NCEF Resource List: History of School Design
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Information on the history of educational architecture in the United States, including the one room schoolhouse and the open plan school, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

A History of School Design and its Indoor Environmental Standards, 1900 to Today. Adobe PDF
Baker, Lindsay
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, D.C. , 2012)
Looks back at the designs of school buildings of the recent past, identifying trends in energy consumption, ventilation, heating, air quality, lighting, and acoustics. Sections include: Safety, Permanence and Endurance--School Building Prior to 1930; The Progressive Era (1930-1945); Post-war Boom (1945-1960); The Impulsive Period (1960-1980); Declines of the 1980s and the New Movements of the 1990s and 2000s; 21st Century School Environments: What does the future hold? 30p

You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South.
Deutsch, Stephanie
(Northwestern University Press, 2012)
Tells the story of Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington whose meeting led eventually to the construction of thousands of schools for black children in the segregated South. Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Co., was one of the richest men in America; Washington rose out of slavery to become a civil rights leader. Together they worked with local communities to build schools that often served as civic centers as well as schools. Though most schools closed when segregation ended, there has been interest in recent years in renovating and restoring them.

The Chicago Schoolhouse: High School Architecture and Educational Reform, 1856-2006.
Gyure, Dale Allen
(Center for American Places , Apr 2011)
Examines the physical structures where formal education happens, drawing connections between school architecture and educational reform. It explains how we arrived at the current state of school architecture, using Chicago’s high school buildings as examples. 240p.

Rosenwald School Buildings: Case Studies
(National Trust for Historic Buildings, 2011)
Preservation efforts underway at Rosenwald school buildings across the South and Southwest. These buildings are being saved through a combination of grants, private donations, fundraising, and volunteer work. Many buildings have been given new life and new purposes, again becoming the centers of their local communities. Includes case studies, the development of the Rosenwald school designs, and architectural plans.

Optimal Learning Environments: Societal Expectations, Learning Goals and the Role of School Designers.
Akinsanmi, Bukky
(, Minneapolis, MN , 2011)
Explores the effects of societal expectations on schools and investigates the relationship among those expectations, learning goals, and the learning theories that undergird schools. Through historical descriptions and practical ideas, advice is offered that can help designers of learning environments create flexible and responsive physical contexts. 7p.

Campus Image and Identity.
Dober, Richard P.
(Society for College and University Planning , 2011)
The eight chapters in this book reflect the author's categories of the elements of campus image and design. Within each chapter, each page displays two campus scenes, chosen for thought-provoking comparison, and a brief comment from the author regarding each. For each image, there is a link to the Campus Image and Identity area of[26], SCUP's online photo-sharing space.

Modern Schools.
Hille, R. Thomas
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2011)
Presents a survey of exceptional 20th- and early 21st-century K-12 school designs, by architects from Frank Lloyd Wright to Morphosis. This in-depth design study explores the fundamental relationship between architecture, education, and the design of contemporary learning environments. Its focus is on the underlying design themes and characteristic features that support and enhance basic aspects of learning and, in the process, create an architectural expression that is both meaningful and lasting. Its scope covers influences of contemporary educational ideas and practices, related design concepts and strategies, and the resulting impact of both on real environments for learning. More than 900 contemporary and historical photographs and 200 plans of schools by many of the outstanding design architects of the modern era are included. The book is divided into three parts: Part I is an overview of school design, Part II and III present key paradigms of school design and in-depth case studies of projects, with applicable lessons for today's architect. 528p.

Architecture and Academe: College Buildings in New England before 1860.
Tolles, Bryant
(University Press of New England, Lebanon, NH, 2011)
Discusses historic New England origins and development of college building design and campus planning principles, finding profound similarities in collegiate architecture in the region, along with equally important deviations and institutional idiosyncrasies. Focusing on the architecture and related history of individual buildings, their functions, and their interrelationships with the other buildings of their respective campus environments, the author writes a guide to New England college architecture for the interested lay reader and scholar. 260

University Planning and Architecture: The Search for Perfection.
Coulson, Jonathan; Roberts, Paul; Taylor, Isabelle
(Routledge, New York, NY, 2010)
Documents the worldwide evolution of university design from the Middle Ages to the present day, uncovering the key developments which have shaken the world of campus planning. A series of detailed and highly illustrated case-studies profile acclaimed campuses that, through their planning, architecture and landscaping, have succeeded in making positive contributions to the field. Drawing on these examples, the book turns to the strategies behind campus planning in today's climate. Exploring the importance of themes such as landscape, architecture, place-making and sustainability within university development, the book consolidates the lessons learned from the rich tradition of campus development to provide a good practice guide for those concerned with planning environments for higher education. 272p.

Back to the Future: What's New in School Design?
Hille, R. Thomas
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 2010)
Profiles several northern European schools, built from 1930-1968, that reflect innovative design that remains viable decades after they were new. 3p.

Evidence-Based Design of Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
Lippman, Peter
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises design professionals on how to create schools that are an extension of their communities. With assistance from research-intensive principles, theories, concepts, research methodologies, and the behavioral sciences, the book provides strategies for establishing a design approach that is responsive to the changing needs of educators and their students. The book presents an overview of the current research and learning theories in education and how they apply to contemporary school design, explores the history of school design in the United States; examines the role of information technology in education, includes case studies of more than twenty school designs, and connsiders what learning environments may be in the near future. It also analyzes the current shift toward a modern architectural paradigm that balances physical beauty, social awareness, and building technologies with functionality to create buildings that optimize the educational experience for all learners. 348p.

15 Cool High School, College and University Building Designs.
(Web Urbanist, Apr 2009)
Profiles 15 mostly avant-garde designs of high school and university buildings from around the world. Photographs accompany each description.

The Architecture of Amherst: The Past, The Future—And the Enduring Principles.
(Amherst College, Massachusetts, 2009)
Discusses how the Amherst College campus has evolved over the course of nearly two centuries. The landscaping, building siting, and specific architectural qualities that make it work and future development are discussed by journalists and board members in a video seminar presentation. Particular attention is given to the highly regarded geology building, the need to build a new science building, and the collaborative approach to campus construction.

Public Art for Public Schools.
Cohen, Michele
(Random Hous/Monacelli Press, New York, NY , 2009)
Reviews the collection of more than 1,500 artworks has been assembled over nearly 150 years by the New York City Public School . The diverse collection ranges from stained glass by Tiffany Studios to mural cycles commissioned by the WPA to modern and contemporary works by Hans Hofmann, Ben Shahn, Romare Bearden, Faith Ringgold, and Vito Acconci. School construction and public art have expanded dramatically under current leadership, with new school buildings and art commissioned from noted architects artists. The book provides an account of the history and future of this program, illustrated with archival images and new photographs specially commissioned for this publication. 240p.

Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL): A History. Revised. Adobe PDF
Marks, Judy
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
This publication presents information on the history, operations, and accomplishments of the Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL), a nonprofit corporation established to help schools and colleges maximize the quality and utility of their facilities, stimulate research, and disseminate information to facility planners. Included are descriptions of EFL's funding, guiding principles, leadership, and operations over its 28-year history. Also explores EFL's aggressive philanthropic philosophy and innovative approaches to school project funding, it's development of the open plan approach that influenced basic school design in the 1960s and early 1970s, and the school construction systems and development team that created a standardized method for constructing school buildings. A discussion about EFL publications and a list of these publications and EFL films are provided. 8p.

University of Toronto.
Richards, Larry
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2009)
This guide is organized into a series of nine walking tours that encompass all three University of Toronto campuses, ending with an off-campus walk in the surrounding area. The guide features more than 170 of the institution's finest buildings, a foreword written by the current dean of architecture, an introduction, and numerous photographs. 256p.

Linking Architecture and Education: Sustainable Design for Learning Environments.
Taylor, Anne; Enggass, Katherine
(University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque , 2009)
Presents a holistic, sustainable philosophy of learning environment design based on the study of how schools, classrooms, playgrounds, homes, museums, and parks affect children and how they learn. The author argues that architects must integrate their design knowledge with an understanding of the developmental needs of learners, while at the same time educators, parents, and students must broaden their awareness of the built, natural, and cultural environment to maximize the learning experience. The book presents numerous examples of dynamic designs that are the result of interdisciplinary understanding of place. Also included are designer perspectives, forums derived from commentary by outside contributors involved in school planning, and numerous photographs of thoughtful and effective solutions to create learning environments from comprehensive design criteria. 471p.
TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press

Schools of the Future.
Walden, Rotraut, ed.
(Hogrefe and Huber, Cambridge, MA , 2009)
Provides a brief overview of the historical development of school buildings in different countries, followed by contributions from authors discussing how school buildings can work together with users' own creative responses and result in educational environments that are "alive." The give-and- take relationship between architecture and its users (students, teachers, parents, and the community at large) is emphasized from the point of view of architectural psychology and emerging considerations such as information technology. The "schools for the future" vision is to create spaces that people are pleased to return to, time and again, and that allow options for future modification in line with changing user requirements. Also proposed are criteria for the assessment of schools derived from a dual approach. The first is the call for a common language to be used by designers and educators, exemplified by a number of patterns that have been found to be salient in school design. Their common underlying premise is that learning environments should be learner-centered, appropriate to age and developmental stage, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, and equitable, in addition to being cost effective. The second approach presents instruments for the systematic assessment of school buildings according to facet theory, a tool that helps to structure the large number of possible influences and subjective indicators such as learning performance, expressions of well-being, and social behavior. 264p.
TO ORDER: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers

Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory.
Zimmerman, Jonathan
(Yale University Press, New Haven, CT , 2009)
Examines the history of the one-room school and how successive generations of Americans have remembered, and just as often misremembered, this powerful national icon. Drawing on a range of sources, from firsthand accounts to poems, songs, and films, the book traces the evolution of attitudes toward the little red schoolhouse from the late nineteenth century to the present day. At times it was celebrated as a symbol of lost rural virtues or America's democratic heritage; at others it was denounced as the epitome of inefficiency and substandard academics. Because the one-room school has been a useful emblem for liberal, conservative, and other agendas, the truth of its history has sometimes been stretched. For more than a century, it has embodied the nation's best aspirations and especially its continuing faith in education itself. 256p.

Designing Modern Childhoods: History, Space, and the Material Culture of Children.
Fass, Paula S.
(Rutgers University Press, Rutgers Series in Childhood Studies, 2008)
Collection of essays by architectural historians, social historians, social scientists, and architects that examine the history and design of places such as schools and playgrounds. Special attention is given to how children use and interpret the spaces, buildings, and objects that are part of their lives, becoming themselves creators and carriers of culture. 346p.

Space and Learning: Lessons in Architecture 3
Hertzberger, Herman
(010 Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands , 2008)
Brings together Hertzberger's knowledge and ideas in a theoretical study of the spatial conditions of learning, with illustrations throughout of the architect's own work and that of others. More than thirty schools designed by Hertzberger have been built to date. School building, according to Hertzberger, is one of the few areas in architecture today where designers are still able to define and influence human conditions. In his opinion, school buildings require striking a balance between use, performance and an architecture informed by education. School buildings need re-inventing on each new occasion, particularly given current developments in education which are shifting away from the traditional approach to one more targeted at the individual. 208p.

Lee J. Brockway: School Architect.
Stodola, Barbara
(Fanning Howey Associates, Inc., Celina, OH , 2008)
Presents an account of the life of this notable architect who planned and designed numerous schools and was instrumental in the expansion of the school design firm Fanning/Howey. 88p.

Designing for Designers.
Nasar, Jack; Preiser, Wolfgang; Fisher, Thomas
(Fairchild Publications, New York, NY , 2007)
Examines the history of architectural education and building form; typologies of schools for architecture; and strengths to encourage in future designs, along with weaknesses to avoid. Some of the findings on the design and process extend to all kinds of buildings on campus and elsewhere. The book offers specific guidelines for future schools of design, as well asguidelines with broader application to interiors for educational buildings and other building types, such as how to plan offices and gathering places to build community. 318p.
TO ORDER: 750 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017; Tel:212-630-4000

Smith College.
Vickery, Margaret
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2007)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Smith College, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 163p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Old Main.
Dober, Richard
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2006)
Describes the forms, fame, and fate of the landmark higher education buildings frequently called "Old Main." These edifices came into being as intentional examples of institutional aspirations and accomplishments, track stories of neglect and renewal, and illustrate how some lost through human and natural disasters are now remembered with inspiring campus designs. Reasons why Old Main and comparable buildings and landscapes deserve a prominent place in comprehensive campus plans, and workable methods to achieve that objective are also offered. Graphics include a collection of historic picture post cards that help support the premise that a rounded view of America s collegiate enterprises would be incomplete without understanding and acknowledging the contributions these edifices have made to campus development. 138p.

The Rosenwald Schools of the American South.
Hoffschwelle, Mary
(University Press of Florida, Gainesville , 2006)
Narrates the history of a partnership to build model schools for southern African- American children from 1912-1932. Beginning with Booker T. Washington, and with the backing of the Tuskegee Institute and Sears, Roebuck & Co. president Julius Rosenwald, The Rosenwald Project created more than 5,300 schools and auxiliary buildings in 15 Southern states. Many of these schools remain today, as they were designed for maximum efficiency, space for learning, and serving as a cultural and social center of African American communities. This book examines their contributions to architecture, community, education, and their role in formalizing a state education program that would one day include African-American children. 422p.

The University of Chicago.
Pridmore, Jay
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2006)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and landscape at the University of Chicago, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 195p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Openluchtscholen in Nederland: Architectuur, Onderwijs en Gezondheidszorg 1905- 2005. (Open-Air Schools in the Netherlands: Architecture, Education, and Healthcare 1905- 2005)
Broekhuizen, Dolf
(Uitgeverij 010, Rotterdam , 2005)
Profiles 100 years of outdoor, open-air, and abundantly daylit Dutch schools. Principles of the necessity of fresh air to health and sanitation are discussed, accompanied by a chronologically arranged selection of supporting school projects. 239p.

History of Educational Architecture
Lackney, Jeffery
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia, 2005)
This summarizes the history of the American schoolhouse from colonial times through the time of the one-room country school building. This is part of chapter one in the 2005 textbook "Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management" by C. Kenneth Tanner and Jeff Lackney. The chapter is titled "Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design."

Illinois Institute of Technology.
Schulze, Franz
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2005)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and landscape at Illinois Institute of Technology, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 111p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

School Building Programmes: Motivations, Consequences and Implications. Adobe PDF
Woolner, Pamela; Hall, Elaine; Wall, Kate; Higgins, Steve; Blake, Anthony; McCuaghey, Caroline
(University of Newcastle; School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences; Centre for Learning and Teaching, Reading, United Kingdom , 2005)
Reviews previous phases of school building in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Common themes and the aspects which initiate and then influence school building programs are identified, and then related to the outcome. Recommendations of past practices to be avoided are made, particularly when a large number of schools are built at one time and repeat the same shortcomings. The seventy-four references represent the literature consulted. 48p.

A Short History of School Facility Issues and Use.
Lyons, John B.
(CEFPI Foundation and Charitable Trust, 2004)
Short description of early educational facilities, the modern school facility, and facilities-based design challenges. 2p.

Whatever Happened to the Open Classroom? Adobe PDF
Cuban, Larry
(EducationNext, Spring 2004)
Discusses the development of open classrooms in the early 1970's when school interiors were built without walls, and the backlash that followed by the mid-1970's. 4p.

Minneapolis Public Schools Historic Context Study.
(Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission , 2004)
This historic context study spans more than a hundred years and the approximately 140 buildings constructed, acquired, maintained, expanded, and sometimes removed by the Minneapolis Board of Education between 1849 and 1962. The timeframe extends from the first public schools constructed in Minneapolis to the expansion of elementary and junior high schools for the post-World War II baby-boom generation. It examines the creation and maintenance of the school plant as evidenced by Minneapolis Board of Education policy and building design and describes the relationship of each remaining property to advances in school construction and program development. The historic context narrative includes an inventory of existing schools, including those now in private ownership.

Rosenwald Schools in Virginia.
(United State Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DC , 2004)
Presents historical documentation for Virginia's Rosenwald Schools, detailing their creation, funding, architecture, distribution, and significance as landmarks worthy of preservation. Also included is documentation for the schools' accompanying teacher residences and industrial arts laboratories. Includes 27 references. 19p.

Vassar College.
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2004)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Vassar, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 166p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

The One-Room Schoolhouse.
Rocheleau, Paul
(Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York, NY , 2004)
Presents a nationwide photographic study of this building type using one examples from each of the forty-eight contiguous states. An account of the photographer's travels that includes historical and architectural information is included, and operating schools, schools restored to museums, and schools converted to homes are featured. 207p.
TO ORDER: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 300 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010

Yale in New Haven: Architecture and Urbanism.
Scully, Vincent; Lynn, Catherine; Vogt, Erik; Goldberger, Paul
(Yale University, New Haven , 2004)
Discusses the planning and architecture of Yale University as it relates to the planning and of New Haven. Plans and buildings produced between Yale's founding and the First World War are considered, relating the University's various attempts to either connect or disconnect itself from the city. Also covered is the concept of urbanism as reflected in the planning efforts of the city and the University. 406p.

The One-Room Schoolhouse: A Tribute to a Beloved National Icon
Rocheleau, Paul
(Universe Publishing, Nov 2003)
From 1750 through about 1950, the one-room schoolhouse was a common fixture on the American landscape, with as many as 200,000 in total across the land. Today, approximately 450 one-room schoolhouses are still in use. This book is a celebration rather than a serious study of this American icon. It provides a tour of these structures still standing, detailing the best examples from forty-eight states, exploring working schools, some in existence for more than 100 years, schools restored as historic museums, and schools converted into private residences. 208p.

An Honor and and Ornament: Public School Buildings in Michigan. Adobe PDF
(State Historic Preservation Office; Michigan Historical Center; Dept. of History, Arts and Libraries; Lansing , Sep 2003)
Presents a summary of a state study that explored the history and architecture of the Michigan public school building built 1835 to the present. Illustrated chapters cover the design influences, school types, building forms, styles, and key architects of the state's inventory. 29p.

Architecture on Campus: A Guide to the University of Melbourne and Its Colleges.
Goad, Philip; Tibbits, George
(Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia , 2003)
Catalogs the buildings, public artworks, and grounds of this institution from its founding in 1853 to the present. The 100 buildings are organized by the era in which they were built, and most are accompanied by a photograph. 134p.
TO ORDER: P.O. Box 1167, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia

Reflections: The History of the Council 1980-2000. Adobe PDF
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2002)
Records the history of the Council of Educational Facility Planners International during the 20 years from 1980 to 2000, including information that connects the years preceding 1980 and beyond 2000. Past and present presidents and executive directors offer "stories" in response to prompting questions about their personal experiences with the council. Also included is a summary of the council's previous history-publication, published in 1982, titled "From NCSC to CEFPI: The Council's First Sixty Years." 114p.

School Treasures: Architecture of Historic Boston Schools.
Cole, Doris
(Font and Center Press, Weston, MA. , 2002)
This book explores the architectural treasures of the Boston, Massachusetts public schools. It includes photographs and descriptions of 129 buildings that were constructed in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century and notes that the first and oldest public school in the United States was founded in Boston in 1635. Eight chapters focus on: (1) "Exploring for Treasure"; (2) "Turning the Century"; (3) "Growing Up"; (4) "The Roaring Twenties"; (5) "A New Deal"; (6) "After the War"; (7) "Suburban Spread"; and (8) "Turning the Century--Again." A CD-ROM with over 100 images and descriptive captions of the architectural treasures of the Boston Public Schools, Massachusetts is included. 138p.

University of California, Berkeley.
Helfand, Harvey
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2002)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at this campus, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Also covered are surrounding neighborhoods and downtown Berkeley. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 360p.

West Point Military Academy.
Miller, Rod
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2002)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at West Point, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 149p.

University of Pennsylvania.
Thomas, George
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2002)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at the University of Pennsylvania, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 200p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2001)
This report addresses the decision-making process for replacing or modernizing District of Columbia public schools. The three-section document discusses old and historic schools and their future; the schools’ historical and architectural value; cost of replacement and modernization; design; materials; and the environmental impact of school replacement. The first section explores issues related to the modernization or replacement of old and historic schools and factors that should be considered in the District. The second section presents a history of the school system. The third section provides detailed school-by-school surveys of the historical and architectural details of public schools built in the District before 1945, including address, school size, site size, the architect involved, architectural style, design date, dates of construction, past alterations, and additions. 158p.
TO ORDER: Twenty-First Century School Fund, 2814 Adams Mill Road NW, Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-745-3745.

University of Cincinnati.
Bennett, Paul
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2001)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings, sculpture, and gardens at the University of Cincinnati, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 129p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Eckert, Kathryn
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2001)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings, gardens, and sculptures at Cranbrook, describing the work of administrators, designers, and artists who shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 190p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Rice University.
Fox, Stephen
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2001)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Rice University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 222p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

The Transformation of the Schoolhouse : American Secondary School Architecture and Educational Reform, 1880-1920
Gyure, Dale Allen
(University of Virginia, 2001)
Report NO: OCLC: 48041042

University of Washington.
Johnston, Norman
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2001)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at the University of Washington, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 152p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Educational Architecture in Ohio. From One-Room Schools and Carnegie Libraries to Community Education Villages.
McCormick, Virginia E.
(Kent State University Press, Kent,OH , 2001)
This book examines the evolution of Ohio’s educational institutions from one-room schoolhouses to modern educational campuses, reflecting Ohio’s population growth and its shared culture and traditions. It offers a unique perspective for viewing and interpreting education with an architectural perspective. It also examines educational trends and changes, revealing the rise in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century of lifelong learning and public access to information. The author shows how a consensus developed holding that learning environments that inspire excitement among teachers and students reflect communities that support the educational mission. Includes exteriors, interiors and plans for libraries, schools, colleges, museums and music halls.
TO ORDER: The Kent State University Press, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH; Tel: 330-672-7913, Toll free: 800-247-6553

Harvard University.
Shand-Tucci, Douglass
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2001)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Harvard University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 344p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Duke University.
Bryan, John
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2000)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Duke University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 132p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Phillips Academy Andover.
Montgomery, Susan; Reed, Roger
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2000)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Phillips Academy, Andover, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included 132p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Princeton University.
Rhinehart, Raymond
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 2000)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings, gardens, and sculptures at Princeton University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 198p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

School Architecture, Curriculum, and Pedagogy: Shifts in the Discursive Space of the "School" as Forms of Governmentality. Adobe PDF
Hennon, Lisa
(University of Madison-Wisconsin , May 19, 1999)
The historical shifts in United States discourses of school architecture as they relate to reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques are examined using Michel Foucault's conceptualization of "governmentality" and related scholarship. It questions assumptions underlying two claims currently being made about school architectural design. The first claim is that the space of the school needs to be more democratic, like a community, and the second is that the space of the school has become more oppressive and controlling. It argues that common school design discourses in the United States incorporated some disciplinary aspects of British monitorial schools. However, in the 1800s, common school discourses governmentalized the "American" school-house with the aim of self- government. Four historical junctures in discourses of school architecture are identified that provide the contingent conditions and reasonings upon which the current debates about reform of school design seem reasonable and make sense. 20p.

Urban Planning and School Architecture: Homologies in Governing the Civic Body and the School Body. Adobe PDF
Hennon, Lisa
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1999)
This paper is a preliminary examination of homologous shifts in U.S. discourses on the design and building of schools and "planning" as they relate to curricular reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques. The purpose is to question underlying assumptions about "space" and historical reasonings about a place called school. Particular historical junctures in discourses of school architecture provide the contingent conditions and reasonings on which the current debates about reform of school design seem reasonable and make sense. Schematically, they are: (1) the common school discourses of the "school house" during the 19th century; (2) the emergence of the "school-plant," which introduced city "planning" discourses into the discourses of school design during the 1920s and 1930s; (3) the "open-plan" in the 1950s that followed as a critique of the "school-plant"; and (4) the enfolding and redeployment of elements of the "school-house," "classroom school-plant," and the "open plan" in the "school-as-community." 25p.

Stanford University.
Joncas, Richard; Neumann, David; Turner, Paul
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 1999)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Stanford University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 175p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Yale University.
Pinnell, Patrick
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 1999)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at Yale University, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 191p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

Planning and Designing Schools.
Brubaker, C. William
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY , 1998)
This book offers and examines a number of suggestions for school architecture. The book consists of a review of 22 school projects from around the United States. The text opens with a brief history of school design in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but the focus throughout the book focuses on several distinct elements: designing schools with beauty and character; the planning and building process; computers and their impact on learning and design; interior design, including color, light, space, furnishing, and equipment; how educational restructuring affects architecture; and campus planning-site analysis. The design ideas presented here apply to a broad array of school types: community schools, high schools, shared facilities, elementary schools, expansions, renovations, and new projects. Each case deals with a unique problem and shows how the architects worked with the educators to create a tailored solution. Graphics and other illustrations are provided for each project reviewed. Special chapters address issues such as how to prevent obsolete schools, how to transform the learning environment, and how to design schools with character. 205p.

The Characteristics of Rural One-Room Schools in Barbour County, West Virginia, That Represent Characteristics of Rural One-Room Schools in General. Adobe PDF
Hepler, Linda
(M.A. Thesis, Salem-Teikyo University, 1998)
The characteristics of one-room rural schools in Barbour County, West Virginia, are representative of one-room rural school characteristics in general. These include building design and problems; teacher' lives and duties, certification, salaries, and training; scheduling and curriculum; games; punishments; and hot lunch programs. Since one-room schools no longer operate in Barbour County, data included personal communications with people who had taught in or attended the schools. A historical background discusses state school laws from 1642 to 1936. A literature review details general characteristics of rural one-room schools: design, construction, and facilities; restrictions on teachers' private lives; teachers' instructional and extracurricular duties; use of the school as an agency for community change; teacher certification requirements and salaries; establishment of normal schools in West Virginia for teacher training; inservice education; daily scheduling and curriculum in the schoolhouse; games played; undesirable and appropriate punishments; early hot lunch programs; and facility lighting, heating, and ventilation problems. Drawing on personal anecdotes, characteristics of Barbour County's one-room schools are discussed in relation to prevailing characteristics nationwide. 85p.

Changing Patterns in Educational Facilities
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Recognized Educational Facility Professional workshop conducted for members of the Council of Educational Facility Planners International; Design Share , 1998)
Planners are increasingly focusing on the future of society, education, and the impact these social forces may have on school facilities and learning environments. This report examines patterns in societal trends, educational approaches, and facility design. It describes changing patterns in each area, as articulated in Alvin Toffler's "The Third Wave", within the following time frames: Agricultural Society (1650-1849); Industrial Society (1850-1949); Information Society (1950-1999); and Knowledge Society (2000-2025).

University of Virginia.
Wilson, Richard; Butler, Sara
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 1998)
Discusses the history and design of the buildings and gardens at the University of Virginia, describing the work of administrators and designers who have shaped the campus from its founding to the present. Plans and numerous photographs are included. 152p.
TO ORDER: 37 East 7th St., New York, NY 20002; Tel: 212-995-9620

The Empty Schoolhouse: Memories of One-Room Texas Schools.
Clegg, Luther Bryan
(Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, 1997)
This compilation of reminiscences from retired teachers and ex-pupils describes the one-room schools of the 1930s in Texas. See chapter one: "They Built a New Schoolhouse, and Oh, It Was Modern: Buildings, Facilities, and School Organization." 225p.

The Altaville Schoolhouse: Community and State Cooperation in Local Historical Resource Preservation
Napton, L. Kyle; Greathouse, Elizabeth A.
(Coyote Press, Salinas, CA , 1997)
This report documents the archaeological investigations conducted at the former site of the Altaville Schoolhouse in Calaveras County, California. These investigations were carried out through the cooperative efforts of the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, the Calaveras County Historical Society, and the local community. The schoolhouse is the only one-room brick school building remaining in the Mother Lode area of California. It is California Historical Landmark Number 499, and in 1979 the schoolhouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1996, the 330 artifacts excavated were examined, identified, and cataloged. The first part of this report narrates the history of the schoolhouse: its construction in 1858 through its closure in 1950; its protected state from 1950-81; its relocation and renovation; and its current condition. The second part of the report gives an overview of the structural, educational, and cultural specimens obtained by archaeological investigations at the original site. The major part of the document consists of: 29 historical photographs of the school; 16 figures of school artifacts; a 330-item catalog of artifacts; newspaper and magazine reprints; copies of relevant documents, correspondence, legislation, maps, and blueprints; and chapter 7 from "Calaveras, the Land of Skulls" (R. C. Wood) describing state and county schools and teachers in California, 1855-59. (Contains 33 references.) 140p.

The Prairie Schoolhouse
Campbell, John Martin
(University of New Mexico Press, 1996)
This book documents the history of the prairie schoolhouse through text and photographs. The prairie schoolhouse was a product of the Western Homestead Era, those years beginning late in the 19th century when the federally owned grass prairies east of the Rockies and the sagebrush country of the interior Northwest were opened to farming. Homesteading, the process whereby a citizen could acquire a piece of federal land, dates to a U.S. congressional act of 1862. The farmers who came to stake a claim on the prairies wanted their children to be educated. Thus, in regions of abundant homesteads, one-room schools were built every 2-4 miles, usually by the farmers themselves. A single teacher taught grades 1-8. The typical prairie schoolhouse was a simple rectangular structure with a pitched roof having a central ridge, either gabled at each end or hipped. The two major varieties of the prairie schoolhouse, the south and the north prairie styles, were determined largely by climate and the availability of construction materials. Regardless of variety, there were only minor differences in the size of the schoolroom itself and in its arrangement and furnishing. Although resources were scarce and most teachers were not educated beyond the eighth grade, prairie schoolhouses turned out hundreds of thousands of literate teenagers who became functioning members of mainstream U.S. society. The combined effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl drove farmers from their land, and by the early 1950s more than 5 million prairie residents had abandoned their homesteads. Of the thousands of homestead schools that 80 years ago dotted the western prairies, nearly all have disappeared, and most of those remaining have fallen to ruin. The 60 photographs in this book document remains of prairie schoolhouses and homestead structures in Washington, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. Contains a bibliography. 164p.
TO ORDER: University of New Mexico Press, 1720 Lomas Blvd., N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87131-1591.

America's Country Schools
Gulliford, Andrew
(University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO , 1996)
As late as 1913, half of U.S. schoolchildren were enrolled in the country's 212,000 one-room schools--the heart of American education. Although only about 428 of these schools remain in use as of 1994, the country school continues to be a powerful cultural symbol. The first section of this book examines country schools' educational and cultural legacy. Chapters (1) provide an overview placing country schools in the larger social and historical framework of American education; (2) describe the country school curriculum, discipline, and teaching methods; (3) present anecdotes and memoirs describing teacher education, teaching conditions, and teachers' lives on the Western frontier in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; (4) portray the role country schools played as rural community centers; (5) discuss the assimilation of immigrants and minorities in rural schools, focusing on Native Americans, Blacks, and Hispanics; and (6) look at public, private, and parochial country schools in operation today. The second section examines the great variety of design in country school architecture, including schoolhouse sites, architect designs, building forms, building materials and techniques, classroom furniture, and building standardization. The third section discusses the preservation and restoration of country schools; describes new uses as museums, centers for living history programs, and community centers; presents preservation case studies; and lists one-room schools, by state, that remain in public ownership. This book contains approximately 275 references, 400 photographs, numerous illustrations, and an index. 296p.

A Study of the Architecture and Curriculum of Virginia High Schools.
Worner, Scott Charles
(Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg , Apr 1995)
Provides a written and pictorial history of the architectural and curricular features of Virginia high schools. 284 high school buildings which best represented an architectural period, beginning with the oldest high school building still in use to the most recently constructed schools, were surveyed. Seventeen schools were chosen based on: 1) date of original construction; 2) completeness of original structure; 3) overall rating by the building principal; 4) noteworthy architectural or unique educational features; and 5) subjective comparison of floor plans and photographs. Each building was visited to obtain data relating to curricular emphasis in the design. Each architectural period was researched for significant educational and curricular trends that may have influenced high school design. 251p.
Report NO: 9529882


Colleges and Universities as Historic Institutions: a Study of the Historical Context of Campus Architecture: Founders Hall, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia. Adobe PDF
Shultz, James A.
A study of Founders Hall at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) explores the history of that building and its symbolic role for the campus and the institution. The building was originally a residence built in the late 19th century and was later the location of the Richmond School of Social Work and Public Policy and of the Richmond Professional Institute. Founders Hall was designed in a French Second Empire architectural style and is in good condition for its age. An addition to the rear was not integrated in style or materials with the original building. The building is currently used for student contact services. A major interior renovation took place in the 1980s. (Contains 15 references.) 30p.

American School Architecture 1800-2000 : the Schoolhouse--Inside and Outside--Reflects Underlying Social Philosophy.
Dashnaw, Thomas Richard
(State University of New York at Buffalo , 1994)
Report NO: OCLC: 31365680

Schools of Interest 8. [North Carolina] Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Apr 1993)
North Carolina local public school boards have the statutory responsibility for operating public schools and for entering into contracts for design and construction of their schools. This document presents examples of plans for school buildings planned or constructed during the last few years representing a wide range of educational philosophies and design solutions. Elementary, Middle, and High School buildings are included. Each offering provides the floor plan, photographs or line drawings of the school, and costs and contractor information. 38p.

Current Design Trends in School Facilities, 1993.
Castellana, John J.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 1993)
The American Institute of Architects has produced a slide presentation addressing the 1993 trends in school facilities design with illustrative examples of school projects. The 200 plus slide program explores projects representing a broad cross section of work completed across the country that include K-12 facilities, new technology, specialized facilities, prototype schools, and child care/day care facilities. 22p.

School Ways: The Planning and Design of America's Schools.
Graves, Ben E.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY , 1993)
This sourcebook draws upon award-winning educational projects to examine emerging trends and new technology in educational facilities design. It presents profiles of the best designed schools of the last decade; new trends in school layouts; essential programming information on space needs, classroom size, and other design criteria; design tips for accommodating computers and audio-visual equipment; and guidance on organizing the programming and design phases of school construction. Additionally, it explains how to prepare long-range facility plans, how to inventory and evaluate existing facilities, and how to prepare educational specifications as well as providing a detailed summary and directory of information and planning resources. 237p.

Current Design Trends in School Facilities, 1992.
Castellana, John J.
(American Institute of Architects, Wasington, DC , 1992)
The American Institute of Architects has produced a slide presentation addressing the 1992 trends in school facilities design with illustrative examples of school projects. The 200-plus slide program explores projects representing a broad cross section of work completed across the country that include K-12 facilities, new technology, specialized facilities, prototype schools, and child care/day care facilities. 19p.

Schools of Interest 7. [North Carolina] Adobe PDF
Etheridge, Bob
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , 1990)
North Carolina local public school boards have the statutory responsibility for operating public schools and for entering into contracts for design and construction of their schools. This document presents examples of plans for school buildings planned or constructed during the last few years representing a wide range of educational philosophies and design solutions. Elementary, Middle, and High School buildings are included. Each offering provides the floor plan, photographs or line drawings of the school, and costs and contractor information. 189p.

Dr. Mac, Planner for Schools.
MacConnell, James
(Johnson/Dole, Palo Alto, CA , 1988)
Presents an autobiography of James D. McConnell (1908-1990), a school planner and for 25 years a Stanford University professor. 193p.

State Requirements Survey for School Construction K-12.
(American Institute of Architects Press, Washington, DC , 1987)
Presents the results of a survey of state requirements for school construction. The document offers state-by-state information on funding, planning requirements, site and building sizes, pupil/teacher rations, and building design and construction requirements. 126p.

The Architecture of Schools and the Philosophy of Education.
Lamm, Zvi
(Paper presented at the Edusystems 2000 International Congress on Educational Facilities, Values, and Contents (Jerusalem, Israel, November 16-21, 1986), Nov 1986)
Changes in instructional methods and ideologies depend on simultaneous changes in the physical environment for the practice of those methods. School architecture results from the type of activity dictated by educational theories. One of the principal ideologies of education is socialization, which perceives education as a process of preparing students to fulfill societal roles. The ideal design for buildings reflecting this bureaucratic conception would resemble an industrial factory complete with an assembly line. A second major ideology is acculturation, which asserts that the purpose of education is to inspire students with a sense of culture and traditional values. The exterior architecture for schools supporting this conviction would show a reverence for the past; for example, an elite school might look like a Greek temple. However, this architecture would not penetrate to the classroom. According to a third ideology, individuation, education is intended to serve the intrinsic needs of individual students. The open space architecture and activity centers of open schools reflect the individuation ideology 13p.

Schools of Interest 6. [North Carolina] Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , 1986)
North Carolina local public school boards have the statutory responsibility for operating public schools and for entering into contracts for design and construction of their schools. This document presents examples of plans for school buildings planned or constructed during the last few years representing a wide range of educational philosophies and design solutions. Elementary, Middle, and High School buildings are included. Each offering provides the floor plan, photographs or line drawings of the school, and costs and contractor information.

Schools of Interest 5. [North Carolina] Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , 1981)
North Carolina local public school boards have the statutory responsibility for operating public schools and for entering into contracts for design and construction of their schools. This document presents examples of plans for school buildings planned or constructed during the last few years representing a wide range of educational philosophies and design solutions. Elementary, Middle, and High School buildings are included. Each offering provides the floor plan, photographs or line drawings of the school, and costs and contractor information. 135p.

Downtown and the University: Youngstown, Ohio.
Brenner, William
(Youngstown State University, Ohio , Mar 1976)
Presents a detailed study of the area encompassing downtown Youngstown, Ohio, and the adjacent campus of Youngstown State University. It includes a history of the city's development beginning in the 1850s, describes the current built environment, identifies opportunities and restraints, and presents development and preservation options. Contains a 2006 update and Foreword by the author. 56p.

Five Open Plan High Schools. A Report. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Sep 1973)
Offers examples of five high schools that operate open curriculums in open spaces. Photographs and floor plans illustrate each school's design. The text relates the history of the educational program and community response to open plan schools. A separate section emphasizes the importance of retraining high school teachers in the use of open plan learning facilities and describes a program operated by the District of Columbia Public Schools for training those teachers. 53p.

Physical Recreation Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Apr 1973)
Explores the various current forms and shapes of facilities designed for physical education, interscholastic and intercollegiate sports, and recreation. School administrators are in the process of rethinking the classical facilities, i.e., the box-shaped gymnasium. Although this report does not advocate a general solution for everyone, it displays the more imaginative and economically prudent solutions that have been built or proposed for specific settings. 57p.

The Principal's Guide to Educational Facilities: Design, Utilization and Management.
Davis, J. Clark
(Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus, OH , 1973)
Discusses the principal's role in school design, construction, maintenance, and ultimate remodeling. Individual chapters cover planning, educational specifications, equipment and furnishings, capacity, facility care, security, after-school use, maintenance and remodeling advice for specific building parts, accessibility, and year-round use. 188p.

Design and Planning: The New Schools.
Morisseau, James
(Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York , 1972)
Presents designs 65 American schools from the late 1960's and early 1970's, serving ages preschool through high school. Many of the schools also make provision for adult education programs and other community uses, and there are some schools for special students. Nearly all the schools shown give evidence of the recent transformation from the double-loaded corridor to open plan, flexible design, which transformation this volume documents. Plans, building statistics, and a list of project participants are included for each example. 128p.

Trends in School Design: Informal Schools in Britain Today.
Pearson, Eric
(Citation Press, New York, NY , 1972)
Uses a number of small, contemporary primary schools to illustrate a trend toward residential-scale school buildings whose classrooms are informally arranged and flexible. 82p.

School Architecture. Being Practical Remarks on the Planning, Designing, Building, and Furnishing of School-houses.
Robson, Edward Robert
(Orignial publication, J. Murray, London, 1874. Reprinted by Humanities Press, NY, 1972. , 1972)
Report NO: ISBN: 0391002511

Schools: More Space/Less Money. A Report. Adobe PDF
Clinchy, Evans; Capernaros, Peter S.; Cynamon, Nancy; Rogers, Kathryn
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Nov 1971)
Explores a range of alternative solutions to provide school space in the most economical fashion. These alternatives include: 1) using "found space" in existing school buildings or non school buildings; 2) extending the school day and/or school year; 3) allowing students to be away from the classroom a significant part of the school day; 4) using new building materials, construction techniques, and project delivery methods; 5) sharing the cost of new schools through joint occupancy (public-private use) and partners (public-public use). 85p.

Open Space Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1971)
Presents numerous examples of noteworthy open space schools. In addition, the authors have drawn from their own experiences with the planning, design, and construction of open space schools. The book explains the justification for, programming, and creation of open space schools, and offers suggestions that might prove helpful, and to report on the state of the art. Includes photographs and plans. 112p.

Profiles of Significant Schools: Schools for Early Childhood. Adobe PDF
Abramson, Paul
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Sep 1970)
Focuses on the creation of learning facilities for two-, three-, and four-year-old children. It illustrates graphically two types of facilities: 1) new centers that were specifically constructed for early education; 2) old facilities--houses, storefronts, and warehouses--that have been successfully remodeled to provide early education centers. Also described is a non-school approach to early learning for communities where lack of finances or interest limits the development of early education centers. The structures vary widely in space usage, types of equipment, and genre of teaching aids, differences dictated by considerations of finances or space.

The Open Plan School: Report of a National Seminar. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jan 1970)
Reports on an open plan school symposium co-sponsored by IDEA and the Educational Facilities Laboratories. Seminar participants included architects, teachers, and administrators who have had experience with open plan schools. Participants discussed both the intangible aspects of an open environment, such as individualized instruction, team teaching, student grouping, and the new role of the school administrator, and the tangible aspects of the school building and its furnishings. They emphasized that open schools are only one part of a quality education program and that the attitudes of teachers, administrators, and students must be consistent with the open nature of the physical facilities at such a school. They agreed that the open plan school system holds great promise as a way of training people to think for themselves. 32p.

Henry Barnard's School Architecture.
Barnard, Henry; McClintock, Jean; McClintock, Robert
(Columbia University Teachers College, New York, NY , 1970)
This is a 1970 reprint of an 1848 text, with an extensive introduction and analysis by Robert and Jean McClintock. In the original text, Barnard discusses common errors in school construction and general principles of school architecture, proposes planning considerations for various school levels, presents several then-extant plans as examples, and outlines classroom organization, furnishings, teaching aids, the library, and heating and ventilation considerations. 350p.

A College in the City: An Alternative. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Mar 1969)
Presents a new way of looking at the urban university. It describes the planning effort for a nonconventional college in the poor urban community of Brooklyn’s Bedford-Stuyvesant section. This new kind of college would educate people, provide park and recreation space, cultural facilities, and low-rise, low-cost housing. It would be community-operated, open 12 months a year, 6 days a week, days and nights, for all community dwellers who either have high school diplomas or can pass a set of special tests built around the college's curriculum. A blueprint illustrating the design of the proposed facility is included. 52p.

Environment for Learning: The 1970's. Adobe PDF
Green, Alan C.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, IL, Mar 1969)
The presentation by Alan C. Green briefly discusses the activities and concerns of EFL and elaborates on the learning environment of the 1970's. Building programming is discussed along with the need to consider--(1) time utilization, (2) architect's early involvement in the process of building programming, (3) prevention of domination over the team, (4) program for the future, (5) research, and (6) careful communication. Five major discoveries made in the last few years are described--(1) the 24' by 32' classroom is not the only viable setting for education, (2) the most important person in education is the individual student, (3) education is not static, (4) instructional technology has a very important role to play in the educational plant, and (5) most people live in cities and most education takes place there. Significant developments in educational environment are dealt with including large and small group instructional space, common areas, classroom design, facility suites, vocational education facilities, special educational environment, modular scheduling, library innovations, information availability, instructional aids, resource centers, mix of facilities, open plan schools, school renovation, furniture design, and construction systems. 20p.

Transformation of the Schoolhouse. Annual Report for 1969. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Winter-Spring 1969)
Reviews some of the more important educational innovations that have transformed schoolhouse design: 1) design, structural, and functional features of open plan schools; 2) use of performance specifications in the design of a coordinated series of building components; 3) influence of instructional hardware (computers, films, television, tapes). Educational Facilities Laboratories financial statements and a list of EFL reports and project publications are also presented. 51p.

Creative Planning of Educational Facilities.
Castaldi, Basil
(Rand McNally & Company, Chicago, IL , 1969)
Focuses on the translation of psychological and educational needs into physical form and design. Ways are suggested in which principles of creativity can be used in the planning and design of educationally effective buildings. Rehabilitation, modernization, and remodeling are also treated in detail. 370p.

Schools for America.
(American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC , 1967)
Presents a broad survey of current educational concepts and their related physical needs. Projected programs of implementation are related to new instructional procedures, while diverse educational situations are presented with possible physical solutions. Such factors as aesthetics, finance, and federal legislative programs are presented in an education context, while such situations as the community junior college and vocational-technical schools are explored in terms of design solutions. The examination of the various concepts, methods, and solutions is clarified through the use of numerous photographs, sketches, and diagrams. 186p.

SCSD: The Project and the Schools Adobe PDF
Ehrenkrantz, Ezra
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1967)
SCSD, a structurally coordinated school building components system, is a highly automated method of building new schools that creatively meet the needs of the ever changing educational environment through functional and flexible planning. Examples of why SCSD high schools are efficient, flexible, and spatially planned, are cited. Environmental requirements are given for--(1) heating/ventilation, (2) air conditioning, (3) lighting/ceiling, (4) storage and equipment, and (5) partitions. Photographs and diagrams demonstrate the interaction of the subsystem components. The evaluation concludes thatsociety needs both higher quality and larger quantities of school buildings to meet the complex learning facility requirements of the present and future. 94p.

California School Buildings 1960-1965.
Gibson, Charles D.; Eatough, Clair L.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. , 1966)
This publication is intended to help California school officials and planners create school buildings that provide environments needed for the operation of an outstanding program of public education. It encourages them to visit the schools presented and similar ones in order to become informed about new planning concepts and trends in school housing. Many of these concepts and trends are illustrated in the publication. For example, big block schools with internal corridors and windowless classrooms are becoming a rarity, with most schools returning to the campus plan concept, using landscaped courts and natural materials to create informal environments. The school site is being used more efficiently, and school buildings are becoming more compact than in the past. The cluster plan has almost universally replaced the finger plan concept for elementary schools, encouraging cooperation between teachers by allowing them to share multiuse areas, resource centers, and teacher preparation areas, all adjacent to their classrooms. Better acoustical control and lighting is evident, and technology is enabling these comfort factors to be coordinated with flexible interiors. Recently constructed school buildings demonstrate that there can be no retreat to the rigid space planning of the past. The three most dramatic modern trends are spaces divided by movable cabinets rather than walls, almost total acceptance of carpets, and air conditioning. 151p.

The New Campus in Britain: Ideas of Consequence for the United States. Adobe PDF
Dober, Richard P.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1965)
Discusses six British universities designed to help solve the dilemma of “belonging” at large institutions. The continuous teaching environment concept describes a physical form that preserves communication and contact between all parts of the institution while allowing external accretion and internal change. Its essential features are geared to: 1) conformity with educational philosophy of maximum interdisciplinary contact; 2) integration of living and working areas; 3) separation of vehicular and pedestrian ways; 4) largely self-sufficient urban community; 5) optimum contrast between development and surrounding site; 6) a 24-hour university; and 7) opportunity of limitless expansion. Photographs and diagrams illustrate this concept in the case of each of the six institutions. 75p.

Air Structures for School Sports. Adobe PDF
Robertson, Nan
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , May 1964)
Discusses the use of air structures for housing athletic facilities. Successful and unsuccessful projects are presented. A checklist of ten dos and don’ts are provided: 1) provide positive anchorage; 2) provide positive drainage; 3) protect envelope from sharp objects during erection; 4) provide protection against sharp protrusions inside the bubble; 5) control air leakage; 6) remove snow; 7) protect fan inlets; 8) periodically check inflation equipment; 9) provide auxiliary generators to maintain blower operation in case of power failure; 10) don’t attach lights to bubble skin. 28p.

NCSC Guide for Planning School Plants.
(Michigan State University, National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, East Lansing , 1964)
Discusses school planning in five sections that deal with the various phases of the planning stage. Section one includes the determination of the educational plan, plant survey, enrollment projection, educational specifications, and architectural planning. Section two deals with school location and the types of spaces to be included. Section three deals with non-instructional facilities such as corridors, halls, lobbies, vestibules, ramps, stairways, toilets, storage, parking, lockers, closets, elevators, laundry, and utility systems. Section four considers spatial, aesthetic, and safety factors. Section five discusses all aspects of economy in building. 163p.

Campus Planning.
Dober, Richard
(Reinhold Publishint, New York, NY , 1963)
The first section of this book defines campus planning, illustrates through examples the evolution of the campus as a design form, and describes the critical importance of campus planning. Section two breaks down the campus into its constituent physical parts and describes each in functional and aesthetic terms. These section also includes steps for programming and design facilities, with methods for campus planning used as case examples. Section three details procedures for campus planning, with illustrations of how old campuses can be expanded and new ones developed. 318p.

Profiles of Significant Schools: High Schools 1962. A Status Report on Educational Change and Architectural Consequence. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , 1962)
Explores some of the changes in teaching methods and building design occurring in American high schools. These trends include: 1) team teaching; 2) independent study using well-stocked libraries; 3) year round use of school facilities for education and recreation for all age groups; and 4) more reliance on technology for administration and education. 88p.

Schoolhouse: A Primer about the Building of the American Public School Plant.
McQuade, Walter
(Simon and Schuster., 1958)

McQuade, Walter, ed.
(Simon and Schuster, New York , 1958)
Advises on school building by first considering what the community and children want in a school, and continuing with architect selection, financing, site and building features. A photograph tour of exemplary schools completes the book. 271p.

School Planning and Building Handbook.
Engelhardt, N.L; Leggett, Stanton
(F.W. Dodge, New York, NY , 1956)
Advises on planning and building schools, detailing board and superintendent responsibilities, educational specifications, public relations, planning for equipment and furniture, site selection and acquisition, working with design professionals, landscaping, contracting, project management, bonding, and a variety of additional cost and administrative details that accompany the creation of a new school. 638p.

Good and Bad School Plants in the United States as Revealed by School Facilities Survey.
(U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare; Washington, DC , 1954)
Presents examples of well-and poorly planned school facilities, with some dating back as far as 1800. The intent is to assist planners in selecting practical features for their own schools, and to present the problems facing many communities in providing adequate school facilities. 83p.

Planning Elementary School Buildings.
Engelhardt, N. L.; Engelhardt, N. L. Jr.; Leggett, Stanton
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1954)
The authors, by means of 250 photographs and numerous tables, charts, and diagrams, explain their interpretation of the new kind of elementary school in the making in 1953— a school based on a more fundamental understanding of child growth and development, a happy school, a child-scale school. 268p.

School Facilities for Science Instruction.
Richardson, John, ed.
(National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC , Jan 1954)
Details basic principles and aspects of science facilities, followed by specific design and equipment recommendations for elementary. Separate recommendations for multipurpose, general, biological, chemistry, physics, developmental, applied, and specialized high school science facilities follow, as well as advice on the design of college facilities for the education of science teachers. Includes 13 references. 274p.

The Schoolhouse at Prairie View.
Barber, Marshall A.
(University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, KS (out of print); available at research libraries via interlibrary loan., 1953)
Written in 1953, this book presents the reminiscences of a renowned scientist about his early education in a one-room school at Prairie View, Kansas, during the 1870s and 1880s. The first chapter records early memories of the road to school, and describes the community of Anglo and German farmers served by Prairie View. Other chapters describe classroom organization and furniture, children's games in the schoolyard and inside, children's social customs, relations between boys and girls, teachers (who often changed with every school term), discipline, the curriculum, textbooks and teaching methods, access to books, memorization and recitation of poems and prose, "exhibitions" given on the last day of school, songs and drama, community "literaries" and debate competitions, Fourth of July celebrations, patent medicine shows, meetings of the Grange, use of the schoolhouse as a polling place and a church, religious revivals, Sunday School, temperance meetings, funerals, and educational benefits and deficiencies of the era. An index is included. 86p.

American School Buildings.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 1949)
This yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators offers nineteen essays on school construction, covering the topics of the school board s responsibility, organizational and administrative procedures, site planning, auxiliary facilities, design service, mechanical and service facilities, building for safety, materials selection, economies in construction and design, light and color, furnishings, renovation, preventive maintenance, financing, and major steps in building a school. 363p.

Planning Secondary School Buildings.
Engelhardt, N; Leggett, Stanton
(Rheinhold Publishing Co., New York, NY , 1949)
Discusses design and space requirements for secondary school classrooms, administrative areas, shops, libraries, auditoriums, science facilities, restrooms, common areas, athletic facilities, cafeterias, homemaking, visual arts, and music. [Available online from Google books.] 128p.

"American" School Architecture: An Architectural Type and a Plan for High School Buildings with Special Reference to the Southwest.
Turner, R. Izer
Jan 1929
Report NO: OCLC: 27158759

The Nation's Schools.
O'Shea, M.V.
(McGraw Hill , 1928)
"Devoted to the application of research to the building, equipment and administration of schools."

Improvement in the Maintenance of Public School Buildings.
Schwartz, Harwood
(Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York City , 1926)
Maintenance and repair of school buildings as described in a 1926 Thesis. Discusses the frequency and relative importance of several types of repair jobs, and the relationship among factors of the total cost of repairs, size age and type of building. Includes refinements in rapair accounting. A 1972 reprint of the 1926 study is widely available. 80p.

School Architecture: Principles and Practice
Donovan, John Joseph
(Macmillan, NY, Jan 1921)
Report NO: ASIN: B00085VS1C

Wider Use of the School Plant.
(Charities Publication Committee, New York (University of Michigan Library reprint) , 1911)
Advocates for community use of the school building, with an emphasis on crossing racial, financial, and social strata. The book offers examples of how schools are already being used successfully for community purposes, illustrating evening classes, Summer school, public lecture, entertainment, social center, organized athletics, and other uses. 212p.

Modern American School Buildings, Being a Treatise Upon, and Designs For the Construction of School Buildings.
Briggs, Warren
(John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY , 1906)
Discusses the design of schools that are architecturally sound, as well as properly lit and ventilated. The author discusses the particulars of various school spaces; steps in the planning, design and project management process; and suburban and urban schools. Includes 89 full-page illustrations. [Available online from Google books.] 411p.

Modern School Buildings, Elementary and Secondary: A Treatise on the Planning, Arrangement, and Fitting of Day and Boarding Schools, Having Special Regard for Warming, Ventilation, and Sanitation
Clay, Felix
(B.T. Batsford, London, United Kingdom, 1902)

References to Journal Articles

Back to School: 1812 Building Restored in Maple Shade
Conney, Joe
Cherry Hill Courier Post; Jun 18, 2012
Reports on the restoration of the 200-year-old Little Red Schoolhouse in Maple Shade, New Jersey, the town’s first school. The site has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Following the Tone of an Era. A Look Back at the History of School Design.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; , p40-42 ; Jun 2012
Green building consultant, Lindsay Baker, traces the history of school design in a recent NCEF study titled, “A History of School Design and its Indoor Environmental Standards, 1900 to Today.” The study focuses on school design and how it relates to energy consumption, ventilation, heating, air quality, lighting and acoustics. Includes excerpts from an interview with Baker on what the next 150 years could look like.

The Campus That Could Have Been
Lasser, Allan
The Quad; Apr 30, 2012
Outlines the history of the design of Boston University’s unified Charles River Campus in the 1920's and 1930's.

Creating an Ultra-Flexible Learning Space
McCrea, Bridget
THEJournal; Feb 08, 2012
Designers of the Minnesota School of Environmental Studies (SES) were years ahead of the curve when it came to creating collaborative classrooms that would one day accommodate learning technologies that in 1995 had yet to be conceived--let alone developed and marketed to the educational sector. Cumulatively the various features that went into SES' design have withstood both the test of time and the onslaught of technology in the high school classroom.

Facility Planning: Sustainable Strategies
Rydeen, James
American School and University; Jan 2012
The payback for green school strategies is far-reaching. Discusses the LEED certification system and the Energy Star program. Looks at how school design has utilized some manner of sustainable principles for years, from the Educational Facilities Laboratories in the 1960s, the National Energy Act of 1978, design in the 1990s, through the Architecture 2030 Challenge.

The Slipcovering of a School.
Gray, Christopher
New York Times; Oct 16, 2011
Discussion of the modernization of the High School of Printing, built in 1960 in New York City. The building, now the High School of Graphic Communication Arts, was designed by Hugh Kelly and B. Sumner Gruzen in two parts, a fluid, guitar-box auditorium set off by a stern, rectangular sweep of glass blocks and steel swing-out windows. The School Construction Authority replaced the windows and the Kalwall with current versions, and the rebuilt facade looks pretty similar to the previous one, although hardly like the original.

The Stewardship of Campus Heritage.
Audrain, Calvert
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p18-35 ; Apr 2011
Details the identification, designation, and protection of historic campus landmarks. Planning for campus preservation, applying stewardship to heritage buildings, practical requirements for executing the work, budgeting, and addressing neighborhood context are covered. 29 references are included.

Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning.
Bruce, Jeffrey
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p179-189 ; Apr 2011
Advocates restorative campus landscapes that contribute more to the environment than they consume. Attention to the original native landscape is recommended, as is a return to natural environmental systems. Examples from the University of Kansas and University of Iowa are detailed with abundant diagrams, photographs, and plans.

Modern Architecture and the U.S. Campus Heritage Movement.
Buono, Jon
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p88-102 ; Apr 2011
Narrates the history of higher education facilities designed by notable modern architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Richard Neutra, Walter Gropius, Alvar Aalto, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The juxtaposition of modern and historic facilities is discussed, as are obstacles to their upkeep and restoration. Fifteen references and numerous photographs accompany the text.

The Historian's and the Preservationist's Dilemma: The Challenge of the Recent Past in Campus Heritage Efforts.
Christen, Barbara
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p103-109 ; Apr 2011
Examines higher education campus preservation as a positive planning tool, with particular attention to preserving artifacts from the recent past. Community engagement and the application of traditional preservation criteria and practices to mid-twentieth century buildings are addressed, and 12 references are included.

The Danger of History Slipping Away: The Heritage Campus and HBCUs.
Clement, Arthur; Lidsky, Arthur
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p149-158 ; Apr 2011
Traces this history of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and highlights the epidemic of endangered buildings on their campuses. Federal and private sector assistance is described, as are some of the encouraging results from these grants. Less encouraging institution closings are also described. Advice to HBCU presidents on planning for and saving their campus heritage is included, as are nine references.

A Rubric for Campus Heritage Planning.
Craig, Charles; Fixler, David; Kelly, Sarah
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p55-70 ; Apr 2011
Addresses the variety of architecture found on American campuses, and the implications of youth and learning that they present. The importance of preservation of a campus's identity is supported by procedural considerations for incorporating heritage planning into campus planning efforts. Examples of successful and troubled campus expansion and preservation efforts, a detailed heritage planning matrix and 21 references accompany the text.

Campus Heritage in the 21st Century: Notable Precedents and Inspiring Antecedents.
Dober, Richard
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p36-40 ; Apr 2011
Cites several examples of notable campus structures saved by thoughtful administrations, public sentiment, clever repurposing, and sometimes demolition and reuse of the original materials.

The CIC Historic Campus Architecture Project.
Ekman, Richard
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p41-50 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the work of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) Historic Campus Architecture Project (CIC HCAP). The project produced the first national architecture and landscape database of independent college and university campuses. The funding, history, methodology, website, and user comments are addressed. Several notable sites are described, accompanied by photographs, and eight references are included.

The Full and True Value of Campus Heritage.
Elefante, Carl
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p79-87 ; Apr 2011
Details the evaluation of historic campus buildings using the five general categories of reuse potential, repurposing potential, environmental value, economic value, and cultural value. The chronic negligence of the environmental wisdom of reusing existing buildings is discussed, and four references are included.

A Tale of Three Campuses: Planning and Design in Response to Cultural Heritage at Mills College, the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University.
Fiene, Karen; Sabbatini, Robert
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p110-138 ; Apr 2011
Reviews the development history of these three campuses. The establishment of an aesthetic core, followed by various divergent schemes by successions of planners are detailed. Notable restorations as well as unloved incursions are documented in detailed text and abundant photographs. Sixteen references are included.

A Half-Century of Change on College Hill: Institutional Growth, Historic Preservation, and the College Hill Study.
Gast, Frances
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p139-148 ; Apr 2011
Narrates the growth of Providence's Brown University and Rhode Island School of Design. Both institutions occupy urban sites surrounded by historic architecture. The 1967 College Hill Study documented the historic fabric of the area and set the standard for preservation studies that followed. The ensuing acquisition, demolition, preservation, and building of new structures by the institutions is are addressed, as is the complex evolution of the relationship between the institutions and the community. Four references are included.

In Perfect (Imperfect) Harmony: Keene State College and Keene, New Hampshire Rebalance Community Relations through Historic Preservation.
Kahn, Jay
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p159-166 ; Apr 2011
Describes a sometimes cordial and sometimes antagonistic relationship between this college and the city, as the institution grew and expanded across an historic downtown cityscape. Contentious plans to demolish some former residences to build an alumni center are detailed, with emphasis on the solution which allowed the demolition of some structures and the restoration of others and incorporate them into the center's design.

The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change.
Martin, Frank
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p167-178 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the difficulty of campus landscape preservation, when landscapes change naturally and many current environmental practices violate historical accuracy. The article encourages definition of a campus's essential character and periods of historical significance. Advice on introducing sustainable practices, balancing the change of landscapes without losing character, and examples of notable urban campus landscapes are included.

Campus Heritage Planning: Understanding the Economics and Managing the Financing.
McGirr, Dale; Kull, Ronald
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p190-200 ; Apr 2011
Discusses motivations for higher education institutions to maintain their campus heritage, emphasizing their unique position to do so as stewards of history and (usually) the same property over many years. Important elements of protecting campus heritage are addressed, as is the monetary value in terms of enrollment, faculty recruitment, alumni engagement, and fundraising. Support of community heritage is also encouraged. Five references are included.

Caring for American Campuses: Stewardship Lessons from the Getty Foundation Campus Heritage Initiative.
Melnick, Robert
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p8-17 ; Apr 2011
Discusses how the Getty Foundation Campus Heritage Initiative assisted higher education institutions with preserving historic campus landscapes. An explanation of the Getty purpose and process, examples of sites that were saved or restored, and a discussion of what was learned and what remains to be done are included.

Beyond an Initial Campus Heritage Survey: Creating and Infrastructure for Renewal.
Neuman, David
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p71-78 ; Apr 2011
Using the example of the University of Virginia, this article details the process and results of a 2003 campus survey. The eligibility of significant historical buildings for renovation is discussed, as is the use of building information modeling (BIM) in the documentation and management of the process.

Learn about and Visit Historic College and University Campuses Using the National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Series.
Shull, Carol
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p209-217 ; Apr 2011
Describes the U.S. National Park Service's "Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Series," which includes a number of historic higher education campuses. A variety of campuses across the United States are highlighted, and 14 references are included.

Themes and Highlights from the Campus Heritage Initiative Reports.
Turcotte, Claire
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p218-227 ; Apr 2011
Profiles campuses that have participated in the Campus Heritage Initiative grants, highlighting the conservation of their architecture and landscape, adaptive reuse, recognition of mid-20th century buildings, student use, and development of strategies to evaluate buildings and landscapes.

Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources.
Williams, Stacy
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n3 , p228,229 ; Apr 2011
Describes resources for finding the correct vocabulary, historic designations, and current research for historic preservation.

Public School Desegregation and Education Facilities.
Hunter, Richard
School Business Affairs; v77 n2 , p24-26 ; Feb 2011
Reviews 1968-1995 school desegregation court cases that have impacted school facilities, noting how the perceived impact of school facility condition on education has carried weight in the courts. 12 references are included.

Celebration School and Design Trends: 15 Years into the Future.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n12 , p35-39 ; Dec 2010
Reflects on the 1997 "school of the future," Orlando's Celebration School, sponsored by Disney Development Corp. It was considered cutting-edge thinking at the time to coordinate new construction with new educational methodology. The school's planner describes the "school of the future" as it would be conceived today.

Putting Education in Its Place: Mapping the Observations of Danish and English Architects on 1950s School Design.
Burke, Catherine
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education; v46 n5 , p655-672 ; Oct 2010
During the years following the Second World War, there were efforts in several European countries to grasp the opportunity to re-imagine "school" created through the need to rebuild on a mass scale. This article examines in detail an episode in the exchange of knowledge between English and Danish architects and educators during a period of intensive activity. (Contains 57 footnotes and 2 figures.)

Twenty Years of Interiors.
American School and University; v82 n13 , p145-156 ; Aug 2010
Presents the responses of 34 school designers to the following questions: 1) What are the biggest changes in educational interiors over the past 20 year? 2) What do you see as the future of the interior education space in the next few years? and 3) How as the emergence of green/sustainability changed the interior space?

The Pleasant Valley School: A Living History Project.
Buckner, David L.; Brown, Pamela U.; Curry, John
Social Education; v74 n2 , p65-66 ; Mar-Apr 2010
This article discusses the Pleasant Valley School, located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, which is now a living history project where contemporary 4th grade students throughout Oklahoma have the opportunity to spend a day as students did in a turn of the century one-room schoolhouse, complete with coal heating, ink wells, and "McGuffey Readers." Slated for relocation or destruction in the 1980s, the one-room school was saved by concerned citizens, including former students who initiated a restoration project and ultimately restored the school as close to its original form as possible. In 1991, Pleasant Valley School received both state and national recognition when it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and received the State Historic Preservation Officer's Citation of Merit.

Renovating the 1960's School to the 2010 School Model. Adobe PDF
Helgesen, Christian
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p9-12 ; Jan 2010
Describes the philosophy of school design in the 1960's. The author compares this to current philosophies as well as design mandates in new facilities, and describes possibilities for energy saving in renovation.

Schools as Architecture for Newcomers and Strangers: The Perfect School as Public School?
Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten
Teachers College Record; v112 n2 , 533-555 ; 2010
Reflects on the public role of education on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Hannah Arendt's essay, "The Crisis in Education." Based on Arendt's essay, the article explores that peculiar setting and architecture between family and world that is called “school.” The leading concern for this investigation is the school's public meaning. The point of departure is that today, the public role of education is an urgent concern, that is, the school's public role is questioned in view of the current processes of privatization, and what is critically described as the "capitalization of life." In this contribution, based on a reading of Arendt's essay and relying on the analysis of a specific school design by the architect Wim Cuyvers, two different ways of thinking the public meaning of school education are explored. The article shows that it is impossible to think "a new beginning in our world" without thinking the school as public space. It offers an outline for elaborating the Arendtian thinking of the "perfect school." This school is conceived of as a space where people are exposed to things, and being exposed could be regarded as being drawn outside that is, into public space. Note

2000-2010-2020: What Was Said, What Happened and What Is to Come.
Matschulat, Robert; Dejong, William; Dorn, Michael; Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p13-16 ; Jan 2010
Four school facility professionals reflect on the accuracy of their predictions made in 2000, as well as making additional predictions for 2020.

Writing the Future!
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p6 ; Jan 2010
Reflects on the reading of a 1942 booklet on school planning that expressed the same desire for safe and healthy schools as is felt today.

Noise in Open Plan Classrooms in Primary Schools: A Review
Shield, Bridget; Greenland, Emma; and Dockrell, Julie
Noise Health; v12 n49 , p 225-234 ; 2010
This paper presents a review of research carried out in the past 40 years into various aspects of noise in open plan classrooms. The emergence of open plan classroom design in response to progressive educational reforms is discussed. A limited amount of evidence of the effects of noise in open plan classrooms is presented. Surveys of both background and intrusive noise levels in open plan classrooms are summarized and compared. Differences between noise levels in open plan and enclosed classrooms are also considered. Recommended noise limits and acoustic design criteria for open plan classrooms are discussed, together with some current international standards. The paper concludes with a discussion of appropriate noise control measures to reduce noise and maximize speech intelligibility and speech privacy in open plan classrooms. [Authors' abstract]

The Lake View School Fire.
Grant, Casey
Doors and Hardware; v73 n7 , p14-16,18-20 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the 1908 Lake View School fire in Collinwood, Ohio. The high death toll of 175 in the four-storey building was due in part to a combination of inadequate egress and panic, details of which are included.

Opening Up Learning: from Spaces to Environments. Adobe PDF
Educause Review; v44 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Reflects on the evolution of learning areas from spaces to environments, with the interweaving of classroom, libraries, labs, and informal spaces, as well as the call for all stakeholders to join in designing and developing the learning environment.

The Power of Place on Campus.
Broussard, Earl
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n34 , pB12 ; May 01, 2009
Discusses the importance of "sacred" spaces on campuses, either for ceremony, exploration, perspective, or refuge. Examples of notable and historic campus spaces are offered along with advice on identifying, cultivating, and preserving meaningful campus places.

System Application and Design for School Air Conditioning.
Flanagan, Robert
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p56,58,60,62,64,66,68,70,73 ; May 2009
Offers a reprint of a 1966 article on school air conditioning design, noting the types of school buildings prevalent at the time, their differing heating and cooling requirements, and the types of air- conditioning systems available.

Educational Facility Design and Project Based Learning: "The Real Connection."
Schrader, David; Sole, John
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n2-3 , p19-23 ; 2009
Discusses the relationship of project-based learning to school facilities, abandoning the familiar double-loaded corridor design and seeking flexible learning spaces that are part of the curriculum. A brief history of school design and encouragement of student inclusion in the school design process are included.

Landmark Buildings Redefine 2-year Campuses-and Blot Out Ugly Mistakes.
Biemiller, Lawrence
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v55 n10 , pB14-B17 ; Oct 2008
Describes several new thoughtfully designed community college buildings, which stand in contrast to an abundance of unloved structures from the community college building boom of the 1960's and 70's.

A Man of Vision, Integrity, and Passion.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p10 ; Oct 2008
Profiles Paul Abramson, selected as the 2008 Planner of the Year by the Council of Educational Facility Planners International. A brief review of his background and accomplishments is included.

Primary School Architecture in Portugal: A Case Study. Adobe PDF
Freire da Silva, Jose
PEB Exchange; 2008/9 ; Jul 2008
Profiles three Portuguese elementary schools, dating from 1898, 1969, and 1973, respectively, and illustrating the evolution of Portugal's standardized, yet flexible, school designs.

Air Age Gothic.
Hill, David
Preservation; v60 n3 , p46 52 ; May-Jun 2008
Profiles the mid-century modern architecture of the United States Air Force Academy, varying sentiments toward the designs, attempts to preserve and restore its more iconic structures, and maintenance challenges caused by value engineering of the original structures.

Marcel Breuer at Saint John's.
Carlson, Scott
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v54 n26 , pB9-B13 ; Mar 07, 2008
Discusses the signature St. John's Abbey and University buildings by architect Marcel Breuer. The history of how they were commissioned, their bold and inspirational use of concrete, and the care with which they have been added to.

A Woman's Place Is in the School: Rhetorics of Gendered Space in Nineteenth-Century America.
Enoch, Jessica
College English; v70 n3 , p275-295 ; Jan 2008
Nineteenth-century American leaders in education came to advocate a redesign of the schoolroom that resulted in its being seen as more the province of female teachers than of male teachers. This discourse of reform serves as a case study of how space itself may be rhetorically "gendered."

The Breuer Zone.
Miller, Nancy
Architecture Minnesota; v34 n1 , p26-31 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Recounts how St. John's Abbey and University came to own a collection of signature buildings designed by Marcel Breuer, and describes their iconic designs.

Total Recall: The Architectural Portfolio Celebrates a Quarter-Century of Education Design Excellence.
American School and University; v80 n3 , p316-360 ; Nov 2007
Presents this competition's highest award winners since its 1983 inception. A list of the winners, jury members, and selection criteria for each year is included.

An Unrivaled Collection of Wright Buildings Proves to Be a Joy and a Challenge.
Biemiller, Lawrence
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v53 n41 , pA30 ; Jun 2007
Discusses the situation that Florida Southern College faces with its modest endowment and a significant collection of Frank Lloyd Wright buildings that are in need of major repair. Some of the buildings have structural problems that can be traced to Wright's reliance on new and untested designs. Many are too small for the college's current needs, and all have been hard to modernize.

Giving Students Some Space.
Abramson, Paul
School Business Affairs; v73 n2 , p34,35 ; Feb 2007
Discusses the evolution toward more square feet per student due to technology, accessibility accommodation, class size reduction, and expansion of programs.

Plowden and Primary School Buildings: A Story of Innovation without Change.
Brogden, Mike
FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education; v49 n1 , p55-66 ; 2007
The Plowden Report encouraged the design of more compact and flexible school buildings to accommodate its vision of child-centred teaching. These schools came to be known as "open plan". By the late 1970s about 10% of schools were of open-plan design but researchers found serious weaknesses in the quality of their work. Plowden's ideals were not often to be found in practice in open-plan schools. Changes in teaching methodologies had not kept pace with innovation in school design and the rhetoric of child-centredness was not matched by the reality of the experience of many primary pupils. The explanations for this include the conservatism of teachers as well as the propensity to failure of centrally imposed ideas. [Author's abstract]

The Rosenwald School Initiative: A Plan to Build Hope.
Hall, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n2/3 , p3-6 ; 2007
Cites historical laws that segregated white and African-American students, the inadequacy of schools built for the latter, and the response by philanthropist Julius Rosenwald to build better schools for African-Americans in the early 20th century. The history and legacy of the resulting Rosenwald Schools are described, as are successful and continuing efforts to preserve many of the structures.

Re-Forming Schools and Cities: Placing Education on the Landscape of Planning History
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 , p183-195 ; 2006
Schools are among the most ubiquitous institutions shaping city and regional ecology, policy, and everyday experience. In recent decades, planning historians have come to define planning ever more broadly, focusing on a great diversity of urban activities. But the design, development, and administration of public and private schools, from the preschool to university level, have yet to be incorporated into our discipline's debates and discussions to a significant degree. This article examines the broader history of American education and posits a variety of opportunities and questions to explore as the history of schools is incorporated into planning history.

From Our House to the "Big House": Architectural Design as Visible Metaphor in the School Buildings of Philadelphia
Thomas, George E.
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 ; 2006
Philadelphia public schools have been products of the culture and values that made them. When education was embedded in the home, schools looked like houses; when education became civic, schools took on a civic character; when Philadelphia gave itself over to the forces of industry, schools were derived from industry. In the twentieth century, as schools became places of conflict, they took on the character of the architecture of reform—prisons. This article examines the evolution of the Philadelphia school from the eighteenth century to the present.

"Little Red School House, What Now?" Two Centuries of American Public School Architecture.
Weisser, Amy S.
Journal of Planning History; v5 n3 , p196-217 ; 2006
This article examines two centuries of public school architecture in the United States with attention to the relationship between architectural form and reformist educational philosophy. Building types reviewed include the one-room schoolhouse, the metropolitan school at 1900, the early twentieth-century suburban school, and the late twentieth-century urban school. The siting, building plan, and exterior articulation of both ideal plans and built structures are reviewed as evidence of the expectation and realities of the public school as a democratic institution.

A Time to Look Back.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v44 n12 , p9 ; Dec 2005
Reviews school facilities topics that were of particular interest in 2005: a continuing debate on what constitutes a small school, technology integration, and community use of schools.

The Influence of School Architecture and Design on the Outdoor Play Experience within the Primary School
Armitage, Marc
Paedagogica Historica ; v41 n4-5 , p535 - 553 ; Aug 2005
Since the very earliest times, schools have provided a place (the playground) and a time (playtimes) in which children can have time away from the direct involvement of adults and formal learning. Although the basic design of school grounds has changed in a number of ways over the years, from the subtle to the more direct, what effect these changes have had on the overall education of the child is less clear. Research has identified a number of positive effects on leaning that playtimes and the informal use of school grounds provides, yet it is also clear that schools themselves often greatly under-use this potential, or even actively restrict access to it, as a counter to what is often seen as the ‘problem’ of playtime. This paper will draw on recent research into ‘what’ happens on school playgrounds and ‘where’ it happens, using visual examples from the UK. The findings from this research will explore the direct links that have been found between school building design and children’s use of the outdoor environment for play. [Author's abstract]

Contested Desires: The Edible Landscape of School
Burke, Catherine
Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education; v41 n4-5 , p571-587 ; Aug 2005
Food and drink are associated with survival and for children and young people the edible landscape represents an essential part of survival in the modern school. At one and the same time, food and drink and the space in which they are served and consumed can become a site of contested desires, a space where authority and resistance are exercised. This paper explores the interior and exterior edible landscape of school in the UK context and suggests some pointers to its significance in terms of the development of pedagogy and curriculum.

Bricks and Mortar: A Faculty View.
Burgen, Mary
Planning for Higher Education; v33 n4 , p25-27 ; Jun 2005
Breifly reviews the history of higher education campus construction as experienced since the Morrill Act of 1862. Benefits to universities' host communities are described, the growing influence of commercial enterprise over academia is lamented, and a greater role for faculty involvement in campus building programs is urged.

L'Architecture Scolaire.
Bulletin de la CIIP; n15 , p37 ; Dec 2004
Presents a collection of French essays and inteviews on the history of educational architecture, educational design to accommodate various pedagogies, design for early childhood education, educational design today, and educational design of the future.

Historic Rosenwald Schools Rebuilt and Reborn.
Salvesen, David
Urban Land; v63 n10 , p61 ; Oct 2004
Description of Rosenwald schoolhouses built in poor African American communities in the rural south in the 1920's. Includes a case study of the Walnut Cove Colored School in Stokes County, North Carolina which was converted to the Walnut Cove Senior Citizen's Center.

Crumbling Legacy.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n33 , p30-34 ; Apr 28, 2004
Article on preservation efforts of some of the more than 5,300 Rosenwald schools and other buildings that were built from 1913 to 1932, in rural areas of 15 states. The idea for the schools was conceived by the black educator and author Booker T. Washington and financed by Julius Rosenwald, the president of Sears and Roebuck. Rosenwald set up a program that offered state-of-the-art facility plans designed by architects from Tuskegee Institute and funding for grants that were matched by local communities. The schools served black students who were shut out of regular public schools in the era of Jim Crow, or who attended classes in decrepit structures if at all. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Schoolhouse Modernism.
King, Jonathan; Langdon, Philip
Architecture Week ; Jan 14, 2004
During the second half of the 20th century, the Texan architecture firm of Caudill Rowlett Scott (CRS) were known for their innovations in school design. This extensive article describes CRS's early 1950's one-story schools with simple shed roofs with windows placed to obtain maximum benefit from natural ventilation and natural illumination. As mechanical air-conditioning became standard, as schools became bigger, and as CRS moved to the high school and then the college level, the buildings shifted from being light and sometimes playful to being more formal and sculptural.

What's In a Name: Issues of Race, Gender, Culture, and Power in the Naming of Public School Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri, 1940-1995.
Moran, Peter W.
Planning and Changing; v35 n3-4 , p129-142 ; 2004
Naming a building after a person further implies that the person honored possesses the appropriate qualities necessary to be recognized in such a permanent fashion, and that the individual was, in some respects, the embodiment of the community's shared values. Here, Moran analyzes the naming of public school buildings in Kansas City MO between the 1940's and early 1990's while exploring the values which were implicit in the selection of names, as well as the individuals or groups that had the greatest influence in the process of selecting names.

More than Blue Skies.
Granat, Diane
Preservation; v55 n4 , p34-37 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Describes efforts to find and preserve some 5,000 Rosenwald schools. These buildings were funded with seed money during the 1920s from Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, and served as schools and public buildings for black residents in the rural South.

History in the Making.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n10 , p20-34 ; Jun 2003
Reviews trends and developments over 75 years that have shaped today s schools and their educational facilities needs, and speculates on what the future may hold. Includes a timeline of important educational events.

What Went Wrong. Detours in the History of School Construction.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
American School Board Journal; v190 n6 , p39-40, 42 ; Jun 2003
Discusses design and construction problems of schools built in the 50s and 60s including open classrooms, bigger schools, underground schools, and schools without windows.

A Review of the Development of Daylighting in Schools Adobe PDF
Wu, W.; Ng, E.
Lighting Research and Technology; v35 n2 , p111-125 ; Jun 2003
This paper reviews the progress of daylighting in school buildings. It examines the publications that discuss daylighting design for school buildings in early 1874. It also traces the developments of the open-air school movement from 1900 up to the 1930s and describes research at the present day in the context of an emphasis on environmental factors defining healthy and comfortable buildings for education. The regulations and standards of lighting in schools in the different periods in Britain are summarized. The review reveals that there is a need to examine the relationships between the responses of school occupants and the quantity of daylighting. The conclusion of the paper gives an overall summary of daylighting in schools and identifies gaps in current knowledge. In addition, it provides the authors' opinions for future lighting research in schools. [Authors' abstract]

Twenty Years of Design Innovation.
Redding, Whitney
Learning By Design; n20 , p23-26 ; Spring 2001
Presents quotes from eleven architects regarding the last 20 years of school design history, along with some predictions of what school facilities are evolving toward.

Buildings and Betterment: Influences on the Design of State School Buildings 1900-1920
Dillon, Mike
International Education Journal ; v2 n2 , p109-115 ; Feb 2001
Almost from the beginning of universal education, educationalists and reformers promoted a rationale that the school building and learning were linked. This rationale was widely accepted in the United States, England and in Australia and was significant in influencing the design of schools. This paper outlines the development of this rationale and then draws on South Australian School Inspectors' reports during the period 1900-1920 to show how this rationale was expressed in South Australian schools through a focus on school hygiene, appropriate aesthetic classroom displays and the development of school gardens. [Author's abstract]

The Evolution of School Design: Thirty Years of Change in Public Classrooms.
Focke, John
Texas Architect; v51 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Reviews the evolution of changing educational needs and school design solutions that have enriched public education and provided new, and flexible schoolhouses which can be integrated into the community. Some of the struggles encountered during this evolution are discussed.

One Room, Many Lessons.
Schoolhouse of Quality; v4 n1 , p8-11 ; Winter 2000
Explores the lessons learned about education revealed from the one-room schoolhouse, including what these types of schoolhouses would look like today if they were resurrected. Parental bonding and involvement, teaching across grade levels and subjects, and the non- threatening atmosphere one-room schoolhouses offered are discussed.

Celebrating 70 Years of Education Facilities and Business Developments.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v71 n1 , p35-46 ; Sep 1998
Provides a brief evolutionary history of change in educational facilities and the business market over the past 70 years and the journal "American School & University's" role as an information source. Examined is how school buildings have changed driven by new service demands and increasing enrollments.

School Architecture as a Subject of Inquiry
Uline, Cynthia L.
Journal of School Leadership; v7 n2 , p194-209 ; Mar 1997
Proposes the aesthetics of school building design as a valid interest for school leaders and an important research subject. Presents John Dewey's ideas about aesthetics as a philosophical foundation and his active-reflection methods as an implementation strategy. Identifies opportunities for reflective administrative practice contained within school renovation or construction projects. Suggests foci for future research. (35 references).

The Evolving Role of the American Schoolhouse.
Bradley, William S.
Educational Facility Planner; v34 n2 , p13-14 ; 1997
Discusses the role that architecture has played in distinguishing, harboring, and facilitating public education in America over the last 200 years. It reveals how population growth, educational policy, and community preferences have caused the one-room schoolhouse to evolve to meet changing needs.

Early Nineteenth Century School Space and Ideology
Markus, Thomas A.
Paedagogica Historica; v32 n1 , p9-50 ; 1996
Articulates the ideological and social relationships reinforced by the spatial design of urban children's schools in the early 19th century. Describes the purpose and function of the four types of schools: Sunday, monitorial, infant, and workhouse. Includes numerous illustrations from a variety of sources.

School Facilities--From Elemental to Exemplary.
Witcher, Ann
Educational Facility Planner; v29 n6 , p12-16 ; 1991
During the history of U.S. education, enormous changes have occurred in both the design and purpose of school facilities. Presents an overview of seventeenth- through twentieth-century schools. Characteristics of exemplary schools' facilities are identified, and considerations for facilities of the twenty-first century are addressed. (25 references)

Cathedral of Culture: The Schoolhouse in American Educational Thought and Practice Since 1820.
Cutler, William W., III
History of Education Quarterly; v29 n1 , p1-40 ; Spring 1989
Discusses the importance of the school building in U.S. education from 1820 to the present. Notes that the schoolhouse became a representation of U.S. cultural values and ideals. Explores how this reverence for the place of learning has affected and been affected by educational change.

These 21 Trends Will Shape the Future of School Design.
Brubaker, C. William
American School Board Journal; v175 n4 , p31-33,66 ; Apr 1988
Describes 21 design trends that will shape the future look of schools. Eventually a new kind of school architecture incorporating both high-tech and postmodern components will evolve. A sidebar cites 10 reasons why direct cost comparison for school construction can rarely be justified.

Some Thoughts on History and Campus Planning
Turner, Paul V.
Planning for Higher Education; v16 n3 , p1-28 ; 1987
Many university planning committees make bad decisions out of ignorance of the university's original plan. A brief history of American campus design is presented. The collegiate quadrangle design and land grant colleges' designs are compared, and master plans are discussed.

Rosenwald Schools
Alcorn, Virgie
Educational Facility Planner; v2 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1986
Beginning with an historical review of philanthropic funding to promote public education for all groups in the South, the author chronicles the efforts of Julius Rosenwald whose funding gifts were designated for elementary schools for black children. The author traces the growth of the Julius Rosenwald Fund and building program from its inception in 1917 until 1932 when the last of 5,358 modern rural black schools was built. The author includes interesting accounts of the Rosenwald building program.

A Dying Heritage: One-Room Schools of Gallatin County, Montana.
Heath, Kingston
Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture; , p201-216 ; 1982
To the western frontier settlements, the rural school was a potent message carrier of progress. It symbolized proof of a commitment to a better way of life for the families that ventured west.

Architectural Constraints on Educational Aims and Organisations: With Particular Reference to Middle Schools.
Wallace, Gwen M.
Journal of Educational Administration and History; v12 n2 , p45-57 ; Jul 1980
Uses five field studies and an examination of historical trends to look at the way school spaces constitute resources for achieving declared curricular aims and the way the organization of pupils is related to the actual problems of accommodating and moving personnel within the building.

Transcendentalism and Henry Barnard's "School Architecture"
Rothfork, John
Journal of General Education; v29 n3 , p173-187 ; Feb 1977
Sketches the intellectual and sociological climate that led Henry Barnard to advocate Greek Revival architecture for school buildings, takes a look at why this style and its implicit values were popular in the era between 1820-1860, and examines a few of the plans in Barnard's "School Architecture" (1838-48).

Environments Operating in Open Space and Traditionally Designed Schools
Gump, Paul V.; Good, Lawrence R.
Journal of Architectural Research; v5 n1 , p20-27 ; Mar 1976
Two open plan schools were compared with two schools of traditional architecture so that the relationship between the building design and the program could be examined.

The Habitats of Education
Gores, Harold B.
American Education; v10 n8 , 16-z3,z6 ; Oct 1974
Our schoolhouses have changed markedly during the past 200 years, and not just physically but psychologically as well.

Changing Architecture. Major Issues for '75
Morgan, Tom
CEFP Journal; v12 n4 , p18-19 ; Jul-Aug 1974
Trends changing from "fad" status to acceptance as the norm for contemporary schools are flexibility, adaptability, a reduction in fenestration, compactness, use of color, carpeting, and many new construction materials.

A Preliminary Look at the Schoolhouse: The Philadelphia Story, 1870-1920
Cutler, William W., III
Urban Education; v8, n4 , p381-400 ; Jan 1974
Examines old schools and new, inside and outside, in the historic city center and its developing suburban rings, for the "respectable classes" and the "struggling masses," as a municipal investment and as a design problem, in order to understand the material culture of vital urban places, not as facade, but as environment.

The Use of Architectural Handbooks in the Design of Schoolhouses from 1840 to 1860
Wriston, Barbara
The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians; v22 n3 , p155-160 ; Oct 1963

Education: Schools of Tomorrow
Time Magazine; Sep 12, 1960
An amazing roundup of 1960s ideas for school design. Discusses sun and air, flexibility, prefabrication, the factory school vs good design, cost restrictions, etc. Includes an interview with Harold Gores of the Ford Foundation's Educational Facilities Laboratories.

New Spaces and Places for Learning
Campbell, Edward A.
The School Review; v68 n3 , p346-352 ; Summer 1960
The little red schoolhouse typifies both a kind of learning and a place of learning. In the twentieth century school buildings that look like factories take the place of school buildings that look like churches. There is no modern equivalent to the little red schoolhouse.

Proper School Lighting
Strong, Everett M.
American Journal of Public Health; v 46 n5 , p619–622 ; May 1956
Report of improving of engineering and architectural contributions to adequate school lighting.

Housing the Secondary School of Tomorrow
Caudill, William W.
Teachers College Record ; v56 n7 , p393-403 ; 1955
The author proposes that the secondary schools of the future will have the quality of flexibility to take care of changing educational needs; will take advantage of the technique of the day; and, just as important, will have the human value in their architecture.

Educational Architecture
Elting, Winston
College Art Journal; v10 n3 , p244-47 ; Spring 1951

Trends in School Architecture and Design
Engelhardt, Jr., N.L.
Review of Educational Research; v12 n1 , p171-177 ; Apr 1942
Architectural design of school buildings may be viewed as an expression of the attitude of people toward education. This reviews the history of school architecture in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and evaluates new changes in light of new educational emphasis.

Trends in School Architecture and Design. Current Developments
Sherer, Francis R.
Review of Educational Research; v12 n2 , p178-181 ; Apr 1942
This article discusses developments in schoolhouse planning and design in the 1930's, including better coordination between educator, administrator, and architect.

The Evolving Elementary School Plant.
Engelhardt, N. L.
Teachers College Record ; v43 n8 , p640-646 ; Jan 1942
A review of school plant literature indicates the stresses which have been placed from time to time upon elementary school planning.

Trends in School Architecture and Design
Smith, Howard Dwight
Review of Educational Research; v8 n4 , p443-450 ; Oct 1938
Discussion of schools built in the 1930's as well as a brief review of historic trends.

An Analysis of State School-Building Codes.
McGowan, H. M.
Educational Research Bulletin; v10 n17 , p458-461 ; Nov 25, 1931

Trends in Space Provisions in Plans for High-School Buildings
Spohn, A.L.
The School Review; v38 n1 , p33-50 ; Jan 1930
Study shows changes that have taken place in plans for high school buildings over a period of twenty years: 1907-1927. The plans were published in the American School Board Journal from 1905 to 1928.

The Evolution of the Little Red School-House
Sargent, Walter
The School Review; v11 n6 , p435-455 ; Jun 1903



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

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