HISTORY OF SCHOOL DESIGN
Information on the history of educational architecture in the United States, including the one room schoolhouse and the open plan school, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
A History of School Design and its Indoor Environmental Standards, 1900 to Today.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2012)
Looks back at the designs of school buildings of the recent past, identifying trends in energy consumption, ventilation, heating, air quality, lighting, and acoustics. Sections include: Safety, Permanence and Endurance--School Building Prior to 1930; The Progressive Era (1930-1945); Post-war Boom (1945-1960); The Impulsive Period (1960-1980); Declines of the 1980s and the New Movements of the 1990s and 2000s; 21st Century School Environments: What does the future hold? 30p
You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South.
(Northwestern University Press, 2012)
Tells the story of Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington whose meeting led eventually to the construction of thousands of schools for black children in the segregated South. Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Co., was one of the richest men in America; Washington rose out of slavery to become a civil rights leader. Together they worked with local communities to build schools that often served as civic centers as well as schools. Though most schools closed when segregation ended, there has been interest in recent years in renovating and restoring them.
The Chicago Schoolhouse: High School Architecture and Educational Reform, 1856-2006.
Gyure, Dale Allen
(Center for American Places , Apr 2011)
Examines the physical structures where formal education happens, drawing connections between school architecture and educational reform. It explains how we arrived at the current state of school architecture, using Chicago’s high school buildings as examples. 240p.TO ORDER: http://www.colum.edu/CCCPress/
Rosenwald School Buildings: Case Studies
(National Trust for Historic Buildings, 2011)
Preservation efforts underway at Rosenwald school buildings across the South and Southwest. These buildings are being saved through a combination of grants, private donations, fundraising, and volunteer work. Many buildings have been given new life and new purposes, again becoming the centers of their local communities. Includes case studies, the development of the Rosenwald school designs, and architectural plans.
Optimal Learning Environments: Societal Expectations, Learning Goals and the Role of School Designers.
(Designshare.com, Minneapolis, MN , 2011)
Explores the effects of societal expectations on schools and investigates the relationship among those expectations, learning goals, and the learning theories that undergird schools. Through historical descriptions and practical ideas, advice is offered that can help designers of learning environments create flexible and responsive physical contexts. 7p.
Campus Image and Identity.
Dober, Richard P.
(Society for College and University Planning , 2011)
The eight chapters in this book reflect the author's categories of the elements of campus image and design. Within each chapter, each page displays two campus scenes, chosen for thought-provoking comparison, and a brief comment from the author regarding each. For each image, there is a link to the Campus Image and Identity area of gallery.scup.org, SCUP's online photo-sharing space.
Hille, R. Thomas
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2011)
Presents a survey of exceptional 20th- and early 21st-century K-12 school designs, by architects from Frank Lloyd Wright to Morphosis. This in-depth design study explores the fundamental relationship between architecture, education, and the design of contemporary learning environments. Its focus is on the underlying design themes and characteristic features that support and enhance basic aspects of learning and, in the process, create an architectural expression that is both meaningful and lasting. Its scope covers influences of contemporary educational ideas and practices, related design concepts and strategies, and the resulting impact of both on real environments for learning. More than 900 contemporary and historical photographs and 200 plans of schools by many of the outstanding design architects of the modern era are included. The book is divided into three parts: Part I is an overview of school design, Part II and III present key paradigms of school design and in-depth case studies of projects, with applicable lessons for today's architect. 528p.
Architecture and Academe: College Buildings in New England before 1860.
(University Press of New England, Lebanon, NH, 2011)
Discusses historic New England origins and development of college building design and campus planning principles, finding profound similarities in collegiate architecture in the region, along with equally important deviations and institutional idiosyncrasies. Focusing on the architecture and related history of individual buildings, their functions, and their interrelationships with the other buildings of their respective campus environments, the author writes a guide to New England college architecture for the interested lay reader and scholar. 260TO ORDER: http://www.upne.com/1-58465-891-6.html
University Planning and Architecture: The Search for Perfection.
Coulson, Jonathan; Roberts, Paul; Taylor, Isabelle
(Routledge, New York, NY, 2010)
Documents the worldwide evolution of university design from the Middle Ages to the present day, uncovering the key developments which have shaken the world of campus planning. A series of detailed and highly illustrated case-studies profile acclaimed campuses that, through their planning, architecture and landscaping, have succeeded in making positive contributions to the field. Drawing on these examples, the book turns to the strategies behind campus planning in today's climate. Exploring the importance of themes such as landscape, architecture, place-making and sustainability within university development, the book consolidates the lessons learned from the rich tradition of campus development to provide a good practice guide for those concerned with planning environments for higher education. 272p.TO ORDER: http://www.routledge.com/books/
Back to the Future: What's New in School Design?
Hille, R. Thomas
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 2010)
Profiles several northern European schools, built from 1930-1968, that reflect innovative design that remains viable decades after they were new. 3p.
Evidence-Based Design of Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises design professionals on how to create schools that are an extension of their communities. With assistance from research-intensive principles, theories, concepts, research methodologies, and the behavioral sciences, the book provides strategies for establishing a design approach that is responsive to the changing needs of educators and their students. The book presents an overview of the current research and learning theories in education and how they apply to contemporary school design, explores the history of school design in the United States; examines the role of information technology in education, includes case studies of more than twenty school designs, and connsiders what learning environments may be in the near future. It also analyzes the current shift toward a modern architectural paradigm that balances physical beauty, social awareness, and building technologies with functionality to create buildings that optimize the educational experience for all learners. 348p.
15 Cool High School, College and University Building Designs.
(Web Urbanist, Apr 2009)
Profiles 15 mostly avant-garde designs of high school and university buildings from around the world. Photographs accompany each description.
The Architecture of Amherst: The Past, The Future—And the Enduring Principles.
(Amherst College, Massachusetts, 2009)
Discusses how the Amherst College campus has evolved over the course of nearly two centuries. The landscaping, building siting, and specific architectural qualities that make it work and future development are discussed by journalists and board members in a video seminar presentation. Particular attention is given to the highly regarded geology building, the need to build a new science building, and the collaborative approach to campus construction.
Public Art for Public Schools.
(Random Hous/Monacelli Press, New York, NY , 2009)
Reviews the collection of more than 1,500 artworks has been assembled over nearly 150 years by the New York City Public School . The diverse collection ranges from stained glass by Tiffany Studios to mural cycles commissioned by the WPA to modern and contemporary works by Hans Hofmann, Ben Shahn, Romare Bearden, Faith Ringgold, and Vito Acconci. School construction and public art have expanded dramatically under current leadership, with new school buildings and art commissioned from noted architects artists. The book provides an account of the history and future of this program, illustrated with archival images and new photographs specially commissioned for this publication. 240p.TO ORDER: http://www.randomhouse.com/monacelli/
Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL): A History. Revised.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
This publication presents information on the history, operations, and accomplishments of the Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL), a nonprofit corporation established to help schools and colleges maximize the quality and utility of their facilities, stimulate research, and disseminate information to facility planners. Included are descriptions of EFL's funding, guiding principles, leadership, and operations over its 28-year history. Also explores EFL's aggressive philanthropic philosophy and innovative approaches to school project funding, it's development of the open plan approach that influenced basic school design in the 1960s and early 1970s, and the school construction systems and development team that created a standardized method for constructing school buildings. A discussion about EFL publications and a list of these publications and EFL films are provided. 8p.
University of Toronto.
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2009)
This guide is organized into a series of nine walking tours that encompass all three University of Toronto campuses, ending with an off-campus walk in the surrounding area. The guide features more than 170 of the institution's finest buildings, a foreword written by the current dean of architecture, an introduction, and numerous photographs. 256p.
Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press
Schools of the Future.
Walden, Rotraut, ed.
(Hogrefe and Huber, Cambridge, MA , 2009)
Provides a brief overview of the historical development of school buildings in different countries, followed by contributions from authors discussing how school buildings can work together with users' own creative responses and result in educational environments that are "alive." The give-and- take relationship between architecture and its users (students, teachers, parents, and the community at large) is emphasized from the point of view of architectural psychology and emerging considerations such as information technology. The "schools for the future" vision is to create spaces that people are pleased to return to, time and again, and that allow options for future modification in line with changing user requirements. Also proposed are criteria for the assessment of schools derived from a dual approach. The first is the call for a common language to be used by designers and educators, exemplified by a number of patterns that have been found to be salient in school design. Their common underlying premise is that learning environments should be learner-centered, appropriate to age and developmental stage, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, and equitable, in addition to being cost effective. The second approach presents instruments for the systematic assessment of school buildings according to facet theory, a tool that helps to structure the large number of possible influences and subjective indicators such as learning performance, expressions of well-being, and social behavior. 264p.TO ORDER: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory.
(Yale University Press, New Haven, CT , 2009)
Examines the history of the one-room school and how successive generations of Americans have remembered, and just as often misremembered, this powerful national icon. Drawing on a range of sources, from firsthand accounts to poems, songs, and films, the book traces the evolution of attitudes toward the little red schoolhouse from the late nineteenth century to the present day. At times it was celebrated as a symbol of lost rural virtues or America's democratic heritage; at others it was denounced as the epitome of inefficiency and substandard academics. Because the one-room school has been a useful emblem for liberal, conservative, and other agendas, the truth of its history has sometimes been stretched. For more than a century, it has embodied the nation's best aspirations and especially its continuing faith in education itself. 256p.TO ORDER: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/home.asp
References to Journal Articles
Back to School: 1812 Building Restored in Maple Shade
Cherry Hill Courier Post; Jun 18, 2012
Reports on the restoration of the 200-year-old Little Red Schoolhouse in Maple Shade, New Jersey, the town’s first school. The site has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Following the Tone of an Era. A Look Back at the History of School Design.
School Planning and Management; , p40-42 ; Jun 2012
Green building consultant, Lindsay Baker, traces the history of school design in a recent NCEF study titled, “A History of School Design and its Indoor Environmental Standards, 1900 to Today.” The study focuses on school design and how it relates to energy consumption, ventilation, heating, air quality, lighting and acoustics. Includes excerpts from an interview with Baker on what the next 150 years could look like.
The Campus That Could Have Been
The Quad; Apr 30, 2012
Outlines the history of the design of Boston University’s unified Charles River Campus in the 1920's and 1930's.
Creating an Ultra-Flexible Learning Space
THEJournal; Feb 08, 2012
Designers of the Minnesota School of Environmental Studies (SES) were years ahead of the curve when it came to creating collaborative classrooms that would one day accommodate learning technologies that in 1995 had yet to be conceived--let alone developed and marketed to the educational sector. Cumulatively the various features that went into SES' design have withstood both the test of time and the onslaught of technology in the high school classroom.
Facility Planning: Sustainable Strategies
American School and University; Jan 2012
The payback for green school strategies is far-reaching. Discusses the LEED certification system and the Energy Star program. Looks at how school design has utilized some manner of sustainable principles for years, from the Educational Facilities Laboratories in the 1960s, the National Energy Act of 1978, design in the 1990s, through the Architecture 2030 Challenge.
The Slipcovering of a School.
New York Times; Oct 16, 2011
Discussion of the modernization of the High School of Printing, built in 1960 in New York City. The building, now the High School of Graphic Communication Arts, was designed by Hugh Kelly and B. Sumner Gruzen in two parts, a fluid, guitar-box auditorium set off by a stern, rectangular sweep of glass blocks and steel swing-out windows. The School Construction Authority replaced the windows and the Kalwall with current versions, and the rebuilt facade looks pretty similar to the previous one, although hardly like the original.
The Stewardship of Campus Heritage.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p18-35 ; Apr 2011
Details the identification, designation, and protection of historic campus landmarks. Planning for campus preservation, applying stewardship to heritage buildings, practical requirements for executing the work, budgeting, and addressing neighborhood context are covered. 29 references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p179-189 ; Apr 2011
Advocates restorative campus landscapes that contribute more to the environment than they consume. Attention to the original native landscape is recommended, as is a return to natural environmental systems. Examples from the University of Kansas and University of Iowa are detailed with abundant diagrams, photographs, and plans.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Modern Architecture and the U.S. Campus Heritage Movement.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p88-102 ; Apr 2011
Narrates the history of higher education facilities designed by notable modern architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Richard Neutra, Walter Gropius, Alvar Aalto, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The juxtaposition of modern and historic facilities is discussed, as are obstacles to their upkeep and restoration. Fifteen references and numerous photographs accompany the text.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
The Historian's and the Preservationist's Dilemma: The Challenge of the Recent Past in Campus Heritage Efforts.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p103-109 ; Apr 2011
Examines higher education campus preservation as a positive planning tool, with particular attention to preserving artifacts from the recent past. Community engagement and the application of traditional preservation criteria and practices to mid-twentieth century buildings are addressed, and 12 references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
The Danger of History Slipping Away: The Heritage Campus and HBCUs.
Clement, Arthur; Lidsky, Arthur
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p149-158 ; Apr 2011
Traces this history of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and highlights the epidemic of endangered buildings on their campuses. Federal and private sector assistance is described, as are some of the encouraging results from these grants. Less encouraging institution closings are also described. Advice to HBCU presidents on planning for and saving their campus heritage is included, as are nine references.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
A Rubric for Campus Heritage Planning.
Craig, Charles; Fixler, David; Kelly, Sarah
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p55-70 ; Apr 2011
Addresses the variety of architecture found on American campuses, and the implications of youth and learning that they present. The importance of preservation of a campus's identity is supported by procedural considerations for incorporating heritage planning into campus planning efforts. Examples of successful and troubled campus expansion and preservation efforts, a detailed heritage planning matrix and 21 references accompany the text.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Campus Heritage in the 21st Century: Notable Precedents and Inspiring Antecedents.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p36-40 ; Apr 2011
Cites several examples of notable campus structures saved by thoughtful administrations, public sentiment, clever repurposing, and sometimes demolition and reuse of the original materials.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
The CIC Historic Campus Architecture Project.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p41-50 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the work of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) Historic Campus Architecture Project (CIC HCAP). The project produced the first national architecture and landscape database of independent college and university campuses. The funding, history, methodology, website, and user comments are addressed. Several notable sites are described, accompanied by photographs, and eight references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
The Full and True Value of Campus Heritage.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p79-87 ; Apr 2011
Details the evaluation of historic campus buildings using the five general categories of reuse potential, repurposing potential, environmental value, economic value, and cultural value. The chronic negligence of the environmental wisdom of reusing existing buildings is discussed, and four references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
A Tale of Three Campuses: Planning and Design in Response to Cultural Heritage at Mills College, the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University.
Fiene, Karen; Sabbatini, Robert
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p110-138 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the development history of these three campuses. The establishment of an aesthetic core, followed by various divergent schemes by successions of planners are detailed. Notable restorations as well as unloved incursions are documented in detailed text and abundant photographs. Sixteen references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
A Half-Century of Change on College Hill: Institutional Growth, Historic Preservation, and the College Hill Study.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p139-148 ; Apr 2011
Narrates the growth of Providence's Brown University and Rhode Island School of Design. Both institutions occupy urban sites surrounded by historic architecture. The 1967 College Hill Study documented the historic fabric of the area and set the standard for preservation studies that followed. The ensuing acquisition, demolition, preservation, and building of new structures by the institutions is are addressed, as is the complex evolution of the relationship between the institutions and the community. Four references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
In Perfect (Imperfect) Harmony: Keene State College and Keene, New Hampshire Rebalance Community Relations through Historic Preservation.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p159-166 ; Apr 2011
Describes a sometimes cordial and sometimes antagonistic relationship between this college and the city, as the institution grew and expanded across an historic downtown cityscape. Contentious plans to demolish some former residences to build an alumni center are detailed, with emphasis on the solution which allowed the demolition of some structures and the restoration of others and incorporate them into the center's design.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p167-178 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the difficulty of campus landscape preservation, when landscapes change naturally and many current environmental practices violate historical accuracy. The article encourages definition of a campus's essential character and periods of historical significance. Advice on introducing sustainable practices, balancing the change of landscapes without losing character, and examples of notable urban campus landscapes are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Campus Heritage Planning: Understanding the Economics and Managing the Financing.
McGirr, Dale; Kull, Ronald
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p190-200 ; Apr 2011
Discusses motivations for higher education institutions to maintain their campus heritage, emphasizing their unique position to do so as stewards of history and (usually) the same property over many years. Important elements of protecting campus heritage are addressed, as is the monetary value in terms of enrollment, faculty recruitment, alumni engagement, and fundraising. Support of community heritage is also encouraged. Five references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Caring for American Campuses: Stewardship Lessons from the Getty Foundation Campus Heritage Initiative.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p8-17 ; Apr 2011
Discusses how the Getty Foundation Campus Heritage Initiative assisted higher education institutions with preserving historic campus landscapes. An explanation of the Getty purpose and process, examples of sites that were saved or restored, and a discussion of what was learned and what remains to be done are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Beyond an Initial Campus Heritage Survey: Creating and Infrastructure for Renewal.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p71-78 ; Apr 2011
Using the example of the University of Virginia, this article details the process and results of a 2003 campus survey. The eligibility of significant historical buildings for renovation is discussed, as is the use of building information modeling (BIM) in the documentation and management of the process.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Learn about and Visit Historic College and University Campuses Using the National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Series.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p209-217 ; Apr 2011
Describes the U.S. National Park Service's "Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Series," which includes a number of historic higher education campuses. A variety of campuses across the United States are highlighted, and 14 references are included.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Themes and Highlights from the Campus Heritage Initiative Reports.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p218-227 ; Apr 2011
Profiles campuses that have participated in the Campus Heritage Initiative grants, highlighting the conservation of their architecture and landscape, adaptive reuse, recognition of mid-20th century buildings, student use, and development of strategies to evaluate buildings and landscapes.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources.
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p228,229 ; Apr 2011
Describes resources for finding the correct vocabulary, historic designations, and current research for historic preservation.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org/page/SCUP_PHE
Public School Desegregation and Education Facilities.
School Business Affairs; v77 n2 , p24-26 ; Feb 2011
Reviews 1968-1995 school desegregation court cases that have impacted school facilities, noting how the perceived impact of school facility condition on education has carried weight in the courts. 12 references are included.
Celebration School and Design Trends: 15 Years into the Future.
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p35-39 ; Dec 2010
Reflects on the 1997 "school of the future," Orlando's Celebration School, sponsored by Disney Development Corp. It was considered cutting-edge thinking at the time to coordinate new construction with new educational methodology. The school's planner describes the "school of the future" as it would be conceived today.
Putting Education in Its Place: Mapping the Observations of Danish and English Architects on 1950s School Design.
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education; v46 n5 , p655-672 ; Oct 2010
During the years following the Second World War, there were efforts in several European countries to grasp the opportunity to re-imagine "school" created through the need to rebuild on a mass scale. This article examines in detail an episode in the exchange of knowledge between English and Danish architects and educators during a period of intensive activity. (Contains 57 footnotes and 2 figures.)TO ORDER: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a927334344~db=all~jumptype=rss
Twenty Years of Interiors.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p145-156 ; Aug 2010
Presents the responses of 34 school designers to the following questions: 1) What are the biggest changes in educational interiors over the past 20 year? 2) What do you see as the future of the interior education space in the next few years? and 3) How as the emergence of green/sustainability changed the interior space?
The Pleasant Valley School: A Living History Project.
Buckner, David L.; Brown, Pamela U.; Curry, John
Social Education; v74 n2 , p65-66 ; Mar-Apr 2010
This article discusses the Pleasant Valley School, located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, which is now a living history project where contemporary 4th grade students throughout Oklahoma have the opportunity to spend a day as students did in a turn of the century one-room schoolhouse, complete with coal heating, ink wells, and "McGuffey Readers." Slated for relocation or destruction in the 1980s, the one-room school was saved by concerned citizens, including former students who initiated a restoration project and ultimately restored the school as close to its original form as possible. In 1991, Pleasant Valley School received both state and national recognition when it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and received the State Historic Preservation Officer's Citation of Merit.
Renovating the 1960's School to the 2010 School Model.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p9-12 ; Jan 2010
Describes the philosophy of school design in the 1960's. The author compares this to current philosophies as well as design mandates in new facilities, and describes possibilities for energy saving in renovation.
Schools as Architecture for Newcomers and Strangers: The Perfect School as Public School?
Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten
Teachers College Record; v112 n2 , 533-555 ; 2010
Reflects on the public role of education on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education." Based on Arendt's essay, the article explores that peculiar setting and architecture between family and world that is called “school.” The leading concern for this investigation is the school's public meaning. The point of departure is that today, the public role of education is an urgent concern, that is, the school's public role is questioned in view of the current processes of privatization, and what is critically described as the "capitalization of life." In this contribution, based on a reading of Arendt's essay and relying on the analysis of a specific school design by the architect Wim Cuyvers, two different ways of thinking the public meaning of school education are explored. The article shows that it is impossible to think "a new beginning in our world" without thinking the school as public space. It offers an outline for elaborating the Arendtian thinking of the "perfect school." This school is conceived of as a space where people are exposed to things, and being exposed could be regarded as being drawn outside that is, into public space. NoteTO ORDER: http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=15743
2000-2010-2020: What Was Said, What Happened and What Is to Come.
Matschulat, Robert; Dejong, William; Dorn, Michael; Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p13-16 ; Jan 2010
Four school facility professionals reflect on the accuracy of their predictions made in 2000, as well as making additional predictions for 2020.
Writing the Future!
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p6 ; Jan 2010
Reflects on the reading of a 1942 booklet on school planning that expressed the same desire for safe and healthy schools as is felt today.
Noise in Open Plan Classrooms in Primary Schools: A Review
Shield, Bridget; Greenland, Emma; and Dockrell, Julie
Noise Health; v12 n49 , p 225-234 ; 2010
This paper presents a review of research carried out in the past 40 years into various aspects of noise in open plan classrooms. The emergence of open plan classroom design in response to progressive educational reforms is discussed. A limited amount of evidence of the effects of noise in open plan classrooms is presented. Surveys of both background and intrusive noise levels in open plan classrooms are summarized and compared. Differences between noise levels in open plan and enclosed classrooms are also considered. Recommended noise limits and acoustic design criteria for open plan classrooms are discussed, together with some current international standards. The paper concludes with a discussion of appropriate noise control measures to reduce noise and maximize speech intelligibility and speech privacy in open plan classrooms. [Authors' abstract]
The Lake View School Fire.
Doors and Hardware; v73 n7 , p14-16,18-20 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the 1908 Lake View School fire in Collinwood, Ohio. The high death toll of 175 in the four-storey building was due in part to a combination of inadequate egress and panic, details of which are included.
Opening Up Learning: from Spaces to Environments.
Educause Review; v44 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Reflects on the evolution of learning areas from spaces to environments, with the interweaving of classroom, libraries, labs, and informal spaces, as well as the call for all stakeholders to join in designing and developing the learning environment.
The Power of Place on Campus.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n34 , pB12 ; May 01, 2009
Discusses the importance of "sacred" spaces on campuses, either for ceremony, exploration, perspective, or refuge. Examples of notable and historic campus spaces are offered along with advice on identifying, cultivating, and preserving meaningful campus places.
System Application and Design for School Air Conditioning.
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p56,58,60,62,64,66,68,70,73 ; May 2009
Offers a reprint of a 1966 article on school air conditioning design, noting the types of school buildings prevalent at the time, their differing heating and cooling requirements, and the types of air- conditioning systems available.
Educational Facility Design and Project Based Learning: "The Real Connection."
Schrader, David; Sole, John
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p19-23 ; 2009
Discusses the relationship of project-based learning to school facilities, abandoning the familiar double-loaded corridor design and seeking flexible learning spaces that are part of the curriculum. A brief history of school design and encouragement of student inclusion in the school design process are included.