of sick building syndrome; how indoor air quality affects pre-existing health problems; adverse effects of artificial lighting on learning and behavior in children; the least toxic approaches to managing pests in schools; the multi-disciplinary approach to treating environmentally triggered illnesses in school-age children; the practical and cost-effective approaches to building, remodeling, and maintaining schools; and the legal aspects of pollution in schools. 446p.

The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.
Wheeler, Arthur E.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1995)
To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable levels. Such extremes in humidity or temperature can lead to respiratory distress and other problems. To manage IAQ, facilities managers must take the lead and ensure that an effective plan is in place for dealing with HVAC maintenance and other matters. Such plans usually begin with an IAQ profile, which includes an audit of the HVAC and related systems. Documentation is an important component of the plan, as is ensuring that all personnel are properly trained. HVAC commissioning, in which performance and design are verified using computerized controls to monitor the HVAC system, are other vital aspects of an HVAC plan. When such plans are not in place, or even when plans fail, some of the consequences for IAQ include inadequate ventilation, malfunctioning controls, excessive humidity, odors, and irritating vapors.

Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-Paced Training Workbook. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1994)
Because radon may pose a threat in some schools, accurate assessment of the presence of this dangerous gas is essential. To help facility managers in this process, a workbook designed to educate personnel in radon detection is offered here. The workbook is intended for an audience of school officials, including administrators, business officers, facility managers, and maintenance and operations staff. It is meant to provide trainees with experience in planning a radon test, interpreting test results, implementing quality assurance during testing, and documenting the testing process for a school building. Each unit is prefaced by a unit overview and a list of participant objectives. Each objective relates to a segment of the unit, and the testing procedures are interspersed with exercises and activities. Some of the activities are fill-in-the-blank questions, whereas others require the application of information contained in the Environmental Protection Agency's testing guidance, entitled Radon Measurement in Schools. Answers to each section's activities can be found at the end of the unit, and it is hoped that these activities will reinforce the information presented in the workbook. 78p.
Report NO: EPA 402-B-94-001

Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools to Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.
Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and includes temperature and humidity ranges, indoor air quality, energy use, operation and maintenance, simplicity, staffing and standardization, reliability, flexibility, vandal proofing, and capital cost. Detailed descriptions of the kinds of systems used for classrooms are also discussed, such as the use of unit ventilators, variable air volume systems, single zone systems, multizone units, water source heat pumps, and separate ventilation air systems. The advantages of each of these systems are presented. Other considerations facing decision makers include choosing between mechanical or natural ventilation, and figuring ways in which building design, climate, and capital costs will affect such decisions. Likewise, school officials must consider the specifics of location, architecture, use, and management of the facility. To achieve the performance objectives of any HVAC system, requires a balancing of air and water flows, testing performance, documentation, and using trained operating personnel. 9p.

Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 1994)
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in ambient air that is estimated to cause thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year. This report outlines ways in which to ameliorate the presence of radon in schools buildings. The first section is a general introduction for those who need background information on the indoor radon problem and the techniques currently being studied and applied for radon prevention. The level of detail is aimed at developing the reader's understanding of underlying principles and might best be used by school officials or by architects and engineers who need a basic introduction. Instructions and guidelines for radon amelioration are provided in section two, which contains more technical details and may best be used by the architects, engineers, and builders responsible for specific construction details. When building in an area with the potential for elevated radon levels, architects and engineers should use a combination of radon prevention construction techniques. It is also recommended that when constructing a school in radon-prone areas the builder should install an active soil depressurization system; pressurize the building using the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system; and seal major radon entry routes. 51p.
Report NO: EPA/625/R-92/016

Interior Painting and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
The document presents an overview of paint formulations and the functional quality of different paints, paying special attention to the volatile organic compounds present in some paints. Contaminant sources such as the solvents used in paints and the emission rates of various paints are also detailed. The different factors that affect comfort and health, such as accumulated exposure, and what the standards and regulations are regarding human exposure are also covered. Administrators can use several control methods to enhance the IAQ in schools through careful paint selection, which includes checking the age of the paint, never using exterior paint inside a building, and ensuring that the paint is "rated" for the surface(s) to be painted. Communicating with those involved in the project; paint selection; developing a work plan; having adequate ventilation; and clean-up, proper disposal, and storage are control methods that are emphasized. 9p.

Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are explored, and an overview of exposure standards for air contaminant levels are discussed. Recommended control methods to avoid IAQ problems include eliminating or reducing the use of potentially harmful chemicals such as ether and mercury; ensuring that room ventilation meets government standards; and using hoods in labs to vent harmful vapors. Various laboratory hood exhaust systems are described and recommendations for hood placement are provided. It is emphasized that maintenance and sound operation policies are needed to ensure proper ventilation and that labs should use negative pressure whenever production of contaminants may occur. An overview of laboratory hood performance is provided. Others control methods include the proper storage of chemicals, careful disposal of laboratory waste, and implementation of a chemical hygiene plan. 10p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Washington, DC , 1994)
This document guides school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a multidisciplinary team in improving the overall indoor-air quality of the school. EPA presents two highly successful radon-control strategies: mitigation using active soil depressurization (ASD); and, mitigation using the school's ventilation system. Chapters 1 and 2 review what radon is, why it is a concern, and the mechanisms by which it enters and accumulates in a building. Chapters 3 and 4 outline the initial investigation process. Retesting is discussed in the fifth chapter. Chapter 6 discusses the detailed investigation phase that may be necessary if premitigation levels are too high or improving the ventilation system did not sufficiently reduce radon levels. Active subslab depressurization systems are described in chapter 7. The eighth and ninth chapters outline post-mitigation measurements and steps to ensure the long-term effectiveness of the mitigation strategy. Information regarding building codes and worker protection is offered in chapter 10. 181p.
Report NO: EPA No. 402-R-008

Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1993)
Ways in which carpeting can affect a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) are discussed. Carpeting is defined as a system of components that includes pads, adhesives, floor preparation compounds, and seam sealers. For the last several years, these products have been increasingly scrutinized as to how they affect IAQ. Carpeting gives off volatile chemical vapors and it is recommended that schools test for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and work to lower these levels in the air. Other factors that school officials should consider regarding IAQ include microbial contamination, particularly through fungi growth, and water intrusion. Some recommended control methods involve using VOC emission data, using antimicrobial treatments, airing new products, minimizing the use of adhesives and sealers, "baking out" new carpet by raising the indoor temperature and then ventilating to accelerate the emission and removal of VOCs, cleaning new carpets with a high-efficiency particulate air filtration vacuum, and providing routine maintenance for the carpet, such as a vacuuming schedule, prompt stain removal, and shampooing or hot-water extraction. The strengths and weaknesses of having carpeting in a school are discussed. 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Radon Measurements in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1993)
Radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides instructions on how to test for the presence of radon. Section 1 includes information on radon facts, health effects, radon exposure, radon problems in schools, and radon entry into schools. Section 2 on radon testing in schools includes information on measurement strategy in schools, what rooms to test, when to conduct radon measurements, who may conduct testing, quality assurance measurements, summary of EPA recommendations, deciding how quickly to mitigate, and a decision making flow chart. Section 3 covers reducing radon concentrations. Section 4 includes frequently asked question on radon and radiation, planning for testing, conducting initial measurements, tampering and detector placement, weather conditions, conducting follow-up measurements, and quality assurance. 54p.
Report NO: EPA No. 402-R-92-014

Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools
Wheeler, Arthur E.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1992)
Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance standards for air filters. Tips for upgrading the cost effectiveness of air filters and for maintaining and purchasing them are also provided. Three figures and three tables are included. 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers
Agle, Elizabeth; Galbraith, Susan
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs, Washington, D.C. , Dec 1991)
This manual provides guidance on preventing, identifying, and correcting IAQ problems. The manual is divided into five topic areas. The first provides introductory material that explores the factors affecting IAQ and the organizational communication required for identifying potential IAQ problems. The second area advises building owners and facility managers who currently do not have an air-quality problem on how to prevent IAQ problems from arising. How to develop an IAQ profile and manage buildings for good IAQ are discussed. The third area provides guidance for resolving current air quality problems, such as diagnosing and mitigating IAQ problems and guidance on hiring IAQ professional assistance. 229p.

Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools Adobe PDF
Turner, Ronald
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1991)
Environmental tobacco smoke is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling it. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of ventilation standards and air replacement sources. Architectural and maintenance considerations and other means of contaminant removal are discussed. 9p.

Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools Adobe PDF
Turner, Ronald W.; et al.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1991)
Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and environmental standards and guidelines. Four figures are included. 9p.

The Development of a Systematic Process for Enhancing the Awareness of the Potential for Indoor Air Pollution in Schools. Adobe PDF
Liska, Roger William
(University of Georgia, Athens , 1988)
This study developed methodology to assist school principals in determining the existence of potential indoor air pollution problems and how to alleviate them, as well as a procedure for their prevention. Site visits were conducted on 10 South Carolina elementary schools: five with high potential for indoor air pollution; five with low potential. Site visits revealed the principals of all 10 schools had little knowledge about indoor air pollution problems, and little understanding of the operation and maintenance of their buildings and support systems. Study findings suggest that only when principals become aware of the causes of air pollution, the problems it can create, and its prevention, should they get involved in the diagnostic, alleviation or prevention activities. The study isolates climate control and ventilation as two primary areas of concern which need to be addressed to avoid wasting time and resources. Proper maintenance was found to be the best preventive activity for indoor air pollution problems, and the one most often cut during budgetary restrictions. 389p.

References to Journal Articles

The Asthma-Friendly Facility: Cleaning Methods and IAQ
Robinson, Kelly
Facility Management; Jul 12, 2012
With rising rates of asthma and other recurring lung-health-related problems, schools and other large facilities should scrutinize their cleaning practices, before poor indoor air quality (IAQ) causes losses in productivity and funding.

Material Health
Caldwell, Stacy
ED+C; Jun 28, 2012
Arizona State University's recent Health Services Building project focused on sustainability and the use of healthier materials to benefit the students and staff.

Planning for a Healthier School Facility
Belew, Rachel
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p46-48 ; Jun 2012
Recommends that facility planners and managers specify low-emitting nontoxic products, called source control, for healthier schools. Reviews VOCs, children and poor indoor air quality, chemicals in green building, and other steps to good IAQ.

Guide to Asthma Policy for Schools
(American Lung Association , Apr 2012)
Identifies strategies to help support schools as they create an asthma-friendly learning environment for students, teachers, and staff. Includes tip-sheets, webinars, and an environmental assessment and management plan.

Designing for IAQ in Natatoriums
Baxter, Randy C.
ASHRAE Journal; , p254-32 ; Apr 2012
The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning the effects of disinfectant by-products on indoor swimming pool air quality and to propose practical methods for mitigating their impact in conventional (recreational and competition) indoor pools.

Comparison of Indoor Air Quality Management Strategies Between the School and District Levels in New York State
Shao Lin, Christine L.; Kielb, Amanda L.; Reddy, Bonnie R.; Chapman, Syni-An Hwang
Journal of School Health; v82 n3 ; Mar 2012
Good school indoor air quality (IAQ) can affect the health and functioning of school occupants. Thus, it is important to assess the degree to which schools and districts employ strategies to ensure good IAQ management. We examined and compared the patterns of IAQ management strategies between public elementary schools and their school districts in New York State. Many school districts lack key IAQ management strategies, and differences exist between district-level policy and school-level practice. Districts and schools should work together to formalize and expand existing IAQ policies and inform stakeholders about these strategies.

Operational Versus Designed Performance of Low Carbon Schools in England: Bridging a Credibility Gap
Amrita Dasguptaa, Antonis Prodromoub & Dejan Mumovicc
HVAC&R Research; v18 n2 , p37-50 ; Feb 29, 2012
In the UK, schools alone are responsible for 15% of the energy consumption in public and commercial buildings. The recent studies showed that newly built schools are failing to meet even basic performance criteria related to both energy consumption and provision of indoor environmental quality (acoustics, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and lighting). The main objectives of this article are three-fold: (a) to review the results of three major studies related to operational performance of newly built schools in England, (b) to identify major issues of importance for energy efficient provision of indoor environmental quality in school buildings based on results of a comprehensive survey of 286 UK building professionals, and (c) to estimate the influence of uncertainty of some design parameters on energy consumption using differential sensitivity analysis. The article concludes that our current ongoing efforts to deliver low carbon school buildings conducive to learning have had little success due to a poor understanding of how to design, engineer, and facilitate learning spaces for changing pedagogical practices to support a mass education system. Major identified issues refer to aspects of policy, design, and commisioning that affects building performance. [Authors' abstract]

Mind Your Indoor Air Quality
Mak, Lily
American School and University; Feb 2012
Provides tips on improving indoor air quality in schools: reduce chemical pollutants, balance humidity levels, keep carbon dioxide levels in check, and do away with mold and dander.

Cause a Stir.
Steinbach, Paul
Athletic Business; v35 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 2011
Discusses destratification of air in large athletic spaces with fans or fabric ducts. Common HVAC mistakes in these spaces are also addressed.

Air Pollution Around Schools Is Linked To Poorer Student Health And Academic Performance.
Mohai, Paul; Byoung-Suk Kweon; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry
Health Affairs; v30 n5 ; May 2011
Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children’s schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children’s health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates—a potential indicator of poor health—and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary. [Authors' abstract]

Methodology for Assessing Exposure and Impacts of Air Pollutants in School Children: Data Collection, Analysis and Health Effects – A Literature Review.
Mejiaa, Jaime; Choyb, Samantha; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morawska, Lidia
Atmospheric Environment; v 45, n4 , 813-823 ; Feb 2011
Explores the methodologies employed to assess the exposure of children to air pollutants, in particular traffic emissions, at school, and how these methodologies influence the assessment of the impact of this exposure on the children’s health. This involves four main steps: the measurement of air quality at school level, the association between measured air quality and children’s exposure, the association between children’s exposure and health; and source identification. The comparative advantages and disadvantages of the methods used at each of these steps are discussed.[author's abstract]

Keys to Success.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Dec 2010
Describes 10 ways that schools can overcome and move beyond impediments to providing safe, healthful, and high-quality education. The 10 areas include finances, sustainable design, operating efficiency, educational technology, distance learning, security, indoor air quality, maintenance / cleaning, managing space, and community connection.

Intelligent Building Ventilation Creates Greener, More Economical Lab Buildings.
Brierley, Robert
Laboratory Design; v15 n11 , p8,9 ; Nov 2010
Makes the case that the most advanced studies in ventilation indicate strongest benefits from demand control ventilation (DCV), which continuously measures the indoor environmental quality and then varies the amount of air brought into the lab throughout the day. DCV enables the system to not only save energy when occupancy levels are now and the air is "clean," but also to increase the fresh air supply when needed to dilute contaminants.

Better Circulation.
Reed, Alex
American School and University; v83 n3 , p223 ; Nov 2010
Discusses the use of low-speed, large diameter ceiling fans to improve thermal comfort in schools.

Facility Monitoring Requirements for Optimal Energy Efficiency.
Sharp, Gordon
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p10,12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the inadequacy of demand control ventilation (DCV) in maintaining optimal indoor environmental quality. The advantages of intelligent controls with the ability to sense a variety of indoor environmental issues are detailed.

Green Doesn't Mean Non-Toxic.
Belew, Rachel
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p32,34,36-39 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the discrepancy in volatile organic compound (VOCs) content in cleaning supplies, and the extent to which these compounds are emitted when the product is used. Also addressed is the potential for reactions between these compounds and the atmosphere, and the cumulative effect of these compounds on occupant health.

True Measures
Cox, Ron
American School and University; v83 n1 , p30-32 ; Sep 2010
Discusses filtration measurements for HVAC filters, noting the premier role of air filters in maintaining healthy indoor air, confusion within measurement techniques and standards, energy efficiency, moisture and temperature resistance, and sustainability.

Walls, Ceilings, and Learning.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p28-31 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the role of prevention of water intrusion into the school building envelope, ceiling tile selection, and insulation in creating a healthy, quite, and comfortable learning environment.

Maintaining Student Performance.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Jun 2010
Describes how proper maintenance of school HVAC systems contributes to educational achievement through better air quality and thermal comfort. An example of preventive maintenance on systems in the Round Rock (Texas) School District illustrates many procedures, their respective costs, and benefits.

School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality.
Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim
Journal of School Health; v80 n6 , p280-286 ; Jun 2010
This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of school health programs and policies at the state, district, and school levels. Using chi-square analyses, the rates of policies and practices that promote indoor air quality were compared between schools with and schools without a formal indoor air quality program. Findings suggest that schools with a formal indoor air quality program are more likely to support policies and engage in practices that promote superior indoor air quality.

On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies.
Mavrogianni, A.; Mumovic, D.
Indoor and Built Environment; v 9 n 3 , 340-354 ; Jun 2010
Focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. [author's abstract]

Diagnosing IAQ Threats.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n6 , p7,8 ; Jun 2010
Identifies principal threats to indoor air quality (IAQ), methods for detecting these threats, and a plan for correcting them.

Mold: How to Prevent It and How to Remove It.
Gehring, Douglas
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p15-17 ; May-Jun 2010
Discussses sources of mold growth in buildings, how to remediate it when it occurs, and how to prevent it from happening.

Tips for Staying Dry.
McCurdy, Scott
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p22,23 ; May-Jun 2010
Advises how to keep building interiors dry, in order to prevent microbial growth. Examination for and elimination of mold is emphasized.

A Study of Sources of Airborne Pollutants and Poor Hygiene in Schools
Alsmo, Thomas; Holmberg, Sture
Indoor and Built Environment; v19 n2 , p 298-304 ; Apr 26, 2010
Poor indoor air quality is a large problem in Swedish schools, since the health of occupants may be affected. Resources are consumed without identification of utility indicators and there is risk of problems, even after remedial measures have been taken. This can mean both unnecessary suffering for many people and considerable resources being wasted. The building itself is often in focus and other building-related problems may be neglected. The hypothesis of the present work is that other factors than the building itself have decisive influence on indoor air quality. An assessment of these nonbuilding-related reasons for bad indoor air quality has been made in the present study using particle measurements. Results show that it is possible to decrease emissions in indoor air by over 90% through identifying and eliminating activity-related sources of airborne contaminants. [Authors' abstract]

Mold: A Continuing Problem in PNW Schools.
Blake, Dave; Prill, Rich
IAQ News: Indoor Air Quality in Northwest Schools; , p5-8 ; Jan 2010
Discusses the persistent mold problem in Pacific Northwest area schools. The majority of schools inspected have water leaks from the environment and faulty plumbing. Steps and equipment for routine monitoring of water sources and ventilation are described.

How Ventilation Affects Comfort.
Edelman, Lon
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p35-37 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the role of air filters in maintaining indoor air quality, citing the history of filters, their typical composition, styles available, and the respective filtration capacities and resistance of five types of filters.

IAQ: Building a Healthy Environment.
Cavanaugh, Laura
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p10,11 ; Dec 2009
Advises on maintaining good indoor air quality during renovations, renovating with environmentally friendly materials, and reducing and recycling construction waste.

High Indoor Air Quality is Crucial in Schools and Health Care Facilities.
Gatland, Stan
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n6 , p10,12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses moisture management in wall assemblies and HVAC systems, and moisture-attenuating building products for walls and ductwork.

Finish Lines.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v33 n8 , p37-38,40,42 ; Aug 2009
Discusses gymnasium floor coatings, which are evolving toward polymers with lower volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to more stringent attention to and regulation of indoor air quality. Application techniques, costs, color, maintenance, and durability of both oil- and water-based products are described.

CO2 Monitoring Advances Air Quality and Energy Efficiency.
Schaffner, Chris
Buildings; v103 n8 , p44-46 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the benefits of carbon dioxide monitoring to indoor air quality, assessing occupancy for demand control ventilation, and earning LEED credits. Advice on installation, calibration, and monitoring of carbon dioxide sensors is included.

Solving Kitchen Ventilation Problems.
Clark, John
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n7 , p20-22,24 ; Jul 2009
Addresses kitchen exhaust concerns by discussing plume containment, hood condition, hood front draft turbulence, cooking line thermal comfort, grease in the exhaust duct or on the roof, return of cooking exhaust into the HVAC system, and excessive utility bills.

Stepping up to the Plate: Ensuring a Quality Learning Environment.
Froemming, Jim
School Business Affairs; v75 n6 , p18,19 ; Jun 2009
Describes how Wisconsin's Port Washington-Saukville School District funded and conducted environmental testing at an elementary school to determine particulate risks from nearby factories.

Circulating Ideas on HVLS Fans.
Taber, Christian
The Construction Specifier; v62 n6 , p116-120,122-125 ; Jun 2009
Disucsses advances in high-volume, low-speed (HVLS) ceiling fans that have created quiet and energy-efficient devices that can deliver significant HVAC savings by reducing the amount of ductwork needed, de-stratifying the indoor air, and allowing thermostats to be set higher in the summer and lower in the winter.

Moving Air for Comfort.
Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p18-20,22,24,26-28 ; May 2009
Describes field study findings that reveal preferences for air movement among building occupants. In general, most occupants prefer more air movement than what they presently have. Risk of draft is small at temperatures above 72.5 degrees. Tables and charts illustrate sensory perceptions, opinions of acceptable or unacceptable air movement, and recommended elevated air speed for warmer temperatures. Includes 21 references.

Making a Sustainable School Healthy.
Joyner, Mandi
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p70-73 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the importance of indoor air quality (IAQ) when creating a sustainable school. The consequences of poor IAQ are discussed, followed by HVAC and indoor product considerations that adversely affect air quality. Suggestions for ascertaining the "healthiness" of indoor finishes are offered, including ratings by third-party certifiers.

Used Filters and Indoor Air Quality.
Beko, Gabriel
AHRAE Journal; v51 n3 , p64-66,68,70-72 ; Mar 2009
Briefly describes early and recent studies indicating a negative effect of used ventilation filters on indoor air quality. Possible mechanisms responsible for the emission of pollutants from the filters, the negative economic impact of polluting filters, and possible engineering solutions are discussed.

Healthful Choices.
Hall, Julie
American School and University; v81 n7 , p25,26,28 ; Mar 2009
Discusses school furniture with low volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Seeking environmentally certified products is recommended, and if none are available, understanding what the furniture is made of, how it might be refurbished or recycled, and its durabilility is essential.

Six Steps to Good IAQ.
Gonsoulin, Taylor; Worthan, Tony
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p13,14,16 ; Feb 2009
Explains potential financial losses due to the effects of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on building occupant health. Strategies for good IAQ are reviewed, including controlling pollutants at their source, ventilation , effective cleaning and maintenance,monitoring, and mold and moisture prevention.

The Problem That Won't Go Away: IAQ and Floor Care.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews the consequences of poor indoor air quality, and discusses the use of matting, green carpet cleaners, and low moisture/hot water extraction for floor care that does not negatively impact indoor air quality.

Who's Sick at School: Linking Poor School Conditions and Health Disparities for Boston's Children.
Tolle Graham , Jean Zotter , Marlene Camacho
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v19 n3 ; 2009
A recent review of student asthma rates and environmental audits of school buildings suggests that schools with poor indoor air quality have higher-than-average rates of asthma. Many Boston Public School (BPS) children and staff are learning and working in poor indoor environmental conditions that not only can exacerbate asthma, but also lead to other problems ranging from allergies and sinus infections to adverse academic performance [1]. The Boston Urban Asthma Coalition (BUAC) conducted a preliminary analysis of 2004-05 childhood asthma rates for BPS students and compared them to the 2004-05 environmental audits of the top 10 schools with environmental problems. This analysis suggests that schools with the highest rates of leaks, mold, and pest infestations also have higher-than-average asthma rates for children.

Diagnostic Technology: A Closer Look.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p10 ; Dec 2008
Reviews the benefits of portable diagnostic technology for monitoring indoor air quality, and for temperature and power quality monitoring within equipment, systems, and motors.

Winning the War Against Moisture.
O'Brien, Sean
The Construction Specifier; v61 n9 , p70-78 ; Sep 2008
Discusses typical moisture problems in modern buildings, often exacerbated by modern lightweight materials, and improperly specified or applied moisture barriers. Steps to be taken to prevent moisture problems in the design, construction, operation, and renovation phases are detailed, and advice is included on how to keep designers, builders, and owners working together to solve the problem. Includes five references.

Where Does All the Dirt Go?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p31,32,34,36 ; Aug 2008
Discusses results from dirt retention and cleaning tests on flow-through and non flow- through carpet, indicating a wide variance in the potential for dirty conditions in school carpeting due to the corresponding wide variance in types of carpet used. Particular attention is given to the behavior of dirt that is held within the carpet as people walk on it.

Closing the Seal on Buildings.
Seaverson, Eric
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p28,29 ; Aug 2008
Discusses typical sources of air leaks in buildings, problems that can be caused by the moisture it carries into exterior components, particular problems caused by leaking roofs, and design and replacement options that help seal a building's exterior.

Controlled Breathing.
Welch, John
American School and University; v80 n13 , p164-166 ; Aug 2008
Discusses carbon dioxide-based ventilation control to improve school indoor air quality. Evidence of improved attendance and student performance in lower carbon dioxide environments is presented, as well as benefits to energy savings and ventilation regulation.

Five Common Mistakes to Avoid When Handling Indoor Air Quality Complaints.
Cull, Ian
Buildings; v102 n7 , p108-111 ; Jul 2008
Details advice to building managers handling indoor air quality complaints to not disrespect them, have a system to log and track them, respond promptly and seriously, train and equip the in-house staff, and hire outside consultants at the right time, but not too quickly or too late.

The Sustainability-IAQ Connection.
Goodman, Tabitha
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p9,10 ; Jul 2008
Advocates an indoor air quality "triple bottom line" that considers not only cost, but cost, occupant satisfaction, and environmental protection together.

Breathing In.
Mahoney, Daniel
American School and University; v80 n12 , p34-36 ; Jul 2008
Advises on how to keep excess moisture out of a school building, how to remediate mold if it does occur, and how to evaluate risk in cases of indoor air quality complaints.

Delaware Biotechnology Institute: Improving IAQ with UVC.
Scheir, Robert
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p60,62,64,66 ; Apr 2008
Details the benefits of adding ultraviolet-C lights to this institution's HVAC system. These include use of the condensate as clean make-up water, reduction of biocide use, cleaner indoor air, and electricity savings.

The Shape of Learning.
Horstman, Eric
School Planning and Management; v47 n3 , p26,28-30,32 ; Mar 2008
Reviews physical and sensory needs for school interiors, including carbon dioxide reduction, access to water fountains, thermal comfort, and the color selection and placement.

Identifying and Treating Environmental Hazards.
Silicato, Steve
Buildings; v102 n2 , p72,74,76 ; Feb 2008
Advises on identification, analysis, abatement, and remediation of asbestos, lead-based paint, and mold.

HVAC and IAQ Systems.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p91-93 ; Jan 2008
Advises on selecting a schol HVAC system for good indoor air quality, emphasizing filtration, quantity and sources of outside air, humidity control, thermal comfort, energy efficiency, geothermal technology, and post-occupancy testing.

Why a Healthy School Matters. Adobe PDF
Hill, David
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p26-29 ; 2008
Describes how the Blue Valley School District of Overland Park, Kansas, uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Tools for Schools program. Their exemplary effort is described with details of their six "Key Drivers": 1) Organize for success. 2) Assess environments continuously. 3) Plan your short- and long-term activities. 4) Act to address structural, institutional and behavioral issues. 5) Evaluate your results for continuous improvement. 6) Communicate with everyone, all the time.

The Air Filtration-Energy Connection.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p26,27 ; Jan 2008
Discusses balancing air filtration and HVAC energy consumption, with advice on identifying level of filtration needed, selecting filters, and current filter types.

Correlating Indoor Air to Student Academic Performance.
Shaughnessy, Richard
The School Administrator; v65 n1 , p22,23 ; Jan 2008
Briefly reviews studies indicating links between classroom ventilation and student performance, and offers five easy steps to take for improved air quality.

Find and Prevent Legionella in Your Building Water Systems.
Turner; Simon; Handley, David
Buildings; v102 n1 , p50-52 ; Jan 2008
Reviews sources of Legionella bacteria, proper maintenance of cooling towers and plumbing to prevent its infestation, and treatment of the towers if the bacteria is found.

Planning for Optimum IAQ.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v11 n1 , p92,93 ; Jan 2008
Discusses the importance of considering a higher education building's occupancy, size, orientation, scheduling, and staffing when designing its HVAC system. Levels of filtration and fresh air control are also discussed. An example from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, illustrates the text.

Meeting IAQ Guidelines.
Parrish, Richard
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p36,38,40,41 ; Nov 2007
Details Minneapolis' new Burroughs Community School to illustrate opportunities for good indoor air quality and classroom acoustics through careful design, materials selection, and construction techniques.

What Is Your IAQ?
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , p35,36,38 ; Nov 2007
Profiles the Iowa State University maintenance department's attention to indoor air quality in its buildings. Automation systems, preventive maintenance, handling of complaints, and staff training are addressed.

Healthy and Safe School Environment, Part II, Physical School Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and PRograms Study 2006.
Jones, Sherry; Axelrad, Rober, Wattigney, Wendy
Journal of School Health; v77 n8 , p544-556 ; Oct 2007
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts. Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a sample of elementary, middle, and high schools. The study revealed that 35.4 percent of districts and 51.4% of schools had an indoor air quality management program; 35.3% of districts had a school bus engine-idling reduction program; most districts and schools had a policy or plan for how to use, label, store, dispose of, and reduce the use of hazardous materials; 24.5% of states required districts or schools to follow an integrated pest management program; and 13.4% of districts had a policy to include green design when building new school buildings or renovating existing buildings.

The Green Obligation.
Adams, Cameron
American School and University; v80 n1 , p36,38,39 ; Sep 2007
Briefly reviews the financial and health benefits of attention to school indoor air quality, including advice in entryway maintenance, dusting, and independent certification of cleaning systems.

New School Checklist: Can We Head 'em Off at the Pass?
Turner, William; Caulfield, Steven
Indoor Environment Connections; v8 n10 , p32,33 ; Aug 2007
Reviews design details and building commissioning for good school indoor air quality, as well as triage for furnishings and educational materials that were either salvaged or discarded from a moisture-plagued school that had to be demolished.

Mold Clean-Up and Prevention.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul 2007
Reviews causes of mold in buildings, identification and assessment of mold infestation, correction of the causes, and scrubbing of the air after mold remediation.

Sick Buildings, Sick Students.
Buchanan, Bruce
American School Board Journal; v194 n6 , p48-50 ; Jun 2007
Discusses the link between school indoor air quality and occupant health and learning. Typical biological and chemical pollutants are listed, along with their effects. Several examples are offered of schools that were found to be polluted and what it took to clean them.

Is Your Facility "Air-Sick?" Improve IAQ for Greener, Healthier Buildings.
Matela, Dave
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p20-22 ; May 2007
Reviews statistics on the negative effects of poor indoor air quality in schools and filtration strategies for better indoor air.

Indoor Molds, Bacteria, Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds and Plasticizers in Schools – Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Pupils.
J. L. Kim, L. Elfman, Y. Mi, G. Wieslander, G. Smedje, D. Norbäck
Indoor Air; v17 n2 ; Apr 2007

Breathing in Comfort.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n9 , p39-42 ; Apr 2007
Reviews health problems that can be attributed to poor indoor air, and suggests ways to control mold, increase fresh air, and construct buildings to improve indoor air quality.

Go Green with Air Filtration Upgrades.
Matela, Dave
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , pG36,G38,G39 ; Apr 2007
Reviews the benefits of good air indoor quality to schools, and addresses the role of air filtration to IAQ. Lower pressure-drop filters that still clean air well are covered, as are the filter's role in greenhouse gas emissions, raw material use, and waste output.

Green Building Programs Focus on Indoor Air Quality for Healthier Schools.
Spriggs, Laura
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , pG22,G24 ; Apr 2007
Reviews benefits of high performance "green" schools to occupant health, student performance, operating costs, and educational opportunity. The current mixed state of school indoor environmental quality, and helpful programs such as LEED and Greenguard are reviewed.

Seven Special IAQ Challenges.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v10 n2 , p36,38-41 ; Feb 2007
Reviews the particular indoor air quality challenges accompanying campus kitchens, print shops, laboratories, and library/media centers. Ventilation and control of humidity and toxins are covered.

Research Report on Effects of HVAC on Student Performance.
Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n10 , p22-24,26-28 ; Oct 2006
Summarizes the results of a recent study to determine if increased outdoor air supply and lower classroom temperatures would improve student performance. The experimental approach and interventions of the study are described, and the results indicate that an increase in ventilation rates from 6.4 to 20.1 cfm (3 to 9 L/s) could improve student performance by 8-14 percent, while modest temperature reductions could improve performance by 2-4 percent.

Continuous Measurements of Air Quality Parameters in Schools
Grimsrud, D.; Bridges, B.; Schulte, R.
Building Research & Information ; v34 n5 , p447 - 458 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Results are presented from the continuous monitoring of air quality parameters in 85 classrooms and other spaces located in eight schools in Minnesota, US, during the 2003–04 school year. Measurements were made using unobtrusive sensor packages mounted on classroom walls that transmitted data to a remote site using the Internet. Carbon dioxide concentrations showed substandard ventilation in rooms in five of the eight schools. Monthly reports of results prepared for each school assisted school personnel in planning and implementing improvements in air quality. Unusual values of carbon monoxide concentrations and volatile organic gas concentrations were investigated when observed. The schools that volunteered for the study represented school districts with a high interest in indoor air quality issues in their buildings. Thus, the sample is not a representative sample of all schools in the state. The study demonstrates that even in a group of motivated schools, unobtrusive monitoring and regular measurement of air quality parameters can make a significant improvement indoor air quality in classrooms. [Authors' abstract]

Breathless: Schools, Air Toxics, and Environmental Justice in California
Pastor, Manuel; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; and Sadd, James L.
Policy Studies Journal; v34 , p377 ; Aug 2006
The exposure of children to environmental disamenities has emerged as a key policy concern in recent years, with some analysts and activists suggesting that minority children are disproportionately impacted. Utilizing a dataset that combines air toxics at the census tract level with school-based demographic and other information, this article indicates disparate exposures for students of color in California schools and suggests that there may be negative impacts on one measure of academic performance, even after controlling for other factors usually associated with test scores. Policy implications include a special focus on school remediation and strengthening overall efforts to reduce emissions "hot spots." [Authors' abstract]

Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems
Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, S
Journal of School Health; v76 n6 , p246-249 ; Aug 2006
Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children. [Authors' abstract]

The Grass is Greener on This Side.
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v42 n8 , p42-44,46,48,50 ; Aug 2006
Highlights practices within the five most popular ways to create a "green" school: lighting, indoor air quality, minimizing waste, HVAC systems, and water conservation.

Making the Grade with Improved Air Filtration.
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p32-36,38,39 ; Jul 2006
Describes simple changes made by a school to its air filtration that greatly improved indoor air quality. A change in type and installation of filters made for better filtration and easier access, which meant that filters were changed at proper intervals. This also contributed to cleaner ductwork and coils.

The Air Down There.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v9 n7 , p29,30,32,33 ; Jul 2006
Defines displacement ventilation (DV) and describes its benefits to air quality, energy savings, noise control, and comfort. Also included is a comparison of DV to under-floor air distribution (UFAD), examples of schools that use DV, and architectural considerations for DV installation.

Schooled in IAQ.
Shroades, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n7 , p6,7 ; Jul 2006
Highlights strategies that improved indoor air in award-winning K-12 school districts. Displacement ventilation and carbon dioxide sensors improve indoor air, while moisture meters and infrared thermography are useful in detecting suspected. water intrusion.

Diagnosing IAQ Problems in Indoor Pools.
Hogan, James
The Construction Specifier; v59 n5 , p78-80,82,84-86,88 ; May 2006
Offers extensive advice on assessing the interface between the building, airflow, mechanical systems, and pool water chemistry in indoor swimming pools. Typical miscalculations due to high humidity and skewed temperatures are described, and most of these must be addressed in design and construction. Vapor retarders, interior finishes, ceiling types, and windows are also covered.

Reduced Outdoor Air for Auditorium: Standard 62 IAQ Procedure.
Johnson, Peter
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p54-58 ; May 2006
Describes how a new Ohio school auditorium achieved good air quality and reduced outside air usage through heat recovery and a combination of bipolar cleaning with high- efficiency particulate phase filtering. Includes two references.

Strategies for Improving IAQ.
Megerson, James; Torline, Chris
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p40-42,44-46 ; May 2006
Describes design changes to the HVAC system at Kansas City's Blue Valley North High School initiated to address poor indoor air quality in that facility, but deemed so successful that they were repeated throughout the district. The new system features displacement ventilation, variable air volume rooftop units, new pulse combustion boilers, and web-enabled management.

HEPA Help.
Rathey, Allen
American School and University; v78 n10 , p47-49 ; May 2006
Discusses types of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in vacuum cleaners. Although they can offer thorough filtration of vacuumed air, they are considerably more expensive, and their benefit may be negated by particles entering the space from open windows or doors. Claims by manufacturers can be confusing and require careful study.

Contaminant Control.
Adams, Matt
American School and University; v78 n9 , p44-46 ; Apr 2006
Reviews sources of indoor air pollution in schools, with particular attention to the increased impact of contaminants on children's bodies. Techniques for source control of contaminants and improved ventilation are also described.

The Right Place for Displacement.
Arent, John; Blatt, Morton, Meister, Bradley
Engineered Systems; , p56,58,60-62 ; Apr 2006
Describes the benefits of displacement ventilation in school buildings, including more fresh air delivered to occupants, less noise, lower maintenance costs, and energy savings. Includes six references.

Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: A Case Study of Awareness and Participation of Users.
Bernardi, Nubia; Kowaltowski, Doris
Environment and Behavior; v38 n2 , p155-172 ; Mar 2006
This paper presents the results of an extensive post occupancy study of 15 schools in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. The learning environments were analyzed as to thermal, acoustical, visual, and functional comfort and possible simple solutions to improve the quality of the learning environment. Classrooms and recreation areas were observed and critical comfort conditions were measured with equipment. School directors, teachers, employees and students were questioned as to their perception and evaluation of the comfort conditions and given the opportunity to express their satisfaction and desires about their learning spaces. A low level of intervention toward comfort on the part of users was attributed to discipline codes that restrict student behavior.
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Indoor Environmental Quality in a "Low Allergen" School and Three Standard Primary Schools in Western Australia.
Zhang, G; Spicke, J. RUmchev, K; Lee, A. H.; Stick, S.
Indoor Air; v16 n1 , 74-80 ; Feb 2006
Reports on assessments of dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters in four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday). The levels of particulate matter (PM10) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the `low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the `low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the `low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms.

Integrated Design Planning Is Key to a Healthy Classroom.
Learning By Design; n15 , p164 ; 2006
Recommends classroom orientation, proper lighting, and displacement ventilation to help achieve a healthy classroom environment.
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Tools for Schools Fighting IAQ Woes.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 n1 , p15,16 ; Jan 2006
Describes aspects of activity and occupancy that put schools at a greater risk for indoor air pollution. The efforts of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to improve school indoor air quality are highlighted, as are its recommendations for the "job description" of a school IAQ coordinator.

Prevalence and Implementation of IAQ Programs in U.S. Schools.
Moglia, Dena; Smith, Alisa; MacIntosh, David; Somers, Jennifer
Environmental Health Perspectives; v114 n1 , p141-146 ; Jan 2006
Reports questionnaire survey results showing that forty-two percent of schools in the U.S. have an IAQ management program, and there has been sustained growth from 1998 to 2002 in the number of schools that have such programs. Nearly half of those schools use EPA s IAQ Tools for Schools Program. The IAQ Practice Index scores varied widely for schools with an IAQ management program, suggesting that having a program is not equivalent to implementing effective IAQ policies and procedures. Respondents indicated that their IAQ programs led to improved workplace satisfaction, fewer asthma attacks, fewer visits to the school nurse, and lower absenteeism. Includes ten references.

Preventing Sick Building Syndrome.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v8 n12 , p16-19 ; Dec 2005
Describes the four indoor and outdoor sources of indoor air pollution, as well as special insulating wraps that control condensation, and ultraviolet light fixtures that help prevent mold in air handlers.

High and Dry.
Johnson, Robert
American School and University; v78 n4 , p34-36 ; Dec 2005
Cites the effects of indoor air pollution on students, teachers, facilities, and equipment. Recommendations for eliminating excess humidity through proper attention to the building and its HVAC system are included.

Shining a Light on a More Healthful Environment.
Scheir, Robert
School Planning and Management; v44 n12 , p15,16,18 ; Dec 2005
Discusses the use of ultraviolet-C (UVC) lamps in within school HVAC systems to kill molds and other airborne microbes. The lamps are particularly useful against very small organisms that can pass through filters, and also help reduce buildup of organic matter within the system.

Ensuring the Future.
Ashkin, Stephen
American School and University; v78 n3 , p305-307 ; Nov 2005
Describes a variety of free tools and programs to help audit and improve environmental health in existing school buildings, and organizations which assist with designing healthier new buildings.

IAQ Analysis: Updating the Arsenal.
Boss, Martha
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2005
Ensuring a healthy indoor environment calls for understanding the issues, as well as the technology and tools to diagnose and address them. This article discusses particulates, volatiles, instrumentation, semi-volatile organic compounds, acid gases or caustics, and investigation considerations.

Minding Your PH and IAQ's with Perlite Ceiling Tile.
Jhan, Peter
The Construction Specifier; v58 n10 , p34-39 ; Oct 2005
Examines the advantages and disadvantages of perlite ceiling panels, which is inorganic and will not support the mold growth that can adversely affect indoor air quality. Perlite ceiling tile is more expensive and presents fewer design and recycling options than the prevalent cellulose fiber tile, but it does not deform when wet, does not off-gas, and does not burn.

Healthy Air, Healthy Students.
Dolan, Thomas
School Construction News; v8 n6 , p26,27 ; Sep-Oct 2005
Discusses humidity, cleanliness, comfort, pollution control, and ventilation in schools.

Mouse and Cockroach Allergens in the Dust and Air in Northeastern United States Inner-city Public High Schools.
Chew, G; Correa, J; Perzanowski, M.
Indoor Air; v15 n4 , p228-234 ; Aug 2005
Levels of mouse and cockroach allergen were measured in vacuumed settled dust in 87 classrooms in 11 New York City schools. At the same time, two five-day air samples were collected by 53 students at school and at home. The percentage of samples where the allergens were measured to be over analytical detection limits were as follows: mouse allergen in school dust, 81%; cockroach allergen in school air, 71%; mouse allergen in school air, 5%; cockroach allergen in school air, 22%.

Sick Buildings, Sick Kids.
Sausner, Rebecca
University Business; v8 n7 , p48-52 ; Jul 2005
Discusses responses to illnesses induced by over-recirculated indoor air, surface contamination, and mold. Staff should be properly trained in prevention and response to pathogenic outbreaks, and older buildings, even though they are typically exempt from newer ventilation requirements, should be brought up to modern standards.

Breathe Easy.
Shorr, Pamela
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p35-37 ; Jun 2005
Describes the complex mix of potential indoor air pollutants and their sources, with various plans that some districts have implemented to improve their indoor air quality.

Addressing Asthma and Indoor Air Quality in Schools.
McPhee, Nicole
School Business Affairs; v71 n5 , p28,29 ; May 2005
Discusses the increasing incidence of asthma among children and provides examples of how some schools have used the Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit to remedy indoor air problems. Respiratory health improvements in these schools is cited.

Continuous IAQ Monitoring.
Schelte, Robert; Bridges, Barry; Grimsrud, David
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p38-40,42,44,46 ; May 2005
Describes results of continuous, unobtrusive monitoring of air quality at 20-second intervals in 85 rooms of eight schools in Minnesota. A variety of transient environmental events that would probably have been missed by random sampling are described. Results showed that most schools needed ventilation improvements and that staff was not adequately trained on the importance of ventilation or how their systems worked. Schools with better ventilation had been the beneficiaries of a state initiative to improve ventilation, but theses schools were experiencing significantly higher energy costs due to the introduction of larger amounts of outside air and systems that were not designed to minimize fuel consumption. Includes six references.

Relationship between Outdoor and Indoor Air Quality in Eight French Schools.
Blondeau, P.; Lordache, V.; Poupard, O.; Genin, D.; Allard, F.
Indoor Air; v15 n1 , p2-12 ; Jan 2005
Measurements of outdoor and indoor pollution were carried out in eight schools in La Rochelle, France, and its suburbs.

Fixing the Air in There.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v8 n1 , p78,79 ; Jan 2005
Describes off-gassing problems from new furnishings, particularly in residence halls, and what to specify in order to avoid them.

Do Indoor Pollutants and Thermal Conditions in Schools Influence Student Performance? A Critical Review of the Literature. Adobe PDF
Mendell, M; Heath, G.
Indoor Air; v15 n1 , p27-32 ; Jan 2005
Presents a critical review of evidence for direct associations between these aspects of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and performance or attendance. Evidence on indirect connections potentially linking IEQ to performance or attendance is also summarized. Regarding direct associations, little strongly designed research was available. Persuasive evidence links higher indoor concentrations of NO2 to reduced school attendance, and suggestive evidence links low ventilation rates to reduced performance. Regarding indirect associations, many studies link indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants (primarily in homes) to asthma exacerbations and respiratory infections, which in turn have been related to reduced performance and attendance.

A Guide to Lowering Test Scores.
Rosenblum, Shelly; Spark, Barbara
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p10-12 ; Jan 2005
Lists actions and inactions that will lower indoor air quality and probably reduce test scores. Cites methods of improving air quality through communication, knowledge of equipment, furnishings, and simple diligence.

Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma in School-age Children.
Wang, LY; Zhong, Y; Wheeler, L
Preventing Chronic Disease; Jan 2005
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and is the most common cause of school absenteeism due to chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate direct and indirect costs of asthma in school-age children. Using data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the authors estimated total economic impact of asthma in school-age children was $1993.6 million ($791 per child with asthma). The economic impact of asthma on school-age children, families, and society is immense, and more public health efforts to better control asthma in children are needed. [Authors' abstract]

The ABC's of IAQ.
Kirch, Kelly
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , p18,20-22 ; Dec 2004
Discusses the indoor air impact of paint, carpet, HVAC dessicant wheels, and HVAC chemical sensors.

Moisture, Mold, and HVAC.
Burroughs, H.E. Barney; Thomann, Wayne R.
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p56-58,60,62,64,65 ; Oct 2004
Discusses condensation control methods and resources to prevent mold growth within HVAC systems.

Nasal Histamine Reactivity among Adolescents in a Remediated Moisture-damaged School - a Longitudinal Study .
Rudblad, S; Andersson, K.; Stridh, G.; Bodin, L.; Juto, J.E.
Indoor Air; v14 n5 , p342-350 ; Oct 2004
Follows up on a 1995 study of teachers who had been working for several years in a moisture-damaged school, and one year after its renovation still reported a higher frequency of complaints and showed significantly higher mucosal histamine reactivity compared with teachers in a control school, although the school seemed to be properly renovated. A study of randomly selected senior high school students entering the two schools was initiated to exclude or verify if the indoor air exerted an irritant effect of an previously unexposed group. No significant differences in the nasal histamine provocation for the students at the target school and those at the control school could be shown from start to endpoint of the study. This study concludes that the current indoor air in the remediated moisture-damaged school does not exert an irritant effect on the upper airway mucosa of the students. The increased mucosal reactivity observed among the teachers is probably a result of the previous long-term exposure to building dampness.

Breathing Easier in Beaufort County.
Winans, Dave
NEA Today; v23 n2 , p34,35 ; Oct 2004
Describes how teachers in this South Carolina county organized and helped craft an indoor air quality plan, in spite of being in a non-bargaining, right-to-work state.

More Than Mold.
Hughes, Malou; Epstien, Barb
American School and University; v77 n1 , p41-43 ; Sep 2004
Describes many possible indoor air pollutants other than mold, their sources, and how to reduce or eliminate them. These include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and allergens.

Evaluation and a Predictive Model of Airborne Fungal Concentrations in School Classrooms
Bartlett, Karen; Kennedy, Susan; Brauer, Michael; Van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara
Annals of Occupational Hygiene; v48 n6 , p547-554 ; Aug 09, 2004
This study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms within a defined geographic location in British Columbia, Canada, and to build a model to clarify determinants of airborne fungal concentration. All elementary schools within one school district participated in the study. Classrooms examined varied by age, construction and presence or absence of mechanical ventilation. Airborne fungal propagules were collected inside classrooms and outdoors. Variables describing characteristics of the environment, buildings and occupants were measured and used to construct a predictive model of fungal concentration. The classrooms studied were not visibly contaminated by fungal growth. Rooms ventilated by mechanical means had significantly lower geometric mean concentrations than naturally ventilated rooms. Environmental (temperature, outdoor fungal concentration), building (age) and ventilation variables accounted for 58% of the variation in the measured fungal concentrations. A methodology is proposed for the evaluation of airborne fungal concentration data which takes into account local environmental conditions as an aid in the evaluation of fungal bioaerosols in public buildings. [Authors' abstract]

Insulation: A Win-Win for IAQ
Casagrande, Robert
Maintenance Solutions; Aug 2004
Often overlooked, insulation can help facilities improve their indoor air quality and maximize energy efficiency. This discusses building exteriors, HVAC ducts, pipe insulation, and maximizing benefits.

The Filter Factor.
Earley, Stehpanie
American School and University; v76 n11 , p30,32-35 ; Jun 2004
Explains standards for assessing filtration and energy function of HVAC filters. Filter types are described and selection criteria based on particles to be screened, maintenance considerations, air return, ambient environment, and energy performance are offered.

Evidence of Inadequate Ventilation in Portable Classrooms: Results of a Pilot Study in Los Angeles County
Shendell, D.G.; Winer, A.M.; Weker, R.; Colome, S.D.
Indoor Air; v14 n3 , p154 ; Jun 2004
The prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables) for United States public schools has increased; in California, approximately one of three students learn inside portables. Limited research has been conducted on indoor air and environmental quality in American schools, and almost none in portables. Available reports and conference proceedings suggest problems from insufficient ventilation due to poor design, operation, and/or maintenance of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; most portables have one mechanical, wall-mounted HVAC system. A pilot assessment was conducted in Los Angeles County, including measurements of integrated ventilation rates based on a perfluorocarbon tracer gas technique and continuous monitoring of temperature and relative humidity. Measured ventilation rates were low. Compared with relevant standards, results suggested adequate ventilation and associated conditioning of indoor air for occupant comfort were not always provided to these classrooms. Adequate ventilation has the potential to mitigate concentrations of chemical pollutants, particles, carbon dioxide, and odors in portable and traditional classrooms, which should lead to a reduction in reported health outcomes, e.g., symptoms of 'sick building syndrome', allergies, asthma. Investigations of school indoor air and environmental quality should include continuous temperature and relative humidity data with inexpensive instrumentation as indicators of thermal comfort, and techniques to measure ventilation rates. [Authors' abstract]

Does the Indoor Air Quality in Schools Impact Student Performance?
School Business Affairs; v70 n4 , p18-20 ; Apr 2004
Describes the effects of common indoor pollutants on human performance and suggests programs that can improve indoor air quality in schools.

Assessing Risk of Legionella.
Cooper, Andrew J.; Barnes Howard R.; Myers, Eric R.
ASHRAE Journal; v46 n4 , p22-27 ; Apr 2004
Presents considerations for assessing risk of Legionella exposure in situations where water dischargers, such as those from HVAC systems, operate in close proximity to humans.

Children Symptoms Before and After Knowing About an Indoor Fungal Contamination
Handal, G.; Leiner, M.A.; Cabrera, M.; Straus, D. C.
Indoor Air; v14 n2 , p87 ; Apr 2004
To describe children symptoms before and after an indoor fungal problem was publicized. Children attending one of two elementary schools (one with indoor fungal problems and one without) were included in this study. The study included an analysis of symptoms reported by the nurses before and after the indoor fungal problem was publicized and a questionnaire responded to by the parents. Several symptoms related to exposure to mold were found to be statistically significant in the school with an indoor fungal problem before the problem was detected: the symptoms included coughing/wheezing, headaches and joint pains. After the problem was publicized the perception of symptoms increased. [Authors' abstract]

Modular Classrooms: Ventilation Control Options.
Tiernan, Maury
School Planning and Management; v45 n3 , p46,47 ; Mar 2004
Presents eight methods for ventilation control in modular classrooms.

Air Awareness.
Apte, Michael; Shendell, Derek, Hodgson, Al
American School and University; v76 n6 , p42,44,47 ; Feb 2004
Discusses proper HVAC for relocatable classrooms.

HVAC and the Environment.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n2 , p54,56,58,59 ; Feb 2004
Describes how properly designed HVAC systems improve indoor air quality by regulating humidity, removing pollutants, and mixing in fresh air.

Going 'Green' with Hybrid HVAC.
Shapiro, Leon E.
School Planning and Management; v43 n2 , p66,67 ; Feb 2004
Describes hybrid HVAC systems that combine technologies to use of 100% outside air, yet return substantial energy savings.

How to Work with the Media and Positively Communicate Your IAQ Story. Adobe PDF
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p20-23 ; 2004
Offers suggestions for responding to the media during a negative school indoor air quality event. "Do's and don'ts" are accompanied by advice on creating a proactive relationship with the media in advance of such an event.

Litigation and IAQ Issues in Schools: How and Why Can Schools Be Held Liable for IAQ Problems? Adobe PDF
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p8-11 ; 2004
Discusses building-related sources of poor indoor air quality, the recent history of mold litigation, and how litigation can affect schools. Nine suggestions to help schools avoid litigation over indoor air quality are offered.

Schools of Tomorrow.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n5 , p16-18,20-22,24-27 ; Jan 2004
Presents the opinions expressed at a roundtable of five education architects on school facilities and the issues of technology integration, community use, flexibility, sustainability, indoor environments, security, size, functionality, and adaptive reuse.

Financing Indoor Air Quality Solutions in Schools. Adobe PDF
Barton, Bob
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p24-27 ; 2004
Proposes financing alternatives for indoor air quality improvement in situations where the budget cannot accommodate it. Energy-efficient upgrades that pay for themselves though utility savings, government bond programs, grants, and lease-purchase arrangements are detailed.

Healthy Buildings: The Keystone of High Performance Schools.
Bates, Thomas
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p15-19 ; 2004
Describes effects of temperature, humidity, indoor air pollutants, and ventilation on learning. Also included is a lengthy checklist of design and maintenance considerations for good indoor air quality.

Monitoring Indoor Air Quality.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v7 n1 , p76,77 ; Jan 2004
Explains how to monitor indoor air for carbon dioxide (CO2) levels with inexpensive meters, and how biological agents in HVAC water must be monitored.

Indoor Air Quality. Adobe PDF
Frank, David
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p4-7 ; 2004
Reviews the causes and recent history of indoor air problems and remediation, beginning with the oil embargo of 1973. The polluting potential of cleaning products and practices are identified, along with suggestions on how to improve indoor air quality with proper cleaning practices, air filtration, and monitoring.

Designing Schools for Higher Performing Students. Adobe PDF
Guarneiri, Michele
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p12-14 ; 2004
Describes features of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program, emphasizing the monitoring of indoor air considerations at every phase of design, construction, and commissioning of school buildings.

Indoor Air Quality Management System: A Case Study. Adobe PDF
Hill, Dave
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p28-32 ; 2004
Describes indoor air quality management in the Blue Valley Unified School District of Overland Park, Kansas, almost all of whose buildings were built after 1980. The process began in 1997 with a program to improve building envelope conditions. A mold outbreak in 2001 initiated improvements in HVAC systems and replacement of mold-prone building elements. Swimming pool management practices, HVAC upgrades, custodial practices, integrated pest management, the formation of an IAQ team, and consultations with other school districts are described.

IAQ and the Older Facility
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
Attention to key HVAC components can help managers improve the indoor environment in aging facilities. This discusses air handlers, filtration equipment, and cooling towers.

Association of Domestic Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds with Asthma in Young Children.
Rumchev, K.; Spickett, J.; Bulsara, M.; Phillips, M.; Stick, S.
Thorax; v59 , p746-751 ; 2004
Reports the results of a study where asthmatic children were identified, and their exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC's), average temperature, and relative humidity were measured in winter and summer in their respective household living rooms. Exposure to higher levels of VOC's in these environments, even at levels below currently accepted recommendations, correlated with the incidence of asthma.

Choosing an Indoor Air Quality Specialist.
Siener, Thomas
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p33-34 ; Dec 2003
Presents criteria for identifying and hiring environmental consultants when internal staff cannot resolve an indoor air problem. A list of certifcations that should be held by the professionals and laboratories engaged is included along with an outline of what the investigation should include.

Schools Committed to Indoor Air Quality Receive Awards from EPA.
EPA Newsroom; Oct 27, 2003
Twenty-two schools implemented exemplary Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) programs and EPA honored them with the prestigious IAQ Tools for Schools Excellence Award. These award winners implemented effective programs in their schools ranging from designing a new school building free of toxins and other hazards to developing district-wide policies for continuous training and maintenance. The individuals and schools are listed here.

Portable Classrooms.
Webber, Whitney
The CHEC Report [Children's Health Environmental Coalition, Princeton, NJ]; Oct 07, 2003
Describes potential indoor air pollutants in portable classrooms, distinguishing between substances likely found in new versus old units. Offers advice to parents of children suspected of being sickened by portable classroom indoor air.

Is Mold the New Asbestos?
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v190 n10 , p14-18 ; Oct 2003
Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to school leaders and architects. Schools that evaluate their facilities systems after finding serious mold infestations usually discover that the mold problems are connected to other facilities management shortcomings. This article discusses the high-dollar risk of poor indoor air quality; claims, counterclaims, and charges; confronting the community fallout; and how districts are dealing with mold. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.

Associations Between Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Student Attendance in Elementary Schools in Washington and Idaho.
Shendell, Derek G.; Prill, Richard
Indoor Air Quality in Northwest Schools; , p6-9 ; Fall 2003
This article is based on a Lawrence Berkeley National Lab report. The study involves CO2 measurements inside and outside the 436 classrooms of 22 schools in Washington and Idaho. According to the authors, "In this study, 1,000 [parts-per-million] increases in the difference between indoor and outdoor CO2 concentration were associated with 10 percent to 20 percent relative increases in student absence, and the associations were statistically significant. This study confirms previous findings of high CO2 concentrations in classrooms, which indicated classroom ventilation rates were often below the minimum rates specified in codes." [Authors' abstract]

Energy/IAQ: In Equal Measure.
Frenette, Edward; Dion, Martine; Halm, Patrick; Ferzacca, Nick; Oldeman, Andy
American School and University; v75 n11 , p34,36-37,40-41 ; Jul 2003
Discusses the importance of heating, ventilating, lighting and furnishings in providing K-12 and college students with a high quality, comfortable educational environment that is conducive to learning, focusing on the range of spaces comprising a typical campus: general studies classrooms, larger spaces, special spaces (e.g., laboratories and museums), gymnasiums, natatoriums, and ice arenas.

Modular Building Supplement: A Quick, Quality Solution for Schools.
Goodmiller, Brian D.; Schendell, Derek G.
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , pMB1-10 ; Jul 2003
This supplement presents three articles on modular construction that look at: "Fast Track Expansion for a New Jersey School" (involving a modular addition); "Precast Construction Helps Schools Meet Attendance Boom" (precast concrete components are quick, durable, and flexible); and "Airing HVAC Concerns" (poor indoor air quality in prefabricated portable and relocatable classrooms).

Teachers' Pets Are Not Everybody's Favorites. Air Quality Concerns Prompt Questions About Animals in Classrooms.
Sack, Joetta L.
Education Week; v22 n39 , p5 ; Jun 04, 2003
Issues concerning air quality in schools, student health, and the cleanliness of classrooms that house animals has school districts reconsidering policies on classroom pets. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.
Guarneiri, Michele A.
School Business Affairs; v69 n6 , p26-30 ; Jun 2003
Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free “Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools” kit.

Report Card on Humidity Control.
Fischer, John C.; Bayer, Charlene W.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p30-39 ; May 2003
Reports on an investigation of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62-1999 on outdoor ventilation rates and space humidity levels for schools. Examined conventional cooling versus desiccant-based systems designed to control indoor humidity levels. Discusses the effectiveness of systems investigated, benefits offered by humidity control, and the need for increased ventilation.

Solving the O&M Equation.
Flach, Robert: Dorgan, Chad B.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p40-45 ; May 2003
Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training.

Investigating IAQ on a Budget.
Garrison, Paul T.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p54-56 ; May 2003
Provides guidelines on techniques for conducting indoor air quality (IAQ) investigations which may benefit school personnel who must fund investigations within meager budgets.

Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools: An Analysis of Existing Information.
Daisey, J. M.; Angell, W.J.; Apte, M.G.
Indoor Air; v13 n1 , p53-73 ; Mar 2003
We reviewed the literature on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), ventilation, and building-related health problems in schools and identified commonly reported building-related health symptoms involving schools until 1999. We collected existing data on ventilation rates, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and symptom-relevant indoor air contaminants, and evaluated information on causal relationships between pollutant exposures and health symptoms. Reported ventilation and CO2 data strongly indicate that ventilation is inadequate in many classrooms, possibly leading to health symptoms. Adequate ventilation should be a major focus of design or remediation efforts. Total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and microbiological contaminants are reported. Low HCHO concentrations were unlikely to cause acute irritant symptoms (<0.05 ppm), but possibly increased risks for allergen sensitivities, chronic irritation, and cancer. Reported microbiological contaminants included allergens in deposited dust, fungi, and bacteria. Levels of specific allergens were sufficient to cause symptoms in allergic occupants. Measurements of airborne bacteria and airborne and surface fungal spores were reported in schoolrooms. Asthma and 'sick building syndrome' symptoms are commonly reported. The few studies investigating causal relationships between health symptoms and exposures to specific pollutants suggest that such symptoms in schools are related to exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), molds and microbial VOCs, and allergens. [Authors' abstract]

Modular Buildings.
Reynolds, Pamela
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p36-38 ; Mar 2003
Describes the testing by Berkeley lab scientists of an experimental ventilation system to improve indoor air quality in portable classrooms and use a third of the energy of current systems.

Increased Levels of Bacterial Markers and CO2 in Occupied School Rooms.
Fox , Alvin; Harley , William; Feigley , Charles; Salzberg , Deborah; Sebastian, Aleksandra and Larsson, Lennart
Journal of Environmental Monitoring ; v5 n2 , p246-252 ; Jan 2003
Our group previously demonstrated that carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in heavily occupied schools correlate with the levels of airborne bacterial markers. Since CO2 is derived from the room occupants, it was hypothesized that in schools, bacterial markers may be primarily increased in indoor air because of the presence of children; directly from skin microflora or indirectly, by stirring up dust from carpets and other sources. The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis. Muramic acid (Mur) is found in almost all bacteria whereas 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) are found only in Gram-negative bacteria. Thus Mur and 3-OH FA serve as markers to assess bacterial levels in indoor air (pmol m–3). In our previous school studies, airborne dust was collected only from occupied rooms. However, in the present study, additional dust samples were collected from the same rooms each weekend when unoccupied. Samples were also collected from outside air. The levels of dust, Mur and C100, C120, C140, and C160 3-OH FAs were each much higher (range 5–50 fold) in occupied rooms than in unoccupied school rooms. Levels in outdoor air were much lower than that of indoor air from occupied classrooms and higher than the levels in the same rooms when unoccupied. The mean CO2 concentrations were around 420 parts per million (ppm) in unoccupied rooms and outside air; and they ranged from 1017 to 1736 ppm in occupied rooms, regularly exceeding 800–1000 ppm, which are the maximum levels indicative of adequate indoor ventilation. This indicates that the children were responsible for the increased levels of bacterial markers. However, the concentration of Mur in dust was also 6 fold higher in occupied rooms (115.5 versus 18.2 pmole mg–1). This further suggests that airborne dust present in occupied and unoccupied rooms is quite distinct. In conclusion in unoccupied rooms, the dust was of environmental origin but the children were the primary source in occupied rooms. [Authors' abstract]

Healthy Learning.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p26-29 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs.

Effect of Building Frame and Moisture Damage on Microbiological Indoor Air Quality in School Buildings
Meklin T, Hyvarinen A, Toivola M, Reponen T, Koponen V, Husman T, Taskinen T, Korppi M, Nevalainen A.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal; v64 n1 , p108-16 ; Jan-Feb 2003
The effect of building frame and moisture damage on microbial indoor air quality was characterized in 17 wooden and 15 concrete or brick school buildings. Technical investigations to detect visible moisture and mold damage were performed according to a standardized protocol. Viable airborne microbes were determined by using a six-stage impactor (Andersen 10-800). Mean concentrations of viable airborne fungi were significantly higher in wooden schools than in concrete schools, showing that the frame material was a determinant of concentrations of airborne fungi. Moisture damage of the building did not alter the fungal concentrations in wooden school buildings. In contrast, in concrete schools the effect of moisture damage was clearly seen as higher concentrations compared with the reference schools. Aspergillus versicolor, Stachybotrys, and Acremonium were detected only in samples from moisture damaged buildings, and can be considered marker fungi of such damage in school buildings. In addition, the presence of Oidiodendron as well as elevated concentrations of Cladosporium and actinobacteria were associated with moisture damage in concrete schools. [Authors' abstract]

Breathing Easier.
Smolkin, Rachel
The School Administrator; v60 n1 , p6-14 ; Jan 2003
Describes use of Environmental Protection Agency’s Tools for Schools tool kit to improve indoor air quality aimed specifically at eliminating asthma triggers such as dust mites and mold. Includes several examples of school district efforts to reduce or eliminate student health problems associated with poor indoor air quality. Article includes a section on low-budget ways to address air quality; AASA's indoor air project; and AASA's initiative on asthma prevention.
TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email:

Nasal Mucosal Histamine Reactivity Among Young Students and Teachers, Having No or Prolonged Exposure to a Deteriorated Indoor Climate
Rudblad, S.; Andersson, K; Bodin, L.; Stridh, G.; Juto, J.E.
Allergy; v57 n11 , p1029-1035 ; Nov 2002
In a study performed in the spring of 1995, we found a significantly greater nasal mucosal histamine reactivity among teachers, who had worked for several years in a recently renovated moisture-damaged school, than in those in a control school. In the present study we investigated the students who begun their high-school studies at both schools in the autumn of 1995 and compared them with the teachers as regards mucosal reactivity, atopy and symptoms. Teachers had a significantly greater mucosal histamine reactivity than the students, whereas the latter had a significantly higher frequency of atopy. These results are compatible with an age-related pattern of mucosal reactivity. A crusty appearance of the nasal mucosa seems to predispose to an increase in histamine reactivity. There were no significant differences according to histamine reactivity between atopic and non-atopic subjects. [Authors' abstract]

An Exposure Assessment of PM10 from a Major Highway Interchange: Are Children in Nearby Schools at Risk?
Korenstein, Steven; Piazza, Bill
Journal of Environmental Health; v65 n2 , p9-17 ; Sep 2002
In response to community concerns, the Office of Environmental Health and Safety of the Los Angeles Unified School District conducted an exposure assessment study in the East Los Angeles area to determine if children attending schools close to highways are exposed to particulate (PM10) at sufficient levels to cause negative respiratory health effects. Results show that students in close proximity to major roadways receive a dose of PM10 at levels approaching 10-15 micrograms per cubic meter, an exposure predicted to cause negative health effects.

Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools.
Meklin,T. et al
Indoor Air; v12 n3 , p175 ; Sep 2002
Microbial indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms of children were studied in 24 schools with visible moisture and mold problems, and in eight non-damaged schools. School buildings of concrete/brick and wooden construction were included. The indoor environment investigations included technical building inspections for visible moisture signs and microbial sampling using six-stage impactor for viable airborne microbes. Children's health information was collected by questionnaires. The effect of moisture damage on concentrations of fungi was clearly seen in buildings of concrete/brick construction, but not in wooden school buildings. Occurrence of Cladosporium, Aspergillus versicolor, Stachybotrys, and actinobacteria showed some indicator value for moisture damage. Presence of moisture damage in school buildings was a significant risk factor for respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren. Association between moisture damage and respiratory symptoms of children was significant for buildings of concrete/brick construction but not for wooden school buildings. The highest symptom prevalence was found during spring seasons, after a long exposure period in damaged schools. The results emphasize the importance of the building frame as a determinant of exposure and symptoms. [Authors' abstract]

A Guide to Lowering Test Scores.
Rosenblum, Shelly; Spark, Barbara
Leadership; v32 n1 , p30-31 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Discusses the adverse impact of poor classroom air quality on student performance and how school officials can eliminate the sources of indoor air pollution. Describes Environmental Protection Agency's "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" program.

Air Rights.
Clark, Charles S.
Teacher Magazine; v14 n1 , p11 ; Aug 2002
Discussion of how poor air quality in schools affects teachers. According to experts, bad air is good for no one, but teachers may be more at risk of developing health problems from it than their students because many teachers work in a school for 30 years, while students come for just a few years, which has to be factored into measures of exposure.

Air Fair: Q & A with Mary Smith.
De Patta, Joe
School Construction News; v5 n5 , p19-20 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Presents an interview with the director of the Indoor Environments Division at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about the issue of poor air quality inside schools and what the government is doing to address it.

Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Understanding the Problem and Finding the Solution.
Bacci, Geoff
School Business Affairs; v68 n6 , p44-46 ; Jun 2002
Describes issues and solutions involving indoor air quality in school. Includes indoor air quality action plans, the role of the environmental consultant, and resources available to help school districts develop an indoor air quality action plan.

How Healthy Is Your School's Air?
Guarneiri, Michele
Principal; v81 n5 , p18-21 ; May 2002
Describes sources of indoor air pollution and health risk to children, such as asthma and lower respiratory infections. Asserts that risk of asthma is greater among African-American and Hispanic children attending urban schools. Suggests ways principals can help improve indoor air quality.

EPA Pushing Improved Air Quality in Schools.
Sack, Joetta L.
Education Week; v21 n33 , p1,12 ; May 2002
Discusses how, in response to the growing problem of poor air quality in schools, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set new voluntary air-quality guidelines for schools. Addresses common air-related irritants; successful efforts at Guerrero Elementary School in Mesa, Arizona; preventive maintenance; and a sample of the EPA s guidelines. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

What is Your IAQ? It Could Mean Your Health.
Malone, Bobby G.; Cox, Edward P.
The Journal of School Business Management; v14 n1 , p26-29 ; Spring 2002
Describes causes and health consequences of poor indoor air quality in schools; describes Office of Safety and Health Association and Environmental Protection Agency efforts to improve indoor air quality through the promulgation and enforcement of standards and regulations.

Is School Making Your Students Sick?
Comnes, Leslie
Clearing; n111 , p10-14 ; Winter 2002
Reviews environmental hazards within schools. Identifies indoor air pollution, asbestos, lead poisoning, and pesticides as the leading hazards. Forms of indoor air pollution include radon carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and various allergens such as mold and animal dander. Presents some guiding principles for the environmental quality of schools along with curriculum and assessment resources.

Creating Ideal Facilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n5 , p30,32-33 ; Jan 2002
Reviews ways that schools can provide effective indoor learning environments by paying attention to the following areas: daylighting, acoustics, space allocation, technology implementation, ergonomics, maintenance, indoor air quality, safety, restrooms, and roofing.

Monitoring and Modelling Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Classrooms within a Purpose-Designed Naturally Ventilated School
Kolokotroni, M.;Ge, Y.T.; Katsoulas, D.
Indoor and Built Environment; v11 , p316-326 ; 2002
This paper investigates the performance in use of thermal passive ventilation stacks in the classrooms of a school during the summer period. Measurements of air temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) and air velocity were carried out from which ventilation rates in the classrooms and stacks were calculated. It was found that the airflow through the passive stacks was a significant proportion of the classroom air exchange rate and metabolic CO2 was lower in classrooms with passive stacks. The predictions of a multi-zone airflow computer model were compared with measured values. Multi-zone modelling indicated that passive stacks could significantly increase ventilation in classrooms, which would otherwise be ventilated via single side ventilation through openable windows on one external wall. It was found that if the zones are accurately represented, multi-zone modelling is able to provide a good indication of the general trends of airflow rates both for the whole classroom and the flow through passive stacks. [Authors' abstract]

Environmental Allergens and Irritants in Schools: a Focus on Asthma
Tortolero, SR; Bartholomew, LK; Tyrrell, S; Abramson, SL; Sockrider, MM; Markham, CM; Whitehead, LW; Parcel, GS
Journal of School Health; v72 n1 , p33-38 ; Jan 2002
As part of the Partners in School Asthma Management Program, environmental data were collected from 385 rooms in 60 elementary schools in southeast Texas, using an Environmental Observation Checklist and a Q-TRAK Indoor Air Quality Monitor. Dust samples for allergen analysis were collected from floors, carpets, and area rugs in 80 classrooms in a subset of 20 schools. CO2 levels > 1,000 ppm were found in 86% of rooms; 69% had indoor humidity above recommended levels. Der p I dust mite allergen levels > 2,000 ng/g were present in 20% of rooms, but only 2.5% of rooms had Der f I mite allergen levels exceeding recommended tolerances. Detectable levels of cockroach allergen (Bla g II) were found in all schools (median 5.5 ng/g), with 10% of rooms over the recommended threshold. Almost two-thirds of classrooms had mold spore counts > 10,000 col/g (median, 14,400 col/g; range, 2,000-52,000 col/g). [Authors' abstract]

Clearing The Air.
Hill, David
Teacher Magazine; v13 n3 , p32-37 ; Nov 2001
Case study of Whitaker Middle School in Portland, Oregon where teachers were convinced that they had suffered various health problems—dizziness, asthma, headaches, and more—because of the school building. In fact, tests showed that the building's air was laden with contaminants. The building had been plagued over the years by two serious health hazards: mold and radon.

New Courses: Unlocking the Mysteries of Productivity, Air Quality, and the Indoor Environment in Schools.
Raiford, Regina
Buildings; v95 n11 , p40-42 ; Nov 2001
Discusses the relationship between indoor air quality and productivity and a three-year research project to measure productivity within an educational setting. Also discusses research showing the impact of good indoor air quality on increasing productivity. Ten ways to manage asthma in a school environment are highlighted.

Incidence of Asthma Diagnosis and Self-Reported Allergy in Relation to the School Environment—a Four-Year Follow-up Study in Schoolchildren
Smedje G.; Norbäck D.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; v5 n11 , p1059-1066(8) ; Nov 2001
In schools, the indoor air quality is often poor and there is growing concern about its impact on the pupils' health. The objective was to study the incidence of asthma diagnosis and self-reported allergy in schoolchildren in relation to the school environment. Data on asthma and allergies were collected through a postal questionnaire answered in 1993 and 1997 by 1347 (78%) pupils (initially aged 7–13 years) in 39 randomly chosen schools. Indoor pollutants were measured in about 100 classrooms in 1993 and 1995. Relationships between indoor pollutants and incidence of asthma diagnosis and self-reported allergy were studied by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, atopy and smoking. The incidence of asthma diagnosis was higher in pupils attending schools with more settled dust and more cat allergen in this dust. Incidence of self-reported furry pet allergy was higher in schools with more respirable particles. Among children without a history of atopy, a new asthma diagnosis was more common at higher concentrations of formaldehyde and total moulds in the classroom air. The conclusion was that a school environment with more dust, cat allergen, formaldehyde, and moulds may affect the incidence of asthma and sensitivity to furry pets in schoolchildren. [Authors' abstract]

Perceptions of Indoor Air Quality Associated with Ventilation System Types in Elementary Schools
Kinshella, Michele R.; Van Dyke, Michael V.; Douglas, Ken.E.; Martyny, John W.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene ; v16 n10 , p952-960 ; Oct 2001
With the increased utilization of school buildings on a year-round basis, school indoor air quality has become a national concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible associations between ventilation system type and occupant perception of indoor air quality. Staff (n=403)from 12 schools completed a self-administered questionnaire. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, air exchange rates, and particle counts were also measured for each school. Schools with unit ventilator (UV) systems had the lowest mean CO2 level at 637 ppm, followed by the variable air volume (VAV) systems with 664 ppm, and constant volume (CV) systems with a mean of 703 ppm. Schools with UV systems had the lowest mean air exchange rate at 2.67 air changes per hour (ACH), followed by the VAV system type at 2.80 ACH and the CV system type at 4.61 ACH. Indoor versus outdoor particle ratios were calculated for each ventilation system type. Particles with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 0.1-1.0 wm had a geometric mean ratio ranging from 0.38 to 0.68; particles with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 1-3 wm had ratios ranging from 1.39 to 5.47, and particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 3 wm had ratios ranging from 3.20 to 14.76. Schools using VAV systems had a significantly lower prevalence of red and watery eyes while schools with UV systems had an elevated prevalence of nasal congestion, sore throat, headache, and dustiness complaints. This increased prevalence of complaints in buildings with UV systems may be due to the increased particulate levels.

Effects of Noise, Heat, and Indoor Lighting on Cognitive Performance and Self-Reported Affect.
Hygge, Staffan; Knez, Igor
Journal of Environmental Psychology; v21 n3 , p291-299 ; Sep 2001
Reports the result of experiments that tested the effect of temperature, lighting, and noise on cognition and sense well-being in high school students. Students remembered fewer words at 27 degrees Celsius than at 21 degrees. 1500 lux illumination yielded better long-term recall than 300 lux, as did a noise level of 38 decibels versus 58 decibels.

The Perils: Seeking Simplicity Helps.
Schulz, Fred C.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; v29 n6 , p18-20,22 ; Jun 2001
Reveals how seeking simplicity can help bring indoor air quality (IAQ) solutions to grade schools by balancing IAQ needs, cost, and energy. Issues involving ventilation rate requirements are reexamined, as are compliance with outside-air requirements, dealing with variable-air-volume air distribution regulators, and retrofitting issues involving overhead air-distribution systems.

Irritants and Allergens at School in Relation to Furnishings and Cleaning
Smedje G.; Norbäck D
Indoor Air; v11 n2 , p127-133 ; Jun 2001
In order to study the influence of furnishings and cleaning on the indoor air quality at school, 181 randomly chosen classrooms were investigated. The amounts of open shelves, textiles and other fittings were noted, data were gathered on cleaning routines, and a number of pollutants were measured in the classrooms. In classrooms with more fabrics there was more settled dust and the concentration of formaldehyde was higher. Classrooms with more open shelves had more formaldehyde, and more pet allergens in settled dust, and classrooms with a white board, instead of a chalk board, were less dusty. Classrooms mainly cleaned through wet mopping had more airborne viable bacteria but less settled dust than classrooms mainly cleaned by dry methods. In rooms where the desks and curtains were more often cleaned, the concentrations of cat and dog allergen in settled dust were lower. It is concluded that furnishings and textiles in the classroom act as significant reservoirs of irritants and allergens and have an impact on the indoor air quality at school. Furnishings and textiles act as reservoirs of irritants and allergens and are of importance for the indoor air quality at school. The amount of such fittings should be minimised. Cleaning could be helpful in reducing the concentration of allergen. In schools without textile flooring, it would seem important to improve the cleaning of furniture and fabrics

Graduating to Better IAQ
Wilson, Scott
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; v29 n6 , p24-30 ; Jun 2001
One way to avoid IAQ problems is to proactively address IAQ during the school design process. Leading IAQ concerns for educational facilities include humidity control, air filtration, outside-air control, and special hazards. Several case studies are cited.

Graduating to Better IAQ.
Wilson, Scott
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; v29 n6 , p24-26,28,30 ; Jun 2001
Highlights the different design approaches that may be taken and the HVAC systems that result depending on the type of educational facility involved, be it an elementary, secondary, or postsecondary institution. Explores school indoor air quality issues and highlights the roles and responsibilities of IAQ project participants. A case study describing how a university solved a mold problem in its library is included.

The Benefits of Mixed Flow Technology: Roof Exhaust Fans.
Tetley, Paul A.
Facilities Manager; v17 n3 , p33-38 ; May-Jun 2001
Explores the problems associated with laboratory workstation exhaust faced by most colleges and universities and explains how the selection of a proper fume hood exhaust system can prevent or eliminate these problems and provide a clean and safe lab environment. Also highlighted are indoor air quality legal implications.

Skin-Prick Test Findings in Students From Moisture- and Mould-Damaged Schools: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study
Immonen J.; Meklin T.; Taskinen T.; Nevalainen A.; Korppi M.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology; v12 n2 , p87-94 ; Apr 2001
Dampness and moisture problems in a building may cause growth of moulds, leading to sensitization and symptoms in the inhabitants. The mechanism by which sensitization to moulds takes place has remained obscure; in particular, the role of atopy is not clear. In 1996, 622 pupils (7–13 years of age) attending a school with a moisture problem (index school; 414 pupils) and a control school (208 pupils) were screened using a questionnaire. Two-hundred and twelve children had doctor-diagnosed asthma, parental-reported wheezing or prolonged cough, and they participated in a clinical study, which included skin prick tests (SPT) to 12 moulds. An identical, follow-up study was performed 3 years later in 1999. In the follow-up study, 144 of the original 212 students participated. They were now attending four different schools: the index primary school had been renovated and the control school remained unchanged, but the two secondary schools had moisture and mould problems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurence of mould allergy in children of school age and to compare sensitization to moulds in relation to age, exposure, asthma, and atopy. In 1999, SPT responses to moulds were demonstrated in 17 (12%) of the 144 children. Six children had SPT reactions 3 mm and all but one were older than 14 years. During the 3-year follow-up period, mould allergy developed in five children and disappeared in two children. Five of the six children with reactions 3 mm to moulds had positive responses to other allergens, five had clinical atopy but only two had asthma. Likewise, all six children had been exposed to moisture and dampness in the school buildings. In conclusion, mould allergy diagnosed by SPTs was rare in students. Most reactions to moulds were in students older than 14 years with multiple SPT reactions to common allergens, and there was no significant association with asthma. [Authors' abstract]

Into Thin Air.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p32,34 ; Feb 2001
Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma.

Responding To and Preventing IAQ Problems in Schools.
Brennan, Terry M.
This is an IAQ investigator's advice for school administrators and consulting engineers on preventing IAQ in schools, presented in three parts. 19p.

Determination of Selected Pollutants and Measurement of Physical Parameters for the Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality in School Buildings in Athens, Greece
Panayotis A. Siskos, Konstantina E. Bouba, Aspasia P. Stroubou
Indoor+Built Environment; v10, n3-4 , p185-192 ; 2001
The objectives of this paper were to characterise the indoor air quality in 20 naturally ventilated classrooms at 10 different public schools in Athens, to compare the measured concentrations with the established standards and to propose measures to improve air quality. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and formaldehyde were determined simultaneously and temperature, relative humidity and noise were measured. Temperature and relative humidity were within 'comfort ranges' in almost all classrooms. The noise level was too high both in classrooms (61 dBA) and outdoors (77 dBA). CO2 concentrations exceeded 1,800 mg·m-3, suggesting inadequate ventilation in 75% of classrooms, CO and NO2 were at levels that posed no health threats. TVOC concentrations were found to be <1 mg·m-3, except in renovated buildings, and formaldehyde levels were >0.1 mg·m-3 in 92% of classrooms. [Authors' abstract]

Water and Air: The Right Mix
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jan 2001
Controlling humidity in building spaces once was limited to specific areas such as computer rooms, where air that was too moist could corrode electrical contacts and air that was too dry could result in damaging static electricity. But growing concerns over indoor air quality (IAQ) and an awareness of the role that relative humidity plays in health, comfort, and productivity has made humidity control an important issue in most commercial and institutional facilities. This article discusses causes of high and low humidity and examines corrections that can be made.

The Bottom Line For Air Quality.
Ellis, Tom
American School and University; v73 n3 , p410-412 ; Nov 2000
Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.

Investigation of the Concentration of Bacteria and Their Cell Envelope Components in Two Elementary Schools. Adobe PDF
Liu, L.-J. Sally; Krahmer, Mark; Fox, Alvin; Feigley, Charles; Featherstone, Ashley; Saraf, Anita; Larsson Kennart
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association; v50 , p1957-1967 ; Nov 2000
Reports on an assessment of bacterial cell envelope components in two elementary schools in a southeastern city in the United States. Although indoor levels of bacterial peptidoglycan were low, they were significantly related to teachers’ perception of the severity of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in their classrooms. Concentrations of CO2 correlated significantly with all bacteria measurements. Because CO2 levels were related to the number of occupants and the ventilation rates, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the children and teachers are sources of bacterial contamination. Many culturable bacteria present in indoor air are opportunistic organisms that can be infectious for compromised individuals, while both culturable and nonculturable bacterial remnants act as environmental toxins for both healthy and compromised individuals. Measuring the “total bacteria load” would be most accurate in assessing the biotoxicity of indoor air. Includes 69 references.

Indoor Air Quality in a Middle School, Part II: Development of Emission Factors for Particulate Matter and Bioaerosols
Scheff, Peter A.; Paulius, Vidas K.; Curtis, Luke; Conroy, Lorraine M.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene ; v15 n11 , p835 - 842 ; Nov 2000
A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997.

Airing It Out.
Fitzemeyer, Ted
American School and University; v73 n2 , p20,22,25 ; Oct 2000
Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed.

A Well-Grounded Plan.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n2 , p30,32,34 ; Oct 2000
Explains how establishing a cleaning and maintenance program for floors and carpets makes schools safer and more attractive. Offers recommendations for cleaning that help maintain good air quality. Highlights the problems of shorter opportunities for cleaning during summer.

Improving Indoor Air Quality in St. Cloud Schools.
Forer, Mike; Haus, El
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p57-58 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Describes how the St. Cloud Area School District (Minnesota), using Tools for Schools provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, managed the improvement of their school building indoor air quality (IAQ). The district goals of the IAQ Management Committee and the policy elements used to maintain high classroom air quality are highlighted.

Installing Portable Classrooms With Good Air Quality.
Godfrey, Ray
School Construction News; v3 n4 , p18-19 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Discusses the advantages of modular classrooms and improvements made in indoor air quality, including the pros and cons of portables, challenges districts face when planning and installing portables, and cost considerations. Concluding comments highlight system costs and maintenance required.

ESCOs: Helping Schools Save Money and Energy.
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , suppl 2 p1-6 ; Jun 2000
Discusses the use of energy savings performance contracts to help reduce costs and improve school infrastructure and the educational environment. Further discussed are how indoor air quality reduces health, productivity, and costs; and examples are provided of how other schools have achieved better school environments and reduced energy costs.

Lawsuits in the Air.
Hays, Larry
American School and University; v72 n10 , p35-36 ; Jun 2000
Discusses why indoor air quality problems in schools should be treated, not only as a health problem issue, but as a potential for legal actions. What types of proof are needed to make a legal claim involving indoor air problems are addressed as are the elements which constitute a "sick building."

Minnesota Officials Tackle School IAQ
Forer, Mike; Haus, El
AFE Facilities Engineering Journal; , 5p ; May-Jun 2000
After talking with other school district leaders, officials at School District 742 in St. Cloud, Minnesota believe they are on the cutting edge of indoor air quality. A manangement plan, and policies are discussed.

Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p58-59 ; May-Jun 2000
Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the importance of proper record keeping.

Breathe Deeply.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p31,33-34 ; May-Jun 2000
Discusses indoor air quality issues related to school gyms, locker rooms, and pools; explores ways to keep the indoor environment healthy. Includes discussions of mold and fungus control as well as air issues stemming from indoor pools.

Carpeting Creates a Better Learning Environment [Carpet and Rug Institute Supplement].
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , 15p. ; Apr 2000
Discusses the benefits of carpet in the classroom; carpet maintenance vs. cleaning; step-by-step guide to life-cycle costing; and balancing the indoor air quality equation.

Improved Health After Intervention in a School with Moisture Problems.
Ahman, M.; Lundin, A.; Musabai, V.; Soderman, E.
Indoor Air; , p57 ; Mar 2000
In a school with floor moisture problems, the personnel had complaints consistent with the sick-building syndrome (SBS). Interventive measures including the laying of a ventilated floor were undertaken to eliminate the emissions. To examine if the intervention resulted in positive health effects, 34 personnel and 336 pupils were interviewed just before the intervention and also 7 months after. Also were interviewed 21 personnel and 224 pupils at an adjacent school serving as a control. Compared with the control school, the problem school showed more complaints, more general symptoms and more symptoms from the eyes, airways and skin, both among the personnel and the pupils. In the post-intervention examinations, the excess of symptoms among the personnel had almost disappeared. Among the pupils, the frequency of eye irritation was reduced but a general improvement of the other symptoms was not as obvious. However, after adjustment for a recent common cold, atopy and stress among the pupils, only one symptom ("stuffy nose") remained significantly elevated. In conclusion, the intervention was followed by positive health effects, supporting the hypothesis that emissions from building material had contributed to the excess of symptoms. A recent common cold was highly related to the symptoms and should be considered in future SBS studies. [Authors' abstract]

Mechanisms Underlying Children's Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants.
Faustman, E.M.; Silbernagel, S.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Burbacher, T.M.; Ponce, R.A.
Environmental Health Perspectives; v108 Suppl 1 , p13-21 ; Mar 2000
In the first section of this article, example mechanisms of susceptibility relevant for toxicity assessment are identified and discussed. In the second section, examples of exposure factors that help define children's susceptibility are presented. Examples of pesticide research will be given for illustration. The final section discusses the importance of putting these considerations of children's susceptibility into an overall framework for ascertaining relevancy for human risk assessment. [Authors' abstract]

Fire Down Below.
Drummond, Steven
Education Week; v19 n22 , p32-37 ; Feb 09, 2000
Explores some of the problems associated with coal burning boilers in educational facilities and the extent of their use in the New York City public school system. Also highlighted are some of the changes and issues schools encounter when they convert from coal to oil or gas. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

New Ventilation Systems at Select Schools in Sweden--Effects on Asthma and Exposure
Smedje, G.; Norback, D.
Archives of Environmental Health; v55 n1 , p18-25 ; Jan-Feb 2000
The air-exchange rate is often low in schools. The authors studied the possible impact of improving school ventilation on health and exposure of pupils. Questionnaire data on allergies, asthma, and asthmatic symptoms were obtained in 1993 and 1995 for 1,476 primary- and secondary-school pupils in 39 randomly selected schools. Various exposure factors were measured in 1993 and 1995 in approximately 100 classrooms. In 12% of the classrooms, new ventilation systems were installed between 1993 and 1995; the subsequent air-exchange rate increased and the relative humidity and concentration of several airborne pollutants were reduced compared with classrooms in nonimproved buildings. The reporting of at least one asthmatic symptom and the reporting of more asthmatic symptoms in 1995 than in 1993 were less common among the 143 pupils who attended schools with new ventilation systems. [Authors' abstract]

School Solutions. Special Report: IAQ and Energy
Birr, Dave
Energy Decisions; , p32-36 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how energy service companies (ESCO) can help schools upgrade their indoor air quality and make them environmentally sound. How ESCO's help in arranging funding for indoor environmental improvements through energy performance contracts is discussed. Tips on energy-efficiency measures for improving indoor environmental quality are highlighted.

A Blueprint for IAQ.
Quraishi, Arif; Kapfer, Tom
American School and University; v72 n1 , p.46-49 ; Sep 1999
Presents practical solutions to school indoor air quality problems. Areas where school administrators should set IAQ goals and provide resources are listed, and tips for HVAC maintenance and cleaning to reduce air pollutants are provided.

Breathe Easy.
Epstein, Barb
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 ; Jul 1999
Examines indoor air pollutants typically found in schools and presents tips for controlling them.

Indoor Air Quality Investigations at Five Classrooms
Lee, S.C.; Chang, Maureen
Indoor Air; v9 n2 , p134 ; Jun 1999
Five classrooms, air-conditioned or naturally ventilated, at five different schools were chosen for comparison of indoor and outdoor air quality. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 mm (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored at indoor and outdoor locations simultaneously. Respirable particulate matter was found to be the worst among parameters measured in this study. The indoor and outdoor average PM10 concentrations exceeded the Hong Kong standards, and the maximum indoor PM10 level was even at 472 ;g/m3. Air cleaners could be used in classrooms to reduce the high PM10 concentration. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1,000 l/l indicating inadequate ventilation. Lowering the occupancy and increasing breaks between classes could alleviate the high CO2 concentrations. Though the maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5,900 l/l during class at one of the sites, CO2 concentrations were still at levels that pose no health threats. [Author's abstract]

Allergic and Non-allergic Students' Perception of the Same High School Environment.
Lundin, L.
Indoor Air; v9 n2 , 92 ; Jun 1999
The aim of the study was to describe how allergies and non-allergies perceive the same environment. All high school students in a town in southern Sweden were invited to answer a questionnaire concerning allergy, subjective symptoms, annoyance reactions and perception of the environment (response rate: 81%). The results show that only 45% of the students were non-allergic (n = 1,715). Since the symptom frequency among non-allergic students was normal, the schools were classified as healthy. However, compared to the non-allergic students, a higher percentage among the allergies suffered from symptoms every week, a lower percentage was satisfied with the air quality and the cleaning, and a higher percentage was bothered every week by temperature, stuffy/stale air, bad odor, passive smoke, bad lighting, noise, dust and dirt (ANOVA, P < 0.05). The findings could indicate that allergies note discomfort earlier than non-allergies by being more critical in general and especially critical to factors that could effect their health. The findings could also indicate that awareness of ones own sensitivity could lead to attention to different risk factors, which in turn could lead to stress/anxiety, which could make symptoms worse. The conclusion is that it is important to take allergy into consideration when the environment is assessed. [Author's abstract]

An Air of Concern.
Gembala, Walter W.
American School and University; v71 n8 , p40, 42, 44 ; Apr 1999
Examines the signs of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, why the problems exist, and control methods to use. Human physical symptoms to look for when an IAQ problem is present are highlighted and IAQ management planning techniques are discussed.

Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.
Monk, Brian
College Planning and Management; v2 i3 , p34-35 ; Mar 1999
Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are addressed.

Clearing the Air about IAQ.
Seyffer, Charles
School Planning and Management; v38 2 , p54-57 ; Feb 1999
Discusses how to spot indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools and possible actions to take to eliminate them. It highlights the types of pollutants that contribute to IAQ deterioration and the physical symptoms commonly associated with them, and suggests ways of addressing older heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to improve air quality.

The School Environment---Is it Related to the Incidence of Asthma in the Pupils?
Smedje, G., Norback, D.
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, Scotland; v5 , p445-450 ; 1999
The authors studied relationships between the school environment and the incidence of allergies and asthma in pupils. Questionnaire data on symptoms were given in 1993 and 1995 by 1,476 school pupils in 39 randomly chosen schools, and various exposures were measured in approximately 100 classrooms both years. Relations between the 2-year incidence of symptoms and the exposures were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Pupils attending schools with more settled dust on floors and furniture had a higher incidence of current asthma. The incidence of asthmatic symptoms was higher in pupils attending schools with more dog allergen, and lower in those attending schools where a new ventilation system was installed between the two investigations. If the floor material had been replaced, the pupils had a higher incidence of using asthmatic medication. The results indicate that the school environment could be of importance for the incidence of asthmatic symptoms in children.

A Clean Bill of Health.
American School and University; v71 n1 , p20-21,24,26 ; Sep 1998
Explores the steps to take to reduce the likelihood that indoor-air-quality (IAQ) problems will develop in educational facilities. The sources and hazards of IAQ when renovating buildings are highlighted as are control strategies and the establishment of IAQ close-out criteria for all renovation projects. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system selection criteria conclude the article.

Correlation between the Prevalence of Certain Fungi and Sick Building Syndrome
Cooley, J. Danny; Wong, Wing; Jumper, Cynthia; Straus, David
Occupational Environmental Medicine; v55 , p579-584 ; Sep 1998
Presents results of a 22-month study in the of 48 schools in which there had been concerns about health and indoor air quality. Building indoor air and surface samples, as well as outdoor air samples were taken at all sites to look for the presence of fungi or their viable propagules. At 20 schools, there were significantly more colony forming units per cubic metre of propagules of Penicillium species in the air samples from complaint areas when compared with the outdoor air samples and the indoor air samples from noncomplaint areas. At five schools, there were more, although not significant Penicillium propagules in the air samples from complaint areas when compared with the outdoor air samples and the indoor air samples from noncomplaint areas. In 11 schools, the complaint area indoor air fungal ratios were similar to those in the outdoor air.

Something in the Air.
Portner, Jessica
Teacher Magazine; May 1998
Discussion of indoor air quality problems plaguing North Country Union High School in Nenwport, Vermont that affected teachers, staff, and students who suffered colds, debilitating migraine headaches, and frequent bouts of nausea and vomiting. Tests of the school by independent environmental consultants found low levels of benzene, a known carcinogen, and styrene, a narcotic. Both chemicals are found in cleaning agents. One test also showed evidence of carbon monoxide in the wing of the building near the auto shop, where students' test-cars idle. Administrators agreed that the U-shaped brick complex built in 1967 had some air-quality problems, and they moved to correct them.

An Air of Concern.
Singer, Terry E.; et al.
American School and University; v70 n9 , p40,42,44,46 ; May 1998
Poor indoor air quality is a common problem in schools. Deferred maintenance and aging HVAC systems are a major cause of schools’ IAQ problems. Examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) problems can create difficulties for a school administratively and legally. How to identify the IAQ symptoms and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's industry standards for IAQ are discussed as are tips for reducing liability risk.

Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.
Coleman, Jeff
American School and Hospital Maintenance; , p13,16,18 ; Apr 1998
Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in HVAC systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design, such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes, and ways to maintain a clean system.

Odom, J. David, III; Barr, Christine R.
School Planning and Management; v37 n4 , p44-48 ; Apr 1998
Discusses how early and frequent communication to students, teachers, staff, and parents concerning the indoor air quality (IAQ) in their schools can save money and time in air-quality problem solving. Further, it examines the relationship between building occupant anger to an IAQ problem and the activity level and costs associated with its solution.

Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in New Buildings.
Jackson, Lisa M.
College Planning and Management; v1 n2 , p65-66, 68-69 ; Mar 1998
Describes how indoor air quality can be built into new construction projects through early planning. Advises planners to address the building design on two levels: consider long-range plans for the building, and scrutinize the building's systems. Suggests that building products be reviewed, target products be screened, and testing be conducted.

Asthma Among Secondary Schoolchildren in Relation to the School Environment.
Smedje, G.; Norback, D.; and Edling, C.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy; v27 n11 , p1270 ; Nov 1997
Poor indoor air quality has been suggested to be related to the increase in the prevalence of asthma that has occurred in the western world, especially among children and young persons. Apart from the home, school is the most important indoor environment for children. The aims were to study the prevalence of current asthma among secondary pupils and its relationship to the school environment, but also to personal factors and domestic exposures. Data on asthmatic symptoms, other health aspects, and domestic exposures were gathered using a questionnaire which was sent to 762 pupils in the seventh form (1314 years old) in 11 randomly chosen schools in the county of Uppsala in Sweden. The questionnaire was completed by 627 (82%). Current asthma was found among 40 pupils (6.4%). Current asthma was more common in those who had an atopic disposition, or food allergy, or who had attended a day care centre for several years. Controlling for these factors, current asthma was related to several factors in the school environment. There were more pupils with current asthma in schools that were larger, had more open shelves, lower room temperature, higher relative air humidity, higher concentrations of formaldehyde or other volatile organic compounds, viable moulds or bacteria or more cat allergen in the settled dust. Although the pupils attended school for a minor part of their time, our study indicates that the quality of the school environment is of importance and may affect asthmatic symptoms. [Authors' abstract]

Nasal Mucosal Swelling in Relation to Low Air Exchange Rate in Schools.
Wålinder, Robert; Norbäck, Dan; Wieslander, Gunilla; Smedje, Greta and Erwall, Claes
Indoor Air; v7 n3 , p198 ; Sep 1997
Acoustic rhinometry and hygienic measurements of indoor air pollutants were applied in a field study on nasal congestion among 27 subjects working in two primary schools. One school had natural ventilation only and a low air exchange rate (0.6 ac/h); the other had balanced mechanical ventilation and a high air exchange rate (5.2 ac/h). The minimal cross-sectional area and volume of the nasal cavity were estimated with acoustic rhinometry. The degree of swelling of the nasal mucosa was measured as the increase of the cross-sectional area after standardized application of nasal spray containing a decongestive adrenergic substance. Reports on weekly symptoms of nasal congestion were similar (33%) in both schools. A significantly increased decongestive effect was noticed for the minimal cross-sectional area (MCA2) among personnel in the school with a low air exchange rate. The difference between the schools in decongestive effect on MCA2 was 23%, corresponding to a 3% increase of MCA2 for a difference in personal outdoor airflow of one litre. Indoor concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC), respirable dust, bacteria, moulds and VOCs of possible microbial origin (MVOC) were 28 times higher in the naturally ventilated school. In conclusion, inadequate outdoor air supply in schools may lead to raised levels of indoor air pollutants, causing a sub-clinical swelling of the nasal mucosa. Our results indicate that acoustic rhinometry could be applied in field studies, and that objective measurement of nasal decongestion might be a more sensitive measure of biological effects of indoor air pollution than symptom reporting. [Authors' abstract]

Filtering Out the Facts.
Shideler, Larry
American School and University; v69 n11 , p28, 30 ; Jul 1997
Examines ways of determining and capturing indoor air contaminants before they circulate. Practical source capturing of dust particles via better vacuum cleaner filtration is discussed.

Healthy Advice or Alarmist Literature? National Education Association Handbook Creates Unease in Cleaning and Maintenance Industry
Cummings, Sean
Cleaning Management and Maintenance Online; , 4p. ; Jun 1997
The publication of an educational handbook on indoor environmental quality has renewed the contentious debate between advocates for the cleaning and maintenance industry and environmental activists on whether American schools are safe. But both sides may be missing the point that quantifiable and significant improvements can be made to the indoor environment without using scare tactics or laboratory findings.

Subjective Indoor Air Quality in Schools in Relation to Exposure.
Smedje, Greta; Norbåck, Dan; Edling, Christer
Indoor Air; v7 n2 , p143 ; Jun 1997
This paper presents data on indoor air quality in schools as perceived by those working in them and relates these data to exposure measurements. Data on subjective air quality, domestic exposures and health aspects were gathered by means of a questionnaire which was sent to all personnel in 38 schools; it was completed by 1410 persons (85'4 of the total). Data on exposure were gathered by exposure measurements in classrooms. The results indicate that 53% of the personnel perceived the indoor air quality as bad or very bad. It was perceived as worse by those who were younger, those who were dissatisfied with their psychosocial work climate and those who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. In older school buildings and buildings with displacement ventilation there was less dissatisfaction with the air quality. There were no significant relations between complaints and air exchange rate or concentration of carbon dioxide. The air quality was perceived as worse at higher levels of exposure to a number of airborne compounds including volatile organic compounds, moulds, bacteria and respirable dust. It was concluded that exposure to indoor pollutants affects perception even at the low concentrations normally found indoors in nonindustrial buildings. [Authors' abstract]

Healthy Learning
Bates, Judy
American School & University; v68 n10 , p27-29 ; Jun 1996
Reports on research at six Florida schools that identified common contributors to poor indoor air quality. Discusses the reasons behind the state implementing the research, the many problems associated with elevated humidity levels, and ways to improve air quality, which includes effective operational systems and maintenance procedures.

Subjective Indoor Air Quality in Schools The Influence of High Room Temperature, Carpeting, Fleecy Wall Materials and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC).
Norback, Dan
Indoor Air; v5 n4 , p237 ; Dec 1995
There is a growing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools. We have studied relations between subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) and measured IAQ among school personnel (N = 97) in six mid-Swedish primary schools. Information on SIAQ and the psychosocial work environment was measured by a self-administered questionnaire, using analogue rating scales. Indoor exposures were quantified by hygienic measurements. Perception of high room temperature was related to a poor climate of cooperation, fleecy wall materials, and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including xylene, limonene, and butanols. Perception of air dry-ness was related to atopy, work stress, poor climate of cooperation, high room temperature, low air humidity, and high VOC concentration, including, limonene, and n-alkanes. Perception of dusty air was related to work stress, the role of schoolteacher, and exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. No relations were found between SIAQ and CO2, building age, or respirable dust. To achieve a good SIAQ, room temperature should be kept at a maximum of 22°C, and exposure to VOCs and fleecy materials should be minimized. Finally, a sound psychosocial work climate is essential for the perception of a good physical indoor climate. [Author's abstract]

Respiratory Symptoms and Infections among Children in a Day-Care Center with Mold Problems.
Koskinen, Outi; Husman, Tuula; Hyvärinen, Anne; Reponen, Tiina; Nevalainen, Aino
Indoor Air; v5 n1 , p3 ; Mar 1995
The prevalence of irritative symptoms and the incidence of respiratory infections among children in a day-care center affected by mold were compared with those in a reference day-care center. A retrospective pilot study was made in the mold-problem day-care center. Analysis of absenteeism records and a one-year follow-up study were made in both day-care centers. In the pilot study, half of the exposed 41 children had prolonged or frequent symptoms and respiratory infections. In addition, the absenteeism in the mold-problem day-care center was nearly twice as high as in the reference day-care center. After cessation of the exposure, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms decreased and no lower respiratory tract infections appeared. [Authors' abstract]

Radon Mitigation in Schools Utilising Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems
G. Fisher, G.; Ligman, B.;Brennan, T.; Shaughnessy, R.; Turk, B.H.; and Snead, B.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry ; v56 , p51-54 ; 1994
As part of a continuing radon in schools technology development effort, EPA's School Evaluation Team has performed radon mitigation in schools by the method of ventilation/pressurisation control technology. This paper presents the results and the preliminary evaluations which led to the team's decision to implement this technology. Factors considered include energy penalties, comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), building shell tightness, and equipment costs. Cost benefit of heat recovery ventilation was also considered. Earlier results of the SEP team's efforts have indicated a severe ventilation problem within the schools of the United States. An integrated approach to radon mitigation in schools and other large buildings which control radon as well as improve overall IAQ should be the goal of radon remediation where practical. Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling radon concentrations. One involved the installation of a heat recovery ventilator to depressurise a crawl space and provide ventilation to the classrooms which previously had no mechanical ventilation. The other involved the restoration of a variable air volume system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified to provide a constant building pressure differential to control the entry of radon. Pre-mitigation and post-mitigation indoor air pollutant measurements were taken, including radon, carbon dioxide (CO2), particulates, and bio-aerosols. Long-term monitoring of radon, CO2 building pressure differentials, and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity is presented. [Authors' abstract]

Prescriptions for Sick Schools.
Ornstein, Allan C.
Principal; v73 n2 , p25-27 ; Nov 01, 1993
Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials must act fast to avoid lawsuits.

Schools Respond to Risk Management Programs for Asbestos, Lead in Drinking Water and Radon.
Fisher,Ann; Chestnut,Lauraine G.;Chapman,Ruth H.;Rowe, Robert D
(Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH, 1993)
Risk: Health, Safety & Environment; v4 ; 1993
This paper summarizes the findings of a study that examined the effectiveness of risk communication materials, information dissemination and assistance efforts and selected regulatory design strategies for three different risk management programs for public schools that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated in response to Congressional mandates.
TO ORDER: Franklin Pierce Law Center, Two White Street, Concord, NH 03301; Tel: 603-228-1541

Correlating Health Effect with Indoor Air Quality in Kindergartens
Rindel A, Bach E, Breum NO, Hugod C, Schneider T.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health; v59 n4 , p363-73 ; 1987
In 24 kindergartens the relation between the presence of readily visible, man-made mineral-fiber products in the ceilings and the presence/frequency of symptoms or diseases and the correlations between complaints of symptoms or disease and the concentration of man-made mineral-fibres in the indoor environment was investigated. A combination of traditional epidemiological technique and a technical analysis of a number of indoor-air parameters did not support the hypothesis that the presence of readily visible man-made mineral-fiber products in the ceiling should be mainly responsible for the occurrence of symptoms and/or disease related to indoor exposure in kindergartens. [Authors' abstract]



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