NCEF Resource List: Healthy School Environments
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Information on healthy and environmentally safe school facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. See also NCEF Resource Lists on Indoor Air Quality, Hazardous Materials, Green Cleaning, Pesticides and IPM, Mold in Schools, and more.

References to Books and Other Media

Green Clean Schools
(National Association of State Boards of Education, Feb 2012)
Ten states now have laws or policies regarding green cleaning in schools. The National Association of State Boards of Education highlights these state actions and many other facets of green cleaning and healthy school buildings in the February 2012 edition of its journal, the State Education Standard. Includes the following articles: Existing and Emerging Third-Party Certifications Programs; Making Green Cleaning Easy for Local School Boards; Roadmap to Implementing Green Cleaning in Districts and Schools; State Governments: Promoting Green Cleaning in Schools;Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning; Why Green Clean Our Schools?

Are Schools Making Kids sick?
Martin, David S.
(CNN, Jan 16, 2012)
Reports on how school air is sickening students in schools. Describes a New York study that finds correlation between building maintenance and illness. Refers to studies that estimate one-third of U.S. schools have mold, dust and other indoor air problems. Profiles a Connecticut school that was so plagued with mold officials decided to tear it down. Provides five simple checkpoints for problems: mold; dust; idling buses; heating/air conditioning units; certified green cleaning products. Includes a video showing parents outrage when sickness shuts a school in the Bronx, New York.

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

EPA: Healthy School Environments Resources
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
These web pages are intended to serve as a gateway to on-line resources to help facility managers, school administrators, architects, design engineers, school nurses, parents, teachers and staff address environmental health issues in schools. Topics covered include chemical use and management; design, construction, and renovation; energy efficiency; facility operations and maintenance; indoor environmental quality; legislation and regulation; outdoor air pollution; portable classrooms; safety/preparedness; waste; and waste reduction.

EPA: IAQ Design Tools for Schools
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
Website developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to help school districts and facility planners find the information resources they need to design new school facilities, and repair existing facilities. Topics include: high performance schools, school siting, pre-design, materials selection, HVAC, controlling pollutants, moisture control, construction, commissioning, operations and maintenance, renovation and repair, portable classrooms, IAQ Tools for Schools.

Improved Academic Performance. Student Health and Academic Performance: Using Research to Make the Case for Comprehensive IAQ Management in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, IAQ Tools for Schools. , 2012)
Provides links to research reports that link key environmental factors to health outcomes and students’ ability to perform. Includes the latest scientific data on indoor environmental quality, health and academic performance. Discusses why the physical environment of a school is important; what environmental factors are important and practical to address; and how much improvement can be expectec in academic performance and health.

Proximity of Public Elementary Schools to Major Roads in Canadian Urban Areas
Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; and Allen, Ryan W
(International Journal of Health Geographics , Dec 21, 2011)
Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads outside of the US. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances <75 m from major roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Conclusions: asubstantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children. [Authors' abstract]

Healthy, High Performance School Facilities: Developments in State Policy.
(Environmental Law Institute, Jul 2011)
Brief summaries of state laws, executive orders and other formal policies that address healthy, high performance school design and construction. Most of these policies reference either the LEED rating system or the CHPS criteria as the green building standard to be met by covered school construction projects.

The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America's Schools.
(USA Today , Jun 2011)
This special report website includes articles and videos on air pollution at America's school sites. An overlay of school site and Environmental Protection Agency air pollution data provides a tool for finding a school and its air quality standing. A map illustrates clusters of schools where toxic air is the highest.

EPA: Assessing Outdoor Air Near Schools.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Apr 26, 2011)
Provides information on an EPA initiative to monitor outdoor air around schools. The project will collect samples of outdoor air near selected schools over 60 days, analyze those samples for air toxics of potential concern, report on levels of air toxics found and their potential for long-term health impacts, evaluate actions that may be needed to reduce levels of pollutants of concern, and take action as needed to ensure that nearby industries are in compliance with clean air regulations. When monitoring results are available, EPA will post them on this site. This webpage also provides information on the schools where monitoring will occur, background information on air toxics, and links to other programs EPA has in place to protect communities and school environments.

Managing Indoor Air Quality. Fifth Edition
Burroughs, H.E.; Hansen, Shirley J.
(Fairmont Press, Apr 2011)
Practical, hands-on reference guide on applicable air quality control measures and preventative strategies. Includes complete response and step-by-step investigation tactics and tools. Specific symptoms of building-associated illnesses are detailed, along with practical guidelines for identifying and controlling the associated pollutant or source of the problem. Provides the results of a decade of new indoor air quality research and experience, as well as updated references and contacts, an update on standards, a new chapter on filtration, the latest research results on causes of indoor air quality problems, and innovative new investigation strategies. 350p.

Environmental Law Institute Database of State Indoor Air Quality Laws, Database Excerpt: IAQ in Schools. Updated.
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Feb 2011)
Presents a collection of laws in the Institute's database that deal with school indoor air quality. The chart includes laws that address schools directly or exclusively, but does not include general laws that may also affect schools. States without such laws are not represented in the chart, and the list does not claim to be exhaustive compilation. 23p.

Children's Health and Chemical Exposure: Beginning Risks Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc. Atlanta, GA, Jan 2011)
Examines the implications of chemical exposure and indoor air quality (IAQ) on children's health, as well as the ways by which physical differences, socioeconomic status, and activity patterns increase overall risk. 23p

Cleaning for Healthy Schools Toolkit.
(National Collaborative Work Group on Green Cleaning and Chemical Policy Reform in Schools , 2011)
Offers learning modules designed to introduce all audiences to the concept of green cleaning and cleaning for healthy schools. The Toolkit is an open-source, industry-free, customizable, comprehensive program to safeguard human health, reduce exposures to chemicals, and cost-effectively improve the performance of cleaning programs.

Investing in Our Children's Future: Building Sustainable Environmental Health Programs in Our Schools. Adobe PDF
Grevatt, Peter
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p29-31 ; 2011
Reviews major tenets concerning the contribution of a healthy school environment to academic achievement. Ten references are included.

Performance Evaluation of Indoor Environment towards Sustainability for Higher Educational Buildings Adobe PDF
Khalil, Natasha; Husin, Husrul Nizam; Wahab, Lilawati Ab; Kamal, Kamarul Syahril; Mahat, Noorsaidi
(US-China Education Review , 2011)
The indoor environmental factors considered in higher educational building must be determined in order to meet the user's requirement. Disruption of indoor environment may reduce occupants' efficiencies and their learning process and activities. But the question is, how to ensure that the provision of indoor environmental aspects achieves high satisfaction to the building user. Therefore, POE (post occupancy evaluation) is a prominent tool that indicates satisfaction and comfort level needs by the building occupants as lessons learned to identify problems in the indoor environment. The information of the building's condition is gained by reviewing what the occupants' feelings are and how they response to their needs by using and occupying the building. With relation to the title, the main aim of this study is to determine the occupants' satisfaction levels and the probability of learning process, which can be affected due to poor environmental conditions, based on analytical study on concept and process of POE. A survey on occupants' satisfaction of 100 students in University Technology of MARA, Perak, Malaysia, has revealed that there is significance of providing good quality of indoor environmental conditions, that will affect the learning process of the students. It is concluded that POE is effective to be used in evaluating performance of environmental conditions in a building, especially to apply the relative impact of aspects towards the design of future buildings. By introducing POE in evaluating environmental conditions in higher educational buildings, it is hoped that it helps to move the industry towards sustainable, healthy and comfortable learning areas. [Authors' abstract]

How To Clean and Disinfect Schools To Help Slow the Spread of Flu.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Sep 2010)
Tips on how to slow the spread of flu specifically through cleaning and disinfecting, including how to do it correctly and how to handle waste properly. 2p.

IAQ & Student Performance
(, Aug 29, 2010)
Video explains that good physical conditions in schools can reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and improve teacher retention rates. Studies that measure school conditions using an index of several variables consistently show improved scores on standardized tests as school conditions improve. On the other hand, schools with major unmet repair needs and fewer custodial workers per square foot have higher absentee rates and higher dropout rates. IAQ problems can cause increased absences due to respiratory infections, allergic diseases from biological contaminants, or adverse reactions to chemicals used in schools.

Managing Asthma in the School Environment. Adobe PDF
(United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Aug 2010)
Discusses reducing the incidence of asthma in schools through continuous evaluation of indoor air quality, a district-wide asthma management program, and a reduction of asthma triggers. Case studies of three districts efforts in these three areas are included, as are links to seven sources of further information. 16p.
Report NO: EPA 402-K-10-004

California Portable Classrooms Study
(California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board (ARB) and Calidornia Department of Health Services (DHS), Apr 01, 2010)
Comprehensive study of the environmental health conditions in portable (relocatable) classrooms. This study investigated classrooms in kindergarten through 12th grade public schools and included a large representative sample. A number of environmental problems were found in classrooms throughout California. The Report to the California Legislature: Environmental Health Conditions in California's Portable Classrooms has been submitted to the Legislature, and is available for download.

Strategies to Enhance School Air Toxic Monitoring in Environmental Justice Communities. Adobe PDF
(National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, Washington, DC , Apr 2010)
Offers advice and recommendations about how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can most effectively promote strategies that would improve EPA's long-term school and community outreach approach in the future. The 19 recommendations outlined in this report identify ways in which EPA can work with its partners and stakeholders at the national, state, tribal, and local levels to enhance the Agency's engagement with all school communities, but especially with low-income and people of color communities. Key recommendations address the employment of of EPA's regulatory clout as needed to mitigate pollution sources around schools, development of community outreach and interagency coordination, and expansion of research and monitoring, 24p.

Education Case Studies.
(Lennox, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2010)
Provides case studies for ten schools that variously improved indoor air quality, saved energy, and improved thermal comfort with Lennox equipment.

Facts about PCBs in Caulk.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Briefly answers questions concerning the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in building caulk, addressing the history of their uses, testing for them, means of exposure, and abatement in advance of a renovation. 4p.

Green Cleaning in Schools: A Guide for Advocates. Adobe PDF
(Regional Asthma Management and Prevention, Oakland, CA , 2010)
Discusses the importance of "green" cleaning in schools, four steps to initiate change, illustrated with fact sheets on improved environmental health and possible saving with green cleaning, additional green cleaning resources, and links to sample letters, presentations, and policies. Includes 33 references. 16p.

How to Test for PCBs and Characterize Suspect Materials
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Advises on how to test for the presence of PCBs in the building. The document recommends that the air is tested first to determine if PCBs may be causing a potential public health problem. This initial step may help prioritize the steps and/or approaches for the renovation or repair work. If a PCB problem is identified, it will need to be characterized to determine the extent of PCB contamination. It is important to note that even if PCBs are not present in the air, they still may be present in the caulk and/or other building materials.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Steps to Safe Renovation and Repair Activities.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Highlights precautionary measures and best work practices to follow when conducting a repair or renovation in older buildings where PCB-containing caulk could be encountered or where it is assumed that PCBs are present, but do not have an abatement planned. Compliance with protective regulations and techniques to prevent the spread of dust are emphasized. 7p.

Safe School Siting Toolkit. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment & Justice, Falls Church, VA , Oct 2009)
Provides communities with tools to protect their children’s health by organizing for the passage of safe school siting policies. This toolkit is based on the lessons learned over the past 28 years of working with communities to fight back polluting facilities, build relationships with elected officials, and run successful local, regional, and national campaigns to end toxic chemical exposure. Sections of the toolkit cover children's health and school siting, a model school siting policy, principles for safe school siting, a sample school siting resolution, how to pass a school siting policy, a sample community presentation, and getting successful media coverage. 58p.

CDC Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza during the 2009-2010 School Year.
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , Aug 31, 2009)
Provides guidance to help decrease the spread of flu among students and school staff during the 2009-2010 school year. It provides a menu of tools that school and health officials can choose from based on conditions in their area and provides a checklist for making decisions at the local level. Also included is advice on separating ill students and staff, hand hygiene, routine cleaning, school dismissal, and increasing social distances between students and staff at school. 5p.

Technical Report for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators on CDC Guidance for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza during the 2009-2010 School Year.
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , Aug 07, 2009)
Provides information on the reasons for the strategies presented in the CDC Guidance for School (K-12) Responses to Influenza During the 2009-2010 School Year and suggestions on how to use them. The Technical Report includes advice on separating ill students and staff, hand hygiene, routine cleaning, school dismissal, and increasing social distances between students and staff at school. 13p.

Cleaning, Indoor Environmental Quality and Health: A Review of the Scientific Literature.
(Minnesota Dept. of Health, St. Paul , Aug 2009)
Advises on the relationship between cleaning, indoor environmental quality, and health. The report discusses allergens in school dust, the effect of poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on learning, reservoirs of allergens in chronically under-cleaned areas and what these areas typically are, the role of cleaning in improved IEQ, actions that can be taken by school staff, and calculating the number of custodians needed for cleaning. 15p.

ABC's of Healthy Schoolhouses: Asthma, Bugs, and Chemicals.
Barnett, Claire
(U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009)
Discusses reasons why children's bodies are more vulnerable to environmental hazards; why unhealthy school environments present a special hazard to children due to occupant density, multiple uses, compulsory attendance, and special needs population; practical solutions for school environmental problems; and federal laws promoting healthy schools. 24p.

Capitol News Briefing on Proposed Legislation Concerning Cleaning Products That Are Used in School Buildings.
May 05, 2009
This press conference video reviews Connecticut's Green Cleaning Products in Schools Law (CT Public Act 09-81). Advocates, legislators, and health professionals address the impact of the law, historical incidents that precipitated the law, the particular impact of environmental toxins on children, and its fiscal neutrality.

Antimicrobial Products Registered or Use Against Influenza A Virus on Hard Surfaces. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 28, 2009)
Lists antimicrobial products that are registered by EPA to disinfect hard, non-porous surfaces that may be contaminated with the 2009-H1N1 flu. As part of the registration process, EPA evaluates the product efficacy to make sure the public health label claims are accurate. Currently, over 500 disinfectant products are registered for use on hard, non-porous surfaces against influenza A viruses. EPA believes, based on available scientific information, that the currently registered influenza A virus products will be effective against the 2009-H1N1 flu strain and other influenza A virus strains on hard, non-porous surfaces. This is not a complete list since some products may have different distributor or product names and may not be referenced. The list will be updated as more information becomes available. 20p.

Environmental Mitigation Handbook. (California) Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Feb 2009)
Assists California school districts with navigating environmental mitigation requirements. The handbook identifies the many state and local agencies that may have mitigation requirements, the permissible scope of these requirements, opportunities for negotiation, and best practice advice for compliance. Includes water and sewer service impact, traffic impact, air quality, and climate change. 57p.

Chemicals in Common Products: Risky Business for Children's Health.
(Greenguard Environmental Institute, Marietta, GA , 2009)
Reviews why children are at increased risk from industrial chemicals, how children are exposed, which chemicals are of concern, how these chemicals may impact children’s health, which products have potentially harmful chemicals, and what efforts are underway to reduce or eliminate exposure. Includes 87 references. 29p.

Green Existing Schools: Project Management Guide.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Helps schools and school districts "green" their existing facilities and achieve LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. The guide outlines the process for navigating LEED certification for existing schools and provides details on how to conduct organizational assessments,educate and train staff, initiate the certification process, and manage a campus- or district-wide plan. It is designed to be used in concert with additional resources contained in the Green Existing Schools Toolkit ( 85p.

New Research Links School Air Quality to School Cleaning Supplies.
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , 2009)
Reports on tests of 21 cleaners used in 13 California school districts indicating that when used as directed, the products released six chemicals known to cause asthma, 11 contaminants that are known, probable, or possible cancer-causing substances in humans, and hundreds of other compounds for which there is little or no hazard information. In all, air testing revealed 457 chemicals emitted by these products. While some of these airborne compounds are known to be hazardous, nothing is known about the health risks of most of them. Manufacturers' documents disclosed the presence of another 38 chemical ingredients that air testing could not pick up. The results also showed that green cleaning supplies can reduce chemical exposure by releasing a lower overall number of measurable air contaminants and especially by producing lower levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 48p.

Renovations and Repairs Checklist and Backgrounder. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises on maintaining good indoor air quality when renovating or repairing schools. Planning and preparation for asbestos, mold, off-gassing, painting, flooring, and roofing is discusses, as is project cleaning and commissioning. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 7p.

Safe Chemical Management in Your School Video.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2009)
Provides step-by-step guidance to help schools and community partners develop a responsible chemical management program. Consequences of mishandled school chemicals are discussed, and case studies of two schools that have launched a chemical management program are included.

Sick Schools 2009. America’s Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children. Adobe PDF
(Healthy School Networks, Albany, NY , 2009)
Reviews the status of state laws to protect children from environmental hazards at schools. After an introduction citing the prevalence of unhealthy schools nationwide, each state is presented with information describing the demographics of their current school population and efforts to improve their school environmental health. Appendices address school water quality, other resources, school equity funding laws nationwide, and a position statement from the publisher. 72p.

Teacher's Classroom Checklist. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides teachers in assessing products, practices, equipment, supplies, and building conditions that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 7p.

Toxic Chemical Pollution Releases and Schools.
(, 2009)
This website enables users to investigate facilities listed in the EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), number of schools within 1 mile within 5 miles of the facility, plus link to a database about the toxic history of the facility. Users can also research a chemical to learn more about associated risks, and can find icons naming individual schools.

Ventilation Checklist and Background Information. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Guides the maintenance staff in assessing HVAC products, practices, and equipment that affect indoor air quality, either positively or negatively. The checklist is used in conjunction with a background information document, found at 13p.

Practical Health and Safety Guidelines for School Theater Operations. Assessing the Risks in Middle, Junior and Senior High School Theater Buildings and Programs.
Davidson, Randall
(Risk International Publishing, Littleton, CO , 2009)
Encourages re-thinking and changes regarding health and safety practices in the performing arts at all educational levels. Units of the text address the administrator and the performing arts program; the purchase, replacement, and preventive maintenance of equipment; fire prevention and suppression; emergency preparedness; safety during performances; stage housing, rigging, and the audience; shops and storage; environmental concerns; special effects; skill sets for the performing arts instructor, and stage equipment. The book identifies areas that performing arts personnel and administrators might not think of as dangerous or hazardous, such as aging or outdated equipment or facilities, providing readers with pertinent health and safety information, pointing out hazardous conditions and recommended practices. 434p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings: Our Union's Road Map to Green and Sustainable Schools. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2008)
Highlights the work of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) members and affiliates involved in ensuring that schools are designed and built in healthy and sustainable ways. The report explains why the union supports green schools, what makes a school green, and the benefits of a green school to health, productivity, and saving money. Five green school case studies are included, as is a list of additional resources and thirteen references. 50p.

A Snapshot of What's in the Air.
Hubbard, Garrett; Elfers, Steve; Gainer, Denny; Piggott, Rhyne
(USA Today, Dec 2008)
Examines testing methods for air pollutants at schools situated in industrial areas, where the occupants are potentially at risk for health problems. The latent nature of these potential health issues, the need to address the situation nationally, and advice to parents who suspect that their children are at risk are discussed.

2008 Children's Environmental Health Report. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Describes current programs from the Environmental Protection Agency aimed at improving school environmental health. These include HealthySEAT, Clean School Bus USA, Chemical Cleanout Campaign, and partnerships with state school authorities and regional EPA offices. 32p.
Report NO: EPA-100-K-08-004

Green Seal Environmental Standard for Industrial and Institutional Cleaners.
(Green Seal, Inc., Washington, DC , Aug 29, 2008)
Establishes environmental requirements for industrial and institutional general-purpose, restroom, glass, and carpet cleaners. For purposes of this standard, industrial and institutional cleaners are defined as those cleaners intended for routine cleaning of offices, institutions, warehouses, and industrial facilities. The standard includes product performance requirements and environmental and health considerations for vulnerable populations in institutional settings such as schools, day-care facilities, nursing homes, and other facilities. 84p.
Report NO: GS-37

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Indoor Air: Source Investigation and Remedial Approach for a Public School Building in New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. Adobe PDF
Sullivan, David
( , Aug 2008)
Describes the testing for and removal of PCB-bearing material from this school's HVAC system. Includes eight references. 6p.

TDV Improves Efficiency and Classroom Environment. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento, CA , May 2008)
Describes the benefits of thermal displacement ventilation (TDV), which delivers cool air just above the floor at a very low velocity, after which it falls toward the floor and spreads across the room. As the air picks up heat from occupants and equipment, it rises to the ceiling and is exhausted from the space. Contaminants, including germs from the occupants, are carried up and out of the space instead of being mixed with the room air as they are with conventional ventilation schemes. TDV systems differ from underfloor air distribution systems in that they do not require a raised floor and they supply air at lower velocities. 2p.

School Siting and Healthy Communities Symposium.
(Florida State University , Apr 2008)
Features presentations by nine researchers investigating the connections between school building practices and boundary decisions, including the creation and maintenance of community environments for health where schools for all are clean, safe, and high quality, where children can walk or bike to school, and where decision-making processes involve multiple agencies and a broad spectrum of citizens. The symposium was attended by professionals from the Florida Departments of Transportation, Education, and Health; from the Leon County School District; facilities planners; and Florida State University faculty and students.

Scientific Consensus Statement on Environmental Agents Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Adobe PDF
(Institute for Children's Environmental Health, Freeland, WA , Feb 20, 2008)
Outlines current scientific understanding of the links between environmental factors and learning and developmental disabilities. It also identifies important research areas that hold promise of further advancing our understanding of these links. The document reviews findings from diverse research disciplines concerning environmental contaminants and the biological basis of compromised learning and development, identifies conclusions that could be drawn with confidence from existing data, addresses critical knowledge gaps and areas of uncertainty, suggests key elements of a coherent research agenda to help fill these gaps, and promotes a foundation of current scientific knowledge upon which to make policy decisions that promote and protect an environment in which children can reach and maintain their full potential. 35p.

Children, Learning, and Poisons Don't Mix: Kick the Pesticide Habit. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2008)
Examines basic information about pesticides and their use in and around schools, how children are exposed to pesticides and their health effects, and how a school can kick the habit of using pesticides. Final sections address federal and New York State laws concerning pesticides and provide a list of resources for more information and technical assistance. 66p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

Cleaning Chemicals and Their Impact on Indoor Environments and Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Examines the health impacts associated with cleaning products and systems, especially chemical and particulate emissions that can be inhaled. It also discusses the importance of cleaning products in the green building movement and examines the various third party certification programs that are used to ensure products are safe for both the outdoor and indoor environments. In addition, the technology and testing protocols for measuring VOC emissions and for establishing the health risks associated with these emissions are highlighted. Includes 49 references. 15p.

Clearing the Air on Indoor Air Cleaners/Purifiers. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Reviews the common types of contaminants found in indoor air and examines the use of air cleaning as an effective IAQ strategy. The report also describes different air cleaning methods, clarifies how these methods differ, which air cleaning devices may cause more harm than good and what to look for when selecting an air cleaner, including the importance of third party product testing to ensure air cleaners are operating as intended and are not contributing to indoor air pollution. 25 references are included. 15p.

Environmental Compliance Assistance Guide for Colleges and Universities.
(APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, 2008)
Assists facilities and campus safety professionals in meeting the basic requirements of environmental regulations. The guide provides a basic understanding of obligations and responsibilities, and helps develop compliance plans for a campus. It includes a listing of current laws and regulations, such as the Clean Air and Water acts, CERCLA, FIFRA, RCRA, and more. This second edition updates the key environmental rules and regulations affecting physical surroundings of campuses. 106
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-684-1446

Family Guide to School Environments. Adobe PDF
(British Council for School Environments, London , 2008)
Assists families in performing an on-site inspection of a potential school. The guide presents descriptions of favorable situations and questions that should be considered while visiting the campus. These questions address the accessibility and safety of the campus, as well as the design of classrooms, availability of technology, the dining environment, the recreation areas, and the design and condition of restrooms and furnishings. 16p.

Green and Healthy Schools, Cincinnati.
(Cincinnati Public Media, Ohio, 2008)
This video narrates Cincinnati Public Schools' early successes in creating "green" and healthy schools, including explanations of how the program got started, the stakeholders involved, community involvement, features of the buildings, changes to the curriculum, and involvement with the LEED program.

Healthy Schools: Lessons for a Clean Educational Environment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2008)
Helps school employees and parents recognize potential environmental health issues at schools, both indoors and outdoors. It includes basic information about mold, radon, VOCs, ventilation, asbestos, lead, mercury, chemicals, pesticides, PCBs, UV radiation, diesel fumes, air quality forecasts, and oil storage. Also provided are links to web sites that offer more information and guidance on how to have a healthier school environment and comply with relevant laws. 16p.

IAQ and Children's Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Promotes awareness about how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can affect children's health by answering the following questions: 1) Why are children at more risk than adults? 2) How many children are at risk? 3) Which indoor air pollutants are of most concern? 4) What are the possible connections between the alarming increase in childhood asthma and autism and indoor air pollution? 5) What can be done to protect children?s health against indoor air contaminants, particularly in schools? 37 references are included. 14p.

IAQ and Sensitive Population Groups. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2008)
Provides an overview of which indoor air contaminants are of most concern and the health effects associated with them, who is at risk, and what type of indoor environments are most impacted. The technology and strategies to provide healthy indoor environments for people who are especially vulnerable to indoor air pollution are addressed, and noted as widely school administrators and facility managers. 36 references are included. 19p.
Report NO: AQSM166.R0

Kentucky Design Manual: Kentucky Green and Healthy Schools Design Criteria. Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Enivronmental Education Council, Frankfort , 2008)
Outlines 20 design criteria to assist Kentucky school districts build and renovate efficient schools. Each design criteria includes a fact sheet providing information on how the criterion interacts with other systems, best practice recommendations, reference standards and guidelines, industry and government resources, and a checklist for the criterion. The 20 design guidelines are organized under the four categories of energy, health and comfort, environment, and safe and accessible. 94p.

Protecting Vermont's Children from Poor Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Report Card on Act 125.
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 2008)
Reviews progress with Vermont's Act 125, a law designed to protect children's health in the classroom. Under Act 125, the State was required to create a model school environmental health plan and award environmental health certificates to schools that voluntarily excelled in improving indoor air quality. Only 7% of schools had received a certificate by the end of 2006. The report recommends that Vermont turn to new opportunities and solutions for creating healthy learning environments including: 1) implementing a comprehensive healthy schools program; 2) requiring schools to purchase environmentally preferable cleaning products; and 3) eliminating high-risk pesticides and establishing strong integrated pest management programs at schools. 5p.

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program Assessment.
(Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison , 2008)
These assessment forms are designed to help schools identify what types of healthy, safe, and environmentally sound activities are already in place and where the school can improve its efforts. The Wisconsin program requires that the energy, waste, and recycling, and water sections be done along with any two of the remaining sections that cover chemicals, community involvement, facilities and grounds, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, mercury, and transportation.

Healthy Sustainable Schools: Guide for Change and Assessment Tool. Adobe PDF
Countryman, Linda; Moore, Emily; Bayer, Marilyn; Minowa, Connie; Sorensen, Janelle
(Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul , 2008)
Begins by outlining eight steps to creating a healthy, sustainable school. Subsequent chapters cover green building, energy and water conservation, green cleaning, environmentally preferable purchasing, reuse and recycling, paper and food waste reduction, composting, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, bus diesel emissions, nutrition, mercury, lead, and chemicals management. 66p.

Toxic Chemicals Outside Our Schools.
Hubbard, Garrett; Elfers, Steve; Gainer, Denny; Piggott, Rhyne
(USA Today, 2008)
Examines the impact of industrial pollution outside the nation's schools and explores how toxic chemicals shuttered one elementary school in Addyston, Ohio. Interviews with plant managers, city officials, parents, and affected students are included.

The Built Environment and Public Health in American Public Schools: A Policy Analysis.
Ibata, Brent
(Saint Louis University, MO , 2008)
Analyzes laws governing American school building to determine whether alternative government interventions at either the federal or state level can improve the built school environment. The study determines that federal mandates are more likely to influence district policy and school behavior than state-level mandates, and that there is no government entity leading the effort to enforce compliance with minimum standards for healthy school environments. 275p.

National Model School Siting Policy. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Jun 2007)
Proposes procedures for ensuring that schools are properly sited to avoid environmental hazards. Sections include advice on meaningful public participation in school siting decisions, exclusion of certain sites, and a step-by-step guide for the evaluation of candidate sites and the cleanup of contaminated sites. 20p.

Development of Health Criteria for School Site Risk Assessment Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 901(g): Child-specific Benchmark Change in Blood Lead Concentration for School Site Risk Assessment. Adobe PDF
(California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Integrated Risk Assessment Branch , Apr 2007)
Establishes a new child-specific health guidance value (HGV) for lead, for use in health risk assessment at school sites pursuant to California's Health and Safety Code Section 901(g). These models can be used to estimate acceptable lead levels in soil and other media to be compared with measured concentrations in the environment at existing or proposed school sites. 107p.

Five Clean and Green Healthy Schools Tips.
(ABC News, New York, NY, Apr 2007)
Draws on the serious impact of an unhealthy building environment on children at Hastings Elementary School to make suggestions for improving existing facilities. During summer clean-up and repair, schools should make construction activity separate from the existing instruction areas; use certified green cleaning products; install durable (no carpet) floors; install operable windows; and repair all leaks to minimize mold.

Guidance Protocol for School Site Pipeline Risk Analysis.
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento , Feb 2007)
Offers guidance for risk analysis of pipelines near schools. The document assists local educational agencies with evaluating whether aboveground or underground petroleum, petroleum product, or natural gas pipelines pose an unreasonable safety hazard to a school campus. The two-volume work covers a risk analysis overview, consequences and likelihood of pipeline failures, pipeline risk estimate calculations, risk analysis reporting, and technical assistance for modeling and determining pipeline risk. 225p.

High Performance School Design and Construction Standards: Recommendations for Vermont Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Vermont Dept. of Education, Montpelier , Jan 15, 2007)
Pursuant to an act of the Vermont legislature, these recommendations were created to develop a comprehensive proposal to incorporate high performance school design and construction standards into Vermont school construction projects. The authoring committee recommends adopting the Northeast High Performance School Protocol, which makes up the majority of this document, along with their own Vermont addenda, which is also included. 143p.

Building Success, Leading Change: Stories of Healthy School Environments.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 2007)
Highlights the accomplishments of Charlotte Mecklenburg School District and Milwaukee Public Schools using superintendent leadership to create healthier learning environments, particularly in the areas of indoor air quality. The publication includes a CD-Rom with forms, action plans, checklists and other resources. 8p.

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Recommendations from an Evaluation of Selected Schools Chemical Management Programs.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2007)
Describes the problem caused by unneeded, excessive, or dangerously mismanaged chemicals in K-12 schools, recommends ways to address the problem, and provides "lessons learned" from state and local chemical management programs to address chemical mismanagement in schools. 32p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-005

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Summaries of State, Tribal, and Local School Chemical Cleanout Programs
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Jan 2007)
Summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s "Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) program partners, funding sources, and components of the programs. Categories in the "program elements" described include: 1) Regulations/Guidelines - state or local regulations or guidelines that are relevant to hazardous chemicals in schools. 2) Chemical Inventory - a program that has a specific chemical inventory component. 3) Waste disposal a program that includes chemical removal and disposal of unwanted, excess, dangerous, or inappropriate chemicals. 4) Training a program that includes a training component for relevant school staff on aspects of conducting a chemical inventory, cleanout, and responsible chemical management. 5) Responsible Chemical Management a program that includes development and implementation of practices to sustain long-term chemical management such as purchasing policies or chemical hygiene plans. 6) Compliance/Technical Assistance - a program that offers resources to schools to assist in implementation of program components during the life of the SC3 program and beyond. 7) Additional Tools/Resources a program that provides a variety of resources to assist with program implementation such as Web sites, templates, manuals, or experts to call for assistance. 34p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-004

Glass Fiber and Health Complaints.
(Microlab Northwest, Redmond, WA , 2007)
Identifies potential sources of small glass fibers in school building products, their irritating potential, acceptable exposures, and long-term health consequences that might be attributed to them. Includes 27 references. 8p.

Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning.
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2007)
Examines the potential of environmentally-conscious school design for improving education. This book provides an assessment of the potential human health and performance benefits of improvements in the building envelope, indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustical quality. The report also presents an assessment of the overall building condition and student achievement, and offers an analysis of and recommendations for planning and maintaining green schools including research considerations. Includes 390 references. 180p.

Guide to PBDE: Toxic Flame Retardant. What, Women, Children and School Personnel Need to Know.
(Healthy School Network, Albany, NY , 2007)
Advises on the presence of Polybrominated diphenyl ethters (PBDE) in school furnishings and electronic equipment. Types of PBDE's typically used, their toxicity, and advice for avoiding and eliminating them in school environments are discussed. 4p.

Guide to School Design: Healthy and High Performance Schools.
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2007)
Briefly advises on the design of healthy and high performance schools, discussing why children are not just little adults, schools are not just little offices, federal legislation and other national programs that promote high performance schools, significant findings on the benefits of healthy high performance schools, and a checklist for designing healthy high performance schools. 6p.

LEED for Schools Registered Project Checklist.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides a checklist for estimating potential Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)certification, listing the attributes of site selection and design, water efficiency, energy use, effect on atmosphere, building materials, indoor air quality, and innovation in design that are considered under the LEED system. The number of required points in each category are shown, with an opportunity to indicate whether or not features within that category are in place, and then add up the points. 2p.

Low-Emitting Materials (LEM) Table.
(Collaborative of High Performance Schools, CA, 2007)
This table lists products that have been certified by its manufacturer and an independent laboratory to meet the CHPS Low-Emitting Materials criteria-Section 01350-for use in a typical classroom as described in a CA Department of Health Services (CDHS) Standard Practice. The list includes recommended materials for building insulation; adhesives, sealants, and concrete sealers; gypsum board; acoustical ceilings or wall panels; wood flooring; resilient flooring; carpet; and paint.

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness for Schools [School Facilities Issues]
(California Department of Education, 2007)
When developing the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan, California districts are encouraged to consider how such an emergency might affect the school facilities. Issues such as school closings, accommodation of students with special needs, schools designated as contingency hospitals, establishing policies for transporting ill students, modified maintenance practices during an emergency epidemic or pandemic to reduce or slow the spread of the disease, storage of adequate supplies (food, water, cleaning supplies, soap, hand towels, etc.), and removal of trash during a break-out, etc. This links to resources to assist schools in developing these emergency plans.

Physical School Environment. Adobe PDF
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2007)
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Text, graphs, and tables illustrate percentages of states, districts, and individual schools setting requirements for indoor air quality, pest management, drinking water, hazardous materials handling, foodservice facilities, and cleaning procedures. 2p.

School Building Safety.
(The Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2007)
This webpage offers a checklist and links to information resources to help assess the health and safety of a school environment. Air quality, fire code compliance, policies on chemicals and hazardous waste, pest control, and chemical spraying of school grounds are considered.

Schools Reference Guide, First Edition 2007.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2007)
This regularly updated guide offers advice and information on using the LEED for Schools Green Building Rating System for K-12 school projects. The reference guide provides crucial information for all projects seeking LEED for Schools certification. For each credit, the Guide provides overview and points per credit, documentation requirements, summary of the reference standard, importance and benefits of compliance, recommended design strategies and technologies, potential design synergies and trade-offs, economics, calculation methods and formulas, resources and definitions, and a case study(when available). 456p.

SHPPS: School Health Policies and Programs Study.
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, 2007)
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted by the Centers for Disease Control to assess school health policies and practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. Data on the school physical environment is represented in the areas of indoor air quality, pest control, and cleaning practices.

Synthetic Turf Chemicals.
(RAMP, Rochester, NY , 2007)
Presents a chemical analysis of synthetic turf "crumb rubber" fill, revealing the parts per billion of 23 metals and volatiles found in how many samples, taken from five synthetic turf suppliers. 6p.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

The Quick and Easy Guide to Green Cleaning in Schools. [Guide and CD-ROM]
(Healthy Schools Campaign, Chicago, IL , 2007)
The guide briefly outlines five "green cleaning" steps that will enhance the school environment and describes independent organizations that establish standards for and certify cleaning supplies and equipment. The CD-ROM contains comprehensive information, practical advice, tools and resources to help schools take action. It also includes a purchasing guide that lists products that are consistent with HSC Green Clean recommendations. 6 + CD-ROMp.

Artificial Turf: Exposures to Ground-Up Rubber Tires Adobe PDF
Brown, David
(Environment and Human Health, Inc., North Haven, CT , 2007)
Presents research revealing that tire crumbs used in athletic fields typically contain volatile organic compounds (VOC's) with carcinogenic potential that are released into the air and groundwater. Based on uncertainty as to what these exposures mean for children s health, as well as the environmental leaching of the materials into the ground water, a moratorium on use of tire crumbs was recommended, as well as caution in the use of existing fields with tire crumbs. This includes not using the fields on very warm days, avoidance by people with respiratory conditions, and further study. Includes 14 references. 30p.

Unwanted Exposure: Preventing Environmental Threats to the Health of New York State's Children. Adobe PDF
Loukmas; Heather; Boese, Stephen; McCoy, Marianne
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2007)
Provides a summary of the October 12, 2006 Children's Environmental Health Leadership Symposium, held in Albany, New York, as well as classifying and cataloguing the major environmental health hazards linked to chronic childhood diseases. The report reviews the current status of children's health protection in New York State through a series of interviews with key staff from the state departments of Health, Education and Environmental Conservation. It also examines other state agencies with responsibilities for providing services to children, noting their frequent lack of access to the information and resources they need to effectively address children's environmental health needs. 56p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings. Turning Crumbling Schools Into Environments for Learning. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Describes negative consequences of poor and unhealthy facility conditions, mold, overcrowded classrooms, and noise in schools. Recommendations for federal and state actions to renovate or build new and improved schools using proven, cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions are presented, illustrated with examples from districts around the country. Describes the elements of well-designed, well-built, well-maintained schools. Includes 21 references. 23p.

Chemical Management Resource Guide for School Administrators.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Helps identify sources, sometimes obscure, of dangerous chemicals in schools and advises on steps to oversee chemical management activities including establishing a leadership team, implementing pollution prevention and "green" chemistry, establishing a chemical management policy and chemical hygiene, conducting periodic inventories, establishing environmentally friendly purchasing, implementing appropriate storage, handling, and training programs, and developing communication plans for chemical awareness and emergency response. 34p.
Report NO: EPA 747-R-06-002

Homes, Schools, and Parks.
Siegel, Lenny; Hersh, Robert
(Center for Public Environmental Oversight, Mountain View, CA , Dec 2006)
Discusses the use of brownfield sites for schools and other community needs, the hazards that accompany landfills, capping and other remediation techniques, and funding cleanup. 7p.

Removing or Sealing CCA-Treated Wood Products. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Nov 08, 2006)
Advises on how to recognize, remove, replace, and seal arsenic-treated wood found at school playgrounds. 2p.

What Your School or Child Care Facility Needs to Know about Lead in Drinking Water.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Nov 2006)
Explains why a school facility should reduce lead in drinking water, including information on the health effects of lead in drinking water, how lead gets into the facility, the benefits and challenges of testing, two case studies, and the proper sampling procedures for testing for lead in drinking water.
Report NO: EPA 816-C-06-004


Children's Environmental Health: 2006 Report. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmnental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Highlights a variety of efforts that the Environmental Protection Agency has undertaken to improve the environments where children live, learn, and play. Nine EPA school environment programs are described that cover efforts to address asthma, lead poisoning, inadequate ventilation, moisture, mold, improper use of pesticides, and chemical management. 20p.

Environmental Compliance and Best Management Practices: Guidance Manual for K- 12 Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides an environmental compliance model for a typical K-12 school or school. The manual is divided into organizational units that have common regulatory compliance requirements or would likely be managed as separate operational units of the school or school district. Next, the target audience for each organizational unit is defined. The manual then defines numerous activities that would likely occur within each organizational unit, and for each activity it discusses what is required to comply with the appropriate federal environmental regulations and/or which best management practices apply to one s area of responsibility. 224p.

NIOSH Safety Checklist Program for Schools.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Oct 2006)
Many States mandate that career-technical schools and institutions have safety and health programs in place, conduct hazard analyses for each career-technical program, do safety inspections and maintenance, and comply with safety and health and environmental regulations. This Safety Checklist Program provides information needed by schools to maintain safe classrooms, shops, and labs for teachers and students in career-technical education, and includes the following: Chapter 1: Making Sense of Regulations gives background information concerning the regulatory agencies and regulations that are applicable to career-technical education; Chapter 2: How to Establish an Effective Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Safety Program outlines ways to ensure that an effective program is instituted and maintained; Chapter 3: Implementing a Safety Checklist Program describes how to implement a checklist program in your school to identify hazards and determine regulatory compliance; Chapter 4: Safety Checklists contains the checklists. Appendices are provided as references for additional information or help.

Water Quality Funding Sources. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides detail on 65 potential funding resources to help school and child care facilities implement drinking water quality programs. The guide includes information on the funding priorities, grant-making history, available funding, eligibility criteria, and geographic focus of each donor. 79p.
Report NO: EPA 816-B-06-005

Greening America's Schools: Costs and Benefits.
Kats, Gregory
(Capital E, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Based on a study of 30 "green" schools, this reports reveals that building "green" would save an average school $100,000 each year - enough to hire two new additional full-time teachers. The report demonstrates that green schools (schools designed to be energy efficient, healthy and environmentally friendly) are also extremely cost-effective. Total financial benefits from green schools outweigh the costs 20 to 1. With over $35 billion dollars projected to be spent in 2007 on K-12 construction, the conclusions of this report have far-reaching implications for future school design. The report's methodology is detailed, numerous tables illustrate the data, and 89 references are included. 23p.

Providence, Rhode Island Schools. Adobe PDF
Siegel, Lenny
(Center for Public Environmental Oversight, Mountain View, CA , Oct 2006)
Describes two Providence schools built or under construction on brownfield sites, and the remediation measures undertaken that the author feels have been inadequate. 7p.

Guidelines and Specifications for the Procurement and Use of Environmentally Sensitive Cleaning and Maintenance Products for All Public and Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools in New York State. Adobe PDF
(New York State Office of General Services, Albany , Aug 2006)
Advises on "green" cleaning practices and products for New York State schools. Sections of the document cover characteristics of green cleaning products, best cleaning management practices, consulting to develop advanced custodial practices, designation of green cleaning products, cleaning product categories and definitions, and reporting requirements. 48p.

A Cancer Risk Assessment of Inner-City Teenagers Living in New York City and Los Angeles.
Sax, Sonja; Bennett, Deborah; Chillrud, Steven; Ross, James; Kinney, Patrick; Spengler, John
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Washington, DC , Jun 15, 2006)
Presents the results of a study of forty-six high school students in New York City and and forty-one in Los Angles in 1999 and 2000. The students wore backpacks equipped with air monitors that measured what each was exposed to throughout the day. Although outdoor air in both cities is heavily polluted, home and school indoor air was responsible for 40% to 50% of the teenagers' cancer risk from the compounds measured. The median cumulative risk from personal VOC exposures for this sample of New York City high school students was 664 per million and was greater than the risks from outdoor exposures by a factor of about 5. In the Los Angeles sample, median cancer risks from VOC personal exposures were 487 per million, about a factor of 7 greater than outdoor exposure risks. Sources and types of pollutants collected and their carcinogenic risk are also described. Includes 37 references. 42p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools, Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Provides guidance concerning the use and implementation of displacement ventilation (DV) for K-12 schools. It serves architects, engineers, and educators seeking to understand why DV is beneficial, addresses the implications of installing DV in schools, and details a design procedure for DV systems in school applications. It contains recommendations from a range of sources, including PIER research, ASHRAE Guidelines and Standards, and practical experience gained in the design, installation, and performance monitoring of DV systems in two California schools. Topics covered include general design requirements for classrooms, air supply characteristics, diffuser specifications, architectural design issues, load calculations, system sizing, HVAC design options, and estimating energy savings. Case studies from six installations are included, as are 42 references, a glossary, and numerous figures and tables. 123p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Draft / Final Research Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Covers HVAC design considerations for displacement ventilation systems, drawn from completed research of the project, a computational flow dynamics analysis, and the results of the first demonstration classroom. The report addresses diffuser selection and layout, load calculations and system sizing and energy modeling options. The report also describes HVAC system requirements for displacement ventilation and control options. For the design phase, this report covers design requirements for TDV, load calculation procedures, energy modeling, and equipment selection. For the construction phase, the report documents show typical diffuser locations, ductwork layout, control details, and installation requirements. 23p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Final Classroom Documentation Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the performance monitoring results of a displacement ventilation demonstration project at Kinoshita Elementary in San Juan Capistrano, California. The report also documents the processes of design, financing and construction of the demonstration classrooms. The unit is designed to supply a steady 65-degree supply temperature, with variable air volume to maintain comfort in the space. This report assesses the performance of the unit in meeting specifications, and a comparison of comfort, indoor air quality, and energy use with a control classroom that is served by a conventional 4-ton packaged rooftop unit. 36p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools:Combined Document for Product Engineering Efforts Report, Research Summary Report, and Production Readiness Plan. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the development of a unit that can tightly control supply air temperature in a classroom thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) cooling system, in response to varying load and outdoor conditions. Also described are the steps that the manufacturer has taken towards making it a production unit. The report provides an evaluation of the unit with all available data, and identifies the steps required to make this a production unit. 20p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools, Project 2 Final Report: Thermal Displacement Ventilation. Adobe PDF
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Serves as the final project report for Project 2, Thermal Displacement Ventilation (DV) in Schools, under California's PIER IEQ-K12 Program. Key outcomes included the following: 1)Two demonstration DV systems were installed, commissioned, and monitored in two classrooms; one in southern and one in northern California. 2)Results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed that significant energy savings are possible. 3)Other results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed improved IAQ and acoustics with acceptable humidity levels. 4)Teacher feedback was positive for the DV demonstration classrooms. 5)The demonstration classrooms confirmed that DV provides good thermal comfort for classrooms with normal ceiling heights (9 feet). 6)A supply of 1,100 cfm of 65-degree air is sufficient for most classrooms in California climates. 7)The use of a tuned VAV control strategy will optimize energy savings. 8)DV can be achieved today using a variety of HVAC system designs. 9)DV provides many compelling benefits including energy savings. 43p.

The Role of Schools in Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Weight in Youth. Adobe PDF
(West Virginia University, College of Human Resources and Education, Policy Research and Engagement Project, Morgantown , May 2006)
Discusses how schools can increase students' physical activity levels through recess and after-school programs as well as by supporting initiatives that make safe walking/biking to school and the use of the school "after hours" as a community resource. More community- centered schools and site considerations are covered on pp. 20-29 of the report. 52p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: Applications Guide for Off-the-Shelf Equipment for Displacement Ventilation Use.
Blatt, Morton
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , May 2006)
Provides background information on the potential energy use, indoor air quality and acoustic benefits of displaced ventilation as well as field experience with DV in schools and commercial buildings. The applications that could benefit from use of displacement ventilation are described including facility requirements, acoustic requirements, climate-related factors, and indoor air quality. Displacement ventilation system requirements for K-12 schools are defined, including diffuser requirements, HVAC requirements, and optional HVAC system features. Mechanical system options are described including central (chiller-based) plants, packaged direct expansion (DX) variable air volume systems and packaged single zone direct expansion units. Alternative control strategies are discussed and diffuser options are presented. Includes nine references. 15p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools:Project 3 Final Report: UVC Technology. Adobe PDF
Okura, Stacia
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , May 2006)
Summarizes a study quantifying the impact of ultraviolet irradiation in the "C" band (UVC) on evaporator coil disinfection of California K-12 Schools, with the goal to determine if UVC is effective in reducing mold and mildew in HVAC systems, thereby improving airflow, indoor environmental quality, energy savings, and attendance. The study concluded that the UVC technology is effective in reducing microbial growth on air conditioning cooling coils. Since microbial activity is correlated with the amount of moisture present, the more humid the climate, the more applicable this technology. Additionally, this technology is more applicable in regions with high annual cooling hours, or inland climate zones, where the potential for mold growth is greater. The study team could not conclusively determine if there were any improvements in air flow or efficiency of the air conditioning units with UVC disinfection systems. 66p.

Who's Sick at School. Adobe PDF
Graham, Tolle; Zotter, Jean; Camacho, Marlene
(Massachusetts Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health, Boston , Mar 2006)
Reports on evidence linking poor Boston school conditions with high rates of asthma. Using data from school environmental audits collected in 2004 - 2005, the report shows that those students attending the schools ranking worst on three major environmental factors for asthma (mold, pests, and leaks) also have high asthma rates. Eighty-five percent of Boston Public Schools reported leaks or water stains, 36 reported visible mold growth, 63 percent reported overt pest signs, 83 percent reported repairs needed and 61 percent reported improper chemical storage. Over 80 percent reported one or more of these problems. The schools with the highest percentages are often located in the lowest income areas and those with the highest incidences of asthma some double the state average. Though the city has an average 7-12 percent child asthma rate, there are some Boston Public Schools with as high as 27 percent of their students suffering from asthma. 13p.

Not in My Schoolyard: Avoiding Environmental Hazards at School through Improved School Site Selection Policies. Adobe PDF
Fischbach, Steven
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Mar 2006)
Reports on a 2004-05 survey of the laws, regulations and policies related to the siting of schools on or near sources of environmental pollution in all fifty states. The survey revealed that: 1) 20 states have no policies of any kind affecting the siting of schools in relation to environmental hazards, the investigation or assessment of potential school sites for environmental hazards, the clean up of contaminated sites, making information available to the public about potential school sites or providing some role for members of the public in the school siting process. 2) Only 14 states have policies that prohibit outright the siting of schools on or near sources of pollution or other hazards that pose a risk to children s safety. 3) 21 states have school siting policies that direct or suggest school siting officials "avoid" siting schools on or near specified man-made or natural environmental hazards, or direct the school district to "consider" those hazards when selecting school sites. 4) 23 states have no policies that require sponsors of new school projects to investigate or assess environmental hazards at potential school sites. 5) Only 12 states require the sponsors of school projects to solicit public input on school sites through the use of public notices, public meetings or hearings. 6) Only eight states either require or authorize the creation of school-siting advisory committees. The report also proposes a comprehensive model policy regarding the siting of schools on sites impacted by pollution that could be enacted in any state. 105p.

Illinois Resource Guide for Healthy, High Performing School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Capital Development Board, Springfield , Feb 2006)
Provides school administrators, school boards and community members with guidance to help make informed decisions about health and energy efficiency issues important to schools. This resource guide contains the design elements of a healthy, high performing school and the policies to support the school once it is open. Also included are case studies from new schools in Illinois, information on financial resources, tips on selecting a design team and a glossary of terms, and information about educational materials that can help turn a school into a hands-on learning laboratory for students. 83p.

Pollution Prevention Measures for Safer School Laboratories. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Feb 2006)
Advises on maintaining the chemical inventory, chemical purchasing, storage, labeling, waste minimization, laboratory ventilation, protective equipment, and spill prevention and cleanup. Includes 16 references. 9p.

CHPS Best Practices Manual.
(The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), San Francisco, CA , 2006)
Offers guidance on creating high performance schools in California. The manual consists of six volumes. Volume I describes why high performance schools are important, what components are involved in their design, and how to navigate the design and construction process to ensure that they are built. Volume II contains design guidelines for high performance schools. These are tailored for California climates and are written for the architects and engineers who are responsible for designing schools as well as the project managers who work with the design teams. It is organized by design disciplines and addresses specific design strategies for high performance schools. Volume III is the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Criteria. These criteria are a flexible yardstick that precisely defines a high performance school so that it may qualify for supplemental funding, priority processing, and perhaps bonus points in the state funding procedure. School districts can also include the criteria in their educational specifications to assure that new facilities qualify as high performance. Volume IV (2004) covers maintenance and operations. It provides M&O staff, teachers, and administrators with strategies for avoiding improper use of building systems and poor maintenance practices that can diminish the energy performance of a school. Topics covered in this volume inlcude cleaning and calibrating building systems, selecting cleaning products, and reducing waste. Volume VI (2006) covers relocatable classrooms, ofering an overview of the pros and cons of relocatables, specifications for a high performance relocatable, and advice on requisitioning, siting, and commissioning relocatables. 717p.

Energy Conservation and Indoor Air Quality: Partnering to Protect Public Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Briefly reviews the history of indoor air quality and energy conservation during the past 40 years, and how indoor air contaminants can affect human health. Issues addressed include the OAPEC oil embargos, energy conservation, tight buildings, poor IAQ, mold, volatile offgassing compounds (VOCs), climate change, "green" building, and complimentary goals of indoor air quality and energy conservation. 21 references are included. 12p.

Environmental Health and Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges, and Artisans.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2006)
Assists art instructors in complying with hazardous waste management, and to expand the focus of educational standards for the arts to include basic environmental, health and safety training information on the hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous waste found in various art mediums and processes. Sections cover hazardous waste management basics, hazardous waste generator requirements, and then dangers and safety suggestions for each of a wide variety of art and craft activities. Appendices offer advice on types of waste, best management practices, forms, and additional resources. 130p.

Healthy Children Ready to Learn: Facilities Best Practices. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , 2006)
This looks at how educational design can contribute to healthier children through such design solutions as improved food service and physical education facilities, and site selection to encourage more walkable schools. 66p.

Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report.
(National Academy Press, Washington , 2006)
Details findings and recommendations of a National Research Council study that discovered a lack of evidence-based studies on the benefits of green schools, a large number of confounding factors and variables complicating the research, a need for more attention to moisture control in green school guidelines, considerable evidence concerning the effect of indoor air on occupant productivity, inconsistent results on the association between daylighting and student performance, and a link between decreased noise levels and increased student achievement. Includes 146 references. 80p.

Reviewing and Refocusing on IAQ in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Reviews which indoor pollutants in schools are of most concern, how poor IAQ impacts children's health and ability to learn, and new resources that can help turn the tide towards healthier indoor learning environments. 37 references are included. 16p.

Strategies for Addressing Asthma within a Coordinated School Health Program. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2006)
Offers suggestions for schools working to improve the health and school attendance of students with asthma. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified six strategies for schools and districts to consider when addressing asthma within a coordinated school health program. The six strategies detailed are: (1) Establish management and support systems for asthma-friendly schools; (2) Provide appropriate school health and mental health services for students with asthma; (3) Provide asthma education and awareness programs for students and school staff; (4) Provide a safe and healthy school environment to reduce asthma triggers; (5) Provide safe, enjoyable physical education and activity opportunities for students with asthma; and (6) Coordinate school, family, and community efforts to better manage asthma symptoms and reduce school absences among students with asthma. This revised edition includes a list of resources covering each of the six strategies. 10p.

The Little Green Schoolhouse. Thinking Big About Ecological Sustainability, Children’s Environmental Health, and K-12 Education in the USA.
(Green Schools Initiative, Occidental, CA , 2006)
Provides guidance towards creating healthy, sustainable schools, emphasizing a positive vision and organizing information under four "pillars" of healthy schools: 1) Strive to be Toxics Free, which covers issues of children's environmental health, pesticides, mold, lead, building materials, cleaning agents, and school siting are covered; 2) Use Resources Sustainably, which covers green building practices, energy use, environmentally sound school supplies, and recycling; 3) Create a Green, Healthy Space, covering schoolyards, lunches, and snack foods; and 4) Teach, Learn, Engage, covering environmental education and student involvement. Includes 111 references. 40p.

Green Cleaning Programs in Schools Get High Scores.
Clarke, Bob
(OneSource Management, Atlanta, GA , 2006)
Defines environmentally sensitive "green cleaning" and cites the benefits of green cleaning to learning, as it improves school morale and indoor air quality. Twelve basic principles of green cleaning are provided. Includes four references. 3p.

Safe and Healthy School Environments.
Frumkin, Howard; Geller, Robert; Rubin, I.; Nodvin, Janice
(Oxford University Press, New York , 2006)
Explores the school environment using the methods and perspectives of environmental health science. Each section of the book addresses a different concern facing schools today. In the first six sections, the various aspects of the school environment are examined. Chapters include the physical environment of the school, air quality issues, pest control, cleaning methods, food safety, safe designs of playgrounds and sports fields, crime and violence prevention, and transportation. In the last two sections, recommendations are made for school administrators on how to maximize the health of their schools. Appropriately evaluating the school environment, implementing strategies to address children and adults with disabilities, emphasizing health services, infectious disease prevention and recognition, and occupational health for faculty and staff are all addressed. 462p.
TO ORDER: Oxford University Press

Site Assessment and Soil Remediation Can Help Keep Schools Safe.
Leonard, Michael
(, Orange, CA , 2006)
Discusses remediation issues with ground contamination at school sites, including assessment, public interest, benefits of using brownfield sites, and the removal of contaminants from both existing and potential school sites. 2p.

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Child Care Facilities: Revised Guidance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC , Dec 2005)
Provides information about sources of lead in drinking water and its health effects, particularly in young children and infants. Simple instructions for testing water and recommended solutions for fixing a lead problem are included, as are suggestions on how to share information on lead testing and results with parents and staff. A list of state drinking water programs and additional resources are included. 28p.
Report NO: EPA 816-R-05-001

3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities Toolkit.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC , Dec 2005)
Provides EPA manuals and supplemental materials to assist schools and child care facilities in their efforts to develop programs and policies to reduce lead leveles in drinking water.
Report NO: EPA 816-E-05-006


3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools: Revised Technical Guidance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC , Dec 2005)
Provides training for school officials to raise awareness of the potential occurrences, causes, and health effects of lead in drinking water; to assist school officials in identifying potential areas where elevated lead may occur; and to establish a testing plan to identify and prioritize testing sites. Instruction for testing drinking water in schools to identify potential problems and take corrective actions is included, as is advice on how to keep students, parents, staff, and the larger community aware of lead monitoring programs, potential risks, the results of testing, and remediation actions. The manual is specifically targeted at schools that receive water from water utilities or water suppliers such as cities, towns and water districts. Appendices include a glossary, 18 references and referrals, and a list of state drinking water programs. 99p.
Report NO: EPA 816-B-05-008

National Review of Green Schools: Costs, Benefits, and Implications for Massachusetts. Adobe PDF
Kats, Greg; Perlman, Jeff; Jamadagni, Sachin
(Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, Westborough , Nov 2005)
Documents the financial costs and benefits of "green" schools compared to conventional schools, with specific reference to Massachusetts. This review of 20 schools nationwide demonstrates that "green" schools cost 1.5 to 2.5% more to build, but provide financial benefits that are 10 to 20 times as large. Individual sections discuss energy savings, emission reduction, water and wastewater impacts, construction and demolition waste, and health and learning benefits. 72p.

Powerful Practices: A Checklist for School Districts Addressing the Needs of Students with Asthma. Adobe PDF
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , Oct 2005)
Offers guidance to help school districts identify areas of strength and weakness in accommodating asthmatic students. Topics assessed include providing school district leadership, identifying and monitoring students with asthma, ensuring that students with asthma receive appropriate care and reducing environmental contributors. Education of staff, students, families, and caregivers, along with collaboration with health-care providers and the community is also covered. 4p.

In Their Own Words: 9/11 Parents Help Other Parents and Schools with Lessons Learned. 2005 Edition. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc. Albany, NY, Sep 2005)
Through the constructive advice of experienced parents, this discusses emergency planning for schools. The events of September 11 and its aftermath have challenged health, environment, and education agencies to understand how children are different from adults in relation to environmental hazards, and how schools are different from offices in terms of their responsibilities for the occupants and the demands on the facilites. 8p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.5c Final Outline Specification and Schematic Design Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Summarizes a general HVAC load calculation for a hypothetical single-level classroom building in coastal Southern California, and an identical building in Sacramento, including accommodations for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV). Subsequent sections of the report provide a schematic description of three design options for applying TDV in the hypothetical classroom building. For each of the three options, a summary of the system design, major components, HVAC sequences of operation, and estimated capital costs are indicated. For each design option, an effort has been made to address the relative advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each TDV design option, and to highlight differences from conventional HVAC design approaches. A general schematic of the system layout, room layout and room section are included for each system design. 18p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.8b Final Equipment List and Performance Specification.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Documents the requirements for new products designed specifically for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV), with the objective of identifying new products for TDV that are not currently available. The identification of new products springs from the TDV design charrette, system design options study, and market barriers study performed in this California research project. 12p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D3.2c Microbial Sampling and Engineering Plans, D3.4b Site Survey, and D3.7b Teacher and Director of Facilities Survey. Adobe PDF
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 21, 2005)
Presents the research plan to quantify the impact of ultraviolet C-band (UVC) light on coil disinfection and indoor air quality of California K-12 Schools. The plan includes research on biological sampling, school selection, qualification of HVAC units, pre-installation microbiological testing, pre-installation air conditioning performance testing, installation of UVC lamps, post-installation testing, analysis, and reporting. 43p.

Fifty State Survey of School Siting Laws, Regulations and Policies. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment & Justice, Falls Church, VA , Jun 07, 2005)
Surveys state laws, regulations, and policy guidance documents regarding the siting of schools on sites contaminated by toxic substances, summarizing their key provisions and listing in an appendix the legal citations for each authority referenced in the survey. The general findings include that 19 states have no laws that regulate the criteria a potential school site must meet, 14 of the remaining 31 states prohibit siting schools in areas that pose health and safety risks due to man-made or natural environmental hazards, and eight states include direction for districts to evaluate site contamination. Vaguely worded criteria rarely provide school districts with the tools necessary to select, evaluate, and either eliminate from consideration, or if absolutely necessary, remediate a contaminated site. [See chapter 46p.

Guidance for School Food Authorities: Developing a School Food Safety Program Based on the Process Approach to HACCP Principles.
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Jun 2005)
This document serves as USDA guidance for the implementation of a HACCP-based (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) food safety program in schools participating in the National School Lunch Program or the School Breakfast Program. It is a systematic approach to constructing a food safety program designed to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards by focusing on each step of the food preparation process, from receiving to serving. 79p.

Memorandum of Understanding on Reducing Lead Levels in Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Jun 2005)
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with several federal agencies, state drinking water programs, and drinking water associations that represent water utilities to promote voluntary efforts to reduce children’s lead exposure in schools and child care facilities. The MOU is a partnership between EPA, Department of Education, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Water Works Association, the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, the National Association of Water Companies, the National Rural Water Association, and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators to focus attention on testing for lead in drinking water for schools and child care facilities. The signatories have agreed to encourage schools and child care facilities to take steps such as testing drinking water for lead; disseminating results to parents, students, staff and other interested stakeholders; and taking appropriate and necessary actions to correct problems. The signatories also agree to encourage drinking water utilities to assist schools and child care facilities in their efforts to understand and reduce lead exposure from drinking water. 14p.

A Bill to Be Entitled: An Act to Enact the Schoolchildren's Health Act of 2006. Adobe PDF
(General Assembly of North Carolina, Raleigh , Apr 21, 2005)
This North Carolina legislation establishes guidelines for reducing exposures to pesticides, diesel fumes, mold & mildew, arsenic treated wood, and elemental mercury in the state s schools. Specifically, the legislation directs schools to do the following: 1) Adopt a recommended model Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program in order to reduce pesticide exposures. 2) Notify parents and school staff when high-hazard pesticides are to be used on school property. 3) Exempt certain low-hazard pesticide products (such as baits) from notification requirements. 4) Prohibit new uses of arsenic-treated wood on playgrounds or other areas where children are at risk of exposure. 5) Seal existing arsenic-treated wood on playgrounds and/or develop a timeline for its removal from public school property. 6) Ban the use of elemental mercury in classrooms. 7)nEstablish a school bus exhaust and no idling policy to reduce exposure to diesel fumes. 8)Follow guidelines for mold and mildew prevention when building new school facilities. The bill also directs the State Board of Education to adopt guidelines to assist schools in accomplishing each of these goals. 3p.

Boston Public Schools Green Cleaners Project Pilot Program Assessment. Adobe PDF
Senier, Laura; Mayer, Brian; Brown, Phil
(Contested Illnesses Research Project, Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI. , Apr 06, 2005)
In the fall of 2003, the Boston Urban Asthma Coalition (BUAC) and the Massachusetts Coalition for Occupational Safety and Health (MassCOSH) launched the Healthy Boston Schools Project to test cleaning products currently in use in Boston schools and to recommend substitution of some products with more environmentally-friendly formulations, or so-called green cleaners. The success of the project led to an agreement with the Boston School Department to adopt a policy requiring all vendors to bid products that meet the Green Seal 37 health and safety environment criteria by March 2006. It also led to the establishment of a subcommittee of the city-wide Healthy Schools Taskforce that would provide an ongoing mechanism for reviewing cleaning products and building maintenance issues. This includes a summary of the findings, the methods used, next steps, and works cited. 25p.

Reducing Asthma Triggers in Schools: Recommendations for Effective Policies, Regulations, & Legislation. Adobe PDF
Parker, Joan
(Asthma Regional Council of New England, Dorchester, MA , Mar 2005)
While 31 million Americans have been diagnosed with asthma, children are most severely affected. Asthma also is common among teachers, indicating that the school building environment may be associated with asthma prevalence among occupants. This provides concise recommendations for laws and regulations that control indoor air quality problems, with the goal of reducing the occurrence and severity of asthma and other respiratory diseases. The recommendations address ventilation, maintenance, chemicals and products, and building design, construction, and renovation. 18p.

Guide to Healthier Cleaning & Maintenance: Practices and Products for Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York State Association for Superintendents of School Buildings and Grounds, Albany; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY. , 2005)
This paper helps those concerned with keeping schools clean and properly maintained in adopting healthier cleaning and maintenance practices and promoting the purchase and use of environmentally preferable products which perform well and are cost effective. It explains how children are exposed to toxic chemicals in school cleaning and maintenance products, highlights the problem of indoor air pollution, and cautions about the lack of toxic testing on commercially used cleaning chemicals. A checklist for prevention of dirt and grime by anticipating people and their messes is detailed. Also discussed are tips on purchasing environmentally preferable cleaning products, including a checklist of human health and environmental considerations. Final sections cover vendor, price and performance considerations; and thoughts on how schools buy cleaning and maintenance products. Lists of helpful organizations and agencies and how-to guides are included. 8p.

Implementing Health-Protective Features and Practices in Buildings.
(National Academies Press, Washington, DC , 2005)
Chapter 1 summarizes the discussions and presentations that took place during the course of the workshop. Chapters 2 through 6 summarize the formal presentations given, which include reviews of knowledge about indoor environments and occupants' health, research and empirical evidence to support health- related policies and practices in buildings as well as barriers to their implementation, knowledge about the effects of lighting on people's visual and circadian systems, how an improved physical environment can be used as a legitimate treatment modality in health care, and five case studies that analyzed the impacts on cost and time of changes to construction projects to incorporate specific health-related design elements interior partitions, exterior enclosures, service systems, and structural elements. Proven approaches for incorporating desirable features across a wide range of buildings quickly and effectively are identified. Includes 72 references. 72p.

New Asthma Study Links VOCs and Allergens to an Increase in Childhood Asthma. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2005)
Reviews a recent study investigating the link between exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and asthma in young children. The study determined which VOC's presented the highest risk, and that the most common allergy among both asthmatics and non-asthmatics was house dust mite. Sources and types of VOC's commonly found in schools are listed, along with several measures for maintaining good school indoor air quality. Includes nine references. 6p.

The Healthy School Environmental Action Guide. Adobe PDF
(New York City Healthy Schools Working Group, Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2005)
Informs parents, advocates, and school personnel about existing laws and resources available to ensure that every school in New York is an environmentally safe and healthy school. The guide reveals how to recognize air quality and other environmental problems and who to contact when adverse conditions are discovered. It examines problems associated with asbestos and lead, the importance of proper ventilation, fire hazard identification, hazardous structural problems, playground safety, and bathroom sanitation. Also included are ways of making a school free of pesticides. Each environmental hazard highlights the applicable laws involved and lists who to contact when these specific problems are uncovered. Appendices provide sample of complaint letters, the affirmative steps that can be taken to make a school safer and healthier, and Congressional contact information. 42p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

The Pennsylvania Green Building Operations and Maintenance Manual.
(Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Dept. of General Services, Harrisburg , 2005)
Provides guidance for environmentally preferable maintenance and operation practices in buildings, including landscaping, snow removal and de-icing, cleaning practices and product selection, and maintenance of building systems, including parking garages 101p.

Who's in Charge of Protecting Children's Health at School? Adobe PDF
Addresses the lack of oversight concerning environmental hazards at schools and recommends remedies at the federal and New York State level, focusing on access to the same protections for children at school as for adults at their workplaces. 22p.

New York State School Facilities and Student Health, Achievement, and Attendance: A Data Analysis Report. Adobe PDF
Boese, Stephen; Shaw, John
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , 2005)
Presents results of a study of two New York counties indicating that school facility condition does affect student achievement. Data regarding school condition, student complaints, and academic achievement in these schools were gathered from local and state sources. When correlated, poorer academic achievement was evident in schools where environmental hazards had been identified. Recommendations for better collection, linking, and distribution of these three data sources are also included. 39p.

Openluchtscholen in Nederland: Architectuur, Onderwijs en Gezondheidszorg 1905- 2005. (Open-Air Schools in the Netherlands: Architecture, Education, and Healthcare 1905- 2005)
Broekhuizen, Dolf
(Uitgeverij 010, Rotterdam , 2005)
Profiles 100 years of outdoor, open-air, and abundantly daylit Dutch schools. Principles of the necessity of fresh air to health and sanitation are discussed, accompanied by a chronologically arranged selection of supporting school projects. 239p.

Health Considerations When Choosing School Flooring. Adobe PDF
Gilmore, Frances
(Asthma Regional Council of New England, Dorchester, MA , 2005)
Evaluates the health impact of carpet, VCTT (vinyl compount tufted textile), linoleum, terrazzo, ceramic tile, concrete, and rubber, with an emphasis on the indoor air quality impact of each. The appropriate flooring options for various school spaces, noise abatement ideas where hard flooring is used, the impact of the school's concrete slab on flooring , and special considerations for wood flooring are also discussed. 10p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Final Memo on the Alternative Technology and Literature Review. Adobe PDF
Okura, Stacia
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jan 2005)
Presents the research plan to quantify the impact of UVC Light on coil disinfection and indoor air quality of California K-12 Schools, including a technology assessment, literature review, and study design, and ten references. 25p.

California Portable Classrooms Study.
Whitmore, Roy; Clayton, Andy; Phillips, Michael; Akland, Gerry
(California Air Resources Board, Research Division, Sacramento, CA; California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , Nov 2004)
The purpose of this study was to assess environmental conditions in California's portable classrooms. This report describes the sample design, the survey instruments, the data collection process, the data analysis procedures, and the results that show and compare the major characteristics of the populations of eligible public schools as well as portable and traditional classrooms. Results from this survey suggest that there are major issues associated with environmental conditions in California K-12 schools. Environmental factors, complaints, and health symptoms reported by teachers and facility managers are often different between the traditional and portable classrooms. Measured levels of formaldehyde are significantly higher in the portable classrooms. More extensive monitoring and classroom assessment are required. [Authors' abstract]

Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors. Adobe PDF
Storey, Eileen; Dangman, Kenneth; Schenck, Paula; DeBernardo, Robert; Yang, Chin; Bracker, Anne; Hodgson, Michael.
(University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, Farmington , Sep 30, 2004)
Explains the current understanding of the relationship between mold exposure and illness, approaches to diagnosis, approaches to environmental assessment, and strategies for clinical management and preventive intervention. Three case studies of teachers affected by mold in their schools are provided. 120p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.2d Final CFD Analysis and Documentation Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 16, 2004)
Presents conclusions from computational flow dynamics analysis of various classrooms in this California research into displacement ventilation in schools: 1) Sufficient cooling and thermal comfort can be provided through two displacement diffusers, providing 65- degree supply air. 2)A 9-foot ceiling is sufficient for thermal displacement ventilation. Benefits of stratification are seen with high (12-foot) ceilings; as a result, less air is required to maintain the same room setpoint, for the same design cooling loads. 3)Marginal comfort is maintained at locations close to the diffusers. The temperatures at floor level are cool (67-68 degrees). Seated students should be situated at a distance of at least 4 feet from the corner diffusers, to stay comfortable. 4) Lighting loads contribute less heat to the occupied zone than occupant or equipment loads. 5) Displacement ventilation shows improvements in ventilation effectiveness, as evidenced by lower CO2 levels and a lower mean age of air in the occupied zone. 66p.

A Summary of Scientific Findings on Adverse Effects of Indoor Environments on Students' Health, Academic Performance and Attendance. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of the Under Secretary, Washington, DC , 2004)
Summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge about the adverse impacts of school indoor environments on health and performance. Key gaps in knowledge and critical outstanding research questions are also summarized. The report is based on a literature review that examined the relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools and the academic performance, attendance, and health of students. The quality of scientific methods and the consistency of findings among studies were also considered, as were similar studies in other building types, due to the lack of scientific information available specifically from studies in schools. The evidence suggested that poor environments in schools adversely influences the health, performance, and attendance of students, but overall inadequacies in school IEQ have not been systematically characterized. Includes 125 references. The public dissemination of this report is required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Section 5414. Studies of National Significance, subsection (a) (1) Unhealthy Public School Buildings. 36p.

Science-based Recommendations to Prevent or Reduce Potential Exposures to Biological, Chemical, and Physical Agents in Schools. Adobe PDF
Shendell, Derek; Barnett, Claire; Boese, Stephen
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , Mar 08, 2004)
Offers a concise review of peer-reviewed literature related to school indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Then, in the context of limited resources facing American schools, the paper presents practical science-based recommendations to improve and promote good school IEQ and hence prevent or reduce potential occupant exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents of concern. Tables summarize 18 recommendations justified by the 302 articles, papers, reports, and theses cited in this review. 51p.

Renovation & Construction in Schools: Controlling Health and Safety Hazards. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Dept. of Health and Senior Services, Trenton , Mar 2004)
Provides information on potential health and safety hazards associated with school renovation and construction and what precautions to take in order to prevent or control them. These include dust, debris, asbestos, lead, volatile offgassing from new furnishings and coatings, machine exhaust, mold, bird droppings, and noise. 6p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools:D2.1b-TDV Research Coordination Final Report.
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Feb 03, 2004)
Presents a report on the coordination of research for this study of thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) in California schools. The existing literature was reviewed to determine important design factors on TDV performance. The ceiling height, the location of the heat sources, and the convection heat flow at the wall impact the temperature stratification. Design guidelines were formed from results of computational flow dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental data. These guidelines consist of predictions of floor temperature, the temperature difference between head and foot level, and ventilation effectiveness. The CFD and experimental results can support the existing design guidelines, or serve as the basis for new guidelines. Includes 30 references. 12p.

Environmental Health & Safety Issues in Massachusetts' Schools.
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Dept. of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment, Boston , Feb 2004)
Assists school systems in identifying and remedying indoor environment health and safety problems. Chapter 1 contains a checklist for schools to use to identify important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a school building. By maintaining the checklist for each issue, school personnel will be able to determine if there are any specific areas that may warrant attention. Chapter 2 contains references that provide specific regulations for each issue and any industry standards/guidelines that are available. This section also provides a quick resource guide for additional assistance. Chapter 3 provides a list of resources for further guidance. 24p.

Guidance for School Site Assessment Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 901(f): Guidance for Assessing Exposures and Health Risks at Existing and Proposed School Sites. Adobe PDF
(California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Integrated Risk Assessment Division, Sacramento , Feb 2004)
Presents a methodology for estimating exposure of school users to toxic chemicals found as contaminants at existing and proposed school sites, and the health risks from those exposures. Exposure factors unique to the school environment, the activity patterns of children from birth through age 18 and of adult school employees, and uncertainties that may arise in the process are covered. Includes 17 references. 71p.

Prioritization of 31 Criteria for School Building Adequacy. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland, Baltimore , Jan 05, 2004)
Prioritizes the 31 criteria for school facilities established by the Maryland Task Force to Study Public School Facilities based on the links beteween conditions in school buildings and student achievement. The author, drawing on a large quantity of research, recommends addressing first the criteria that relate to student health and safety: 1) potable water, 2) fire safety, 3) adequate lavoratories, 4) security systems, and 5) emergency communications systems. Elements directly linked to student achievement should then be addressed as follows: 1) human comfort, 2) indoor air quality, 3) lighting, 4) acoustical control, 5) secondary science laboratories, and 6) student capacity. The 31 criteria may be found at (Contains 75 references.) 66p.

2004 School Environmental Checklist Adobe PDF
(BE SAFE Network and Coalition for Healthier Schools, 2004)
This is a checklist developed for parents to use to walk through their schools to make sure children are not exposed to polluted indoor air, toxic chemicals, allergens and other hazards that can lead to health and learning problems such as increased hyperactivity, asthma, learning disabilities, and environmental sensitivities. 1p.

Environmental Concerns in the School Setting
(National Asssociation of School Nurses Issue Brief, 2004)
The complex interaction of the school building, grounds, staff, students, visitors, activities, equipment, and supplies creates the inhabited school environment. The building, its occupants, and their activities, as well as equipment and supplies, must be maintained and controlled in a way that uses existing knowledge and practices to promote the health of the inhabitants.

Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools: Physical Environment and Transportation.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL , 2004)
This chapter of the "Health, Mental Health and Safety Guidelines for Schools" covers accessibility, safety policies, building construction and renovation, maintenance, indoor air, universal precautions, emergency supplies, and student transportation. Includes 108 references. 27p.

Healthy Schools: A Resource List
(Children's Health Environmental Coalition, Los Angeles, CA, 2004)
Though children spend much of their growing years in school buildings and on school grounds, the environment isn't necessarily healthy. School air quality can suffer from mold, lead, radon, asbestos, pesticides, chemical fumes, poor ventilation, and other problems. This list of links and books provides information on solutions on school issues.

School Environmental Assessment Report. Adobe PDF
(Boston Public Schools, MA , 2004)
Presents a school-by-school assessment of Boston's public schools, conducted by the Environmental Health Office of the Boston Public Health Commission. For each school, a table is given with data organized as follows: 1) Environmental issues of leaks, mold, pests, clutter, dust, repairs needed, improper chemical storage, 2) Indoor analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dust, VOC's, and temperature, 3) Bathroom inspection for functioning equipment, presence and condition of fixtures, and presence of supplies. 146p.

The ABCs of Healthy Schools
(BE SAFE Platform coordinated by the Center for Health, Environment, and Justice, Falls Church, VA, 2004)
Every day at school, some 53 million students and five million staff are exposed to lead, radon, asbestos, chemical fumes, pesticides, molds, and other toxins. This includes information on toxic exposures in schools and describes BE SAFE's Four Principles: 1) heed early warning signs; 2) put safety first; 3) exercise democracy; and 4) choose the safest solution. 4p.

LAUSD School Facilities and Academic Performance. Adobe PDF
Buckley, Jack; Schneider, Mark; Shang, Yi
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2004)
Reports the results of a study within the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) that examined the relationship between a school's compliance with health and safety regulations and its academic performance. Schools were evaluated on fourteen measures of compliance which included aspects of environment, safety, maintenance, and vehicular traffic. The fourteen measures were combined to create an "Overall Compliance Rating" (OCR) for each school. The aurthors found that the OCR was linked to academic achievement. (Includes eight references.) 12p.

The Healthy and High-Performance School: A Two-Part Report Regarding the Scientific Findings and Policy Implications of School Environmental Health. Adobe PDF
Shendell, Derek; Barnett, Claire; Boese, Stephen
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2004)
Part one presents results of a literature review related to school indoor environmental quality and, in the context of limited resources facing American schools, practical science-based recommendations to improve and promote good school indoor environmental quality and prevent or reduce potential occupant exposure to toxic biological, chemical, and physical agents. Part two offers recommendations for improving school environmental health and safety based on today's known science. It draws together the knowledge, data, and research regarding school facilities, children's environmental health, and school facility impact on student achievement, to demonstrate that school facility issues are integral to school reform and equity debates. (Includes 302 references, a list some state and federal government sponsored Internet sites on school IEQ and energy, and a list of existing noise guidelines for school environments at local, state and international levels.) 87p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D2.2B Classroom Prototypes Developed Draft Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Dec 05, 2003)
Discusses the full-scale mockup classrooms developed to determine the supply airflow and supply air temperature conditions necessary to meet classroom cooling loads and maintain thermal comfort in this California research. Specifications for prototypical classrooms were developed to be representative of cooling loads and operating conditions found in modern classrooms. These specifications were translated into building models, and energy simulations were run to determine boundary conditions for a range of cooling loads and conditions. 17p.

Impact of Sustainable Buildings on Educational Achievements in K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
Olson, Stephen; Kellum, Shana
(Leonardo Academy, Inc., Cleaner and Greener Program, Madison, WI , Nov 25, 2003)
Defines sustainable schools and its accompanying qualities of good site planning, lighting, indoor air quality, healthy building materials, acoustics, and use of renewable energy. Benefits to student achievement through daylighting and indoor air quality are detailed, and 34 references are included. 14p.

Report to the California Legislature: Environmental Health Conditions in California's Portable Classrooms. Adobe PDF
(California Environmental Protection Agency, California Air Resources Board; California Department of Health Services, Sacramento , Nov 2003)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive study and review of the environmental health conditions in portable classrooms; identify any potentially unhealthy environmental conditions, and their extent; and, in consultation with stakeholders, identify and recommend actions that can be taken to remedy and prevent such unhealthy conditions. The study also included a review of design and construction specifications, ventilation systems, school maintenance practices, indoor air quality, and potential toxic contamination including mold and other biological contaminants. Results and recommendations are detailed. 220p.

Senate Bill No. 352: Schoolsites: Sources of Pollution. [California]
(California State Senate , Oct 02, 2003)
In response to studies that show significantly increased levels of pollutants in schools near highways, this bill was passed prohibiting school districts from locating schools within 500 feet of the edge of closest traffic lane of a freeway or other busy traffic corridor. The bill also restricts locating schools on or near hazardous and solid waste disposals and pipelines. 7p.

Travel and Environmental Implications of School Siting.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2003)
This study examines the relationship between school locations, the built environment around schools, how students get to school, and the impact on air emissions of those travel choices. It provides information about the effect of school location on student transportation and shows that school siting and design can affect choices of walking, biking or driving. In turn, these travel choices can affect traffic congestion, air pollution, and school transportation budgets. The trend toward construction of big schools on large, remote sites is sometimes dictated by state and local regulations. These regulations often overlook the value of renovating existing schools or creating smaller, neighborhood-based schools. 33p.
Report NO: EPA 231-R-03-004

The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings. Adobe PDF
Kats, Greg
(California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento , Oct 2003)
Presents a detailed analysis of costs and financial benefits of environmentally sensitive building design and occupancy practices. The study concludes that an upfront investment of about two percent of construction costs typically yields life cycle savings of over ten times the initial investment. Topics covered include reduced energy and water use, less waste, lower operations and maintenance costs, and increased occupant health and productivity. (Includes 20 annotated references.) 120p.

Healthy Schools Council Checklist Concerning Environmental Health and Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Healthy Schools Council, Boston , Sep 2003)
Offers a checklist to identify and monitor important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a given school building. The issues are organized under categories for renovations in buildings, HVAC, building envelope issues, chemical management, drinking water, asbestos management plans, integrated pest management, underground storage tanks, septic systems/sanitary sewers, and miscellaneous maintenance/custodial issues. 14p.

The Built Environment and Children's Health. Adobe PDF
Cummins, Susan Kay
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta , Sep 2003)
Describes typical deficiencies in school environments that contribute to childhood injuries and rising rates of obesity and asthma. Though these common pediatric conditions are associated with risk factors within the built environment, the issue has received little researcher or policy maker attention. Includes 105 references. 20p.

Green Schools Initiative: A Summary of Studies related to Student Health and Productivity. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, Westborough , Aug 2003)
Summarizes seven studies on the effect of "green" school initiatives on student health and productivity. For each study, the following characteristics are identified: study type, the research question/hypothesis, the subjects, the physical/classroom variables (independent variables), the methodology and metrics used, The major findings of the study, and weaknesses and criticisms of the particular study. Copies of correspondence and a list of links active as of August 15, 2003 are included. 44p.

Inventory of Federal School Environmental Health Activities. Adobe PDF
(Schools Workgroup of the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2003)
For purposes of this inventory, school environmental health issues are those that may result in exposure of students, staff, or visitors to environmental contaminants originating either outdoors or indoors, such as chemicals, allergens, pesticides, particles, gases UV radiation or other contaminants that may be found in and around school environments. Building factors that may affect these exposures such as ventilation, energy efficiency, design decisions, operation and maintenance policies and practices and other related influences are also included. Activities are listed from the following Federal departments and agencies: Department of Agriculture, Department of Education, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Labor, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Department of the Interior, and the Environmental Protection Agency. 41p.

Comparison of Predicted and Derived Measures of Volatile Organic Compound inside Four Relocatable Classrooms Due to Identified Interior Finish Sources.
Hodgson, Alfred; Shendell, Derek; Fisk, William; Apte, Michael
(California Energy Commission, PUblic Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento , Jun 2003)
Reports on laboratory and field studies showing that indoor environmental quality impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are minor when relocatable classrooms are ventilated at or above code-minimum requirements. Assuming code-minimum ventilation rates are maintained, the benefits attributable to the use of alternate, low-VOC interior finish materials in relocatables constructed by the manufacturer associated with this study are small, implying that it is not imperative to use such alternative finishing materials. However, it is essential to avoid materials that can degrade indoor environmental quality, and the results of this study demonstrate that laboratory-based material testing combined with modeling and field validation can help to achieve that aim. 31p.
Report NO: LBNL-52520

Are You Providing Safe Drinking Water at Your School? Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency New England, Boston, MA, May 2003)
This helpful brochure discusses the following issues: preventing contamination near drinking water sources; lead in drinking water; cross-contamination; water conservation; securing your drinking water against vandalism and other harm; and teaching students about drinking water. Includes contacts for further assistance and informational resources. 18p.

Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management. Adobe PDF
(School Pesticide Reform Coalition; Beyond Pesticides, Washington, D.C. , Apr 17, 2003)
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last resort, if at all. This publication is intended to inform school community members and activists, policy decision makers, and pest management practitioners, all of whom play critical roles in getting schools to implement effective IPM programs. The report provides comprehensive details of IPM programs by: (1) explaining what an IPM program is and why it is necessary; (2) highlighting 27 school districts and individual school IPM policies and programs; and (3) outlining the basic steps to getting a school IPM program adopted. 60p.

School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. , Apr 09, 2003)
The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and linguistically diverse children in grades 2-5 from two Minneapolis, Minnesota, elementary schools. The enrollment rate for English-speaking, predominantly African American families was 42 percent, compared to 71 percent for non-English-speaking families (predominantly Somali and Hispanic). Most SHIELD households were low income, and 44 percent had no occupant with a high school degree or equivalent. These preliminary results indicated that there were ethnic/racial differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in two economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. African American children tended to have the highest exposure, and Hispanic and Somali children had the lowest exposure. Both the baseline questionnaire and time-activity log did a reasonably good job of predicting urine total cotinine levels. Measured urine total cotinine levels were relatively good predictors of urinary NNAL+ NNAL-Gluc. Temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels were comparable inside an older and newer elementary school. Differences were noted on several of the measures by race or language group. 9p.

America's Children and the Environment: A First View of Available Measures. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , Jan 2003)
This is EPA's first report on trends in measures reflecting environmental factors that may affect the health and well-being of children in the United States. This report represents an initial step in the identification, development, and compilation of a set of measures that fully reflect environmental factors important for children, such as levels of environmental contaminants in air, water, food, and soil; concentrations of lead measured in children's bodies; and childhood diseases that may be influenced by environmental factors. The report first presents a series of measures and then discusses the direction of future work. 91p.
Report NO: EPA 240-R-00-006

TO ORDER: EPA's National Service Center for Environmental Publications, P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati, Ohio 45242-0419. Tel: 800-490-9198.

Back to School Environmental Checklist. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice; Falls Church, VA , 2003)
Presents ten items concerning the school environment that parents should check to ensure that students are not exposed to polluted indoor air, toxic chemicals, allergens, and other environmental hazards. 1p.

Healthy Schools: Making Illinois Schools Environmentally Healthy Places to Learn and Work.
(Healthy Schools Campaign, Chicago, IL, and Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , Jan 2003)
The Illinois Healthy Schools Campaign is a coalition of more than 90 organizations working to make Illinois schools environmentally healthy places to learn and work. Based on their research, this report concludes that schools throughout Illinois report health hazards significant enough to affect the health of students and teachers, and that substantial repairs are necessary to abate these health and safety hazards. Asthma and other respitory diseases represent major health problems for children, yet no standards currently exist for school indoor air quality. This report includes recommended solutions, a summary of school incidents reported in the media, and a summary of state laws addressing school indoor air. 17p.

Playgrounds and Arsenic Wood. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, 2003)
This guide offers some facts about Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated lumber used in playgrounds, the New York State Law, and resources for further information. 2 p.

The Physical School Environment: An Essential Component of a Health-Promoting School. Adobe PDF
(World Health Organization , 2003)
Presents information to help create a healthy school environment, and to identify and modify aspects of the physical environment that jeopardize safety and health. Also included is guidance to ensure that positive changes in a school's physical environment are supported, reinforced and sustained by school health policy, skills-based health education, and school health services. Arguments for convincing others that a school's physical environment is important, and that improving it will protect health are detailed, as are plans for intervention and integrating environmental health issues within the school and community. Includes 122 references. 57p.

Building Healthy, High Performance Schools: A Review of Selected State and Local Initiatives.
Bernstein, Tobie; Lamb, Zachary
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , 2003)
This report illustrates the policies, programs, and practices that have been adopted by selected states and school districts in order to incorporate a high performance approach in school planning, design, and construction. The report describes in detail the high performance school building initiatives of the states of California, Massachusetts and New Jersey, along with the districts of Los Angeles, Wake County, North Carolina, Elk River Area,Minnesota, and Edmonds, Washington. Various strategies for establishing regulatory requirements, building community support, developing partnerships and evaluating the results are discussed. 117p.

Health and Safety Guide for K-12 Schools in Washington. Adobe PDF
Kerns, James T.; Ellis, Richard E.
(Washington State Dept. of Health; Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia , Jan 2003)
This guide's primary focus is to recommend good health and safety practices to help ensure safer schools in Washington state. Some of the safety practices that are recommended affect school operation and maintenance, repairs and minor construction, as well as the school's administrative organization and lines of communication. The guide also focuses on practices that can be undertaken during the design, construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, or inspection of any school. The guide's sections address general procedures; building maintenance and operations; general safety; plumbing, water supply, and fixtures; sewage disposal; indoor air quality; HVAC preventative maintenance; sound control; lighting; food service; science classrooms and laboratories; career and technology education; blood borne pathogens and exposure control plans; playgrounds; animals in schools; emergency and disaster preparedness; pesticide use in school; visual and performing arts education; and athletics. (Contains appendices on inspection protocols, health district fee guidelines, agency roles and responsibilities, restricted chemicals in laboratories, inspection protocols and special considerations for visual and performing arts classrooms, references, Web sites, and related documents.) 91p.
TO ORDER: School Facilities and Organization, tel: 360-725-6000

Environmental Obstacles to the Construction of Educational Facilities in California.
Reede, James William, Jr.
(Dissertation, University of San Francisco, 2003)
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the various types of environmental obstacles to site selection and construction of educational facilities in the state of California and suggest how those obstacles could be avoided to reduce lead-time for site selection and construction of new facilities. During the past five years numerous sites planned for educational facilities have been rejected after districts had purchased the sites for construction. In some cases schools have been built and are unable to be occupied. The study looked at data related to four siting cases of educational institutions developing school facility sites, UC Merced and CSU Monterey Bay, and problems at inner-city schools in Los Angeles Unified School District and the Elk Grove Unified School District, the actions taken and the decisions made relative to site selection and the due diligence necessary to secure development of educational facilities. The specific cases selected are important for the system-wide issues they revealed. The significance of this study is the documentation of the environmental obstacles and other related issues that have the potential to disqualify or delay the site selection and construction process with which schools throughout the state must comply. The researcher used a qualitative multi-case study methodology that allowed comparison, contrast and determination of the generalizability of the findings. [Author's abstract]
Report NO: UMI: AAI3083327

TO ORDER: UMI Dissertation Express

My School Makes Me Sick: Cheap Solutions to Environmental Problems in Schools. Adobe PDF
Wiley, Robert
This paper presents 19 solutions to problems within the school environment: (1) ventilation (e.g., keep the thermostat fan on whenever the room is occupied); (2) filters (e.g., get rid of 20 percent cheap filters); (3) clean the ductwork; (4) avoid car and bus fumes by keeping vehicles 50 feet from the building; (5) sewer vents (vents must terminate at least 10 feet from a powered fresh air intake); (6) furnace exhaust pipes (if the furnace vent or other vent is closer than 10 feet from a powered fresh air intake, it must extend at least 3 feet above the intake); (7) floor and roof traps; (8) unvented science labs (which can send fumes into classrooms); (9) cosmetology odors (when there is no lab hood for ventilation); (10) CO2 testing (e.g., CO2 builds up when there are several persons in a room over several hours with inadequate ventilation); (11) asthma and respiratory ailments (e.g., carpeting should not be in schools, and ductwork needs regular cleaning); (12) UV lights (which kill most organisms in the air that pass through the ductwork); (13) cold temperatures (an adequate thermometer is important); (14) increased complaints about cold when proper ventilation blows air into the room; (15) asbestos testing; (16) radon testing; (17) lead paint testing; (18) water quality; and (19) mold. 5p.

Guide to Molds at School.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , Dec 2002)
Asserting that molds growing in schools can be harmful to children's health and learning, this guide offers information about the issue. It provides an overview of the basics, then addresses testing, types of molds, molds and health, monitoring schools for mold, mold prevention and clean-up tips for schools, and what parents should do if they suspect mold is making their child sick. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Ave., Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632

Healthy School Design and Construction.
(Citizens for a Safe Learning Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia , Dec 2002)
Provides a point-by-point compilation of design, building product, and construction practice recommendations for controlling indoor air quality in schools. All school areas and building systems are covered in checklist format intended to assist clients, designers, and builders in working together before and during the design and construction process. 30p.

Strategies for Addressing Asthma Within a Coordinated School Health Program.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA , Nov 2002)
Report highlights six strategies identified by the CDC for schools and districts to consider when addressing asthma within a coordinated school health program, including creating a healthy school environment. 9p.

Schools of Ground Zero. Early Lessons Learned in Children's Environmental Health.
Bartlett, Sarah; Petrarca, John
(American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.; Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY. , Nov 2002)
This book examines the health and safety implications of September 11, 2001, for seven public schools that were in the World Trade Center impact zone. From accounts of students, parents, teachers, and administrators, the report describes: (1) evacuation procedures of these schools on September 11; (2) communication flow between the New York City Board of Education (BOE) officials and parents; and (3) the health and safety decision-making processes of BOE. In addition, it provides policy recommendations that government officials, schools administrators, and parents should consider with respect to emergency preparedness and school health and safety precautions. 400p.

Green School Initiatives. Statements from Hearing of the U.S. Senate, Environment and Public Works Committee, 107th Congress, Second Session.
(U.S. Senate. The Environment and Public Works Committee. 107th Congress. , Oct 01, 2002)
The Senate's Environmental and Public Works Committee conducted a hearing in October 2002 to assess green school initiatives: environmental standards for schools, school siting in relation to toxic waste sites, and green building codes. The committee reviewed activities undertaken by the EPA's Office of Children's Environmental Health and the Office of Indoor Air Quality, as well as those of the Department of Energy, concerning environmental and energy issues relevant to school properties. This document contains statements from Senator James Jeffords, Senator Hillary Clinton, Ramona Trovato, Claire Barnett, Alex Wilson, and Lois Gibbs, as well as statements submitted for the record.

Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Washington, DC. , Oct 2002)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and triggers for asthma, identify sources of mold, improve comfort and performance levels, avoid costly repairs, avoid negative publicity and loss of parent and community trust, and avoid liability problems. The publication offers an overview of IAQ issues, offers examples of successful school efforts, and presents action items. 20p.
Report NO: EPA-402-K-02-005

Testimony of E. Ramona Trovato, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Environmental Information, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , Oct 01, 2002)
This testimony provides an overview of health and environmental issues in U.S. schools and describes efforts by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in concert with other federal agencies, to help schools address environmental issues. These include the Clear Skies Initiative, Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools, High Performance Schools, promotion of integrated pest management, SunWise School Program, Healthy School Environments Web portal, and President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children. 11p.

Testing Schools and Day Care Centers for Lead in the Drinking Water.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Sep 13, 2002)
Descriptions of how, when, and where to sample schools and day care centers for lead in drinking water. Includes instructions for developing a sampling plan, basic sampling protocol, how to interpret the data and address problems when detected.

Renaissance of the American School Building. Adobe PDF
Bomier, Bruce
(Environmental Resource Council, Ramsey, MN , Sep 2002)
This is a non-technical reader on how school buildings, health, and environment are entwined. The author provides a reasonable road map to consider when making decisions related to indoor air quality and other health concerns of school building environments. The author takes a look at unwise decisions that were made in the recent past, and believes that the previous emphasis on standardized, low-bid design and modular, environmentally indifferent school construction is undergoing a renaissance. In particular, chapter five discusses federal asbestos policy for schools in the late 1980s and early '90s. The author recommends an environmentally responsible analysis of traditional building construction or remodeling methods using the following criteria: 1) financial value and life cycle costs; 2) occupant health and comfort; 3) ecosystem impact; 4) educational value; and 5) common sense and integration. 63p.
TO ORDER: Environmental Resource Council, 5909 167th Avenue, N.W., Suite #2, Ramsey, MN 55303. Tel: 763-753-9713

Creating Safe Learning Zones: The ABC's of Healthy Schools. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Aug 2002)
This primer was prepared by the Healthy Buildings committee of the Child Proofing Our Communities campaign. The campaign aims to connect local efforts across the country, raise awareness of toxic threats to children's health, and promote precautionary approaches most protective of children. Following an introduction, chapter II, "Special Vulnerabilities of Children," discusses why children are more susceptible to toxins and how inadequately they are protected. Chapter III, "Toxins in Schools and Building Materials," explains the threat from the most common toxic substances found in schools. While the threats from building materials such as lead and asbestos are subsiding, mold, vinyl, and toxic fumes from carpeting present a new generation of hazards. Chapter IV, "Building Materials: From Hazardous to Healthier Choices," puts the hazards identified in Chapter III in context, identifying especially problematic building materials. Chapter V, "The Indoor Environment," discusses ways to improve indoor air quality and lighting as well as maintenance practices that avoid the use of toxic chemicals. Chapter VI, "Designing a Healthy School," outlines the lengthy process of designing and renovating a school from conception to completion. It explains how to construct or renovate a healthy school to avoid or minimize toxic hazards. Chapter VII, "Getting Your School Community Involved," explains how to mobilize support for a healthy school building and work with architects, school boards, and contractors to ensure that children's health is protected at school. Finally, chapter VIII, "The Safety of Our Children Is in Our Hands," describes steps that parents can take to identify and address some of the most common environmental health problems in schools. 58p.

Cleaning for Health: Products and Practices for a Safer Indoor Environment.
Culver, Alicia; Feinberg, Marian; Klebenov, David; Muskinow, Judy; Sutherland, Lara
(INFORM, Inc., New York, NY, Aug 2002)
This report is a guide to environmentally preferable cleaning products and methods that have been effectively used in office buildings, schools, hospitals and other facilities in the United States and Canada. It describes pioneering product evaluation programs and lists the brands that were chosen based on environmental and performance criteria. It also provides a model specification, as well as manufacturer contacts and other resources for those who want to develop a safer cleaning program for their buildings. 86p.

Learning the Hard Way: The Poor Environment of America's Schools.
Wakefield, Julie
(Environmental Health Perpectives , Jun 2002)
This article asserts that a significant number of schoolchildren and teachers in the United States are exposed on an almost daily basis to environmental hazards including volatile organic chemicals, airborne lead and asbestos, and noise pollution while they are at school. Some school hazards are linked to the aging of many of the nation's schools, to the ongoing siting of schools in close proximity to contaminated waste sites, and to the burgeoning population of school-age children that has forced financially constrained school districts to use portable classrooms to increase their classroom space. The article also assert that few federal laws currently protect students from such threats but several states have adopted measures that address these issues. Some federal agencies do, however, have voluntary programs that school administrators can take advantage of to improve the condition of their facilities.

Safe School Inspection Guidebook. Adobe PDF
(Los Angeles Unified School District, CA , Apr 15, 2002)
This guidebook covers 18 safety areas and defines the mandatory health and safety standards applicable to schools. The guidebook is used in conjunction with a safe school inspection conducted by a safety officer and the site administrator. The areas covered include: acoustical quality, air quality, asbestos management, campus security, chemical safety, electrical safety, facilities maintenance, fire/life safety, infectious disease control, lead management, pest management, sports and playground, and waste management. 56p.

Healthy School, Healthy You Conference: A Workplace and Environmental Health and Safety Conference for School Personnel, Managers, Youth, and Parents.
(American Federation of Teachers; Chicago Teachers Union, Apr 06, 2002)
This audio archive is of selected sessions from a conference on healthy schools held in April, 2002 at the University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health. The conference focused on such topics as: hazardous environmental exposures and the impact on teaching and student learning; identifying hazards; causes of injury and illnesses in schools; prevention approaches; and model programs and control strategies.

The State Of Children's Health and Environment 2002. Common Sense Solutions for Parents and Policymakers.
Wargo, John; Wargo, Linda Evanson
(Childrens Health Environmental Coalition, Princeton, NJ, Feb 2002)
According to this report on environmental hazards, every child in the United States faces chemical challenges to their health never experienced in human history. Specifically, this report discusses asthma and air quality, developmental disabilities and neurotoxic chemicals, childhood cancer and the environment, principles for legal reform, and provides a guide for parents and others. 72p.

Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington, DC.
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Jan 12, 2002)
This report presents a case study of the renovation of Charles Young Elementary School in Washington, DC, focusing on how an improved school environment contributed to higher levels of educational performance. The school was chosen as a school revitalization demonstration project for the Urban Schools Initiative. The objective of the project was to: turn a school building with acute indoor environmental problems into a model school environment, assess the resources required for such work, train district personnel in the prevention of future indoor environmental quality problems, and provide guidance to other schools in environmental remediation. 30p.

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions. Adobe PDF
(Child Proofing Our Community Campaign, Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Jan 2002)
This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, the the threat of toxic pesticide use in schools. The current report addresses the need for protective laws concerning building new schools. It presents data from five states (California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York) on the number of schools located on or near hazardous chemical waste sites or other contaminated sites. It describes children's special vulnerabilities, the school siting process, and examples of schools built on or near contaminated land. Based on its findings, the report calls for state laws to ensure that the locations for new schools are safe and that contaminated property is properly cleaned up. It provides model school siting legislation for use in drafting legislation on the state level and for local school policies. The report also outlines action steps that parents can take to ensure that their children are not placed in harm's way. 50p.
TO ORDER: Child Proofing Our Community Campaign, c/o Center for Health, Environment and Justice, P.O. Box 6806, Falls Church, VA 22040. Tel: 703-237-2249.

Environmental Compliance Assistance Guide for Colleges and Universities.
(APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 2002)
Assists campus facility and safety professionals in meeting the basic requirements of environmental regulations. The guide provides a basic understanding of obligations and responsibilities under the law, and helps the reader develop compliance plans for the campus. A listing of current laws and regulations, such as the Clean Air and Water acts, CERCLA, FIFRA, RCRA, and more is included, as are numerous resources and references. 195p.
TO ORDER: APPA, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA, 22314; Tel: 703-684-1446

School Law in Review 2002.
(National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys. , 2002)
This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys Annual School Law Seminar. Includes: "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt ); "The Design-Build Project Delivery Method: An Analysis of Legal Issues and Practical and Policy Implications" (Susan Plimpton Segal); and "Owner Controlled Insurance for School Construction: Reducing Costs and Reliance on Project Risk Management" (Stuart L. Knade).
TO ORDER: National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722.

Shade Planning for America's Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2002)
Assists schools in creating and maintaining a physical environment that supports sun safety by ensuring that school grounds have adequate shade. Information on planning and designing solid roof and fabric shade structures, as well as creating natural shade on school grounds is included. The effect of excessive sun exposure, the formation of the school shade design team, a shade audit, and funding are also described. 70p.

Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality.
Bernstein, Tobie
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , Jan 2002)
Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies discussed illustrate approaches that states can consider when developing legislation, regulations, guidance documents, and programs to create healthier indoor environments in schools. The report provides detailed information on existing policies, with an emphasis on policy strategies aimed at preventing indoor air quality problems. Thus, the report focuses on policies that promote better maintenance and management of existing school facilities, as well as better design and construction practices in new and renovated schools. Additionally, since an IAQ policy has little value unless implemented, the report highlights significant implementation activities and notes potential strengths and weaknesses of individual policies in this regard. 51p.
Report NO: ELI-Project-No-96090

TO ORDER: Environmental Law Institute, 1616 P St., N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 202-939-3800

Learning Curve: Charting Progress on Pesticide Use and the Healthy Schools Act. Adobe PDF
McKendry, Corina
(Californians for Pesticide Reform, San Francisco, CA , 2002)
This progress report investigated two key questions regarding the Healthy Schools Act and pesticide use in California's schools. First, has the act reduced overall pesticide use in California's largest school districts? Second, having had a year to come into compliance, are surveyed districts meeting their responsibilities? Based on a survey of school districts, the report concludes that highly toxic pesticides are still common in California schools, that some changes in pest management practices are occurring, that there is inconsistent compliance with the act, and that school districts should adopt strong integrated pest management policies. (Appendices include pesticides and active ingredients used by district, hazards of pesticide active ingredients used, toxicity categories, and resources for further action.) 40p.

Effects of Moisture Damage Repair on Microbial Exposure and Health Effects in Schools. Adobe PDF
Meklin, T.; Husman, T; Pekkanen, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M-R; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports the results of an intervention study designed to show the effects of the remediation of moisture and mold damaged school building on the student health. Microbial sampling from indoor air of the school and a health questionnaire study were performed before and after renovation. The results were compared to those from a non-damaged control school. The renovated school showed decreased concentrations of airborne fungi and decreased diversity of mycoflora. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of the respiratory symptoms among schoolchildren after the renovation. (Includes ten references.) 5p.

Indoor Allergens in Schools: a Comparison Between Sweden and China. Adobe PDF
Mi, Y-H.; Elfman, L.; Eriksson, S.; Johansson, M.; Smedje, G.; Tao, J.; Mi, Y-L.; Norb?ck, D.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on measurements of allergens levels in 23 classrooms in Uppsala, Sweden, and 30 classrooms in Shanghai, China. Dust was collected by vacuum cleaning, and analysed for allergens from cat, dog, horse, house dust mites, cockroach, and mold. All Swedish classrooms had cat allergen, and most had dog and horse allergens. In Shanghai, 13% had cat allergen, and 7% dog allergen, while none had horse allergen. House dust mite, cockroach and Alternaria allergen were not detected in any sample from either country. Pet allergy and current asthma were less common in Shanghai. Causative factors could be less furry pets at home, wearing of school uniforms resulting in reduced influx of allergens, and less fittings and textiles. (Includes twelve references.) 6p.

Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies. Adobe PDF
Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan
(Beyond Pesticides, Washington, DC , 2002)
This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better protection of children from pesticides in localities throughout the country. Includes a table listing school districts covered by state laws or voluntary policies. 10p.

Better Lighting for Healthier Students.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY., Sep 2001)
This brief highlights the problem that poor or inappropriate lighting in schools can adversely affect children's health and their ability to learn. It discusses the benefits of using daylight or full-spectrum lighting for healthier students, citing studies that reported that students had fewer cavities, gained weight and grew in height more than students in non-daylit classrooms, and demonstrated better work habits and improved academic performance. 4p

Lead Safety and School Modernization. Adobe PDF
(California Lead Safe Schools Project. , Sep 2001)
This factsheet is for anyone responsible for modernization projects in California's public schools where materials containing lead may be disturbed or where lead abatement is planned. It explains the state requirements for properly dealing with lead hazards so that children and workers are protected. Its sections address why to be concerned about lead in schools, what lead regulations apply to school districts, non-compliance, proper procedures, and resources. 12p.

Learning Without Pain. Ergonomics Prevents Injuries.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, Sep 2001)
This fact sheet provides basic information to parents and school staff on using ergonomic practices to prevent computer and back-pack related stresses or injuries. 2p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

District of Columbia Public Schools Safety Manual.
(District of Columbia Public Schools , Jun 04, 2001)
Describes the District of Columbia Public Schools' Safety and Health Program, as applicable to the employees of both DCPS Facilities and its contractors, performing construction, renovation, assessment, facility operation, and maintenance work. It also covers issues relevant to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for school personnel, students, and visitors. The manual documents appropriate requirements for workplace safety and health on DCPS capital projects and in DCPS facilities operation and maintenance activities; provides guidelines for achieving a safe and healthy environment for the students, staff and visitors of the DCPS school facilities during construction, renovation, maintenance and operations; delineates the organizational and procedural elements of the safety and health program for its effective implementation; and provides guidelines to designers on how to incorporate safety and health into facility and project design. 401p.

Electric and Magnetic Fields in California Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Health Services, Electric and Magnetic Fields Program; California Public Health Institute, Oakland , Apr 2001)
Explains the significant results of the survey "The Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure Assessment of Powerline and Non-Powerline Sources for California Public School Environments." The document provides a method for comparing levels in other schools to those in the test schools and in homes. As it is unknown whether or not magnetic fields are a health hazard, it does not propose what a "safe" level of exposure might be. Options for reducing magnetic fields are offered. 41p.
TO ORDER: City Copy Center; Tel: 510-763-0193

Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions. A Report of the Child Proofing Our Communities: Poisoned School Campaign. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Lois
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, Falls Church, VA , Mar 2001)
This report embodies the findings of several studies, which conclude that America's schools have fallen into disrepair and sometimes present students and teachers with an unhealthy, unsafe, or even harmful educational environment. The researchers say that no guidelines are in place to help school districts select safe school sites. School sites are regularly sprayed with pesticides, and these chemicals are thought to be partly responsible for a whole generation of children who are increasingly hyperactive, slow to learn, and disruptive in school. The report offers specific recommendations to protect children from chemical contamination in air and soil surrounding schools and from exposure to toxic pesticides in schools and on school grounds. The report presents recommendations for school site selection and for developing integrated pest management programs. The report lists resources for additional information, and its appendices provide samples of school siting and pest management surveys. 80p.
TO ORDER: Center for Health, Environment, and Justice, P.O. Box 6806, Falls Church, VA 22040; Tel: 703-237-2249

Getting Mercury Out of Schools.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, Boston , 2001)
This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational technical schools, mercury in HVAC laboratories in vocational technical schools, establishing hazardous and universal waste collection areas, and mercury-free purchasing policies. The fact sheets contain information on items that contain mercury, non-mercury alternatives, storing unwanted items, how to handle a spill, and additional resources. 23p.

Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, 2001)
The purpose of this guide is to provide basic information about the use of sanitizers and disinfectants in schools. The Healthy Schools Network recommends schools follow all public health laws and regulations, and proceed with extreme caution when using any chemicals around children or staff. Includes a germ reduction and pesticide exposure prevention checklist, and a glossary. 4p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

Healthy Schools Campaign Pesticide Action Kit. Adobe PDF
Arguello, Martha; Campbell, Kelly; Kegley, Susan; Ille, Teri; Porter, Catherine; Undem, Melanie
(Californians for Pesticide Reform, California Healthy Schools Campaign, San Francisco, CA , 2001)
This English/Spanish informational kit contains resource materials that school administrators and parents can use to take full advantage of the Healthy Schools Act of 2000 and help them eliminate hazardous pesticide use around their schools. The kit looks at how to organize community interest in least-toxic Integrated Pest Management policy, and it presents resources on the toxicity and health impacts of pesticides applied in schools. The kit's informational sheets are entitled as follows: "What is the Healthy Schools Act?;" "Ten Steps to a Healthy School;" "Notification: Your Right to Know;" "Kids at Risk: Pesticides & Children's Health;" "What Are the Alternatives;" "Hazards of Common Pesticides;" and "Pesticide Information Online." A sample school policy and a resource list are included. 20p.

Healthy Schools for Healthy Kids. A Parents' Guide for Improving School Environmental Health.
Davis, Ben
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 2001)
Every day students, teachers and staff miss school or are less productive because their health is affected by exposure to contaminants in the school environment. This guide helps the community develop a systematic approach to the problem. Its chapters are: (1) "Indoor Air Pollution is a National Problem"; (2) "School Environmental Health in Vermont"; (3) "Act 125: The School Environmental Health Bill"; (4) "Health Implications of School Indoor Air"; (5) "The Precautionary Approach to School Environmental Health"; (6) "Getting the School Community Involved"; (7) "Basics of Indoor Air Quality and School Environmental Health"; (8) "Evaluating Products for Health and Environmental Impacts"; (9) "Pesticides"; and (10) "General Guidelines." (Appendices contains the School Environmental Health Act, an environmental health audit form, and the draft school diesel idling policy for Vermont schools.) 68p.

Sick Schools: A National Problem.
Dunne, Diane Weaver, ed.
(Education World, 2001)
Five-part special report on the environmental conditions of the nation's school buildings, the health consequences for students and staff, and what school officials can do. Series titles are: 1) Environmental Problems Blamed for Making Kids Sick; 2)Environmental Injustice: Poor and Minorities Suffer Most from Sick Schools; 3) Schools + Landfills Might Add Up to Health Problems; 4) Causes and Effects of Sick Schools Vary; 5) Sick Schools Create Dilemma for School Districts.

Guide to Protecting Vulnerable Students in "Sick" Schools.
Goldberg, Ellie
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2001)
Asserting that school buildings under renovation and even newly built schools may have polluted indoor environments that cause health problems and hinder learning, this guide introduces special education and anti-discrimination laws designed to remove barriers to education for children with disabilities such as chronic health impairments. The guide addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, effective communication and advocacy, some signs and symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how to address a problem. The guide also includes organizational and published resources. [Free registration required.] 8p.

Daylighting in Schools: Improving Student Performance and Health at a Price Schools Can Afford. Adobe PDF
Plympton, Patricia; Conway, Susan; Epstein, Kyra
(Presented at the American Solar Energy Society Conference, Madison, Wisconsin , Jun 16, 2000)
Discusses evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have implemented daylighting into their buildings in a cost-effective manner. Case studies reveal that design strategies and construction costs associated with designs that provide daylighting do not significantly increase over conventionally designed schools, and that students do benefit in terms of increased performance and better general health when school designs incorporate daylighting techniqes. Includes design tips and provides resources for obtaining further information on daylighting and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for schools. (Contains 25 references). 6p.

The Environmental Self-Audit for Campus-Based Organizations: A Quick and Easy Guide to Environmental Compliance. Adobe PDF
(New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany., May 2000)
This guide is intended to help public and not-for-profit campus-based organizations in New York State to comply with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The environmental self-audit serves as a basic diagnostic tool for campus-based organizations (centralized schools, colleges/universities, correctional facilities, mental health institutions, etc.) to evaluate possible compliance problems. Included is information for the organization that is about to begin operations, for the facility that has never examined its environmental health before, and for the organization that is about to move or expand. This self-audit should serve as a preliminary self-diagnostic tool to identify possible environmental compliance problems in the regulatory categories of air, water, land use, petroleum and chemical storage tanks, solid waste, and hazardous materials. 61
Report NO: NP982048

Guide to School Health and Safety Committees: How To Promote Child and Adult Environmental Health Protection.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2000)
This guide discusses the importance of having school health and safety committees, describes New York law creating these committees, explores their responsibilities and recommended actions, and examines what committees can do to efficiently meet their goals. The guide details school walk-throughs as the best way to learn about a school, including use of the occupant health survey. Common terms and public documents relating to school facility health are included as are some tips for prospective members of a school health and safety committee. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools, Network, Inc., 773 Madison Ave., Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632

Guide to School Renovation and Construction: What You Need to Know To Protect Child and Adult Environmental Health. [New York]
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide presents cautionary tips for protecting children's health during school renovation and construction projects, the New York state laws regarding school renovation and construction, and the steps the law requires to eliminate dangerous conditions for children during these projects. Included is a checklist of uniform safety standards during school renovations and construction and several examples illustrating the negative outcomes when districts renovated or constructed their schools without regard to the effects on children's and adult's health. Selected resources for additional information are provided. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.; Tel: 518-462-0632

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota State Dept. of Health and Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul , 2000)
This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. It includes a discussion of legal background and requirements, testing for lead in school drinking water, flushing taps, testing taps, flushing and retesting, other corrective actions, and reassessment. Contains a glossary, a list of Minnesota laboratories certified to analyze lead in drinking water, a lead testing record form, and a list of other resources. 16p.

Environmental Action Guide for New York State Schools. Help for Parents and Others in the Absence of Standards Just for Children.
Barnett, Claire, Ed.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide addresses existing New York laws and available resources to ensure that every child and school employee has an environmentally safe and healthy school. Topics discussed involve indoor air quality; toxic and hazardous chemicals; pests and pesticides; mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria; asbestos; lead; radon; exhaust fumes from idling vehicles; renovation and construction pollution; structurally sound buildings; heat; classroom size and environment; fire hazards; usable and sanitary restrooms; safe playgrounds; and emergency management. Appendices present resource information by topic area, a form for information from the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids Information and Referral Clearinghouse, examples of toxic and hazardous products used in New York schools, information on right-to-know laws concerning school environments, laws concerning access to public school-related meetings, rights to participating in health and safety committees, guidelines for school facility report cards, sample complaint letters to agencies about unsafe schools, a list of New York State Board of Regents/legislators, and New York State Environmental Conservation Regional Office locations and occupational health resources. (Contains 62 references.) 79p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.,773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208. Tel: 518-462-0632.

Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences
Corn, Jacqueline Karnell
(Lewis Publishers,Boca Raton, FL , 2000)
This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how, why, and who caused action to be taken; and offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining technical concepts in everyday language, the book also provides insight into the politics of environment and highlights how the issue of asbestos influenced the development of environmental policy and its implications for other potential health hazards. Also examined are the roles of school administrators, labor unions, the Congress, the courts, environmentalists, scientists, school agencies, and ordinary citizens in the resolution of asbestos in schools. 141p.
TO ORDER: CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431

A Beginner's Guide to Reviewing EHS Issues at Your School
Dresser, Todd H.
(Burlington Board of Health, Massachusetts, 2000)
Identifies 25 important items that should be reviewed and considered when initiating an Environmental, Health and Safety assessment.

Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children, New York, NY , Oct 1999)
Survey results are presented from 65 individuals using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. Among the findings are that 40 percent of the respondents reported medical conditions present such as asthma or allergies, and 39 percent reported the school conditions made their health worse. Thirty-five percent of the schools either had fire extinguishers and/or alarms easily accessible in classrooms or had a playground. Thirty-three percent of the schools reported having poor ventilation, 24 percent had inadequate heat, 26 percent had obvious roach or rodent problems, 45 percent did not have clean bathrooms or lacked soap and toilet paper, 37 percent had drinking water that tasted strange, 24 percent indicated unclean cafeterias, 40 percent reported garbage and discarded waste present around the school, and 40 percent were overcrowded. Recommendations include enforcement of existing laws, linking school maintenance funding to environmental health needs of school occupants, and the closing of schools that threaten health. Appendices contain a list of the schools/sites surveyed. 88p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001

The Relationship between Environmental Quality of School Facilities and Student Performance. A Congressional Briefing to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Sponsored by the Environmental Energy Study Institute , Sep 23, 1999)
Congressional testimony is presented concerning school buildings and their connection to student health, behavior, and learning including a review of selected empirical studies conducted over the past 30 years showing an explicit relationship between physical characteristics of school buildings and educational outcomes. It is argued that the factors responsible for student achievement are ecological in that they act together as a whole in shaping the context within which learning takes place. The testimony includes brief examinations on student behavior, health, and academic achievement as influenced by the use of natural lighting, the reduction of noise through proper location and siting of schools, optimal indoor climate, sick buildings and indoor air quality, school and class size, schools placed close to their neighborhoods, and the overall condition and management of the school building. 6p.

Environmental Health Consultation: Review of Environmental and Clinical Laboratory Information: Saugus Unified School District. [California] Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Health Services, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Oakland , Aug 1999)
Parents of children in the Saugus Union School District in California were concerned about the safety of classrooms, particularly portable classrooms. Their concerns were amplified by assertions of a local medical toxicologist following evaluations of some teachers and students, and by an Environmental Working Group report about alleged problems with portables throughout California. Efforts by the school district, environmental consultants, and Los Angeles County health authorities were not sufficiently reassuring to some parents. This report discusses results from an evaluation of the classrooms by the Environmental Health Investigations Branch (EHIB) of the California Department of Health Services. Findings indicated no elevated health risks to students. The report's first part details evaluation methods and findings, while the second part directly answers each of the questions posed to EHIB staff at a parent meeting. Data tables provide results of environmental sampling at each school. (Consultations with outside authorities are appended. Contains 68 references.) 70p.

Why Worry When You Send Your Children to School
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY., Mar 1999)
This brief was prepared to help the public hold officials accountable for improving school facilities. It includes the recommendations of the Healthy Schools Network in support of legislation; provides case studies of schools that suffer from environmental problems; quotes research on why children need healthy school environments; describes the hard facts of school facilities; and enumerates several steps schools are taking to protect children and improve environmental practices. 4
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

Child Health Champion Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. , 1999)
This resource guide was developed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Child Health Champion Campaign, a program designed to empower local citizens and communities to take steps toward protecting their children from environmental health threats. The guide includes descriptions of 241 resources that may be of interest to communities participating in the Child Health Champion Campaign. The resources are organized by the following categories and subcategories: (1) air (air quality and ozone/UV radiation); (2) contaminants (lead, pesticides, and general toxins); (3) environmental education and community organization; (4) food; (5) health end points (asthma, birth defects, cancer, and general); (6) indoor environment (homes, schools, other buildings, indoor air quality, radon, tobacco smoke, and general); (7) water; and (8) other resources. Information for each resource includes the developer/publisher, date developed, contact information, Web site, cost, type/purpose, target audience, content, and a descriptive abstract. 208p.

Overview of Federal, New York State, and New York City Law Regarding Environmental Health and Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 1999)
This document presents many of the Federal, State, and New York City laws that apply to the health, safety, and environmental conditions of schools. The relevant portions of the law have been selected along with the mechanisms of legal enforcement that may exist and contact information where applicable. Legislative categories covered include air quality, toxic substances, and chemicals; asbestos; athletic equipment; washrooms; boarding; school buildings; buses, vehicles, traffic, and transportation; drugs and alcohol around educational facilities; fire safety; food and nutrition; student health; and lighting and radiation. Also included are laws governing plans for future educational facilities grants, recreational areas and playgrounds, pest control, sanitation, smoking, and ventilation. 36p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

Chemicals in Classrooms. Pesticides and Maintenance Chemicals in Vermont Schools. Adobe PDF
Sterling, Peter; Browning, Brigid
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 1999)
This report is the second in a series of studies on the serious threat toxic chemical use may pose to the health of Vermont's children, teachers, and school staff. Of the sources of toxic chemical exposure, pesticides and maintenance chemicals potentially pose the most serious threat. Parts 1 and 2 of this report outline the health effects of exposure to toxic pesticides and maintenance chemicals. Part 3 discusses the numerous short- and long-term impacts these chemicals may have on a child's physiological development. Part 4 presents the results of a School Pesticide & Maintenance Chemical Use Questionnaire. Part 5 offers some possible solutions concerned parents, teachers, children, and school officials may take to remove these chemicals from the classrooms. (Appendices contain recommendations by the New York Board of Regents, and resources for further information.) 19p.

Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda Adobe PDF
Books, Sue
( Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, 1998)
The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this increase in disease with regard to the welfare of children and the impact on their academic achievement, due to physical and mental impairments. Information is provided about the causes, consequences, and rates of incidence of tuberculosis, lead poisoning and asthma. The article comments on the ways in which society and the schools have responded to these illnesses, and then considers the context of discussion about these illnesses and the social response to them. The article notes that, often, these illnesses are considered an affliction of the poor. The article issues a challenge for school reform that addresses environmentally induced damage to children as an educational issue, as well as a social one. Contains 44 references. 21p

Parents' Guide to School Indoor Air Quality.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY. , 1998)
This parents' guide presents articles on school indoor air pollution, children's health and the symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how schools can improve their air quality. Also included are tips on what to do if the school ignores air quality problems, and some examples of what school districts should be doing to improve their air quality. Several web sites are listed for more information on school environmental health.[Free registration required.] 6p.

A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools. IEQ Strategies. Adobe PDF
Daisey, Joan M., Angell, William J.
(California Univ.,Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley , 1998)
This survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools is a concise guide to the published literature on IAQ in schools, with an emphasis on Californian schools. Conclusions of the survey include the following: 1. The types of health symptoms reported in schools are very similar to those defined as "sick building syndrome." Where complaint and noncomplaint buildings were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms. 2. Formaldehyde, total VOCs, CO, and microbiological contaminants are the most commonly measured air pollutants in schools. 3. The few scientific studies on causes of symptoms in complaint schools indicate that exposure to molds and allergens contributes to asthma, SBS, and other respiratory symptoms. 4. The major building-related problem identified is "inadequate ventilation with outside air." Water damage to the building shell, leading to mold contamination, was the second most frequently reported problem. 5. The root cause of many of the ventilation and water-damage problems in the schools is inadequate and/or deferred maintenance of buildings and HVAC systems. 105p

A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools
Dresser, Todd H.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.; Burlington Board of Health, Burlington, MA , 1998)
An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in investigating each problem, observations on conditions contributing to the hazard's development, the actions taken to eliminate the hazard, the lessons learned, and tips and suggestions concerning preventive management. Each case study concludes with advice on resources that can be used to help schools in investigating and eliminating each environmental hazard. Hazards investigated include the following: chemicals; asbestos; indoor air quality; pesticides; radioactive materials; fire prevention; radon; formaldehyde; safety equipment; spill and emergency response planning; underground storage tanks; and discharges to sanitary drains. 54p.

Toxic Chemical Exposure in Schools: Our Children at Risk. Adobe PDF
Sterling, Peter; Paquette, Nicole
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 1998)
Asserting that toxic chemicals can be found throughout school grounds in pesticides, building materials, school supplies, cleaning products, office equipment, and personal care products, this report details the prevalence of toxic chemicals within schools and recommends methods for reducing exposure. Following an executive summary, the report address indoor air quality in U.S. schools, sources of toxic chemical pollution, Vermont case studies, and state-level and individual school recommendations. 26p.

The Overlooked Half of a Large Whole: The Role of Environmental Quality Management in Supporting the Educational Environment. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Paper presented at the International Conference on Buildings and the Environment (2nd, Paris, France, June 9-12, 1997). , Jun 1997)
This paper examines the changing role of environmental quality management from its traditional operationally-based role, to an expanded, more dynamic role in strategic educational planning activities at the local, site-based level. First, a brief review of the state of knowledge concerning the impact of environmental quality on the educational process is presented. Second, the trend toward site-based management (SBM) in schools is discussed in light of the potential opportunities for developing a whole-system process of strategic educational planning that encompasses and integrates environmental quality management. Third, an action research study is presented in order to first illustrate the complex relationship that exists between day-to-day environmental quality management and educational instructional activities in many urban schools, and second, to suggest a potential mechanism for drawing school and community representatives into the strategic planning and evaluation process at local school sites. The paper concludes that educators can be trained to collaborate in an environmental diagnostic process in which environmental quality concerns are identified, prioritized, and addressed in such a way as to be congruent with educational activities and goals, and that this process can be integrated within existing facility management decision-making frameworks such as SBM school improvement teams. 8p.

Primary School Physical Environment and Health. Adobe PDF
(World Health Organization, Washington, DC , 1997)
Identifies key objectives for achieving healthier school environments, particularly in developing countries. Successive chapters describe the current situation, review the main correlations between school environments and student health, and identify eight key objectives to significantly advance school environmental health. The document de-emphasizes buildings, stressing sanitation, total school environments, operations and maintenance, and local rather than centralized control. Includes 98 references. 93p.

Update on Lead in School Drinking Water. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Department of Education, Boston, MA, 1997)
This memo explains changes in state and federal drinking water regulations for lead and copper, summarizes the data that has been collected by the state's Department of Environmental Protection in its lead in school study, provides guidance on actions that should be taken by Massachusetts school officials to reduce student exposure to lead through drinking water.

Is This Your Child's World? How You Can Fix the Schools and Homes That are Making Your Children Sick.
Rapp, Doris J.
(Bantam Books , 1997)
The Federal Government reports that one-third of the nation's public schools are environmentally unsafe in ways that cause health problems to teachers and students and detract from educational quality. These problems jeopardize those who already have health problems and deteriorates student learning ability. This book addresses a vast number of school environmental health hazards and ways of eliminating them. Part I provides guidance on determining if a child has environmental illness and its cause. Part II addresses the ways of correcting a sick school based on what type of environmental problems exist. Part III describes how some schools have addressed their building environmental problems. Part IV discusses helpful, simple, as well as sophisticated, tests and treatments for special indoor health problems. Parts IV and V address legal and insurance options and explore the possibility of chronic illness along with some tips for parents, teachers, and school administrators. Appendices list the chemicals frequently found in schools and homes, their sources, health effects and precautions; and additional resources. 635p.

Schools' Environmental Assessment Methods (SEAM). Adobe PDF
(Department for Education, Architects and Building Branch, London ,England , Oct 1996)
Responding to the need for users of schools to use their buildings in a way that creates a better internal environment for children and reduces harm to the environment, this document lists environmental issues and corrective recommendations. Environmental issues include sources of noxious fumes, water and air quality, lead-free paint, recycling and waste disposal, ventilation, lighting, energy management, and legionnaires' disease. 38p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 83

Classroom Ecosystems: Is Educational Technology Safe?
(University of North Texas, Texas Center for Educational Technology, Denton , 1996)
Discusses environmental implications of educational technology such as the impact of sustained exposure to video display terminals, recycling of computers, repetitive stress injuries, ergonomic furniture, and indoor air. Includes 27 references. 16p.

Healthy Buildings? Adobe PDF
Grubb, Deborah
(Morehead State University , 1996)
Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas. The House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and Environment (1993) determined that serious environmental threats exist in the air of American schools. Comparative risk studies conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1990 concluded that indoor air pollution is among the top four environmental risks to public health. Solutions depend upon the specific contaminant. Most, however, can be controlled by installing and using appropriate HVAC systems. Contains 19 references. 22p.

Building Ecology and School Design. Technical Bulletin.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1995)
All aspects of construction have environmental consequences. To better understand construction's impact, an overview of building ecology as a concept and as a decision-making model for school systems is provided. "Building ecology" is defined as the interrelationships among people, the built environment, and the natural environment. It has special relevance for school design because most of the users are children; therefore it is important that administrators fully understand the types of materials used in building schools. A material's energy efficiency can be important, as is the lifecycle of any material. A decision-making model is presented, which offers a step-by-step process for determining the best materials to use. How to choose flooring is featured as an extended example of this process. The environmental issues connected with various flooring such as vinyl composition tile, linoleum flooring, carpet, terrazzo, wood flooring, and ceramic tile are detailed. A hypothetical material selection process is offered, along with general recommendations in choosing, installing, and maintaining flooring. (Contains 13 references.) 10p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Risks to Students in School. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC , 1995)
This examines the scientific data on the risks for student injury and illness in the school environment. The report focuses on the risks that students between 5 to 18 years old encounter while they are at school, on the school grounds, at school-related activities, and traveling to and from school. Key findings include: (1) The two leading causes of death in school-aged children are motor vehicles and firearms; however, relatively few of these deaths occur in schools or on school buses; (2) quite often, the relative safety of schools, on a national average basis, is unknown; and (3) schools contribute to the risks of injury or illness in school-aged children; however, little is known about schools' contribution to nonfatal illness and injury. Finally, national data, particularly for environmental hazards, were usually inadequate to assess the risks to students. Data are presented for incidence of unintentional injuries, including playground-related, school-athletics, transportation, school-bus-related, pedestrian injuries, along with data for intentional injuries, including school-associated violent deaths and weapons. Information is presented for illness caused by environmental hazards, such as asbestos and lead, and for those that arise from exposure to infectious agents. Suggestions for comparing and managing risks are offered. 221p.

Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools. Adobe PDF
Day, David R.
(National School Boards Association,Council of School Attorneys, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to do if the school district is identified as a potentially responsible party. The document discusses ways to minimize future superfund liability in real-estate acquisitions, the identification of hazardous waste produced by schools, and definitions for "hazardous substance" and "environmental damage." Strategies for handling underground storage tanks and dangers within the school, such as asbestos, radon, lead, and other toxic substances are also detailed. An entire chapter is devoted to toxic torts and the unique proof problems that must be addressed in such cases. Information on the prevention of and response to environmental crises, such as those precipitated by construction and maintenance activities, are also addressed. 38p.

Blueprint for a Green School.
Chase, Jayni
(Scholastic Inc., New York, NY, 1995)
The 20 chapters in this book focus on the creation of environmentally safe and healthy school buildings and grounds and on what school administrators, teachers, maintenance staff, students, community leaders and parents can do to meet this goal. The guide functions as an introduction to environmental problems and issues relevant to schools, provides resources for further investigation, and suggests ways to incorporate the information into daily instruction. A broad range of topics including environment and health issues, toxic materials and pesticides, nutrition and the environment, water, energy, recycling and source reduction are covered. Chapters 1 through 17 present basic facts so that environmentally educated decisions can be made in the operation of school buildings and classrooms. 688p.

The Healthy School Handbook. Conquering the Sick Building Syndrome and Other Environmental Hazards In and Around Your School.
Miller, Norma L., Ed.
(National Education Association, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
This book compiles 22 articles concerning sick building syndrome in educational facilities in the following three areas: determining whether a school is sick; assessing causes and initiating treatment; and developing interventions. Articles address such topics as managing the psycho-social aspects of sick building syndrome; how indoor air quality affects pre-existing health problems; adverse effects of artificial lighting on learning and behavior in children; the least toxic approaches to managing pests in schools; the multi-disciplinary approach to treating environmentally triggered illnesses in school-age children; the practical and cost-effective approaches to building, remodeling, and maintaining schools; and the legal aspects of pollution in schools. 446p.

School Haze: Air Pollution near California Schools.
Walker, Bill; Hendricks, Marshall
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , 1995)
Reports that half of the states schoolchildren attend class within a mile of reported air emissions of carcinogenic and other hazardous chemicals. Only four percent attended schools covered by the existing network of air pollution monitors. In four of six categories of pollutant, the state s largest emitter was within a mile of one or more schools, resulting in 10,000 children who attended school within these zones. Some schools lie within zones affected by multiple varieties of pollutants and students of color are disproportionally affected. Includes seven references. 22p.

Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-Paced Training Workbook. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1994)
Because radon may pose a threat in some schools, accurate assessment of the presence of this dangerous gas is essential. To help facility managers in this process, a workbook designed to educate personnel in radon detection is offered here. The workbook is intended for an audience of school officials, including administrators, business officers, facility managers, and maintenance and operations staff. It is meant to provide trainees with experience in planning a radon test, interpreting test results, implementing quality assurance during testing, and documenting the testing process for a school building. Each unit is prefaced by a unit overview and a list of participant objectives. Each objective relates to a segment of the unit, and the testing procedures are interspersed with exercises and activities. Some of the activities are fill-in-the-blank questions, whereas others require the application of information contained in the Environmental Protection Agency's testing guidance, entitled Radon Measurement in Schools. Answers to each section's activities can be found at the end of the unit, and it is hoped that these activities will reinforce the information presented in the workbook. 78p.
Report NO: EPA 402-B-94-001

Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, Washington, DC , Apr 1994)
This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected if found. It also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and how to communicate lead issues with a facility's users. This manual is intended for use by officials responsible for the maintenance and/or safety of these facilities. Appendices contain a directory of Environmental Protection Agency and State drinking water programs, a terms glossary, a water cooler summary, a list of lead resources, a sample record keeping form, and containers for preserving samples. 105p
Report NO: EPA-812-8-94-002

Environmental Quality of Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York State Department of Education, New York State Board of Regents, Albany, NY , 1994)
Students in school buildings are not covered by the laws that regulate the health and safety of workplace environments. Also, there are no provisions in law for a parent's or student's "right to know" about hazardous conditions in their school environment. The Regents Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality in Schools was created to improve the environmental quality of schools. The introduction presents an overview of conditions in school buildings that threaten students' health. The second section provides information about the Regents Advisory Committee and its members. Section 3 offers the committee's recommendations for meeting environmental standards in public schools. 75p.

Healthy Schools, Healthy Futures: The Case for Improving School Environment.
Henderson, Alan C.
(ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA, 1993)
This book addresses the school as a worksite for faculty, staff, and administrators; as a learning site for students; and as an important site for creating a healthy, productive environment. Born out of a commitment to health education as an essential strategy for maintaining public health, this book contends that the physical condition of the school; its psychological and social climate; and its efforts to protect, promote, and improve health become important components of the daily lives of students and staff. The appendixes provide lists of options for change and steps toward health promotion program development, a strategic plan outline, and a list of 40 resources. 134p

Educational Buildings and the Environment. Adobe PDF
Ottel, Rupprecht
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Programme on Educational Building, Paris, France , 1993)
Educational buildings relate to their environment in many ways that affect the surrounding community such as overall appearance, energy consumption, and waste production. This report examines these issues and identifies how educational buildings can contribute to the conservation and protection of the environment. It explores these issues in three types of schools: healthy schools; green schools; and energy-conscious schools. Concluding comments summarize the findings and presents conclusions. 21p.

Environmental Hazards in Your School: A Resource Handbook. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1990)
Prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this document provides information on many environmental hazards teachers and young children may be exposed to today in school buildings. Topics discussed include: (1) the definition, location, and health hazards of asbestos as well as responsible management practices, current legal requirements, and federal assistance related to assessing and managing asbestos in schools; (2) background information and causes of poor indoor air quality as well as related federal legislation and strategies for controlling the quality of indoor air; (3) the prevalence and health hazards of radon as well as measures being taken to address the problem and assistance available to schools; (4) some origins and health hazards of lead in drinking water, related federal actions such as the Lead Contamination Control Act of 1988, a three-step program to identify and remedy lead contamination in the school, remedial options, and control measures; and (5) recommendations for monitoring school-operated water systems and information on obtaining water sample analyses. A comprehensive list of state contacts is also provided, and information on other environmental concerns that may be apparent in schools such as underground storage tanks, recycling efforts, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyl is included 75p.

A Tale of Two Institutions: Education and Environment. A Brief History of the Conflicting Values and Objectives of Schools and the Environmental Movement. Adobe PDF
Bomier, Bruce
(Institute for Environmental Assessment, Anoka, MN , 1990)
This paper briefly highlights the past four decades of the relationship between school districts and the environmental movement. It reveals the public's increasing awareness of environmental factors within the school that jeopardize student health and learning, the policies created to curtail these dangers, and the confusion and waste of resources that resulted when unprepared school districts clumsily attempted to comply with often unrealistic policy mandates. 9p.

Guidelines for Laboratory Design: Health and Safety Considerations.
Diberardinis, Louis; Baum, Janet; First, Melvin; Gatwood, Gari; Groden, Edward; Seth, Anand
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY , 1987)
Investigates broad issues of laboratory health and safety design considerations, evaluates the issues that need to be addressed in specific types of laboratories, and evaluates aspects of health and safety concerns over a variety of laboratory settings. 295p.

Health and Safety Hazards in the School Environment.
Moll, Marita
(Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada , 1987)
This annotated bibliography cites 913 materials (publications, journal articles, papers, presentations, books, studies, and other documents) concerning potential hazards to the physical health and safety of teachers and students in the school environment. The bibliography's first section contains references of a general nature to health and safety in the workplace, both in and out of school, and occupational health and safety legislation. The second section cites more specific materials under the headings of: (1) acoustical environment; (2) art materials; (3) asbestos; (4) communicable diseases and parasitic infestations; (5) duplicating machines; (6) furniture; (7) industrial arts shops; (8) natural hazards; (9) physical education, recreational facilities, and outdoor education; (10) science laboratories; (11) thermal environment and air quality; (12) video display terminals; and (13) visual environment. 253p.

References to Journal Articles

Planning for a Healthier School Facility
Belew, Rachel
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p46-48 ; Jun 2012
Recommends that facility planners and managers specify low-emitting nontoxic products, called source control, for healthier schools. Reviews VOCs, children and poor indoor air quality, chemicals in green building, and other steps to good IAQ.

Guide to Asthma Policy for Schools
(American Lung Association , Apr 2012)
Identifies strategies to help support schools as they create an asthma-friendly learning environment for students, teachers, and staff. Includes tip-sheets, webinars, and an environmental assessment and management plan.

Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo
Health Education Research; v27 n1 , p101-114 ; 2012
This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from Scottish secondary school girls and head teachers participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2005/06 study. Compared with schools with no after school clubs, girls who attended schools with activities at least 1 day per week were likely to have increased MVPAdays. PE allocation and extra-curricular clubs are likely to be of greater importance to girls' participation than school facilities per se. This study demonstrates how schools can maximize their environment to increase girls' PA and offers encouraging findings for those with limited sports facilities. [Authors' abstract]

A Safe Environment
Pratachandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; Dec 2011
Discusses the EPA's first-ever federal guidelines for locating school facilities that encourage high-performance schools, stress the importance of locating schools near populations and infrastructure and promote schools as diverse centers of communities. They urge communities to consider children's ability to walk to school, access to public transportation and how to locate schools away from potential environmental hazards.

Fit Faculty for Fit Facilities.
Moore, J.P.
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p30,31 ; Aug 2011
Compares building health to human physical health, emphasizing that preventive maintenance is as necessary to buildings as it is to humans.

Restroom Hygiene: A Clean Record.
Dixon, Maurice
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p16,18 ; Jul 2011
Recognizes the importance of clean and sanitary restrooms. Crews must have effective tools and resources, gloves and goggles, germicidal detergents, cleaning supplies for mirrors and other fixtures, microfiber cloths, instruction on properly mixing cleaners and disinfectants, and appropriate method fo refilling soap dispensers.

Designed to Curb Obesity.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 , p41-47 ; Jun 2011
Argues that convenience-based school design must be reconsidered and advocates design that encourages greater activity and physical movement in the drive to curb obesity.

Naturally Green.
Kramer, Sue
American School and University; v83 n7 , p42-44 ; Mar 2011
Notes that needs of maintaining clean and sanitary restrooms can go unnoticed, and that some administrators are unconvinced that green products are affordable and efficacious. The article documents that green restroom cleaning products can improve indoor air quality (IAQ), which has a very positive impact on student performance; and use of green products reduces the chemical inventory and storage locations in the school. Best practices for use are described, as is a plan for making the products cost-effective.

Methodology for Assessing Exposure and Impacts of Air Pollutants in School Children: Data Collection, Analysis and Health Effects – A Literature Review.
Mejiaa, Jaime; Choyb, Samantha; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morawska, Lidia
Atmospheric Environment; v 45, n4 , 813-823 ; Feb 2011
Explores the methodologies employed to assess the exposure of children to air pollutants, in particular traffic emissions, at school, and how these methodologies influence the assessment of the impact of this exposure on the children’s health. This involves four main steps: the measurement of air quality at school level, the association between measured air quality and children’s exposure, the association between children’s exposure and health; and source identification. The comparative advantages and disadvantages of the methods used at each of these steps are discussed.[author's abstract]

Transforming Pedagogical Ethos into an Effective Learning Environment.
Guldbaek, Jens; Vinkel, Hanna; Broens, Mie
CELE Exchange; n2011/3 ; Jan 2011
Compares the deleterious effect of standardized education to the poor health of a fast food diet. School design should reflect deliberation on how individuals learn and how school facilities will make that process possible.

Keys to Success.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n4 , p12-14,16 ; Dec 2010
Describes 10 ways that schools can overcome and move beyond impediments to providing safe, healthful, and high-quality education. The 10 areas include finances, sustainable design, operating efficiency, educational technology, distance learning, security, indoor air quality, maintenance / cleaning, managing space, and community connection.

Employee-Focused Facilities.
Kroll, Karen
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p28-32,35 ; Dec 2010
Discusses lower employee absences due to allergies, asthma, depression, and stress in “green” working environments. Basic principles of employee-friendly design, office layout, lighting, and acoustics are addressed. These provisions improve workflow as well as employee morale, health, and turnover.

Prevention Measures.
Henriksen, Missy
American School and University; v83 n3 , p220-222 ; Nov 2010
Discusses the hazards that bedbugs, rodents, and cockroaches present in school settings, and lists 21 steps that school occupants and employees can take to prevent infestation, particularly in a situation where professional pest management services are being reduced.

Green Doesn't Mean Non-Toxic.
Belew, Rachel
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p32,34,36-39 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the discrepancy in volatile organic compound (VOCs) content in cleaning supplies, and the extent to which these compounds are emitted when the product is used. Also addressed is the potential for reactions between these compounds and the atmosphere, and the cumulative effect of these compounds on occupant health.

Reducing the Hazard in Hazmat.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p14,15 ; Oct 2010
Advises on the handling of hazardous materials in institutions, with a stepped approach to evaluate current management, identify hazards, communicate procedures, provide personal protection, and reduce hazardous waste.

Cradle to Grave: What You Need to Know.
Brown, Geoffrey
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n5 , p18-20 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses categories of hazardous waste, common hazardous waste generated by schools, individual generator statuses of hazardous waste, and storing, shipping, and reducing hazardous waste.

Clean Break.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n1 , p22,24,25 ; Sep 2010
Discusses "green" cleaning in schools, citing cleaning product certification, improved mixing and dispensing equipment, and coordination of products and cleaning implements.

Walls, Ceilings, and Learning.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p28-31 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the role of prevention of water intrusion into the school building envelope, ceiling tile selection, and insulation in creating a healthy, quite, and comfortable learning environment.

The Benefits of Continuous Cleaning and Touch-Free Solutions.
Heun, Brian
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p23-25 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Describes the advantages of automatic continuous cleaning devices on toilets and urinals, and advises on their installation and maintenance. Completely touch-free restroom fixtures are also recommended.

Fire, Earth and Wind: Managing Risk in Today's Schools. Part 2: The Environment.
Weeks, Richard
School Business Affairs; v76 n6 , p26,27 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Describes the personnel that school officials should be working with to ensure a school environment free of toxins. Environmental engineering consultants, government agencies, contractors, school maintenance personnel, school administrators, and public relations personnel all share responsibility for discovering problems, remediating them, and communicating to the public.

Fighting the War on Germs in Schools.
White, Ashley
Doors and Hardware; v74 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2010
Describes touch-free door systems that prevent the spreading of germs, particularly in schools, where young children are negligent about washing their hands.

Minimum Standards for School Toilets Are Needed to Improve Child Health.
Perez, Jenny
Nursing Times; Jun 22, 2010
Explains how poorly maintained toilets and missing supplies contribute to childhood constipation and toilet-related health problems, and calls for minimum toilet standards and parental inspection.

Maintaining Student Performance.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Jun 2010
Describes how proper maintenance of school HVAC systems contributes to educational achievement through better air quality and thermal comfort. An example of preventive maintenance on systems in the Round Rock (Texas) School District illustrates many procedures, their respective costs, and benefits.

Technological Advancements.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n10 , p26-29 ; May 2010
Balances the need for restroom design and equipment providing good hygiene with the need for judicious use of skin care supplies and amount of water used in showers, sinks, and toilets.

Achieving Healthy School Siting and Planning Policies: Understanding Shared Concerns of Environmental Planners, Public Health Professionals, and Educators.
Cohen, Alison
New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v20 n1 , 49-72 ; 2010
Discusses policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment--both, school siting and school facility planning policies. These are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, communities can work toward a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work.[author's abstract]

Despite H1N1 Threat, Survey Shows Many Still Neglect Hand Hygiene.
Dommisse, Jon
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p38-42 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Cites the poor quality of restrooms as a disincentive to hand washing. Attractive and well-maintained facilities, with universal access, hands-free accessories, and solid-surface countertops are recommended.

How Ventilation Affects Comfort.
Edelman, Lon
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p35-37 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the role of air filters in maintaining indoor air quality, citing the history of filters, their typical composition, styles available, and the respective filtration capacities and resistance of five types of filters.

Lessons Learned from the H1N1 Pandemic.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p74-76 ; Jan 2010
Expands on six lessons learned from the H1N1 pandemic, including community involvement, details of handling ill students, having a thorough plan, staying calm, educating every group, and having confidence in the safe environment that is being created.

Mitigating Influenza in Buildings.
Ronsivalli, Louis
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p16-19 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Advises building operators on suppressing the odds of an influenza outbreak by maintaining appropriate humidity levels, servicing HVAC systems, using higher-efficiency filters, and training workers to avoid exposure to and spreading of influenza.

"We Can't Give Up. It's Too Important." Health and Safety Stories from Canadian and U.S. Schools.
Wigmore, Dorothy
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v20 n1 , 81-93 ; 2010
Representatives of teachers and staff from Canada and the United States discuss the hazards and their effects. They also have many—often unrecognized—successes and related lessons to share. These include taking comprehensive approaches, looking for broad sweeps and entrees, using building sciences and strategies of solid information, acting with respect and with persistence, including students and parents, going for green cleaners, and using participatory methods. The representatives build on these to discuss what else needs to be done. The ideas are underpinned by the creativity, dedication, and persistence evident in their work to date.

IAQ: Building a Healthy Environment.
Cavanaugh, Laura
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p10,11 ; Dec 2009
Advises on maintaining good indoor air quality during renovations, renovating with environmentally friendly materials, and reducing and recycling construction waste.

Why Do Americans Still Neglect Hand Hygiene?
Dommisse, Jon
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n6 , p25,26 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Cites the poor quality of restrooms as a disincentive to hand washing. Attractive and well-maintained facilities, with universal access, hands-free accessories, and solid-surface countertops are recommended.

Learning Curve: Putting Healthy School Principles into Practice.
Adler, Tina
Environmental Health Perspectives; v117 n10 , p448-453 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the advent of the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating systems, and how their adoption by school systems are creating healthier and environmentally conscious facilities. Obstacles to implementation are discussed, as well as federal efforts to mandate "green" school construction and renovation.

H1N1: Reducing Your Risk. [H1N1 Preparedness.]
Lorenz, Brandon; Millan, Naomi
Building Design and Construction; v56 n10 , p22-24,26 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the spread so far and predicted severity of H1N1 influenza. Identifying and cross-training backup employees to cover essential building functions, preparing occupants for varying service levels in case of an outbreak, social distancing of occupants, increased opportunities for hand sanitization in common areas, and daily disinfecting of heavily touched objects such as doorknobs are also addressed.

Greener Schools Mean Better Health.
Spector, Marc
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p20,22,24,26 ; Oct 2009
Discusses how "green" schools, in addition to saving energy and generating less pollution, improve occupant health. Reduced absenteeism and improved student performance in green schools are addressed.

Designing the Healthy Residence Hall.
Zhiri, Nadia
College Planning and Management; v12 n10 , p22,26,28 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the importance of natural light, ventilation, ability to control one's environment, and a residential feel to successful dormitory design.

Cleaning for Healthy Schools: How Green Cleaning Can Save Money, Boost Student Achievement, and Safeguard Health. Adobe PDF
Moore, Deborah
CASH Register; v30 n8 , p7-9 ; Aug 2009
Describes the benefits of green cleaning to occupant health, current labeling of products, and cases where schools have saved money by switching to "green" cleaning products that were more concentrated than the conventional products previously in use.

The USGBC s LEED Version 3.0 2009 Building Rating System.
Hardiman, Tom
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p14,16,17 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Discusses modular construction and sustainability as it relates to LEED prerequisites for the categories Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, Innovation and Design, and Regional Priority.

The True Benefits of Cleaning "Green."
Sisk, Ed
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Cites the health risks from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in carpet cleaning compounds, advises on how to identify environmentally compounds and methods such as encapsulation. Advantages of dry cleaning methods, certification of cleaners by the Carpet and Rug Institute, and improved school attendance where green cleaning has been implemented are also discussed.

Don't Let Mold Take Hold.
Van Kleeck, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p18,20,21 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Advises on totally mold-resistant wall installations. Typical areas at risk for mold growth are described, as are details of mold-resistant joint tape, joint compound, and paint.

Flu Facts for Schools.
School Planning and Management; v48 n6 , p42,44-46 ; Jun 2009
Advises on integrating pandemic flu plans with other school emergency plans, citing the necessity of educational continuity in a environment with extensive staff and student absences.

A "White Glove" Inspection for the Invisible.
Bigger, Alan
College Planning and Management; v12 n6 , p37,38,40,42 ; Jun 2009
Describes Integrated Cleaning and Measurement (ICM) that uses scientific analysis to determine the effectiveness of cleaning beyond that which can be detected visually. The technique can accommodate zone, team, daytime, and green cleaning. Benefits of hygienic surfaces to reduced absenteeism are detailed.

LEED 2009: Impact on Operations and Maintenance.
Dowrey, Gordon
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p6,7 ; Jun 2009
Discusses how the LEED v3 rating system will affect building operations and maintenance. The three enhancements detailed are harmonizing prerequisites and credits for increased consistency, adjusting credit weightings based on their impact on human and environmental health concerns, and prioritizing select credit weightings to address regional environmental issues. Advice on assembling a LEED certification team is included.

Stepping up to the Plate: Ensuring a Quality Learning Environment.
Froemming, Jim
School Business Affairs; v75 n6 , p18,19 ; Jun 2009
Describes how Wisconsin's Port Washington-Saukville School District funded and conducted environmental testing at an elementary school to determine particulate risks from nearby factories.

Science Drives Move to Green Cleaning. [The Science behind Green Cleaning.]
Ashkin, Stephen
Building Operating Management; v56 n5 , p27,28,30 ; May 2009
Describes harmful effects of some traditional cleaning products on occupants and cleaning personnel. Routes of absorption include ingestion, inhalation, and through the skin. Cumulative effects of exposure and adverse effects on hormone production are also addressed.

Making a Sustainable School Healthy.
Joyner, Mandi
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p70-73 ; Apr 2009
Discusses the importance of indoor air quality (IAQ) when creating a sustainable school. The consequences of poor IAQ are discussed, followed by HVAC and indoor product considerations that adversely affect air quality. Suggestions for ascertaining the "healthiness" of indoor finishes are offered, including ratings by third-party certifiers.

Measured Results.
Wiley, Frank
American School and University; v81 n9 , p28-31 ; Apr 2009
Discusses raising the standard of school cleanliness to improve occupant health and reduce absenteeism. A measuring program to discern the amount of microbes left on school surfaces is recommended, and the results of study that correlated cleanliness with attendance are described.

Healthful Choices.
Hall, Julie
American School and University; v81 n7 , p25,26,28 ; Mar 2009
Discusses school furniture with low volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Seeking environmentally certified products is recommended, and if none are available, understanding what the furniture is made of, how it might be refurbished or recycled, and its durabilility is essential.

Birds, Bats and Rodents, Oh My!
Kogan, Dave
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p18,20,21 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Cites examples of bird and bat infestations at educational institutions, the health hazards they present, and typical ways to repel them.

Prescription for Mold Prevention.
Sierck, Peter
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p14,16,17 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Advises on response to water damage in buildings, emphasizing immediate action to remove water, assess moisture damage, dry or remove materials, isolate the affected area, and document all findings. Also included is advice on safe demolition and removal of contaminated materials and selection of a certified contractor.

Hazmat: The Sustainability Link.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p11,12 ; Feb 2009
Outlines the facility manager's role in reducing hazardous waste by replacing toxic products with less harmful ones, recycling, reducing production of hazardous waste, and developing a written program to monitor and improve hazardous waste handling.

Who's Sick at School: Linking Poor School Conditions and Health Disparities for Boston's Children.
Tolle Graham , Jean Zotter , Marlene Camacho
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v19 n3 ; 2009
A recent review of student asthma rates and environmental audits of school buildings suggests that schools with poor indoor air quality have higher-than-average rates of asthma. Many Boston Public School (BPS) children and staff are learning and working in poor indoor environmental conditions that not only can exacerbate asthma, but also lead to other problems ranging from allergies and sinus infections to adverse academic performance [1]. The Boston Urban Asthma Coalition (BUAC) conducted a preliminary analysis of 2004-05 childhood asthma rates for BPS students and compared them to the 2004-05 environmental audits of the top 10 schools with environmental problems. This analysis suggests that schools with the highest rates of leaks, mold, and pest infestations also have higher-than-average asthma rates for children.

Green Cleaning Award for Schools and Universities.
American School and University; v81 n4 , p33,34,36,38-45 ; Dec 2008
Presents eight school districts and higher education institutions selected for this award, based on comprehensiveness and quality of their green cleaning programs. The award is given by the magazine in cooperation with the Healthy Schools Campaign.

Alternatives to Green Cleaners.
Sawchuck, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n6 , p21-23 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses the typical ingredients in "green" cleaning products, their costs and performance relative to traditional cleaners, and the lack of certification enforcement for products making claims of environmental friendliness.

Multi-Tasking: Protecting Your Facilities from Infections Diseases.
Torry, Chris
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p34-37,46 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Advises on campus cleanliness and disease prevention, citing five levels of perceived cleanliness and the point at which lack of cleanliness becomes a distraction. Types of cleaning and sanitation that protect custodians and effectively kill lethal germs involve touchless equipment that deliver correctly dosed products at low pressures.

Hazardous Materials: Strategies for Safety.
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p9,10 ; Oct 2008
Advises on management of hazardous materials within facilities, addressing identification, OSHA requirements, signage, chemical storage, compressed gases, and emergency response.

Proximal Exposure of Public Schools and Students to Major Roadways: A Nationwide U.S. Survey.
Appatova, Alexandra; Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Grinshpun, Sergey
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management; v51 n5 , 631-646 ; Sep 2008
Addresses the effect of urban planning and road development on the health risk of students attending schools near major roadways. The proximity of public schools and students was quantified to Interstate, US and state highways in nine large Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) of the USA. In total among the surveyed schools and students, over 30% fell within 400 m of a major roadway and over 10% were within 100 m. For some MSAs almost half of the student population attended schools near (=400m) major roadways, resulting in a potentially increased risk for asthma and other chronic respiratory problems, especially in schools representing the urban fringe locale. It was concluded that proximity of major roadways should be an important factor in considering sites for new schools and developing policies for reducing the exposure in existing schools. The findings provide an important reference point for coordinating future urban development, transportation and environmental policies.

Winning the War Against Moisture.
O'Brien, Sean
The Construction Specifier; v61 n9 , p70-78 ; Sep 2008
Discusses typical moisture problems in modern buildings, often exacerbated by modern lightweight materials, and improperly specified or applied moisture barriers. Steps to be taken to prevent moisture problems in the design, construction, operation, and renovation phases are detailed, and advice is included on how to keep designers, builders, and owners working together to solve the problem. Includes five references.

Where Does All the Dirt Go?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p31,32,34,36 ; Aug 2008
Discusses results from dirt retention and cleaning tests on flow-through and non flow- through carpet, indicating a wide variance in the potential for dirty conditions in school carpeting due to the corresponding wide variance in types of carpet used. Particular attention is given to the behavior of dirt that is held within the carpet as people walk on it.

Hazmat Management 360.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2008
Details a strategy for hazardous materials management, beginning with a nine-point review of items on site, knowledge of and compliance with regulations, engineering controls and personal protection for safety, training on hazardous materials emergency response and proper disposal, and migration to the use of environmentally preferable materials.

Making the Grade in Summertime Efficiency.
Lally, Maureen
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p14,16,17 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Reviews typical Summer school maintenance procedures, as well as new construction and renovation that can improve energy efficiency and building air quality. Also covered are efficient and healthy building operations during low Summer occupancy, as well as precautions to take during construction and cleaning projects.

Why It's Worthwhile to Install Touchfree Plumbing.
Watson, John
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Contradicts three excuses generally given for not using touchfree bathroom fixtures, and lists a variety of water-saving and health considerations that support its installation. Results of research regarding the quantity of germs on traditional sink hardware are accompanied by a review of the varieties of options in touchfree systems.

Managing Your Environmental, Safety, and Health Issues.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p22,24,26-28 ; Jun 2008
Reviews the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Healthy SEAT program, citing the 13 topics it covers, and its three software components that can be adapted to individual school districts, specific schools, and types of output. The history and some current user experiences with the program are also described.

Reducing Health Risks on Campus.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2008
Advises on handling asbestos, lead, mold, and radon risks in new and existing schools, as well as during renovations.

Remove It and Prove It.
Rathey, Allen
School Planning and Management; v47 n6 , p43,46,48-50 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testers, biodetectors, and mold detectors to confirm the cleanliness of school interior surfaces.

Stopping MRSA.
Vogel, Carl
District Administration; v44 n6 , p42-46 ; May 2008
Reviews procedures for prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurea (MRSA) in schools. Identification of an outbreak, extra cleaning of areas where an infected student has been, and careful attention to cleanliness of athletic facilities and equipment are recommended.

A Course in Sustainable Maintenance Procedures.
Baldwin, Cheryl
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p44,46,48,50,52 ; Apr 2008
Provides an overview of GS-42, the Green Seal Environmental Standard for Cleaning Services. The standard embraces planning, products, equipment, cleaning procedures, communication, and training.

Electronic Waste: Reuse, Recycle, or Dispose?
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p25,26 ; Apr 2008
Describes types of electronic waste, what can typically be refurbished, access to recycling, EPA designations for these wastes, and hazardous materials found in batteries, lamps, and cathode ray tubes.

Delaware Biotechnology Institute: Improving IAQ with UVC.
Scheir, Robert
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p60,62,64,66 ; Apr 2008
Details the benefits of adding ultraviolet-C lights to this institution's HVAC system. These include use of the condensate as clean make-up water, reduction of biocide use, cleaner indoor air, and electricity savings.

Eat My Dust: Matting Systems and Green Cleaning.
Tricozzi, Christopher
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p91,92 ; Apr 2008
Discusses potential environmental hazards that can be tracked into a school, and describes the function and placement of scraper, absorber, and finish mats.

It's Easy to Be Green. Seven Steps to a Healthier School.
Moore, Deborah
Independent School Magazine; , 3p. ; Mar 28, 2008
This article defines a green school, and provides seven steps to becoming a greener school, including conducting an audit, creating a plan, overcoming obstacles, and integrating green into the curriculum. Includes a chart of the four pillars of a little green schoolhouse.

The Shape of Learning.
Horstman, Eric
School Planning and Management; v47 n3 , p26,28-30,32 ; Mar 2008
Reviews physical and sensory needs for school interiors, including carbon dioxide reduction, access to water fountains, thermal comfort, and the color selection and placement.

Identifying and Treating Environmental Hazards.
Silicato, Steve
Buildings; v102 n2 , p72,74,76 ; Feb 2008
Advises on identification, analysis, abatement, and remediation of asbestos, lead-based paint, and mold.

Grounds for Health: The Intersection of Green School Grounds and Health-Promoting Schools.
Bell, Anne C.; Dyment, Janet E.
Environmental Education Research; v14 n1 , p77-90 ; Feb 2008
Despite the growing body of research on green school grounds, relatively little has been written about their relationship with health promotion, particularly from a holistic health perspective. This paper explores the power and potential of green school grounds to promote health and well-being and to be an integral element of multifaceted, school-based health promotion strategies. Specifically,it brings together recent research to examine green school grounds as places where the interests of educators and children's health advocates can meet, inform and support one another. Highlights the growing body of evidence that green school grounds, as a school setting, can contribute to children's physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being.

The Right Fit.
McGee, Tim
American School and University; v80 n6 , p26,28,30 ; Feb 2008
Discusses the benefits and necessity of ergonomically correct school furniture, as well as the negative effects of poorly designed furniture. Features and components of a comfortable and flexible learning environment are addressed.

Smart Schools Mean Healthy Students.
Education Outlook; 2008
Describes the elements of a high performance school, along with its positive impact on health, learning, and the environment. The formation and work of the Collaborative for High Performance Schools is also featured.

When the Facility Becomes the Culprit.
Barnett, Claire
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p13-16 ; 2008
Details health hazards to children in unhealthy school environments and cites the benefits of healthy, high performance schools.

Risky Business, Safe Solutions.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p8,10 ; Jan 2008
Describes categories of hazardous waste, advises on reducing and handling hazardous waste, and savings that can be realized through proper streaming of hazardous and non- hazardous waste.

HVAC and IAQ Systems.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p91-93 ; Jan 2008
Advises on selecting a schol HVAC system for good indoor air quality, emphasizing filtration, quantity and sources of outside air, humidity control, thermal comfort, energy efficiency, geothermal technology, and post-occupancy testing.

Student-Centered Sustainable Design.
Hall, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p37-39 ; 2008
Discusses the prioritization of school sustainable design features that most directly impact occupant health and morale. These include indoor air quality, ventilation, thermal comfort, daylighting, acoustics, physical condition, small learning communities, and connection to community.

Why a Healthy School Matters. Adobe PDF
Hill, David
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p26-29 ; 2008
Describes how the Blue Valley School District of Overland Park, Kansas, uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Tools for Schools program. Their exemplary effort is described with details of their six "Key Drivers": 1) Organize for success. 2) Assess environments continuously. 3) Plan your short- and long-term activities. 4) Act to address structural, institutional and behavioral issues. 5) Evaluate your results for continuous improvement. 6) Communicate with everyone, all the time.

Outlook 2008: What's ahead for Educational Facilities and Business in the New Year and Beyond.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v80 n5 , p14-16,18-26 ; Jan 2008
Predicts 2008 trends in school enrollment, construction, sustainability, maintenance, indoor air quality, security, technology, business and finance, and energy use.

Reducing Absenteeism From Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Illness in Elementary School Students: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Infection-Control Intervention.
Sandora, Thomas; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldman, Donald
Pediatrics; v121 n6 , pe1555-e1562 ; 2008
Reports on a school-based controlled trial at a single elementary school. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. The presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces were also compared. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%).

Correlating Indoor Air to Student Academic Performance.
Shaughnessy, Richard
The School Administrator; v65 n1 , p22,23 ; Jan 2008
Briefly reviews studies indicating links between classroom ventilation and student performance, and offers five easy steps to take for improved air quality.

Find and Prevent Legionella in Your Building Water Systems.
Turner; Simon; Handley, David
Buildings; v102 n1 , p50-52 ; Jan 2008
Reviews sources of Legionella bacteria, proper maintenance of cooling towers and plumbing to prevent its infestation, and treatment of the towers if the bacteria is found.

Weather Winter's Cold by Going Green.
Lally, Maureen
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p25,26 ; Dec 2007
Reviews LEED certification strategies that save energy and improve the school environment, details benefits of LEED certification for schools, and describes Energy Star and Green Globes as alternatives to LEED certification.

Designer Schools: The Role of School Space and Architecture in Obesity Prevention. Adobe PDF
Obesity; v15 n11 , p2521-2530 ; Nov 2007
Discusses the link between school space and architecture and obesity prevention by reviewing and synthesizing available literature in architecture, environmental psychology, and obesity research, in an effort to propose promising ideas for school space design and redesign. The school environment is defined through 5 dimensions: physical, legal, policy, social, and cultural domains. Theories underlying environmental interventions and documented associations between the environment and health behaviors and outcomes are reviewed to illustrate how existing environmental research could translate to obesity prevention. Design strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthful eating are proposed, with particular emphasis on the design of cafeterias, activity spaces, connectivity with the larger community, and student health centers. Includes 52 references.

MRSA-Epidemic or Media Storm?
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v46 n11 , p10 ; Nov 2007
Reviews cases and treatment for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), emphasizing related points of school facility cleanliness and particular attention to athletic facilities and equipment.

Healthy and Safe School Environment, Part II, Physical School Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and PRograms Study 2006.
Jones, Sherry; Axelrad, Rober, Wattigney, Wendy
Journal of School Health; v77 n8 , p544-556 ; Oct 2007
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts. Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a sample of elementary, middle, and high schools. The study revealed that 35.4 percent of districts and 51.4% of schools had an indoor air quality management program; 35.3% of districts had a school bus engine-idling reduction program; most districts and schools had a policy or plan for how to use, label, store, dispose of, and reduce the use of hazardous materials; 24.5% of states required districts or schools to follow an integrated pest management program; and 13.4% of districts had a policy to include green design when building new school buildings or renovating existing buildings.

The Green Obligation.
Adams, Cameron
American School and University; v80 n1 , p36,38,39 ; Sep 2007
Briefly reviews the financial and health benefits of attention to school indoor air quality, including advice in entryway maintenance, dusting, and independent certification of cleaning systems.

Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions.
Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators; v21 n1 , p21-25 ; Sep-Oct 2007
School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks.

Sick Buildings, Sick Students.
Buchanan, Bruce
American School Board Journal; v194 n6 , p48-50 ; Jun 2007
Discusses the link between school indoor air quality and occupant health and learning. Typical biological and chemical pollutants are listed, along with their effects. Several examples are offered of schools that were found to be polluted and what it took to clean them.

The Benefits of Full Spectrum Lighting?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n6 , p56,58-60 ; Jun 2007
Evaluates a variety of promotional claims from full-spectrum lighting manufacturers, including remediation of ADHD in children, improved health and learning, and improved color rendering. The author advises that the research is insufficient and the benefits are possibly overstated at this time. This, in addition to the higher purchase and energy use of the lamps, indicates caution.

Exhale: How Strengthening School Design Can Help Reduce Childhood Obesity.
Sims, Joel
Schooldesigner Newsletter; n10 ; Jun 2007
Reviews exterior school facility features that promote student fitness. These include longer walking distances between classes, year-round synthetic athletic surfaces, and activity-promoting playgrounds.

Bug Off.
Copps, Patrick
American School and University; v79 n10 , p48-50 ; May 2007
Reviews seven components of a school integrated pest management program: inspection, preventive action, proper identification of pests, analysis of how pests gain access, treatment, monitoring, and accurate documentation. A variety of non-chemical "green" techniques are reviews, including fly lights, sticky boards, positive airflow, organic cleaners, pheromone traps, insect growth regulators, and non-volatile baits.

Distractions with Legs.
Meek, Frank
School Planning and Management; v46 n5 , p30,32 ; May 2007
Discusses the dangers that pests and pesticides pose in schools, and the many ways they are attracted to and find their way inside. Non-chemical suggestions for pest control include keeping vegetation away from the building, positive airflow, strategically placed lighting, and sealing screening entrance points.

Designing Schools to Help Fight Childhood Obesity: Part One-Inhale.
Sims, Joel
The Schooldesigner Newsletter; n9 ; May 2007
Advises on how school design can promote student fitness, focusing on school interiors. Larger classrooms that can accommodate student mobility, natatoriums, and innovative fitness rooms that accommodate those not motivated toward exercise are addressed.

Breathing in Comfort.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n9 , p39-42 ; Apr 2007
Reviews health problems that can be attributed to poor indoor air, and suggests ways to control mold, increase fresh air, and construct buildings to improve indoor air quality.

Seven Special IAQ Challenges.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v10 n2 , p36,38-41 ; Feb 2007
Reviews the particular indoor air quality challenges accompanying campus kitchens, print shops, laboratories, and library/media centers. Ventilation and control of humidity and toxins are covered.

Green Buildings Promote Better Health and Education.
del Monte, Betsy
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n1 , p6,8,9 ; Jan 2007
Briefly reviews aspects of sustainability in school site selection, roofing, landscaping, material selection, lighting, and indoor air quality.

The EPA is Studying You.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p25-27 ; Jan 2007
Advises on paying attention to environmental regulations, especially regarding hazardous materials, underground storage tanks, and wetlands. Examples of school systems that have been fined are provided, as well as software that can help schools keep track of the regulations and compliance.

The High Cost of Cleanup. Adobe PDF
Buchanan, Bruce
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p22-25 ; Dec 2006
Reviews the threat of asbestos, lead, and mercury in schools. Sources of these toxins and options for their removal or containment are covered.
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Desiccant Dehumidification Beats Heat as Construction Drying Method.
Brown, Russ
Facilities Manager; v22 n6 , p42-44 ; Nov-Dec 2006
Describes the necessity of drying building materials after installation, outlining risks of damage and contamination from moisture lingering in the building. HVAC systems should not be used to accomplish drying. Proper drying is defined, and problems using heat for drying are cited. Dessicant heaters constructed specifically for this purpose are recommended, as they attract a greater volume of moisture and operate well at a variety of temperatures.

Managing Risks.
Osborn, John
American School and University; v79 n3 , p307-309 ; Nov 2006
Reviews the U.S. Environmental Agency s efforts to bring higher education institutions into environmental compliance through voluntary auditing and amnesty for promptly corrected violations. The typical environmental issues that these institutions face are covered, including lead-based paint, asbestos, mold, and underground storage tanks.

Going Green: From Cleaning to Construction.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v9 n10 , p32,34,36-38 ; Oct 2006
Discusses certification programs for environmentally-sensitive construction, equipment, and cleaning products. The Greenguard program certifies building products for emissions. The SmartWood program certifies wood for sustainable origin, harvesting, and delivery. The Green Label program certifies carpeting, flooring adhesives, padding, and vacuum cleaners. Green Seal certifies paints, coatings, cleaners, windows, and doors.

Environmental Management for High Performance Schools.
Gayetsky, John
School Business Affairs; v72 n8 , p36-38,40 ; Sep 2006
Discusses the components of a district-wide environmental management plan, urging a shift away from the custodial or maintenance supervisor as the sole guardian of the learning environment. The financial, human, and socioeconomic consequences of poor environmental management are displayed in a table and the multiple benefits of effective environmental management are described.

Allergens in School Settings: Results of Environmental Assessments in 3 City School Systems
Abramson, Stuart L.; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Joseph, Christine L. M.; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, S
Journal of School Health; v76 n6 , p246-249 ; Aug 2006
Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children. [Authors' abstract]

The Air Down There.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v9 n7 , p29,30,32,33 ; Jul 2006
Defines displacement ventilation (DV) and describes its benefits to air quality, energy savings, noise control, and comfort. Also included is a comparison of DV to under-floor air distribution (UFAD), examples of schools that use DV, and architectural considerations for DV installation.

Contaminant Control.
Adams, Matt
American School and University; v78 n9 , p44-46 ; Apr 2006
Reviews sources of indoor air pollution in schools, with particular attention to the increased impact of contaminants on children's bodies. Techniques for source control of contaminants and improved ventilation are also described.

The Greening and Savings of Public Schools.
Ashkin, Stephen
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG22, G24 ; Apr 2006
Describes savings realized by school involved in "green cleaning" programs, including reduced chemical use, better-trained staff that assumes more responsibility for building systems, and reduced absenteeism.

The Importance of Green Cleaning.
Greeley, Geoff
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , pG36-G38 ; Apr 2006
Discusses products and procedures of green cleaning, which allows more frequent and healthier, and even less expensive cleaning.

What Does Green Mean for Classroom Furniture?
Roskos, Bob
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG10, G12 ; Apr 2006
Discusses definitions and requirements for recycled content in school furnishings, as well as "green" furniture s potential benefits to school indoor air quality.

Greening the Floor.
Schollian, Emily
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG30,G31 ; Apr 2006
Describes terrazzo's contribution to school environmental quality as a zero-emissions product that can also contain considerable recycled content.

Sometimes Green Sucks.
Walker, John
School Planning and Management; v45 n4 , pG36-G39 ; Apr 2006
Discusses elements of effective and environmentally thoughtful vacuuming, including filtration, ergonomics, energy efficiency, air flow, and filter changing. Cost advantages of "green" vacuuming systems and practices are included.

The Coal Mine Next Door.
Slavin, Peter
American School Board Journal; v193 n3 , p16-21 ; Mar 2006
Describes the illnesses of teachers and students in a school near a coal mining and processing operation. The possible effects of toxins from the mining operations are detailed, as is the protracted struggle pitting the mine's operators and supporters against activists, which was ultimately waged at the state level.

Indoor Environmental Quality in a "Low Allergen" School and Three Standard Primary Schools in Western Australia.
Zhang, G; Spicke, J. RUmchev, K; Lee, A. H.; Stick, S.
Indoor Air; v16 n1 , 74-80 ; Feb 2006
Reports on assessments of dust allergens, air pollutants and physical parameters in four schools at four times (summer school term, autumn holiday, winter school term and winter holiday). The levels of particulate matter (PM10) and volatile organic compounds were similar between the four primary schools. Although slightly decreased levels of dust-mite and cat allergens were observed in the `low allergen' school, the reductions were not statistically significant and the allergen levels in all schools were much lower than the recommended sensitizing thresholds. However, significantly lower levels of relative humidity and formaldehyde level during summer-term were recorded in the `low allergen' school. In conclusion, the evidence here suggests that the `low allergen' school did not significantly improve the indoor environmental quality in classrooms.

Integrated Design Planning Is Key to a Healthy Classroom.
Learning By Design; n15 , p164 ; 2006
Recommends classroom orientation, proper lighting, and displacement ventilation to help achieve a healthy classroom environment.
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Well-Designed Learning Centers Offer Immense Health Benefits for Families and Children.
New Schools Better Neighborhoods; Winter 2006
Presents a pediatrician's view on the importance of the school built environment in promoting a healthy lifestyle for students and parents.

Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001
Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao
Journal of School Health; v76 n8 , p408-413 ; Jan 2006
School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma hospitalizations, including sociodemographics and school environmental factors, among school-age children (5-18 years) in New York State (NYS) over an 11-year period (1991-2001). Calculation of time trends revealed overall declines in asthma rates among school-age children for NYS from 1991 to 2001. [Authors' abstract]

Prevalence and Implementation of IAQ Programs in U.S. Schools.
Moglia, Dena; Smith, Alisa; MacIntosh, David; Somers, Jennifer
Environmental Health Perspectives; v114 n1 , p141-146 ; Jan 2006
Reports questionnaire survey results showing that forty-two percent of schools in the U.S. have an IAQ management program, and there has been sustained growth from 1998 to 2002 in the number of schools that have such programs. Nearly half of those schools use EPA s IAQ Tools for Schools Program. The IAQ Practice Index scores varied widely for schools with an IAQ management program, suggesting that having a program is not equivalent to implementing effective IAQ policies and procedures. Respondents indicated that their IAQ programs led to improved workplace satisfaction, fewer asthma attacks, fewer visits to the school nurse, and lower absenteeism. Includes ten references.

Ensuring the Future.
Ashkin, Stephen
American School and University; v78 n3 , p305-307 ; Nov 2005
Describes a variety of free tools and programs to help audit and improve environmental health in existing school buildings, and organizations which assist with designing healthier new buildings.

Mouse and Cockroach Allergens in the Dust and Air in Northeastern United States Inner-city Public High Schools.
Chew, G; Correa, J; Perzanowski, M.
Indoor Air; v15 n4 , p228-234 ; Aug 2005
Levels of mouse and cockroach allergen were measured in vacuumed settled dust in 87 classrooms in 11 New York City schools. At the same time, two five-day air samples were collected by 53 students at school and at home. The percentage of samples where the allergens were measured to be over analytical detection limits were as follows: mouse allergen in school dust, 81%; cockroach allergen in school air, 71%; mouse allergen in school air, 5%; cockroach allergen in school air, 22%.

Acute Illnesses Associated With Pesticide Exposure at Schools.
Alarcon, Walter, et al.
JAMA; v294 n4 , p455-465 ; Jul 27, 2005
Data collected by three national pesticide surveillance systems from 1998-2002 indicated acute illness associated with pesticide exposure at schools. Incidence rates for the period were 7.4 cases per million children and 27.3 cases per million school employee full-time equivalents. Illness of high severity was found in 3 cases (0.1%), moderate severity in 275 cases (11%), and low severity in 2315 cases (89%). Most illnesses were associated with insecticides (n = 895, 35%), disinfectants (n = 830, 32%), repellents (n = 335, 13%), or herbicides (n = 279, 11%). Among 406 cases with detailed information on the source of pesticide exposure, 281 (69%) were associated with pesticides used at schools and 125 (31%) were associated with pesticide drift exposure from farmland.

Student-Centered Sustainable Design.
Hall, Michael; Wilczynski, Stephen
School Planning and Management; v44 n7 , p22,24-27 ; Jul 2005
Outlines options for prioritizing and funding the sustainable school design options that most directly benefit students: indoor air quality and ventilation, thermal comfort, daylighting, acoustics, physical condition of facilities, smaller learning communities, and connectivity to the community.

Sick Buildings, Sick Kids.
Sausner, Rebecca
University Business; v8 n7 , p48-52 ; Jul 2005
Discusses responses to illnesses induced by over-recirculated indoor air, surface contamination, and mold. Staff should be properly trained in prevention and response to pathogenic outbreaks, and older buildings, even though they are typically exempt from newer ventilation requirements, should be brought up to modern standards.

Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise and Children's Cognition and Health: a Cross-National Study.
Stansfeld, S. A., et al
The Lancet; v365 n9475 , p1942-1949 ; Jun 05, 2005
Presents the results of a study that assessed 2844 children aged 9 10 years attending European schools near three major airports. Subjects were selected according to extent of exposure to external aircraft and road traffic noise at school as predicted from noise contour maps, modelling, and on-site measurements. Linear exposure-effect associations were identified between exposure to chronic aircraft noise and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, and a non-linear association with annoyance maintained after adjustment for mother's education, socioeconomic status, longstanding illness, and extent of classroom insulation against noise. Exposure to road traffic noise was linearly associated with increases in episodic memory, but also with annoyance. Neither aircraft noise nor traffic noise affected sustained attention, self-reported health, or overall mental health.

School Location Matters: Preventing School-Siting Disasters.
Fischbach, Steven; Gibbs, Lois; Gonzalez, Stacey
Clearinghouse Review: Journal of Poverty Law and Policy; v39 n5/6 , p13-25 ; May-Jun 2005
Discusses the inadequacy of school-siting laws as they pertain to siting schools on or near sources of environmental pollution, as well as the effectiveness of litigation brought in response to dangerous school siting decisions. Recommendations on how legal aid attorneys can work to promote school siting practices that protect children's health are included, along with 54 references.

Direct and Indirect Costs of Asthma in School-age Children.
Wang, LY; Zhong, Y; Wheeler, L
Preventing Chronic Disease; Jan 2005
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and is the most common cause of school absenteeism due to chronic conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate direct and indirect costs of asthma in school-age children. Using data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the authors estimated total economic impact of asthma in school-age children was $1993.6 million ($791 per child with asthma). The economic impact of asthma on school-age children, families, and society is immense, and more public health efforts to better control asthma in children are needed. [Authors' abstract]

Healthful School Environments.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v43 n10 , p17,18,20,21 ; Oct 2004
Describes quieter technologies for fluorescent lighting and HVAC systems that reduce classroom noise that has been typically tolerated for years.

More Than Mold.
Hughes, Malou; Epstien, Barb
American School and University; v77 n1 , p41-43 ; Sep 2004
Describes many possible indoor air pollutants other than mold, their sources, and how to reduce or eliminate them. These include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and allergens.

Healthy School Environments
Lewallen, Theresa
Infobrief [Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development]; n38 ; Aug 2004
Healthy, properly nourished students who feel safe are better able to concentrate on their work, attend school on a regular basis, and perform well in class and on tests. Despite such research findings, however, discussions about improving student achievement often occur separately from discussions about schools' roles in addressing health and safety concerns. Federal, state, and local policies are being formulated to address each concern, yet policymakers frequently fail to consider intersecting student health and achievement as they develop school improvement policies.

Does the Indoor Air Quality in Schools Impact Student Performance?
School Business Affairs; v70 n4 , p18-20 ; Apr 2004
Describes the effects of common indoor pollutants on human performance and suggests programs that can improve indoor air quality in schools.

Assessing Risk of Legionella.
Cooper, Andrew J.; Barnes Howard R.; Myers, Eric R.
ASHRAE Journal; v46 n4 , p22-27 ; Apr 2004
Presents considerations for assessing risk of Legionella exposure in situations where water dischargers, such as those from HVAC systems, operate in close proximity to humans.

Evaluating Security Readiness in Foodservice Using (SARA), Safety Analysis Risk Assessment.
Haynes, Jim; Beck, Joe
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education; v22 n1 , p58-66 ; Spring 2004
Examines security risks present in food service and describes an evaluation instrument called SARA, safety analysis risk assessment, which can be used to evaluate security readiness in food service. This assessment covers protection of workers, tampering with food, access, emergency plans, and hazardous cleaning and maintenance materials. Includes 24 references.

Schools on Alert over Water Quality.
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Education Week; v23 n27 , p1,26,27 ; Mar 17, 2004
Describes problems with lead-tainted drinking water in schools across the country, particularly in cities with many older school buildings. Highlights the sometimes contentious process toward remediation and some steps taken to protect students. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Healthy Buildings: The Keystone of High Performance Schools.
Bates, Thomas
Educational Facility Planner; v39 n3 , p15-19 ; 2004
Describes effects of temperature, humidity, indoor air pollutants, and ventilation on learning. Also included is a lengthy checklist of design and maintenance considerations for good indoor air quality.

Choosing an Indoor Air Quality Specialist.
Siener, Thomas
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p33-34 ; Dec 2003
Presents criteria for identifying and hiring environmental consultants when internal staff cannot resolve an indoor air problem. A list of certifcations that should be held by the professionals and laboratories engaged is included along with an outline of what the investigation should include.

Provide an Environment That Allows Students to Experience a Healthy Life Style.
Sturgeon, Cheryl B.
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p40-41 ; Dec 2003
Promotes a school environment that encourages students to make healthy life style choices, especially concerning food. Promotion of healthy eating should extend beyond the cafeteria to vending machines, school parties, curriculum and rewards for achievement. Parental invovlement, clear policies, and control of commercial influence within the school are also advocated.

Wi-Fi Poses School Health Risk, Suit Against Illinois District Argues.
Borja, Rhea R.
Education Week; v23 n8 , p9 ; Oct 22, 2003
A group of parents and their children has sued a suburban Chicago school district over the use of "Wi-Fi," or wireless fidelity, alleging that the technology's radio waves may pose serious health risks to children. District officials vigorously defend the use of Wi-Fi, and the technology industry maintains that Wi-Fi is safe. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Is Mold the New Asbestos?
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v190 n10 , p14-18 ; Oct 2003
Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to school leaders and architects. Schools that evaluate their facilities systems after finding serious mold infestations usually discover that the mold problems are connected to other facilities management shortcomings. This article discusses the high-dollar risk of poor indoor air quality; claims, counterclaims, and charges; confronting the community fallout; and how districts are dealing with mold. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report.

Prevalence of School Policies, Programs, and Facilities That Promote a Healthy Physical School Environment. Adobe PDF
Jones, Shirley; Brener, Nancy; McManus, Tim
American Journal of Public Health; v93 n9 , p1570-1575 ; Sep 2003
Reports public schools (vs private and Catholic schools), urban schools (vs rural and suburban schools), and schools with larger enrollments (vs smaller schools) had more health- promoting policies, programs, and facilities in place. On average, middle schools had 11.0 and middle/junior and high schools had 10.4 out of a possible 18 policies, programs, and facilities. Includes 28 references.

Mold-Resistant Construction.
Huckabee, Christopher
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p29-32 ; Aug 2003
Asserts that one of the surest ways to prevent indoor air quality and mold issues is to use preventive construction materials, discussing typical resistance to dealing with mold problems (usually budget-related) and describing mold-resistant construction, which uses concrete masonry, brick, and stone and is intended to withstand inevitable moisture events that destroy many modern building materials. A sidebar offers tips for preventing moisture penetration.

Environmental Design: Focusing on Human Factors.
Rydeen, James E.
American School and University; v75 n12 , p158-61 ; Aug 2003
In designing schools, planners must use the criteria of health and safety, performance, comfort, and aesthetics to create a humanized physical environment that stimulates interest and provides motivation for learning and teaching. The human factors in design are sense of place, ownership, community, presence comfort, security, aesthetics, performance, and privacy. Students must feel valued to stimulate performance. This occurs through psychological and physiological humanizing of spatial design elements.

Human Performance: Does Indoor Environmental Quality Make a Difference?
McIntosh, E. Ken
Facility Management Journal; v13 n4 , p36-38 ; Jul-Aug 2003
Asserts that the primary objective of every school must be an indoor environment that creates a sense of wellbeing in order to facilitate learning (e.g., adequate space, good lighting, friendly conditions, an inviting exterior, a consistent climate/temperature, traffic control and parking, and sanitary conditions), noting that the messages sent to students and teachers by the indoor environmental quality affects teaching, learning, and attitudes.

School Oil Wells Cause Beverly Hills Willies.
Walsh, Mark
Education Week; v22 n34 , p3 ; May 07, 2003
News story about allegations made by Erin Brockovich and lawyer Ed Masry that toxic emissions from oil wells under Beverly Hills High School caused as many as 300 cases of Hodgkin's disease, non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, and thyroid cancer among alumni and nearby residents. The law firm filed administrative complaints with the Beverly Hills Unified School District and the city of Beverly Hills on behalf of 25 alleged victims of toxic emissions. The firm plans to sue those agencies as well as three oil companies with past or current involvement in the oil operation. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Study Cites Threat From Exposure To Lower Levels of Lead.
Brown, Hattie
Education Week; v22 n33 , p13 ; Apr 30, 2003
A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine shows that blood lead levels officially considered safe are now believed to hurt a person's intellectual development. This has implications for school administrators who are tackling numerous instances of lead found in water used in drinking fountains and cafeteria cooking because of lead pipes, in soil surrounding playgrounds, and in dust from chipped lead paint, which was banned in 1978. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Cleaning Up Aging Schools.
Education Today; v21 n7 , p16-17 ; Apr 2003
A New Jersey local affiliate of the National Education Association resolves problems of airless, crumbling, leaky, and moldy school buildings through a labor-management health and safety committee. The management half of the committee includes the district architect and the heads of maintenance and security, and the committee is empowered to make binding decisions on the spot.

Healthy Learning.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p26-29 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs.

Getting the Lead Out.
Ness, Erik
Rethinking Schools; v18 n2 , p18-21 ; Winter 2003
Describes the effects of lead poisoning. Because the source of lead poisoning in most children is old house paint, and is found mostly in substandard housing, lower-income children are disproportionally affected. Suggestions to teachers are included.

Solid as a Rock.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v75 n3 , p349-51 ; Nov 2002
Discusses the benefits in terms of moisture and therefore mold resistance of using masonry products for a building's envelope. Also describes maintenance steps to help combat moisture problems.

Releases of Hazardous Substances in Schools: Data from the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System, 1993-1998.
Berkowitz, Z.; Haugh, G.S.; Orr, M.F.; Kaye, W.E.
Journal of Environmental Health; v 65 n2 , p20-7, 37, 39 ; Sep 2002
This report describes the adverse public-health effects resulting from releases of hazardous substances in schools. Data were analyzed from emergency events reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system by 14 participating states during 1993-1998. Compared with all other types of events, a higher proportion of school-related events resulted in victims (relative risk [RR] = 3.94, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 3.37-4.60) and in evacuation (RR = 5.76, 95 percent CI = 5.16-6.43). The most common cause of these events was operator error, followed in frequency by equipment failure, improper mixing, and deliberate releases. The majority of victims were exposed to spills emitting noxious gases, and their resulting symptoms were primarily associated with the respiratory tract. [Authors' abstract]

Elements of Green.
Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie
School Planning and Management; v41 n8 , p20,22 ; Aug 2002
Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air quality, and buildings as teaching tools.

When Is Safe, Safe Enough?
Neil, Kirk
School Business Affairs; v68 n6 , p4-7 ; Jun 2002
Discusses events affecting parental school-safety concerns and what school districts can do to alleviate those concerns. Addresses post-September 11 crisis-management procedures, preventing sports-related student deaths, maintaining healthy indoor air quality.

Reading, Writing, but No Arithmetic. Spheres of Influence.
Schmidt, Charles W.
Environmental Health Perspectives; v110 n6 , pA306-308 ; Jun 2002
Describes several legislative initiatives concerning indoor school environments, such as the Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2001, and the problem of lack of funding appropriations even for initiatives that gained lawmakers' support.

How Healthy Is Your School's Air?
Guarneiri, Michele
Principal; v81 n5 , p18-21 ; May 2002
Describes sources of indoor air pollution and health risk to children, such as asthma and lower respiratory infections. Asserts that risk of asthma is greater among African-American and Hispanic children attending urban schools. Suggests ways principals can help improve indoor air quality.

Is School Making Your Students Sick?
Comnes, Leslie
Clearing; n111 , p10-14 ; Winter 2002
Reviews environmental hazards within schools. Identifies indoor air pollution, asbestos, lead poisoning, and pesticides as the leading hazards. Forms of indoor air pollution include radon carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and various allergens such as mold and animal dander. Presents some guiding principles for the environmental quality of schools along with curriculum and assessment resources.

Environmental Allergens and Irritants in Schools: a Focus on Asthma
Tortolero, SR; Bartholomew, LK; Tyrrell, S; Abramson, SL; Sockrider, MM; Markham, CM; Whitehead, LW; Parcel, GS
Journal of School Health; v72 n1 , p33-38 ; Jan 2002
As part of the Partners in School Asthma Management Program, environmental data were collected from 385 rooms in 60 elementary schools in southeast Texas, using an Environmental Observation Checklist and a Q-TRAK Indoor Air Quality Monitor. Dust samples for allergen analysis were collected from floors, carpets, and area rugs in 80 classrooms in a subset of 20 schools. CO2 levels > 1,000 ppm were found in 86% of rooms; 69% had indoor humidity above recommended levels. Der p I dust mite allergen levels > 2,000 ng/g were present in 20% of rooms, but only 2.5% of rooms had Der f I mite allergen levels exceeding recommended tolerances. Detectable levels of cockroach allergen (Bla g II) were found in all schools (median 5.5 ng/g), with 10% of rooms over the recommended threshold. Almost two-thirds of classrooms had mold spore counts > 10,000 col/g (median, 14,400 col/g; range, 2,000-52,000 col/g). [Authors' abstract]

Staying Green.
Davis, Lee; Siegel, Gary
American School and University; v74 n3 , p324-27 ; Nov 2001
Shows how schools are establishing environmental-management systems to help them comply with stricter federal regulations. Topics addressed include hazardous waste management and use of third-party audits to prepare for Environmental Protection Agency inspections. Environmental guidelines for laboratories and special concerns confronting science buildings are highlighted.

Is Your School Next?
Steinman, Adam H.; Ivanovich, Mary Kristin
American School and University; v74 n3 , p338-40 ; Nov 2001
Examines what schools should know about Environmental Protection Agency enforcement strategy and what schools can do to prepare for inspections. Includes a list of the most common violations.

Irritants and Allergens at School in Relation to Furnishings and Cleaning
Smedje G.; Norbäck D
Indoor Air; v11 n2 , p127-133 ; Jun 2001
In order to study the influence of furnishings and cleaning on the indoor air quality at school, 181 randomly chosen classrooms were investigated. The amounts of open shelves, textiles and other fittings were noted, data were gathered on cleaning routines, and a number of pollutants were measured in the classrooms. In classrooms with more fabrics there was more settled dust and the concentration of formaldehyde was higher. Classrooms with more open shelves had more formaldehyde, and more pet allergens in settled dust, and classrooms with a white board, instead of a chalk board, were less dusty. Classrooms mainly cleaned through wet mopping had more airborne viable bacteria but less settled dust than classrooms mainly cleaned by dry methods. In rooms where the desks and curtains were more often cleaned, the concentrations of cat and dog allergen in settled dust were lower. It is concluded that furnishings and textiles in the classroom act as significant reservoirs of irritants and allergens and have an impact on the indoor air quality at school. Furnishings and textiles act as reservoirs of irritants and allergens and are of importance for the indoor air quality at school. The amount of such fittings should be minimised. Cleaning could be helpful in reducing the concentration of allergen. In schools without textile flooring, it would seem important to improve the cleaning of furniture and fabrics

A Clean School Is a Healthy School.
Shideler, Larry
American School and University; v73 n9 , p52,54,56 ; May 2001
Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can derive when they emphasize health and safety in their cleaning practices. Use of the Cleaning for Health and Safety program to reduce or eliminate potentially harmful products and processes and lower absenteeism, illness, and injury is discussed.

Evaluating Potential Health Risks in Relocatable Classrooms.
Katchen, Mark; LaPierre, Adrienne; Charlin, Cary; Brucker, Barry; Ferguson, Paul
Journal of School Health; v71 n4 , p159-61 ; Apr 2001
Only limited data exist describing potential exposures to chemical and biological agents when using portable classrooms or outlining how to assess and reduce associated health risks. Evaluating indoor air quality involves examining ventilating rates, volatile organic compounds, and microbiologicals. Open communication among key stakeholders is essential. Guidelines for successful health evaluation in relocatable classrooms are presented.

Creating Healthier School Facilities
American Journal of Public Health; v91 n3 , p494-5 ; 2001

Environmental Reality Check.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p52-53 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included.

Investigating Environmental Health Issues.
Lowenthal, Debbie
Clearing; n107 , p14-17 ; Fall-Winter 2000
Discusses environmental hazards, the problems of misinformation and contradictory information, and the problems for children in sorting out fact from hearsay. Includes tips for protecting children from environmental hazards and describes a program at the University of Washington that develops curriculum materials and other teacher resources.

Managing Claims.
Jacobs, Eric M.
American School and University; v72 n12 , p165-68 ; Aug 2000
Discusses the importance of risk managers responding quickly and ensuring that key people are informed when environmental incidents occur around educational facilities. Guidelines are presented that school officials can use to protect the health and environment and manage the public during environmental incidents.

Preparing for an EPA Inspection and Avoiding Common Mistakes.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p68-71 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Discusses how a higher education facility can prepare for an Environmental Protection Agency inspection with some quick topics designed to smooth the process. Tips include determining if waste is hazardous, labeling waste properly, preventing pollution, improving housekeeping, and having good hazardous materials management practices.

Lawsuits in the Air.
Hays, Larry
American School and University; v72 n10 , p35-36 ; Jun 2000
Discusses why indoor air quality problems in schools should be treated, not only as a health problem issue, but as a potential for legal actions. What types of proof are needed to make a legal claim involving indoor air problems are addressed as are the elements which constitute a "sick building."

Improved Health After Intervention in a School with Moisture Problems.
Ahman, M.; Lundin, A.; Musabai, V.; Soderman, E.
Indoor Air; , p57 ; Mar 2000
In a school with floor moisture problems, the personnel had complaints consistent with the sick-building syndrome (SBS). Interventive measures including the laying of a ventilated floor were undertaken to eliminate the emissions. To examine if the intervention resulted in positive health effects, 34 personnel and 336 pupils were interviewed just before the intervention and also 7 months after. Also were interviewed 21 personnel and 224 pupils at an adjacent school serving as a control. Compared with the control school, the problem school showed more complaints, more general symptoms and more symptoms from the eyes, airways and skin, both among the personnel and the pupils. In the post-intervention examinations, the excess of symptoms among the personnel had almost disappeared. Among the pupils, the frequency of eye irritation was reduced but a general improvement of the other symptoms was not as obvious. However, after adjustment for a recent common cold, atopy and stress among the pupils, only one symptom ("stuffy nose") remained significantly elevated. In conclusion, the intervention was followed by positive health effects, supporting the hypothesis that emissions from building material had contributed to the excess of symptoms. A recent common cold was highly related to the symptoms and should be considered in future SBS studies. [Authors' abstract]

Sick Schools: Bad Ventilation, Moldy Walls, Leaky Pipes. Across the Country, Students and Teachers are Getting Seriously Ill from Classroom Contaminants. Could your Child be at Risk?
Davidson, Jean; Mulvihill, Keith
Good Housekeeping; , p124-127, 184-187 ; May 1999
This article focuses on sick schools, providing several mini case studies, background information, and suggestions for parents with school-age children. The non-specific character of many illnesses induced by suspect indoor environments is emphasized.

The School Environment---Is it Related to the Incidence of Asthma in the Pupils?
Smedje, G., Norback, D.
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, Scotland; v5 , p445-450 ; 1999
The authors studied relationships between the school environment and the incidence of allergies and asthma in pupils. Questionnaire data on symptoms were given in 1993 and 1995 by 1,476 school pupils in 39 randomly chosen schools, and various exposures were measured in approximately 100 classrooms both years. Relations between the 2-year incidence of symptoms and the exposures were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Pupils attending schools with more settled dust on floors and furniture had a higher incidence of current asthma. The incidence of asthmatic symptoms was higher in pupils attending schools with more dog allergen, and lower in those attending schools where a new ventilation system was installed between the two investigations. If the floor material had been replaced, the pupils had a higher incidence of using asthmatic medication. The results indicate that the school environment could be of importance for the incidence of asthmatic symptoms in children.

Prescribing a Cure.
Bomier, Bruce
American School & University; v69 n10 , p26, 28, 30 ; Jun 1997
Discusses the warning signs of a potentially "sick" school building and the use of a proactive plan to deal with or prevent new health and safety challenges. Definitions of health symptoms from a sick building are discussed, and an example of one elementary school's response to air quality concerns is provided.

Water, Water Everywhere, but What's in the Pipes?
Hoober, Scott
School Business Affairs; v63 n6 , p41-45 ; Jun 1997
Waterborne diseases like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery are not problematic in the United States. Most industrial and agricultural chemicals are neutralized by existing treatment technology, but cryptosporidium contamination can occur in dysfunctional treatment/filtration systems.

Building a Healthy Environment.
Simon, Elizabeth
Learning By Design; n6 , p17-20 ; Mar 1997
Describes how school districts, with the help of a good architect, can construct or renovate schools and avoid most environmental hazards. Issues concerning indoor air quality, asbestos, lead poisoning, ergonomics, and adverse exposure to radon and electric and magnetic fields are addressed.

Environmental Hazards: What You Need To Know.
DiNardo, Cathy
School Business Affairs; v62 n11 , p22-26 ; Nov 1996
Discusses what school business officials should know concerning environmental hazards in educational facilities, particularly bloodborne pathogens (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B), lead in paint and water, and asbestos. The keys to managing environmental hazards are education and a knowledgeable inhouse employee or outside consultant to guide school policy and procedures.

Healthy Learning
Bates, Judy
American School & University; v68 n10 , p27-29 ; Jun 1996
Reports on research at six Florida schools that identified common contributors to poor indoor air quality. Discusses the reasons behind the state implementing the research, the many problems associated with elevated humidity levels, and ways to improve air quality, which includes effective operational systems and maintenance procedures.

Is Your School Building Sick?
Foltz, Rose G.
Learning; v24 v6 , p51-53 ; May-Jun 1996
A sick school building has indoor air problems that pose health risks for everyone inside. The paper discusses what makes a school sick and what interested parties can do about it by targeting the problem together, making classroom changes, and making schoolwide changes. Resources for further information are included.

Right from the Start--Constructing a Healthy School.
Oetzel, Mary
(School Business Affairs, Jun 1994)
School Business Affairs; v60 n6 , p4-8,10-11 ; Jun 1994
A new high school in Stillwater, Minnesota, was completed in June 1993 with the objectives of creating a safe indoor environment, minimizing health risks to construction workers, and avoiding a negative impact on the environment. Lists the guidelines used to evaluate products and methods. Displays the findings of five school systems regarding the costs of various school floor coverings.

Environmentally Controlled Opportunity: Environmental Hpersensitivity and Our Schools.
Barsoum, Reg
Educational Facility Planner; v32 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1994
Environmental hypersensitivity caused by "sick building" syndrome affects a growing numbers of schools. The author believes changing our view of the school environment, will lead to a healthier school for everyone.

Prescriptions for Sick Schools.
Ornstein, Allan C.
Principal; v73 n2 , p25-27 ; Nov 01, 1993
Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials must act fast to avoid lawsuits.

Is Your School Suffering from Sick Building Syndrome?
Wulf, Margaret
PTA Today; v19 n2 , p12-13 ; Nov-Dec 1993
Health effects associated with indoor air/environmental quality are a major concern. Sick building syndrome, which causes illness in occupants, generally results from particulates, volatile organic compounds, biologicals, or radio-nucleotides. The article recommends how to deal with sick school buildings.

Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.
Odell, Lee
School Business Affairs; v57 n12 , p.14-18 ; Dec 1991
The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water.

Warning: Schools Could Be Hazardous to Kids' Health.
Rist, Marilee C.
American School Board Journal; v178 n11 , p32 ; Nov 1991
Cites incidents of toxic indoor air and hazardous material in and around school buildings.

Warning: Your School May Be Hazardous to Your Health.
Gursky, Daniel
Teacher Magazine; v2 n6 , p34-35 ; Mar 1991
Discusses the fact that many teachers unknowingly breathe air and drink water that may contain low levels of harmful material. Exposure on the job over the years may present significant health risks. This article examines the problems of indoor air pollution, pesticides, asbestos, lead in drinking water, and radon.

Designing for Safety.
Marshall, George, CSP, PE
Educational Facility Planner; v28 n5 ; Sep 1990
Safety must be considered in all phases of the design process. Safety engineering is as technical as any other in the design process and highly regulated. Facility planning teams should enlist the aid of safety consultants to help eliminate potential hazards and problems such as a "tight building syndrome" or "sick building syndrome". The HVAC system, air balance, new materials, building maintenance projects and water quality are all areas that require careful analysis in new or renovative projects. Educational and municipal laboratories have special needs for chemical fume hoods (to contain and eliminate harmful gases) and air exchange systems. The electrical system must have safeguards against fires, and the water system should safeguard against backflow problems while at the same time avoid contaminating the water system source.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).

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