HVAC SYSTEMS IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS
Information on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in school facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Hawaii CHPS Criteria
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, Jun 2012)
Resource used to design and construct healthy, high performance, green, schools in Hawaii. Includes prerequisites and credits appropriate to the year-round temperatures, rain and wind patterns, and humidity of the islands, as well as more distinct requirements, compliance pathways, and an extra credit for naturally-ventilated and conditioned classrooms to ensure that air quality and comfort were equivalently valued and achieved compared to those mechanically ventilated and conditioned.
EPA: IAQ Design Tools for Schools
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
Website developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help school districts and facility planners find the information resources they need to design new school facilities, and repair existing facilities. Topics include: high performance schools, school siting, pre-design, materials selection, HVAC, controlling pollutants, moisture control, construction, commissioning, operations and maintenance, renovation and repair, portable classrooms, IAQ Tools for Schools.
Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Design Tools for Schools, 2012)
Discusses the following: Codes and Standards; Potential for Natural Ventilation and Operable Windows; Selection of HVAC Equipment; Energy Recovery Ventilation; Location of Outdoor Air Intakes and Exhaust; Outdoor Air Quantity; Air Filtration; Ventilation Controls; Moisture and Humidity Control; Air Distribution; Exhaust Air; Designing for Efficient Operations and Maintenance; and Commissioning.
Thermal Comparison between Ceiling Diffusers and Fabric Ductwork Diffusers for Green Buildings.
Fontanini, Anthony; Olsen, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
(Iowa State University, Ames , Jul 2011)
Compares the performance of conventional ductwork with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. The article focuses on the transient behavior of an on/off control system, as well as the steady state behavior of the two ductwork systems. Transient, fully three dimensional validated computational (CFD) simulations are performed to determine flow patterns and thermal evolution in rooms containing either conventional or fabric ductwork. The results conclusively show that fabric ducting systems are superior to the conventional systems in terms of efficiency. Observations from the data show that fabric ducting systems heat the room faster, more uniformly, and more efficiently. The increase in performance demonstrates the potential benefits of moving away from conventional systems to fabric systems for the construction of green buildings: particularly in conjunction with adaptive control systems. 41p.
Absence Of Classroom Ventilation At A Large Pre-k To 12 School District: Classroom Measurements, Equipment Configuration, Technical Challenges.
Kasher, Brian T.
(Presented at Indoor Air 2011, Austin, TX, Jun 08, 2011)
Classroom ventilation is recognized as a fundamental environmental component associated with the education process and academic performance. This presentation discusses classroom ventilation challenges of a large K12 school district. The district has 179 schools serving greater than 140,000 students. Thirty-one of the district’s schools are known to have an absence of mechanical ventilation to some or all educational space. Unventilated classrooms result from four primary causations. 1) Passive ventilation included in original design and construction of schools is rendered inoperable by retrofit air conditioning systems without ventilation components. 2) Economizer mode only outside air intake limits outdoor air to a few hours per year if system operates. 3) HVAC technicians called to remedy occupant temperature complaints, resulting in part from HVAC systems beyond their useful life cycle, close outside air intakes increasing HVAC heating/cooling capacity. 4) Sealing outdoor air intakes to avoid coil freezing and minimize outdoor air component maintenance requirements. District Maintenance has removed sheet metal covers over air intakes and Capital Program Services has updated a number of complete HVAC systems correcting the condition at a number of sites. Thirty-one remaining sites are subject of debate relating to ventilation necessity, definition of ventilation adequacy in terms of quantification, building configuration limitations, fiscal considerations and prioritization of competing physical plant resource need. Inadequate attention to HVAC systems often result from both competing fiscal interests and inadequate technical competencies. School occupants are generally not trained to ascertain the effects of inadequate ventilation; temperature is most often voiced concern relative to HVAC. School districts do not generally consider ventilation effects on academic performance when developing operations and capital budgets. This presentation includes discussion on internal school district considerations relative to improvement in ventilation promoting research potentials and practitioner understanding of the dynamics associated with problem resolution. [Author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.abstractsonline.com
Achieving Acoustical Standards in the Classroom. Study of HVAC Systems and Classroom Acoustics.
In recent testing, Trane has been able to prove that the ANSI/ASA S12.60 recommended sound levels can be met in new and existing schools buildings with minimal or no added cost using off-the-shelf HVAC equipment and industry-accepted design and construction practices. Trane built a classroom in its mock-up facility and tested a single-zone air handling unit and packaged rooftop unit. This paper describes those tests, the conclusion, and the resulting recommendations. 10p
Study of the Relationship Between Air-Conditioned Classrooms and Student Achievement.
Lemasters, Linda K.; Earthman, Glen
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2011)
Previous research on the effect air-conditioning has upon the well being and performance of students has produced some very positive results indicating there is a relationship between the thermal environment and student achievement. Three hypotheses were developed to test the proposition that air-conditioned classrooms had an effect upon student performance. The present study used the 2001 student results of the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition in the 4th, 6th, and 9th grades to measure the effect air-conditioned classrooms have upon this performance. The mean scaled scores of the 10 subtests were used to make the comparison. The population of the study consisted of 10 school divisions in Virginia. Half of the school divisions had all of the buildings air-conditioned, while the other half had no air-conditioned buildings. Although only one statistical significant relationship was found through the ANCOVA, observations of other relationships indicated a recognizable difference between the 9th grade scores of students in air-conditioned and non air-conditioned buildings that was not present in the 4th grade scores. This leads to the belief that the longer students attend an air-conditioned building, the higher will be their achievement scores. [Authors' abstract]TO ORDER: http://www.cefpi.org
Education Case Studies.
(Lennox, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2010)
Provides case studies for ten schools that variously improved indoor air quality, saved energy, and improved thermal comfort with Lennox equipment.
Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank.
(Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, 2010)
Provides information for public health professionals, building professionals, and others who seek scientific information about the effects of IAQ on people's health or work performance. School-specific sections include Temperature and School Work Performance, Ventilation Rates and School Performance, Ventilation Rates and Absences in Offices and Schools, and Daylight, View, and School and Office Work Performance.
References to Journal Articles
A Cool New Star in Texas
Maintenance Solutions; , p14-16 ; Jul 2012
Chiller replacements at the University of Texas El Paso help meet the demands of expanding campus facilities and research programs.
ASHRAE Technology Award: Old School Learns Cool New Tricks
ASHRAE Journal; , p48-57 ; May 2012
Northwestern High School in Maple, Wis., which was built in 1937, got a new lease on life when the oldest portions of the building were removed and other sections were repurposed. This major renovation included demolishing the steam heating system, relocating the boiler room and replacing the old equipment. One chiller was installed to serve four air-handling units. This project resulted in a reduction in EUI of 40 kBtu/ft2/yr.
Below the Surface
College Planning and Management; , p40-44 ; Apr 2012
Ball State University's geothermal heating and cooling system will save $2M per year and produce a host of environmental benefits.
Make Your School Control Itself
School Planning and Management; Apr 2012
Describes how to control energy use by integrating the mechanical, lighting, and other building systems so that each system can be scheduled and the systems can work together and monitor performance.
Van Der Have, Pieter
College Planning and Management; , p18 ; Apr 2012
Discusses good maintenance of cooling towers, temperature control, and specific applications.
A Wrench in the Works
School Planning and Management; , p26-28 ; Mar 2012
Discusses mechanical system maintenance, including conducting assessments that identify various maintenance needs such as recommissioning, carrying out inspections as well as preventive and corrective maintenance, and retraining maintenance technicians.
Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-recovered Energy
Pargeter, Stephen J,
Construction Specifier; , p48-53 ; Mar 2012
Article discusses the current state of mechanical systems and energy efficiency, in the context of green buildings. It focuses on energy recovery wheels, also known as enthalpy wheels, as being important components of energy recovery ventilation technology.
How Much Capacity is Enough?
Van Der Have, Pieter
College Planning and Management; , p16 ; Feb 2012
Considers the benefits and costs of redundancy for chillers for classroom buildings.
Induction Systems Can Cut School HVAC Costs
Caffee, Chris; Snyder, Joe
Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 25, 2011
In a head-to-head comparison, the induction system fared better than ground-coupled heat pumps on capital costs and peak-time electricity use. Case study of the Bethel School District in Pierce County, Washington.
Critical Calculations to Stay Cool.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p9,10 ; Aug 2011
Emphasizes need for determining the type of emergency likely to occur in a facility's setting and to anticipate access to appropriate portable cooling needs. Calculations for accurate required needs are essential.
Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools.
American School and University; v83 n10 , p28-31 ; Jun 2011
Introduces comprehensive monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx), a process to ensure that all building systems are "in tune." Its three components are: permanent energy information systems and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level, retro-commissioning based on the data this generates, and ongoing commissioning that ensures efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. Particular attention is given to the importance to a well-maintained chiller.
Harris, Bill; Lambert, Chip
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p44-46 ; May 2011
Discusses the negative effect of classroom noise on teaching and learning, standards for classroom acoustics, and HVAC design that minimizes noise while using less energy.
Tapping into the Power of DDC.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p8,9 ; May 2011
Describes benefits of direct digital control (DDC) of HVAC systems, and its application at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. The ability to view real time data from several buildings, monitor equipment performance, improve occupant comfort, and save energy are described.
First LEED Platinum Pool Features HVAC Natatorium Design.
Environmental Design + Construction; Mar 24, 2011
Case study of Philadelphia’s Kappen Aquatic Center at the Overbrook School for the Blind. The energy efficient design saves an estimated 43 percent of the 25,000-square-foot facility’s energy costs compared to a conventional natatorium. The majority of the savings comes from off-peak energy loading, architectural building envelope features such as insulated concrete forms, and a HVAC dehumidification system.
Engineering a Sustainable School.
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Mar 08, 2011
Details the design of a school HVAC upgrade that included a geo-solar system. Engineers designed a system that was architecturally integrated, offering students a unique learning tool. The article includes charts that illustrate energy use and the anticipated time for the recovery of the investment is discussed.
School Building Mechanical Engineering 101.
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p33,34,36-40 ; Mar 2011
Advises on cost-savings methods that also achieve green goals in planning for consistent and dependable indoor air quality, and reduced construction, energy, and maintenance costs. Topics include cooling tower systems, evaluation of project bids, solar hot water, sewage treatment plants, school kitchens, and insulation of classroom ductwork. Case study of Hillsborough County School District, in Tampa.
Cooling in a Crisis. [Temporary Cooling Strategies.]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n3 , p4,5 ; Mar 2011
Advises on using termporary cooling technology, addressing prioritization of areas to cool, the possibility of moving activities rather than using cooling equipment, right-sizing of equipment, and types of equipment available.
Finding a Balance.
College Planning and Management; v14 n3 , p47-50 ; Mar 2011
Addresses current trends in the invisible components of building systems: foam duct insulation, greener energy systems, and water resource conservation. The article highlights Pennsylvania State University steps to establish an Energy Innovation Hub to be located at Philadelphia Navy Yard Clean Energy campus.
Breathing New Life into Old Equipment. [Retrocommissioning: Boilers and Water Heaters.]
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p6,8,9 ; Feb 2011
Addresses the problems associated with deteriorating boilers and domestic water heaters before the end of their rated service life. Some systems are good candidates for retrocommissioning, which provides excellent data gathering for use by technicians.
Integrate Your Plans for Energy and Maintenance.
Buildings; v104 n12 , p40-44 ; Dec 2010
Advises on the collateral planning for energy conservation and HVAC maintenance. Routine HVAC maintenance procedures that can save energy are described and mandated.
Intelligent Building Ventilation Creates Greener, More Economical Lab Buildings.
Laboratory Design; v15 n11 , p8,9 ; Nov 2010
Makes the case that the most advanced studies in ventilation indicate strongest benefits from demand control ventilation (DCV), which continuously measures the indoor environmental quality and then varies the amount of air brought into the lab throughout the day. DCV enables the system to not only save energy when occupancy levels are now and the air is "clean," but also to increase the fresh air supply when needed to dilute contaminants.
Heat + Power = Savings.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p20,21 ; Nov 2010
Uses Fairfield University’s experience with combined heat and power generation to illustrate the savings and reliability of power generated on campus. Design details of Fairfield’s system are described, as are the particular challenges of commissioning such a system in conjunction with the local utility.
Chillers: What's Old Is New Again.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p7,8 ; Nov 2010
Discusses retrocommissioning, rather than replacing, facility chillers. A chiller's eligibility for retrocommissioning, elements of retrocommissioning, and the make-up of the retrocommissioning team are addressed.
Facility Monitoring Requirements for Optimal Energy Efficiency.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p10,12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the inadequacy of demand control ventilation (DCV) in maintaining optimal indoor environmental quality. The advantages of intelligent controls with the ability to sense a variety of indoor environmental issues are detailed.
Boilers: The Quest for Efficiency.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p8,10 ; Oct 2010
Discusses energy-efficient condensing boilers. While these boilers can deliver considerably higher efficiency over conventional boilers, care must be taken to monitor return-water temperature and keep the boiler clean in order to obtain the desired savings.
Plugging into the Earth.
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p20,22,24-31 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the widening use of geothermal HVAC systems in schools, addressing the savings realized by several schools that use them and the lack of widespread engineering knowledge for these systems.
American School and University; v83 n1 , p30-32 ; Sep 2010
Discusses filtration measurements for HVAC filters, noting the premier role of air filters in maintaining healthy indoor air, confusion within measurement techniques and standards, energy efficiency, moisture and temperature resistance, and sustainability.
The Smart Grid: Intelligent Technology for a Sustainable Future.
Facility Management Journal; v20 n5 , p64,66,67 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Describes variable frequency HVAC motors, more efficient transformers, increased electrical grid efficiency, and collaboration between building owners and energy providers that will result in significant reduction of electrical use.
Efficient HVAC Strategies: An Emerging Technology Primer.
Laboratory Design; v15 n8 , p1,5,6,8 ; Aug 2010
Discusses the particular problems of laboratory HVAC systems, which typically condition a large amount of fresh air and only cycle it through the building once. Variable air volume (VAV) systems can coordinate exhaust rates with fume hoods to lower exhaust when hoods are not in use. Advances in fume hood technology are also discussed, as are room sensors that adjust HVAC operations based on air quality in the room.
Is the Heat On?
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p42,44,46,48 ; Aug 2010
Advocates automated HVAC system controls in schools, where systems can be controlled from a central location. Energy savings of up to 18 percent are attainable, even before eliminating the necessity of traveling from school to school to adjust systems.
Sustainability with a Sane Tack.
The School Administrator; v67 n7 , p26-28,30,31 ; Aug 2010
Describes the Minnetonka School District's sustainability efforts, under the UPonGREEN program. Replacement and retrofit of lighting and HVAC systems are described, as is increased recycling, UPonGREEN criteria, and school environmental activism.
Boilers: Playing It Safe.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p7,8 ; Aug 2010
Explains and gives specific examples for the critical need for ongoing inspection and testing program of boilers, carried out by a well-trained staff of technicians.
Rightsizing HVAC Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n4 , p43-48 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Discusses saving construction and operation dollars by conservative sizing of the higher education HVAC systems. The Northrup Auditorium at the University of Minnesota is offered as an example.
Maintaining Student Performance.
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Jun 2010
Describes how proper maintenance of school HVAC systems contributes to educational achievement through better air quality and thermal comfort. An example of preventive maintenance on systems in the Round Rock (Texas) School District illustrates many procedures, their respective costs, and benefits.
Preserve and Conserve.
Buildings; v104 n6 , p76-78 ; Jun 2010
Discusses standards and procedures for HVAC system inspection and predictive maintenance that are designed to save energy. In-house versus outsourced work is also addressed.
Auditing HVAC for Improved Efficiency.
College Planning and Management; v13 n6 , p39,40,42 ; Jun 2010
Discusses pressures in higher education facilities due to increased enrollments, aging infrastructure, and lower tax revenues. A critical system audit (CSA) of HVAC systems is recommended to prioritize repairs and upgrades. Elements of a CSA and improved results due to current technology are also described.
Using BIM in HVAC Design.
Knight, Dennis; Roth, Stephen; Rosen, Steven
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n6 , p24,26,28,30,32 ; Jun 2010
Demonstrates that BIM (building information modeling) software is a very effective tool when used at the beginning of the design process. When changes are made to the design, the software automatically updates HVAC requirements. Special ventilation needs, such as science labs, are taken into consideration.
On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies.
Mavrogianni, A.; Mumovic, D.
Indoor and Built Environment; v 9 n 3 , 340-354 ; Jun 2010
Focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. [author's abstract]TO ORDER: http://ibe.sagepub.com/content/19/3/340.abstract
Geothermal for School.
AHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p40-42,44 ; May 2010
Details the planning and building of geothermal exchange system for HVAC at Whitmore Lake High School, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Details include building layout to accommodate zone sensors and unitary heat pumps and moisture-resistant fabric ductwork. Results include very little consumption of natural gas. Green innovation in restroom facility design and processes for kitchen's refrigeration and freezing result in other cost-savings.
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p20-22,24 ; May 2010
Addresses challenges and solutions for LEED-Silver (New Construction) certification for air conditioning a dormitory that regularly must content with 100-degree F temperatures. Architects and engineers must consider building design, energy efficiency, IAQ and thermal comfort, innovation, operation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness, all within university evolving targets. Follow-up includes instructing students on window use.
Save Money, Reduce Maintenance, and Improve Facility Management.
Harris, Gill; Preston, Laura
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n3 , p6-8 ; May-Jun 2010
Discuses building automation system (BAS) technology, which arrived on the scene in the 1980s, promising to revolutionize the way facility managers control critical mechanical systems and improve building performance. More than two decades have passed and it is clear that building automation has largely lived up to its promise, creating a new standard of smarter, safer, more energy-efficient buildings.
The Top Ten Energy Wasters in K-12 Facilities (and What to Do about Them).
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p32-34 ; May 2010
Presents the top ten sources of wasted energy and water in schools, along with suggestion for how to mitigate them. These involve HVAC systems, lighting, and plumbing.
Data Centers: Meeting the Cooling Challenge.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p8 ; Apr 2010
Discusses typical cooling problems in data centers, and advises on the selection of portable air conditioners when leasing arrangements do not allow redesign of the building cooling system.
American School and University; v82 n9 , p30-32 ; Apr 2010
Discusses meeting emergency school cooling needs, addressing site preparation, preparation for installation, and equipment selection, all of which should be executed in advance of an emergency. The opportunity for experimenting with more current HVAC technologies through rental of state-of-the art equipment during the outage are also suggested.
Out with the Old.
Rydeen, James; Stofferahn, Terry; Lange, Jim
American School and University; v82 n9 , p33-35 ; Apr 2010
Describes conventional and induction displacement ventilation in schools. The cost effectiveness, increased ventilation, and acoustical benefits are addressed, as are building and room design requirements for effective deployment of displacement ventilation.
Critical Facilities: Get Cool Air Where It Counts.
Salim, Munther; Tozer, Robert
Building Operating Management; v57 n2 , p35,36,38,40,42,43 ; Feb 2010
Discusses computer room air conditioning management (CRAC), including bypass flow, balance of server and CRAC unit flows, and recirculation. The behavior of air within various computer center designs and recommendations for improvement are addressed.
Acoustics, Daylighting and IAQ.
School Planning and Management; v49 n2 , p20,22,24-26 ; Feb 2010
Advises on insulating school buildings against intrusive external and internal noise, daylighting, and HVAC system selection for maximum indoor air quality. A new Teaneck, New Jersey, school is offered as an example.
How Ventilation Affects Comfort.
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p35-37 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the role of air filters in maintaining indoor air quality, citing the history of filters, their typical composition, styles available, and the respective filtration capacities and resistance of five types of filters.
The Thermal Comfort Zone.
Buildings; v104 n1 , p38-40 ; Jan 2010
Discusses the difficulty of achieving a unanimous perception of thermal comfort in a building, and the advantages of displacement ventilation in that endeavor. Advice on designing, computer modeling, and installing displacement ventilation is included.