NCEF Resource List: Hazardous Materials in Schools
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Information on the identification, treatment, storage, and removal of hazardous materials found in school buildings and grounds, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

School Siting Guidelines.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Oct 02, 2011)
Voluntary school siting guidelines can help local school districts and community members evaluate environmental factors to make the best possible school siting decisions. Includes overview, environmental siting criteria considerations, environmental review process, evaluating impacts of nearby sources of air pollution, quick guide for environmnetal issues, and frequent questions.

Radon in Schools: What You Need to Know. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Aug 24, 2011)
Slides from a webinar that provided a basic overview of radon as an environmental health threat. Includes a practical look at how Colorado Springs School District 11 applied the IAQ Tools For Schools' Six Key Drivers to radon testing and mitigation. 61 slides

Children's Health and Chemical Exposure: Beginning Risks Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc. Atlanta, GA, Jan 2011)
Examines the implications of chemical exposure and indoor air quality (IAQ) on children's health, as well as the ways by which physical differences, socioeconomic status, and activity patterns increase overall risk. 23p

Proper Maintenance, Removal, and Disposal of PCB-Containing Fluorescent Light Ballasts.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , 2011)
The U.S. Environmental Agency recommends removal of all pre-1979 flourescent light ballasts in schools to prevent accidental exposure of occupants to highly toxic polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB's). This web-based guide provides information to school administrators and maintenance personnel on the risks posed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in light ballasts, how to properly handle and dispose of these items, and how to properly retrofit the lighting fixtures in schools to remove potential PCB hazards.

PCBs: Mandatory Testing in Schools
Lefkowitz, Daniel
(Daniel Lefkowitz, 2011)
Provides extensive information on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in building caulking before 1977. The effects of PCBs, testing, removal, and mandatory state programs for PCB testing are described. Includes sampling reports, media and news, photos of caulk, workplace regulations.

Managing Radon in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. , Jun 2010)
Explains why testing for radon should be a part of any school’s IAQ management program and how schools have successfully applied radon mitigation strategies to control indoor radon levels. 3p.

Facts about PCBs in Caulk.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Briefly answers questions concerning the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in building caulk, addressing the history of their uses, testing for them, means of exposure, and abatement in advance of a renovation. 4p.

How to Test for PCBs and Characterize Suspect Materials
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Advises on how to test for the presence of PCBs in the building. The document recommends that the air is tested first to determine if PCBs may be causing a potential public health problem. This initial step may help prioritize the steps and/or approaches for the renovation or repair work. If a PCB problem is identified, it will need to be characterized to determine the extent of PCB contamination. It is important to note that even if PCBs are not present in the air, they still may be present in the caulk and/or other building materials.

Mercury in Schools and Communities
(The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs funded the Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA), 2010)
Assists in identifying and removing elemental mercury and products containing mercury from schools and from homes. Informational materials include: Getting Mercury Out of Schools: Guidance for Private and Parochial Schools in Massachusetts; Mercury Use in School Classrooms: Summary and Assessment of Non-Mercury Alternatives; Getting Mercury Out of Schools; Identification of Mercury Devices in Schools; and Case Study on Mercury Elimination from Bay Path Vocational Technical High School, Charlton, Massachusetts.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Steps to Safe Renovation and Repair Activities.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Highlights precautionary measures and best work practices to follow when conducting a repair or renovation in older buildings where PCB-containing caulk could be encountered or where it is assumed that PCBs are present, but do not have an abatement planned. Compliance with protective regulations and techniques to prevent the spread of dust are emphasized. 7p.

Steps to Safe PCB Abatement Activities.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Details four steps in a PCB abatement: 1) Prepare an abatement strategy. 2) Conduct removal and abatement activities. 3) Handle, store, and dispose of wastes. 4) Prepare and maintain documentation. 18p.

Summary of Tools and Methods for Caulk Removal.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2010)
Describes 12 tools and methods for removing building caulk, including safety precautions. 5p.

PCBs in Schools and Corporate Responsibility for Remediation: Yorktown Central School District v. Monsanto Company. Adobe PDF
Watnick, VAlerie
(University of California, Davis , 2010)
Asserts that just as concerns about lead and asbestos were raised decades ago, regulators must now act to curtail the dangers associated with PCBs in school building materials and develop a broad plan to remediate contaminated school buildings. In recent litigation involving PCBs, the Yorktown Central School District in New York State sued the U.S. makers and distributors of PCBs in federal court, urging that the sole corporate manufacturer of these chemicals should bear the burden of required remediation in the School District. At the time of the suit, the Yorktown Central School District had recently completed remediation of PCB laden caulk in all of its school buildings following the discovery of high levels of PCBs in school building materials. On the heels of these PCB clean-up efforts by the Yorktown Central School District and the School District?s federal lawsuit , in April 2008 in New York City, additional serious concerns about PCBs in schools also surfaced. The article outlines a framework for federal legislation to comprehensively address the existence of PCBs in our nation?s schools. And finally, the article asserts that there exist legal, economic and policy reasons to hold the sole corporate manufacturer of PCBs in the United States liable for remediation and other costs associated with PCBs in our schools, rather than leaving the public to pay for the associated remediation. [author's abstract] 43p.

A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds.
(United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Nov 2009)
Reports on a study of the toxicity of the tire crumbs typically found in artificial turf. The study found that the concentrations of particulate matter, metals, and volatile organic compounds that make up tire crumb were below levels considered harmful. However, given the limited nature of the study (limited number of constituents monitored, sample sites, and samples taken at each site) and the wide diversity of tire crumb material, it is not possible, without additional data, to extend the results beyond the four study sites to reach more comprehensive conclusions. 123p.
Report NO: EPA/600/R-09/135

Current Best Practices for PCBs in Caulk Fact Scheet: Disposal Options for PCBs in Caulk and PCB-Contaminated Soil and Building Materials. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Identifies for school system officials key information on disposal options for PCBs in caulk and contaminated soil and building materials. It also identifies whom to contact at EPA for advice on addressing PCBs in caulk. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 4p.

Contractors Handling PCBs in Caulk During Renovation. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Provides contractors, parents, teachers, and school administrators a general overview of the practices a contractor should consider when conducting the renovation of a building that has polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing caulk. Advice for removal in interiors and exteriors, tools and protective gear, and disposal is included. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 4p.
Report NO: EPA-747-F-09-004

Current Best Practices for PCBs in Caulk Fact Sheet: Interim Measures for Assessing Risk and Taking Action to Reduce Exposures. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Identifies for school system officials the key steps necessary to conduct a preliminary assessment of PCBs in the air in buildings, interim actions that may be taken to prevent or reduce potential exposures to building occupants until the caulk is removed, and whom to contact at EPA for advice on addressing PCBs in caulk. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 4p.

Current Best Practices for PCBs in Caulk Fact Sheet: Removal and Clean-Up of PCBs in Caulk and PCB-Contaminated Soil and Building Material. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Identifies for school system officials key information on removal and cleanup of PCBs in caulk and PCB contaminated soil and building materials. In addition, it identifies whom to contact at EPA for advice on addressing PCBs in caulk. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 3p.

Current Best Practices for PCB's in Caulk Fact Sheet: Testing in Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Supplies key information on testing for PCBs in caulk or in soil or air. Testing will determine if PCBs are present in caulk and if PCBs are present, whether the potential exposure will be dermal, from inhalation and/or from ingestion. In addition, this fact sheet identifies who to contact at EPA for advice on addressing PCBs in caulk. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 3p.

Preventing Exposure to PCBs in Caulking Material Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Summarizes the threat of PCB's in building caulk, used before 1978. Advice on testing, avoiding exposure, and protection during removal is included. 4p.
Report NO: EPA-747-F-09-005

Research on PCBs in Caulk. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Describes U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research on the effects of PCB's in caulking used in school buildings, as well as mitigation strategies for caulk that cannot immediately be replaced. 2p.

Chemicals in Common Products: Risky Business for Children's Health.
(Greenguard Environmental Institute, Marietta, GA , 2009)
Reviews why children are at increased risk from industrial chemicals, how children are exposed, which chemicals are of concern, how these chemicals may impact children’s health, which products have potentially harmful chemicals, and what efforts are underway to reduce or eliminate exposure. Includes 87 references. 29p.

Fact Sheet for Schools: Caulk Containing PCBs May Be Present in Older Schools and Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises on what polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are, when it was used in building caulk, how to avoid it and what to do about it if present. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 1p.
Report NO: EPA-747-F-09-003

Fact Sheet for Schools: PCBs in Caulk School Checklist. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Provides a checklist for ascertaining the potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in school building caulk and the risk of children's exposure . PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 1p.
Report NO: EPA-747-F-09-003

Fact Sheet for Teachers: What to Say to Children About PCBs. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises teachers on how to address students concerning the risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in building caulk. PCBs were used in caulk between 1950 and 1978, so only buildings built or renovated during those years are at risk. 1p.
Report NO: EPA-747-F-09-003

Public Health Levels for PCBs in Indoor School Air. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's prudent public health levels for PCB exposures that are below the amount that is considered to cause harm. An explanation of how school PCB levels were determined from indoor and outdoor sources is included. 2p.

Safe Chemical Management in Your School Video.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2009)
Provides step-by-step guidance to help schools and community partners develop a responsible chemical management program. Consequences of mishandled school chemicals are discussed, and case studies of two schools that have launched a chemical management program are included.

Sick Schools 2009. America’s Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children. Adobe PDF
(Healthy School Networks, Albany, NY , 2009)
Reviews the status of state laws to protect children from environmental hazards at schools. After an introduction citing the prevalence of unhealthy schools nationwide, each state is presented with information describing the demographics of their current school population and efforts to improve their school environmental health. Appendices address school water quality, other resources, school equity funding laws nationwide, and a position statement from the publisher. 72p.

Toxic Chemical Pollution Releases and Schools.
(, 2009)
This website enables users to investigate facilities listed in the EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), number of schools within 1 mile within 5 miles of the facility, plus link to a database about the toxic history of the facility. Users can also research a chemical to learn more about associated risks, and can find icons naming individual schools.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Indoor Air: Source Investigation and Remedial Approach for a Public School Building in New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. Adobe PDF
Sullivan, David
( , Aug 2008)
Describes the testing for and removal of PCB-bearing material from this school's HVAC system. Includes eight references. 6p.

Potential Exposure to Lead in Artificial Turf: Public Health Issues, Actions, and Recommendations.
(U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta , Jun 18, 2008)
Discusses concerns over potentially high lead levels in artificial sports turf, as indicated by tests on fields in New Jersey. Information on the presence of lead in various types of fibers, recommendations for use of artificial fields in order to minimize lead exposure, and testing of artificial fields is provided. 3p.

Blood Lead and Turf Field Q and A. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Dept.of Health and Social Services, Trenton , Apr 2008)
Presents a brief list of six questions and answers addressing concerns of those who might have played at artificial turf fields in New Jersey that have been found to contain lead. 2p.

Scientific Consensus Statement on Environmental Agents Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Adobe PDF
(Institute for Children's Environmental Health, Freeland, WA , Feb 20, 2008)
Outlines current scientific understanding of the links between environmental factors and learning and developmental disabilities. It also identifies important research areas that hold promise of further advancing our understanding of these links. The document reviews findings from diverse research disciplines concerning environmental contaminants and the biological basis of compromised learning and development, identifies conclusions that could be drawn with confidence from existing data, addresses critical knowledge gaps and areas of uncertainty, suggests key elements of a coherent research agenda to help fill these gaps, and promotes a foundation of current scientific knowledge upon which to make policy decisions that promote and protect an environment in which children can reach and maintain their full potential. 35p.

Additional Artificial Turf Issues. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Dept.of Health and Social Services, Trenton , 2008)
Addresses concerns over chemical and other hazards of artificial turf fields. Ingredients in the crumb rubber filling, abrasions, higher surface temperatures, and potential for lead in the fibers are discussed. 3p.

Healthy Schools: Lessons for a Clean Educational Environment. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2008)
Helps school employees and parents recognize potential environmental health issues at schools, both indoors and outdoors. It includes basic information about mold, radon, VOCs, ventilation, asbestos, lead, mercury, chemicals, pesticides, PCBs, UV radiation, diesel fumes, air quality forecasts, and oil storage. Also provided are links to web sites that offer more information and guidance on how to have a healthier school environment and comply with relevant laws. 16p.

PCBs in Building Caulk.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008)
The EPA provides an overview on caulk containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that was used in some buildings, including schools, in the 1950s through the 1970s. It discusses how to minimize exposure and where more information can be obtained.

Toxic Playgrounds: Arsenic Treated Wood and Artificial Turf.
(Healthy School Network, Albany, NY , 2008)
Advises on the potential presence of the pesticide/fungicide Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) in wood used to construct playgrounds. The chemical can leach from the wood and be absorbed through the skin. Potential threats from artificial turf are also discussed, as are general tips for safer playgrounds. Nine additional resources concerning safety and alternative products are provided. 5p.

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program Assessment.
(Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison , 2008)
These assessment forms are designed to help schools identify what types of healthy, safe, and environmentally sound activities are already in place and where the school can improve its efforts. The Wisconsin program requires that the energy, waste, and recycling, and water sections be done along with any two of the remaining sections that cover chemicals, community involvement, facilities and grounds, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, mercury, and transportation.

Environmental Hazards for Children in the Aftermath of Wildfires. Adobe PDF
Seltzer, James; Miller, Mark; Seltzer, Diane.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL , Nov 05, 2007)
Addresses risks to children after wildfire have passed, including exposure to ash, debris, water damage, water quality, spoiled food, deceased animals, traffic, and construction. Preventive measures and psychological hazards are also addressed. 9p.

Health Risks of Wildfires for Children-Acute Phase. Adobe PDF
Seltzer, James; Miller, Mark; Seltzer, Diane.
(American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL , Oct 28, 2007)
Reviews the health risks to children of active wildfires, and includes recommendations for minimizing smoke exposure by staying indoors, sealing buildings, wearing masks, and evacuation. The psychological effects of wildfires on children are also addressed. 6p.

Protocol for Addressing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Caulking Materials in School Buildings.
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , Jun 2007)
Advises on testing and abatement of PCB-laden caulk typically found in school applications from 1950 to 1977. Caulk that is in place and fallen into the soil are potential sources of contamination. State and national guidelines are cited for handling theses hazardous materials. 4p.

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Recommendations from an Evaluation of Selected Schools Chemical Management Programs.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2007)
Describes the problem caused by unneeded, excessive, or dangerously mismanaged chemicals in K-12 schools, recommends ways to address the problem, and provides "lessons learned" from state and local chemical management programs to address chemical mismanagement in schools. 32p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-005

Building Successful Programs to Address Chemical Risks in Schools: Summaries of State, Tribal, and Local School Chemical Cleanout Programs
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Jan 2007)
Summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s "Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) program partners, funding sources, and components of the programs. Categories in the "program elements" described include: 1) Regulations/Guidelines - state or local regulations or guidelines that are relevant to hazardous chemicals in schools. 2) Chemical Inventory - a program that has a specific chemical inventory component. 3) Waste disposal a program that includes chemical removal and disposal of unwanted, excess, dangerous, or inappropriate chemicals. 4) Training a program that includes a training component for relevant school staff on aspects of conducting a chemical inventory, cleanout, and responsible chemical management. 5) Responsible Chemical Management a program that includes development and implementation of practices to sustain long-term chemical management such as purchasing policies or chemical hygiene plans. 6) Compliance/Technical Assistance - a program that offers resources to schools to assist in implementation of program components during the life of the SC3 program and beyond. 7) Additional Tools/Resources a program that provides a variety of resources to assist with program implementation such as Web sites, templates, manuals, or experts to call for assistance. 34p.
Report NO: EPA530-K-07-004

Evaluation of Health Effects of Recycled Waste Tires in Playground and Track Products.
(State of California, Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento , Jan 2007)
Reports on a studies of health risks to children using outdoor playground and track surfaces constructed from recycled waste tires. Three routes of child exposure to chemicals in the rubber were considered: 1) ingestion of loose rubber tire shreds, 2) ingestion via hand-to-surface contact followed by hand-to-mouth contact, and 3) skin sensitization via dermal contact. The risks from ingestion and absorption by all means was considered low. Playground surfaces constructed from recycled tires were tested for their ability to attenuate fall-related impacts, and in this category it was discovered the only 31 percent of the rubberized surfaces met the Head Impact Criterion (HIC) standard. 147p.

Glass Fiber and Health Complaints.
(Microlab Northwest, Redmond, WA , 2007)
Identifies potential sources of small glass fibers in school building products, their irritating potential, acceptable exposures, and long-term health consequences that might be attributed to them. Includes 27 references. 8p.

Guide to PBDE: Toxic Flame Retardant. What, Women, Children and School Personnel Need to Know.
(Healthy School Network, Albany, NY , 2007)
Advises on the presence of Polybrominated diphenyl ethters (PBDE) in school furnishings and electronic equipment. Types of PBDE's typically used, their toxicity, and advice for avoiding and eliminating them in school environments are discussed. 4p.

Low-Emitting Materials (LEM) Table.
(Collaborative of High Performance Schools, CA, 2007)
This table lists products that have been certified by its manufacturer and an independent laboratory to meet the CHPS Low-Emitting Materials criteria-Section 01350-for use in a typical classroom as described in a CA Department of Health Services (CDHS) Standard Practice. The list includes recommended materials for building insulation; adhesives, sealants, and concrete sealers; gypsum board; acoustical ceilings or wall panels; wood flooring; resilient flooring; carpet; and paint.

Physical School Environment. Adobe PDF
(Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA , 2007)
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Text, graphs, and tables illustrate percentages of states, districts, and individual schools setting requirements for indoor air quality, pest management, drinking water, hazardous materials handling, foodservice facilities, and cleaning procedures. 2p.

Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) Tool Kit
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007)
The EPA's web-based tool kit helps schools start chemical management programs that will improve their chemical management practices by: 1) removing inappropriate, outdated, unknown and unnecessary chemicals from schools; 2) preventing future chemical mismanagement issues in schools through training, curriculum and policy change, and long-term management solutions; and 3) raising awareness of chemical issues in schools and promoting sustainable solutions.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

Chemical Management Resource Guide for School Administrators.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Helps identify sources, sometimes obscure, of dangerous chemicals in schools and advises on steps to oversee chemical management activities including establishing a leadership team, implementing pollution prevention and "green" chemistry, establishing a chemical management policy and chemical hygiene, conducting periodic inventories, establishing environmentally friendly purchasing, implementing appropriate storage, handling, and training programs, and developing communication plans for chemical awareness and emergency response. 34p.
Report NO: EPA 747-R-06-002

Removing or Sealing CCA-Treated Wood Products. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Nov 08, 2006)
Advises on how to recognize, remove, replace, and seal arsenic-treated wood found at school playgrounds. 2p.

Environmental Compliance and Best Management Practices: Guidance Manual for K- 12 Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides an environmental compliance model for a typical K-12 school or school. The manual is divided into organizational units that have common regulatory compliance requirements or would likely be managed as separate operational units of the school or school district. Next, the target audience for each organizational unit is defined. The manual then defines numerous activities that would likely occur within each organizational unit, and for each activity it discusses what is required to comply with the appropriate federal environmental regulations and/or which best management practices apply to one s area of responsibility. 224p.

NIOSH Safety Checklist Program for Schools.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Oct 2006)
Many States mandate that career-technical schools and institutions have safety and health programs in place, conduct hazard analyses for each career-technical program, do safety inspections and maintenance, and comply with safety and health and environmental regulations. This Safety Checklist Program provides information needed by schools to maintain safe classrooms, shops, and labs for teachers and students in career-technical education, and includes the following: Chapter 1: Making Sense of Regulations gives background information concerning the regulatory agencies and regulations that are applicable to career-technical education; Chapter 2: How to Establish an Effective Occupational Safety and Health and Environmental Safety Program outlines ways to ensure that an effective program is instituted and maintained; Chapter 3: Implementing a Safety Checklist Program describes how to implement a checklist program in your school to identify hazards and determine regulatory compliance; Chapter 4: Safety Checklists contains the checklists. Appendices are provided as references for additional information or help.

School Health Crisis? Check the Cooling Tower.
Basso, Ron
(, Orange, CA , Feb 14, 2006)
Describes how cooling towers work, citing issues associated with chemicals used to control bacterial in them, the amount of water they consume, and their proximity to school students. The use of ozone to control bacteria and reduce water and chemical discharge is described. 2p.

Pollution Prevention Measures for Safer School Laboratories. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Feb 2006)
Advises on maintaining the chemical inventory, chemical purchasing, storage, labeling, waste minimization, laboratory ventilation, protective equipment, and spill prevention and cleanup. Includes 16 references. 9p.

Environmental Health and Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges, and Artisans.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2006)
Assists art instructors in complying with hazardous waste management, and to expand the focus of educational standards for the arts to include basic environmental, health and safety training information on the hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous waste found in various art mediums and processes. Sections cover hazardous waste management basics, hazardous waste generator requirements, and then dangers and safety suggestions for each of a wide variety of art and craft activities. Appendices offer advice on types of waste, best management practices, forms, and additional resources. 130p.

The Right to Know. School Custodial Maintenance Workers. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, 2006)
This fact sheet describes the standards and some of the hazards and health effects of chemicals that school maintenance workers may be exposed to. It details important protective measures that should be undertaken. 7p.

The Greenburgh, Valhalla and Eastchester School Districts and the Town of Eastchester Acquisition of Athletic Fields.
(New York Office of the State Comptroller, Albany , Sep 2005)
Presents the audit results of an arrangement in which the three Districts and the Town, in an attempt to acquire athletic fields at no cost, allowed dirt haulers to dump construction and demolition debris on their properties in exchange for the dirt haulers renovating their athletic fields. The report claims that the only parties to profit from this scheme were the dirt haulers who received cost savings of between $7.4 million and $19.4 million for dumping debris on District and Town properties. Also claimed is that by accepting debris in exchange for athletic fields, the Districts and the Town operated solid-waste disposal facilities without obtaining appropriate permits, and without adhering to environmental requirements. Because the debris was found to be contaminated, the school districts and town were left with mounds of dirt and debris that cannot be used as athletic fields until the Districts and the Town receive environmental approval, which the report estimates will reach $2 million. The local authorities' responses are included as appendices. 80p.
Report NO: 2005-MR-8

Safe Schools Guide: Selected Strategies and Resources. Adobe PDF
(Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City , Jun 2005)
Advises on preventive strategies for school security. Facilities issues covered include assessment of buildings and grounds, safe storage and handling of hazardous materials, disaster management. Numerous checklists, forms, and additional resources are provided. 88p.

A Bill to Be Entitled: An Act to Enact the Schoolchildren's Health Act of 2006. Adobe PDF
(General Assembly of North Carolina, Raleigh , Apr 21, 2005)
This North Carolina legislation establishes guidelines for reducing exposures to pesticides, diesel fumes, mold & mildew, arsenic treated wood, and elemental mercury in the state s schools. Specifically, the legislation directs schools to do the following: 1) Adopt a recommended model Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program in order to reduce pesticide exposures. 2) Notify parents and school staff when high-hazard pesticides are to be used on school property. 3) Exempt certain low-hazard pesticide products (such as baits) from notification requirements. 4) Prohibit new uses of arsenic-treated wood on playgrounds or other areas where children are at risk of exposure. 5) Seal existing arsenic-treated wood on playgrounds and/or develop a timeline for its removal from public school property. 6) Ban the use of elemental mercury in classrooms. 7)nEstablish a school bus exhaust and no idling policy to reduce exposure to diesel fumes. 8)Follow guidelines for mold and mildew prevention when building new school facilities. The bill also directs the State Board of Education to adopt guidelines to assist schools in accomplishing each of these goals. 3p.

Working with Environmental Consultants.
(California's Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento , Feb 2005)
Offers guidance to school districts in selecting, hiring, and working with an environmental consultant. Environmental consultants are recommended to help guide projects through regulatory complexities, with types and suggested numbers of consultants recommended according to the size and nature of the project. Advice on preparing RFP's, evaluating the responses, contracting, and working with the consultant is detailed, with particular attention to procedures specific to California. A CD-ROM of additional resources is included, containing links to federal and state authorities, as well as professional and educational institutions. 31p.
TO ORDER: 1130 K Street, Suite 210, Sacramento, California, 95814; Tel: 916-448-8577, Fax: 916-448-7495,

Assisting Schools and Child Care Facilities in Addressing Lead in Drinking Water. Adobe PDF
(American Water Works Association, 2005)
Compares and contrasts EPA’s guidance to schools and child care facilities under the Lead Contamination Control Act (LCCA) and the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR). It also provides a brief overview of what is entailed in monitoring for lead in schools and child care facilities and the process for undertaking remediation. This report describes a range of assistance utilities can provide to schools and child care facilities based on local needs and resources. Most importantly, it identifies key points of coordination, and provides basic information that the utility can use in communicating about lead in drinking water. [Authors' abstract] 51p.

Building Schools on Brownfields: Lessons Learned from California. Adobe PDF
(Bureau of National Affairs, Washington, DC , 2005)
Examines the issues confronting school districts across the United States when they must decide where to locate new school buildings. Considering the realities of a high-priced urban real estate market, the lack of green space on which to locate new schools, and local budgetary concerns, the article advises on how school districts should proceed during the school siting process and address property contamination issues to ensure schools are safe, public health is protected, and communities are involved. 14p.

Guide to Healthier Cleaning & Maintenance: Practices and Products for Schools. Adobe PDF
(New York State Association for Superintendents of School Buildings and Grounds, Albany; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY. , 2005)
This paper helps those concerned with keeping schools clean and properly maintained in adopting healthier cleaning and maintenance practices and promoting the purchase and use of environmentally preferable products which perform well and are cost effective. It explains how children are exposed to toxic chemicals in school cleaning and maintenance products, highlights the problem of indoor air pollution, and cautions about the lack of toxic testing on commercially used cleaning chemicals. A checklist for prevention of dirt and grime by anticipating people and their messes is detailed. Also discussed are tips on purchasing environmentally preferable cleaning products, including a checklist of human health and environmental considerations. Final sections cover vendor, price and performance considerations; and thoughts on how schools buy cleaning and maintenance products. Lists of helpful organizations and agencies and how-to guides are included. 8p.

Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.
(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, D.C., 2005)
This pocket guide includes the following: 1) Chemical Names, synonyms, trade names, conversion factors, CAS, RTECS, and DOT Numbers; 2) NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits; 3) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limits; 4) NIOSH Immediate Dangerous to Life and Health values; 5) A physical description of the agent with chemical and physical properties; 6) Measurement methods; 7) Personal Protection and Sanitation Recommendations; and 8) Respirator Recommendations. Information on Health Hazards including route, symptoms, first aid and target organ information.
Report NO: NIOSH 2005-149

The Healthy School Environmental Action Guide. Adobe PDF
(New York City Healthy Schools Working Group, Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2005)
Informs parents, advocates, and school personnel about existing laws and resources available to ensure that every school in New York is an environmentally safe and healthy school. The guide reveals how to recognize air quality and other environmental problems and who to contact when adverse conditions are discovered. It examines problems associated with asbestos and lead, the importance of proper ventilation, fire hazard identification, hazardous structural problems, playground safety, and bathroom sanitation. Also included are ways of making a school free of pesticides. Each environmental hazard highlights the applicable laws involved and lists who to contact when these specific problems are uncovered. Appendices provide sample of complaint letters, the affirmative steps that can be taken to make a school safer and healthier, and Congressional contact information. 42p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

Flourescent Lamp Recycling and Mercury Recovery: Domestic and International Overview.
Domanico, Edward
(, Orange, CA , Sep 2004)
Explains the necessity to properly recycle flourescent lamps, rather than discard them in a landfill, due to the mercury they contain. 3p.

Science-based Recommendations to Prevent or Reduce Potential Exposures to Biological, Chemical, and Physical Agents in Schools. Adobe PDF
Shendell, Derek; Barnett, Claire; Boese, Stephen
(Healthy Schools Network, Albany, NY , Mar 08, 2004)
Offers a concise review of peer-reviewed literature related to school indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Then, in the context of limited resources facing American schools, the paper presents practical science-based recommendations to improve and promote good school IEQ and hence prevent or reduce potential occupant exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents of concern. Tables summarize 18 recommendations justified by the 302 articles, papers, reports, and theses cited in this review. 51p.

Renovation & Construction in Schools: Controlling Health and Safety Hazards. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Dept. of Health and Senior Services, Trenton , Mar 2004)
Provides information on potential health and safety hazards associated with school renovation and construction and what precautions to take in order to prevent or control them. These include dust, debris, asbestos, lead, volatile offgassing from new furnishings and coatings, machine exhaust, mold, bird droppings, and noise. 6p.

Environmental Health & Safety Issues in Massachusetts' Schools.
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Dept. of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment, Boston , Feb 2004)
Assists school systems in identifying and remedying indoor environment health and safety problems. Chapter 1 contains a checklist for schools to use to identify important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a school building. By maintaining the checklist for each issue, school personnel will be able to determine if there are any specific areas that may warrant attention. Chapter 2 contains references that provide specific regulations for each issue and any industry standards/guidelines that are available. This section also provides a quick resource guide for additional assistance. Chapter 3 provides a list of resources for further guidance. 24p.

Guidance for School Site Assessment Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 901(f): Guidance for Assessing Exposures and Health Risks at Existing and Proposed School Sites. Adobe PDF
(California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Integrated Risk Assessment Division, Sacramento , Feb 2004)
Presents a methodology for estimating exposure of school users to toxic chemicals found as contaminants at existing and proposed school sites, and the health risks from those exposures. Exposure factors unique to the school environment, the activity patterns of children from birth through age 18 and of adult school employees, and uncertainties that may arise in the process are covered. Includes 17 references. 71p.

How to Protect Your Children from Arsenic-Treated Wood at School, Child Care or Preschool: A Safety Checklist for Parents.
(Center for Environmental Health, Safe Playgrounds Project, Oakland, CA , 2004)
Offers a checklist to determine if a school playground s wood components are arsenic treated, and if so, what the remediation plan is, and what to do if the school administration is unresponsive. 2p.

Lead Paint in Schools
(Natural Resources Defense Council, 2004)
In a Q&A format, this answers such questions as: How do I determine whether my child's school has a problem with lead paint?; Why should we be concerned only about peeling and chipped paint?; and What is considered to be an unacceptable level of lead in paint? This includes sources for further information.

Reducing Mercury in Schools: Buildings and Grounds Superintendents. Adobe PDF
(New York State Dept. of Health, Albany , 2004)
Describes the health hazards of mercury exposure, sources of mercury in schools, and steps to be taken by facilities personnel, which include an inventory of mercury within the school, a response plan, and proper containment and spill cleanup protocols. 2p.

The Healthy and High-Performance School: A Two-Part Report Regarding the Scientific Findings and Policy Implications of School Environmental Health. Adobe PDF
Shendell, Derek; Barnett, Claire; Boese, Stephen
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2004)
Part one presents results of a literature review related to school indoor environmental quality and, in the context of limited resources facing American schools, practical science-based recommendations to improve and promote good school indoor environmental quality and prevent or reduce potential occupant exposure to toxic biological, chemical, and physical agents. Part two offers recommendations for improving school environmental health and safety based on today's known science. It draws together the knowledge, data, and research regarding school facilities, children's environmental health, and school facility impact on student achievement, to demonstrate that school facility issues are integral to school reform and equity debates. (Includes 302 references, a list some state and federal government sponsored Internet sites on school IEQ and energy, and a list of existing noise guidelines for school environments at local, state and international levels.) 87p.

Pediatric Environmental Health. 2nd Edition.
Etzel, Ruth A. ; Balk, Sophie J.
(American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health , Nov 2003)
This handbook provides physicians with a tool for identifying, treating, and preventing pediatric environmental health hazards. The 2nd edition includes 10 new chapters addressing a wide range of hazards and health issues, including arsenic; gasoline and its additives; irradiation of food; nickel, manganese, and chromium; chemical-biological terrorism; and risk assessment and risk management. 723p.

Healthy Schools Council Checklist Concerning Environmental Health and Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Healthy Schools Council, Boston , Sep 2003)
Offers a checklist to identify and monitor important environmental health and safety issues that may be present in a given school building. The issues are organized under categories for renovations in buildings, HVAC, building envelope issues, chemical management, drinking water, asbestos management plans, integrated pest management, underground storage tanks, septic systems/sanitary sewers, and miscellaneous maintenance/custodial issues. 14p.

Best Management Practices Checklist for Chemicals in New Hampshire Schools Adobe PDF
(New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Pollution Prevention Program, Concord, NH, 2003)
Checklist covers these areas: purchasing, science department, art department, wood and metal shops, facilities department/custodial staff, administrative/computer labs, cafeteria, nurse's station, chemical storage, hazardous waste regulatory requirements, fluorescent lamps and batteries, and student safety. 4p.

Playgrounds and Arsenic Wood. Adobe PDF
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, 2003)
This guide offers some facts about Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated lumber used in playgrounds, the New York State Law, and resources for further information. 2 p.

Health and Safety Guide for K-12 Schools in Washington. Adobe PDF
Kerns, James T.; Ellis, Richard E.
(Washington State Dept. of Health; Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia , Jan 2003)
This guide's primary focus is to recommend good health and safety practices to help ensure safer schools in Washington state. Some of the safety practices that are recommended affect school operation and maintenance, repairs and minor construction, as well as the school's administrative organization and lines of communication. The guide also focuses on practices that can be undertaken during the design, construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, or inspection of any school. The guide's sections address general procedures; building maintenance and operations; general safety; plumbing, water supply, and fixtures; sewage disposal; indoor air quality; HVAC preventative maintenance; sound control; lighting; food service; science classrooms and laboratories; career and technology education; blood borne pathogens and exposure control plans; playgrounds; animals in schools; emergency and disaster preparedness; pesticide use in school; visual and performing arts education; and athletics. (Contains appendices on inspection protocols, health district fee guidelines, agency roles and responsibilities, restricted chemicals in laboratories, inspection protocols and special considerations for visual and performing arts classrooms, references, Web sites, and related documents.) 91p.
TO ORDER: School Facilities and Organization, tel: 360-725-6000

Toward High School Stockroom Safety.
Banks, Alton J.
(Paper presented at the American Chemical Society's Division of Chemical Education conference. , Fall 2002)
This paper will attempt to address both practical and legal issues that confront science educators, in general, and chemistry teachers, in particular. Liabilities of teaching science, collection of material safety data sheets, preparation and maintenance of chemical inventories, suggestions for stockroom organization, and some practical hints for proper disposal of unwanted or unneeded chemicals will be addressed. [Author's abstract]

Creating Safe Learning Zones: The ABC's of Healthy Schools. Adobe PDF
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Aug 2002)
This primer was prepared by the Healthy Buildings committee of the Child Proofing Our Communities campaign. The campaign aims to connect local efforts across the country, raise awareness of toxic threats to children's health, and promote precautionary approaches most protective of children. Following an introduction, chapter II, "Special Vulnerabilities of Children," discusses why children are more susceptible to toxins and how inadequately they are protected. Chapter III, "Toxins in Schools and Building Materials," explains the threat from the most common toxic substances found in schools. While the threats from building materials such as lead and asbestos are subsiding, mold, vinyl, and toxic fumes from carpeting present a new generation of hazards. Chapter IV, "Building Materials: From Hazardous to Healthier Choices," puts the hazards identified in Chapter III in context, identifying especially problematic building materials. Chapter V, "The Indoor Environment," discusses ways to improve indoor air quality and lighting as well as maintenance practices that avoid the use of toxic chemicals. Chapter VI, "Designing a Healthy School," outlines the lengthy process of designing and renovating a school from conception to completion. It explains how to construct or renovate a healthy school to avoid or minimize toxic hazards. Chapter VII, "Getting Your School Community Involved," explains how to mobilize support for a healthy school building and work with architects, school boards, and contractors to ensure that children's health is protected at school. Finally, chapter VIII, "The Safety of Our Children Is in Our Hands," describes steps that parents can take to identify and address some of the most common environmental health problems in schools. 58p.

Cleaning for Health: Products and Practices for a Safer Indoor Environment.
Culver, Alicia; Feinberg, Marian; Klebenov, David; Muskinow, Judy; Sutherland, Lara
(INFORM, Inc., New York, NY, Aug 2002)
This report is a guide to environmentally preferable cleaning products and methods that have been effectively used in office buildings, schools, hospitals and other facilities in the United States and Canada. It describes pioneering product evaluation programs and lists the brands that were chosen based on environmental and performance criteria. It also provides a model specification, as well as manufacturer contacts and other resources for those who want to develop a safer cleaning program for their buildings. 86p.

Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.
Binns, Helen J. ; Ricks, Omar Benton
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Children's Research Center, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL , Jul 2002)
Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with parents are summarized in this document. How blood lead levels are measured is also explained, the occurrence of elevated blood lead levels among children, physical symptoms and effects, and broader social effects of the damage caused by lead poisoning is then examined. The digest then looks at ways parents can prevent lead poisoning, advising how to attend to specific lead risks in the home, at work, within children's diets and consumer products, and the medical establishment. Finally, the parents' role in the prevention of lead poisoning is highlighted, concluding the digest. 4p.

Remedies for Reducing Formaldehyde in Schools.
(California Air Resources Board; California Department of Health Services, Mar 2002)
These recommendations for basic measures for a school to implement in order to reduce elevated formaldehyde levels in classrooms include the following: 1) reduce total amount of formaldehyde sources in the classroom; 2) provide sufficient ventilation; and 3)test the air. 3p.

Questions and Answers CCA-Treated Wood.
(U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC, Feb 2002)
Discusses safety issues concerning the use of CCA, chromated copper arsenate, a chemical preservative that is used to protect wood from being destroyed by microbes and insects, on outdoor playground equipment. Children's risk from exposure to arsenic is discussed, as well as CCA manufacturers' voluntary withdrawal of this preservative from the market in February 2002. 4p.

Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions. Adobe PDF
(Child Proofing Our Community Campaign, Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Falls Church, VA , Jan 2002)
This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, the the threat of toxic pesticide use in schools. The current report addresses the need for protective laws concerning building new schools. It presents data from five states (California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York) on the number of schools located on or near hazardous chemical waste sites or other contaminated sites. It describes children's special vulnerabilities, the school siting process, and examples of schools built on or near contaminated land. Based on its findings, the report calls for state laws to ensure that the locations for new schools are safe and that contaminated property is properly cleaned up. It provides model school siting legislation for use in drafting legislation on the state level and for local school policies. The report also outlines action steps that parents can take to ensure that their children are not placed in harm's way. 50p.
TO ORDER: Child Proofing Our Community Campaign, c/o Center for Health, Environment and Justice, P.O. Box 6806, Falls Church, VA 22040. Tel: 703-237-2249.

Indoor Air Pollutants, Limited Resource Households and Childcare Facilities. Adobe PDF
Laquatra, J.; Maxwell, L.E.; Pierce, M.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Presents findings from an indoor air quality study of homes and childcare facilities in nonmetropolitan counties of New York State. Specific pollutants examined were lead, radon, carbon monoxide, asbestos, and mold. High levels of pollutants were observed homes and childcare facilities, raising questions about constant pollutant exposure to children. Recommendations are made for lowering exposure levels in low income households and childcare facilities. (Includes eleven references.) 6p.

Interim Biohazard Emergency Response Procedures, University of Missouri-Columbia.
(University of Missouri-Columbia , Oct 2001)
Presents guidelines for laboratory personnel in the event of a spill or release of Biological Safety Level 2 agents in their laboratory. Immediate response actions are followed by detailed actions that include exiting and sealing the area, cleanup, re-entry, reporting, investigation, risk assessment, spill kits, and transportation of materials. 16p.

Lead Safety and School Modernization. Adobe PDF
(California Lead Safe Schools Project. , Sep 2001)
This factsheet is for anyone responsible for modernization projects in California's public schools where materials containing lead may be disturbed or where lead abatement is planned. It explains the state requirements for properly dealing with lead hazards so that children and workers are protected. Its sections address why to be concerned about lead in schools, what lead regulations apply to school districts, non-compliance, proper procedures, and resources. 12p.

Predicted Concentrations in New Relocatable Classrooms of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Standard and Alternate Interior Finish Materials.
Hodgson, Alfred; Fisk, William; Shendell, Derek; Apte, Michael
(E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Technologies Division, Berkeley, CA , Jul 18, 2001)
Reports on a laboratory study evaluating emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used to finish the interiors of new relocatable classrooms. The study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were tested for emissions of VOCs using small scale environmental chambers. Working with a manufacturer of conventional relocatables and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new relocatables predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other relocatables based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. 36p.

Poisoned Playgrounds: Arsenic in 'Pressure-Treated' Wood.
Sharp, Renee; Walker, Bill
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , May 2001)
This study of 180 pressure-treated wood samples shows that treated wood is a much greater source of arsenic exposure for children than arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The report determines that an average five-year-old, playing less than two weeks on a chromated- copper-arsenate-treated (CCA) wood play set would exceed the lifetime cancer risk considered acceptable under federal pesticide law. The report’s final chapter presents study conclusions and recommendations. An appendix presents a summary of data for surface arsenic levels of CCA wood and soil beneath treated wood structures. 19p.
TO ORDER: Environmental Working Group, Suite 600, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC; Tel: 202-667-6982

Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions. A Report of the Child Proofing Our Communities: Poisoned School Campaign. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Lois
(Center for Health, Environment and Justice, Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, Falls Church, VA , Mar 2001)
This report embodies the findings of several studies, which conclude that America's schools have fallen into disrepair and sometimes present students and teachers with an unhealthy, unsafe, or even harmful educational environment. The researchers say that no guidelines are in place to help school districts select safe school sites. School sites are regularly sprayed with pesticides, and these chemicals are thought to be partly responsible for a whole generation of children who are increasingly hyperactive, slow to learn, and disruptive in school. The report offers specific recommendations to protect children from chemical contamination in air and soil surrounding schools and from exposure to toxic pesticides in schools and on school grounds. The report presents recommendations for school site selection and for developing integrated pest management programs. The report lists resources for additional information, and its appendices provide samples of school siting and pest management surveys. 80p.
TO ORDER: Center for Health, Environment, and Justice, P.O. Box 6806, Falls Church, VA 22040; Tel: 703-237-2249

Getting Mercury Out of Schools.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, Boston , 2001)
This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational technical schools, mercury in HVAC laboratories in vocational technical schools, establishing hazardous and universal waste collection areas, and mercury-free purchasing policies. The fact sheets contain information on items that contain mercury, non-mercury alternatives, storing unwanted items, how to handle a spill, and additional resources. 23p.

Lead in American Schools: What School Districts Should and Should Not Do.
(Institute for Environmental Assessment, Brooklyn Park, MN , 2001)
Examines the lead issue in school buildings, noting that even minimal exposures to lead can create diagnosable health problems in children. Includes comments about current regulations and laws pertaining to the areas of soil, water, air, debris disposal, surfaces, and level of lead in the blood. Lists responses to lead that schools should take and those that they should avoid. Includes a list of safeguards for schools undergoing renovation or remodeling programs to reduce or remove lead, a suggested school board policy statement for lead poisoning prevention, and a lead metal information sheet. 17p.
TO ORDER: Institute for Environmental Assessment, 7101 Northland Circle, Suite 209, Brooklyn Park, MN 55427; Tel: 612-535-7721

Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY, 2001)
The purpose of this guide is to provide basic information about the use of sanitizers and disinfectants in schools. The Healthy Schools Network recommends schools follow all public health laws and regulations, and proceed with extreme caution when using any chemicals around children or staff. Includes a germ reduction and pesticide exposure prevention checklist, and a glossary. 4p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632.

Guide to Protecting Vulnerable Students in "Sick" Schools.
Goldberg, Ellie
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 2001)
Asserting that school buildings under renovation and even newly built schools may have polluted indoor environments that cause health problems and hinder learning, this guide introduces special education and anti-discrimination laws designed to remove barriers to education for children with disabilities such as chronic health impairments. The guide addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, effective communication and advocacy, some signs and symptoms of indoor air pollution, and how to address a problem. The guide also includes organizational and published resources. [Free registration required.] 8p.

Hazardous Materials Management Manual, 2nd Edition, University of Missouri- Columbia. Adobe PDF
(University of Missouri-Columbia , Sep 2000)
Provides guidance to the campus community on the safe handling of hazardous materials, focusing on procedures for materials that are no longer needed. The document emphasizes safety and provides guidance on compliance procedures, also placing emphasis on how to reduce waste and prevent pollution. For this purposes of this document, hazardous chemicals are those that exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. 40p.

The Environmental Self-Audit for Campus-Based Organizations: A Quick and Easy Guide to Environmental Compliance. Adobe PDF
(New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany., May 2000)
This guide is intended to help public and not-for-profit campus-based organizations in New York State to comply with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The environmental self-audit serves as a basic diagnostic tool for campus-based organizations (centralized schools, colleges/universities, correctional facilities, mental health institutions, etc.) to evaluate possible compliance problems. Included is information for the organization that is about to begin operations, for the facility that has never examined its environmental health before, and for the organization that is about to move or expand. This self-audit should serve as a preliminary self-diagnostic tool to identify possible environmental compliance problems in the regulatory categories of air, water, land use, petroleum and chemical storage tanks, solid waste, and hazardous materials. 61
Report NO: NP982048

Site and Plan Approval Procedures Related to Hazardous Materials Required by AB387/SB162.
Brooks, Duwayne
(California Department of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, Jan 18, 2000)
Two California bills effective January 1, 2000 made additions and changes to the Education Code related to the required assessment and remediation or clean-up of toxic contamination of school sites (i.e., hazardous materials, including those naturally occurring). Compliance with these laws, intended to help ensure that sites selected for school construction are free of significant contamination, is required to obtain funding through the State School Facilities Program. New toxics procedures for site and plan approval, and contigent site requited for hazardous materials response action are described.

Brownfields to School Sites: How Can the State Facilitate Cleanup To Build Essential Schools?
(California State Legislature Senate Select Committee on Environmental Justice, Sacramento , Jan 14, 2000)
This document presents background information and testimony concerning the cleanup of potentially contaminated vacant or underutilized property for use as future school sites in low-income and minority communities. Various proposals are offered that would allow the state, where necessary, to facilitate the cleanup of these "brownfields" to create safe schools and meet the demand for classroom space in underprivileged areas. Testimony covers the need to remediate brownfields for school sites in urban areas; the current process for evaluating environmental conditions and conducting cleanup; and the current funding mechanisms. The final section provides a roundtable discussion on how to make the process work better. 101p.
Report NO: 1045-S

Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance. Adobe PDF
(State University of New York, Center for Integrated Waste Management, Buffalo. , 2000)
This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The objectives of this guide and the associated workshop are: (1) to instill the principles of pollution prevention into daily staff practices; (2) to foster recycling and reuse of spent and used materials; (3) to reduce waste disposal to the extent possible; (4) to raise the awareness of the impact of individual daily actions on the environment; and (5) to review the requirements of specific New York state and federal regulations that interface with many daily work practices. 47p.
Report NO: NP982048

Guide to School Renovation and Construction: What You Need to Know To Protect Child and Adult Environmental Health. [New York]
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide presents cautionary tips for protecting children's health during school renovation and construction projects, the New York state laws regarding school renovation and construction, and the steps the law requires to eliminate dangerous conditions for children during these projects. Included is a checklist of uniform safety standards during school renovations and construction and several examples illustrating the negative outcomes when districts renovated or constructed their schools without regard to the effects on children's and adult's health. Selected resources for additional information are provided. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.; Tel: 518-462-0632

Lead-Safe Schools Kit.
(University of California, Lead-Safe Schools Project, Berkeley, CA , 2000)
This kit contains four trainers tools for educating California school maintenance and operations personnel on providing lead-safe schools. Contents include the "Lead-Safe Schools Curriculum" that has complete lesson plans and masters for overheads and handouts. Separate sets of overheads and handouts are also provided for easy copying. Also included are the "Lead-Safe Schools Guide" that provides in-depth background information on lead hazards and state policies on managing lead in schools. The "Working in a Lead-Safe School" booklet is of for use by class participants and is designed to accompany the curriculum. Finally, the kit provides a video, "Lead The Invisible Threat", that is shown during the class and focuses on lead exposure and lead-safe work practices.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120; Tel: 510-642-5507

Science & Safety: Making the Connection. Adobe PDF
(Council of State Science Supervisors, VA. , 2000)
This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a chemical hygiene checklist, general guidelines in case of student accidents, precautions for animal or plant use in the laboratory, a list of protective equipment for teacher and student use in the laboratory, general information on federal safety mandates, and a checklist describing the physical layout of a science lab. 33p.

Working in a Lead-Safe School. Facts for School Maintenance Workers.
(University of California, Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This booklet is intended for school custodians and maintenance staff who may work around lead while doing their day-to-day tasks. The discussion includes facts about where lead is found, exposure risks and ways that exposure can take place, effects on the body, and ways to help eliminate lead from school property. The booklet discusses Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements for protecting workers who are involved in lead work, how much lead exposure is too much, and ways to safely work around lead. 28p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

Environmental Action Guide for New York State Schools. Help for Parents and Others in the Absence of Standards Just for Children.
Barnett, Claire, Ed.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide addresses existing New York laws and available resources to ensure that every child and school employee has an environmentally safe and healthy school. Topics discussed involve indoor air quality; toxic and hazardous chemicals; pests and pesticides; mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria; asbestos; lead; radon; exhaust fumes from idling vehicles; renovation and construction pollution; structurally sound buildings; heat; classroom size and environment; fire hazards; usable and sanitary restrooms; safe playgrounds; and emergency management. Appendices present resource information by topic area, a form for information from the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids Information and Referral Clearinghouse, examples of toxic and hazardous products used in New York schools, information on right-to-know laws concerning school environments, laws concerning access to public school-related meetings, rights to participating in health and safety committees, guidelines for school facility report cards, sample complaint letters to agencies about unsafe schools, a list of New York State Board of Regents/legislators, and New York State Environmental Conservation Regional Office locations and occupational health resources. (Contains 62 references.) 79p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.,773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208. Tel: 518-462-0632.

Lead-Safe Schools Guide For Maintenance and Operations Departments.
Dewey, Robin; Bateson, Gail; Arroyo, Michele; Plog, Barbara A.; Dionne, Leonor
(University of California,Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This guide provides California school districts with information for creating safer lead-free school environments through better custodial and maintenance policies and practices. The guide examines the health effects of lead, elements of a lead program, strategies to identify lead in schools, maintenance task analysis, worker protection guidelines, safe work practices, worker training strategies, and program documentation and evaluation. Examples of program forms are also provided. Appendices contain summary reports from the California Department of Health Services, Lead in Construction Standards, Hazard Communication Standard, and Injury and Illness Prevention Program. Also included is information on the Lead-Safe Schools Protection Act and Title 17 of California's regulations for working around lead hazards, contractor requirements, volunteer guidelines, a resource list, and glossary. 172p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

Lead-Safe Schools Curriculum.
Dewey, Robin; Dionne, Leonor; Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez
(University of California, Labor Occupational Health Program, Berkeley , 2000)
This guide presents lesson plans, overheads, and handouts that can be used to present a five-hour course on lead hazards in school maintenance work. The course is designed to give school employees the necessary information and skills they need to protect themselves and school children from exposure. The course requires no health or safety expertise to teach. Each topic is taught using participatory learning activities. Lessons cover reasons why there should be concern over the presence of lead in schools, where lead is found in schools, effects of lead exposure, ways that lead exposure typically takes place, respiratory protection, lead-safe work practices, and a summary lesson. 81p.
TO ORDER: Lead-Safe Schools Project, Labor Occupational Health Program, University of California, 2223 Fulton, St., Berkeley, CA 94720-5120;Tel: 510-642-5507

"P" is for Poison: Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools. Adobe PDF
Olle, Teresa M.
(Californians for Pesticide Reform, San Francisco, CA; California Public Interest Research Group Charitable Trust, San Francisco, CA , 2000)
A survey of school pesticide use finds that California school children face possible exposure to particularly hazardous pesticides that can cause cancer, reproductive or developmental effects, endocrine disruption, acute sytemic or nervous system damage. This discusses the problem with children and pesticides, the use of highly toxic pesticides in California, IPM programs,current California laws, and recommendations. 32p.

Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children, New York, NY , Oct 1999)
Survey results are presented from 65 individuals using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. Among the findings are that 40 percent of the respondents reported medical conditions present such as asthma or allergies, and 39 percent reported the school conditions made their health worse. Thirty-five percent of the schools either had fire extinguishers and/or alarms easily accessible in classrooms or had a playground. Thirty-three percent of the schools reported having poor ventilation, 24 percent had inadequate heat, 26 percent had obvious roach or rodent problems, 45 percent did not have clean bathrooms or lacked soap and toilet paper, 37 percent had drinking water that tasted strange, 24 percent indicated unclean cafeterias, 40 percent reported garbage and discarded waste present around the school, and 40 percent were overcrowded. Recommendations include enforcement of existing laws, linking school maintenance funding to environmental health needs of school occupants, and the closing of schools that threaten health. Appendices contain a list of the schools/sites surveyed. 88p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001

Belmont Learning Complex: Report of Findings - Part II. Adobe PDF
Mullinax, Don; Eiler, Janis; Roble, Pete; Valenciano, Norma; Dungca, Conrad; Peregrino, Uly; Datu, Roger
Sep 13, 1999)
This report provides findings of fact on the development of the Belmont Learning Complex of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), and contains recommendations to remedy identified deficiencies in the LAUSD's current policies and procedures for siting and developing school buildings. The report addresses the following issues: (1) all contracts and payments to outside consultants and attorneys involved with Belmont; and (2) any account(s) controlled by the former Bond and Asset Management/Planning and Development offices. Principle findings reveal the LAUSD Board of Education and senior staff did not place sufficient priority on financial management from 1995 to 1999; that the Office of Planning and Development Personnel failed the LAUSD on Belmont; and that the contractors, consultants, and LAUSD staff failed to provide proper oversight of expenditures by the developer, contractor, and subcontractors. A list of the report's 72 exhibits is included. 142p.
Report NO: OSI-99-20

Belmont Learning Complex: Report of Findings. Adobe PDF
Mullinax, Don; Eiler, Janis; Roble, Pete; Valenciano, Norma; Dungca, Conrad; Peregrino, Uly; Datu, Roger
(Los Angeles Unified School District, CA , Sep 13, 1999)
This report provides findings of fact on the development of the Belmont Learning Complex of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), and contains recommendations to remedy identified deficiencies in the LAUSD's current policies and procedures for siting and developing school buildings. The report addresses the following issues: (1) the acquisition, environmental assessment, and remediation of all land associated with Belmont; (2) alleged existence of conflicts of interest relating to Belmont; (3) the selection, negotiation, and contracting process for the development and construction of Belmont; and (4) pursuit of legal rights and remedies including restitution in the event of the discovery of any wrongdoing regarding Belmont. Recommendations include reforming school board practices, developing new environmental/public health and safety policies, reviewing and restructuring professional staff functions, disciplining certain LAUSD employees, pursuing legal action against LAUSD's professional consultants or vendors, negotiating with and/or pursuing legal action against the Belmont developer, reforming the safety team, and implementing all requirements imposed by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control regarding the completion of Belmont. 195p.
Report NO: OSI-99-12

Environmental Health Consultation: Review of Environmental and Clinical Laboratory Information: Saugus Unified School District. [California] Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Health Services, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Oakland , Aug 1999)
Parents of children in the Saugus Union School District in California were concerned about the safety of classrooms, particularly portable classrooms. Their concerns were amplified by assertions of a local medical toxicologist following evaluations of some teachers and students, and by an Environmental Working Group report about alleged problems with portables throughout California. Efforts by the school district, environmental consultants, and Los Angeles County health authorities were not sufficiently reassuring to some parents. This report discusses results from an evaluation of the classrooms by the Environmental Health Investigations Branch (EHIB) of the California Department of Health Services. Findings indicated no elevated health risks to students. The report's first part details evaluation methods and findings, while the second part directly answers each of the questions posed to EHIB staff at a parent meeting. Data tables provide results of environmental sampling at each school. (Consultations with outside authorities are appended. Contains 68 references.) 70p.

The Environmental Quality Act and the Belmont Learning Complex: A Breakdown in Process. Adobe PDF
Wildman, Scott
(Joint Legislative Audit Committee, California State Assembly, Sacramento, CA , Mar 1999)
This report concerns the Belmont Learning Complex (BLC) and the Los Angeles Unified School District's (LAUSD) propensity for engaging in a series of school construction projects on contaminated land. It suggests that the LAUSD was made aware of the BLC site's toxic problems as early as 1989, yet apparently had not followed applicable regulations by seeking State approval of the site prior to ensuring that the wastes had been removed. The LAUSD may have also violated many regulations of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the Health and Safety Code. The BLC, reported to be the most expensive high school in California history, may cost tens of millions of dollars more as remediation efforts to rid the toxic wastes from the site get underway. 94p.

Overview of Federal, New York State, and New York City Law Regarding Environmental Health and Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City; Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , 1999)
This document presents many of the Federal, State, and New York City laws that apply to the health, safety, and environmental conditions of schools. The relevant portions of the law have been selected along with the mechanisms of legal enforcement that may exist and contact information where applicable. Legislative categories covered include air quality, toxic substances, and chemicals; asbestos; athletic equipment; washrooms; boarding; school buildings; buses, vehicles, traffic, and transportation; drugs and alcohol around educational facilities; fire safety; food and nutrition; student health; and lighting and radiation. Also included are laws governing plans for future educational facilities grants, recreational areas and playgrounds, pest control, sanitation, smoking, and ventilation. 36p.
TO ORDER: Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., 151 West 30th St., 5th Floor, New York, NY 10001.

Caretaking Manual
Abbott, Lynn; Boehme, Daryl; Hoffart, Rodd; Malcolm, John; Merkowsky, Gary
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Saskatchewan, Canada , 1999)
Information for school maintenance staff in their role of providing clean, attractive, and pleasant educational facilities for students and staff. Addresses local school division policy. Presents general guidelines of first aid and safety, including guidelines for treating choking, giving CPR, treating of burns and poisonings, handling of environmental injuries, and caring for and using various types of safety and disaster equipment. Presents the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. Examines the development of a properly supplied and maintained caretaker's room. Explains the types of chemicals available to caretakers and their intended use. Covers cleaning procedures from dusting and cleaning chalkboards to all aspects of floor care, including finishing/sealing, spray buffing, and stain removal, and troubleshooting. Presents a sample facility review form which provides a means of determining that the various areas of a facility are acceptable or needing improvement. Includes a glossary of terms related to building maintenance and cleaning.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Chemicals in Classrooms. Pesticides and Maintenance Chemicals in Vermont Schools. Adobe PDF
Sterling, Peter; Browning, Brigid
(Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Montpelier , 1999)
This report is the second in a series of studies on the serious threat toxic chemical use may pose to the health of Vermont's children, teachers, and school staff. Of the sources of toxic chemical exposure, pesticides and maintenance chemicals potentially pose the most serious threat. Parts 1 and 2 of this report outline the health effects of exposure to toxic pesticides and maintenance chemicals. Part 3 discusses the numerous short- and long-term impacts these chemicals may have on a child's physiological development. Part 4 presents the results of a School Pesticide & Maintenance Chemical Use Questionnaire. Part 5 offers some possible solutions concerned parents, teachers, children, and school officials may take to remove these chemicals from the classrooms. (Appendices contain recommendations by the New York Board of Regents, and resources for further information.) 19p.

Toxic School Sites in Los Angeles: Weaknesses in the Site Acquisition Process Adobe PDF
Wildman, Scott
(Joint Legislative Audit Committee, California State Assembly, Sacramento, CA , Aug 1998)
This report addresses the school site acquisition process to attempt to discern how the system has allowed a minimum of nine Los Angeles public schools to be built on toxic lands. It examines two such sites, the Jefferson Middle School (JMS) and the combined elementary and high school complex in the South Gate (California) community. The State's school construction site approval process was determined to be sufficiently flawed that it contributed to the California Department of Education's (CDE) decision not to stop the JMS acquisition process. It also reveals that a willingness to act with due diligence to ensure that new schools are built on clean sites is lacking in both the Los Angeles Unified School District and CDE despite evidence suggesting that CDE practices and procedures may have resulted in other toxic sites being acquired for schools. The report recommends suspected toxic sites be reassessed and, if necessary, cleaned up; that the CDE immediately modify its internal site approval protocol to ensure local compliance with the law; and that districts with a history of failing to ensure that their school sites are toxin free be placed under strict state oversight. 37p.

School Site Acquisition and Related Environmental Concerns. Adobe PDF
Wildman, Scott
(Joint Legislative Audit Committee, California State Assembly, Sacramento, CA , Jul 01, 1998)
This report identifies two areas of concern:(1) acquiring land for new schools in congested urban settings; and (2) managing the conflict that may arise from local, state, and federal environmental regulation. It focuses on the Los Angeles Unified School District and San Diego City Unified School District's approaches to acquiring urban land for new school construction, the role of the State Allocation Board, and the complexities of asserting Eminent Domain. Also addressed are misadventures that contributed to one California school, the Jefferson Middle School, being built on contaminated land. Appendices present witness testimony, environmental reports, and state agency action concerning Jefferson Middle School. 29p.

Fume Cupboards in Schools. (Revision of Design Note 29). Building Bulletin 88. Adobe PDF
Tawney, David
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , Apr 16, 1998)
Regulations require hazardous gases in school science classrooms be controlled, i.e., their levels in the air kept below the exposure limits, with fume cupboards being the most usual method. This document reviews the requirements for fume cupboards used in schools and colleges for teaching the sciences, mainly chemistry and biology, up to A-level GCE. It covers the level of provision that is desirable to meet curriculum needs and makes recommendations for good practice in the design, specification, and installation of fume cupboards and their related extraction systems. Other chapters address the commissioning and monitoring of fume cupboard systems and the repairing and upgrading of existing fume cupboards. Appendices include a description of how a fume cupboards works, the monitoring and commissioning tests and report forms, commissioning schedules, and the exposure limits and calculation of gas levels in laboratories. 63p.

Lead Hazards in California's Public Elementary Schools and Child Care Facilities: Report to the California State Legislature
(California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch, Sacramento , Apr 15, 1998)
In response to California's 1992 Lead-Safe Schools Protection Act, the state's Department of Health Services conducted a study of the extent of lead contamination in paint, soil, and water in California schools. Data were collected in the field between 1995 and 1997. This report presents the study findings to the state legislature and makes recommendations for ensuring that all California schools are lead-safe schools. Findings and recommendations are as follows. (1) As is the case with housing in California and across the nation, lead-containing paint is present in most California public elementary schools and child care facilities. With proper training, resources, and support, it can be managed safely as part of standard maintenance and operations practices. (2) If lead-safe work practices are instituted and continued over time, they are safer, more efficient, and more cost effective than wholesale removal of lead-containing paint. (3) The lead content of bare soil may be elevated if the soil is close to painted exterior walls. Simple steps can eliminate potential exposure hazards. (4) Lead may be present in drinking water in about 18 percent of schools and child care facilities. A testing, remediation, and replacement program will identify and eliminate this potential source of exposure. The report concludes with the Department of Health Services' action plan and several recommendations. 56p.

A Case Study of Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Involving the Burlington, Massachusetts Public School System. Tips, Suggestions, and Resources for Investigating and Resolving EHS Issues in Schools
Dresser, Todd H.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.; Burlington Board of Health, Burlington, MA , 1998)
An investigation was initiated concerning the environmental health within the Burlington, Massachusetts public school system to determine what specific environmental hazards were present and determine ways of eliminating them. This report presents 20 case studies that detail the environmental health issues involved, the approaches taken in investigating each problem, observations on conditions contributing to the hazard's development, the actions taken to eliminate the hazard, the lessons learned, and tips and suggestions concerning preventive management. Each case study concludes with advice on resources that can be used to help schools in investigating and eliminating each environmental hazard. Hazards investigated include the following: chemicals; asbestos; indoor air quality; pesticides; radioactive materials; fire prevention; radon; formaldehyde; safety equipment; spill and emergency response planning; underground storage tanks; and discharges to sanitary drains. 54p.

Art Safety Procedures for Art Schools and Art Departments
McCann, Michael
(Center for Safety in the Arts , 1998)
This online manual includes chapters on a health and safety program; hazard communication; emergency procedures; laws and regulations; general precautions; personal protective equipment; fire safety; waste management, and general safety.

An Ill Wind: Methyl Bromide Use Near California Schools.
Ross, Zev; Walker, Bill
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , 1998)
A California study investigates the use of the toxic pesticide methyl bromide near the state's public schools, explains why proposed safety rules have failed to protect children and others from exposure, and examines regions at particular exposure risk. Study results show an increasing exposure to methyl bromide near schools already at risk while statewide use is decreasing. Further revealed are that about one-third of the schools are a half mile or less from methyl bromide application sites, that some areas expose students many times per season to the pesticide, that potential exposure falls disproportionately on children of color, and that the strawberry crop appears to account for over half of all methyl bromide applied near California schools. Recommendations for regulations are presented and include the need for banning methyl bromide applications within 1,000 feet of schools; the development of "acceptable" exposure level standards tenfold higher for protecting children; notification in writing of potential methyl bromide applications that will occur within 1 mile of schools, facilities, and residences; and the need to increase research funding into finding alternatives for methyl bromide. (Contains 10 references). 40p.
TO ORDER: Environmental Working Group, 1718 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 600, Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-667-6982

Schools' Environmental Assessment Methods (SEAM). Adobe PDF
(Department for Education, Architects and Building Branch, London ,England , Oct 1996)
Responding to the need for users of schools to use their buildings in a way that creates a better internal environment for children and reduces harm to the environment, this document lists environmental issues and corrective recommendations. Environmental issues include sources of noxious fumes, water and air quality, lead-free paint, recycling and waste disposal, ventilation, lighting, energy management, and legionnaires' disease. 38p.
Report NO: Building Bulletin 83

Underground Fuel Storage Tanks.
McGovern, Matthew
(Council of Educational Facility Planners,International, Scottsdale, AZ , May 1996)
Owners of underground storage tanks often fail to realize the legal requirements—federal, state, and local—associated with their ownership as well as the liability associated with leaking tanks. Leaking underground fuel storage tanks cause environmental damage to such elements as the underground aquifer (fresh water supply) and trees. In addition to environmental contamination, these leaking tanks also can cause fires and explosions, thus becoming a very real threat to human safety. 5p.

Healthy Buildings? Adobe PDF
Grubb, Deborah
(Morehead State University , 1996)
Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas. The House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and Environment (1993) determined that serious environmental threats exist in the air of American schools. Comparative risk studies conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1990 concluded that indoor air pollution is among the top four environmental risks to public health. Solutions depend upon the specific contaminant. Most, however, can be controlled by installing and using appropriate HVAC systems. Contains 19 references. 22p.

Chemical Fume Hoods in Higher Education Science Laboratories: Electrical, Mechanical and Human Controls Adobe PDF
Casey, John M.
(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Georgia Association of Physical Plant Administrators, 12th, Jekyll Island, GA , May 1995)
This paper is predicated on the realization that a chemical hood is only one element of laboratory safety which encompasses a variety of other elements starting with the architectural design and layout of laboratories; through the installation, operation and maintenance of integrated electrical and mechanical systems; to the safety-mindedness of the individuals performing the work in these hoods and the impact of fume hoods on indoor air quality. Personal safety must be the overriding consideration at each fume hood and must dictate appropriate design, installation, and operational protocols. The compilation and promulgation of such criteria are the principal objectives of this paper which is based on a review of the existing Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia "Design Criteria." When implemented these electrical, mechanical, and human control guidelines should promote the continued safety of students, faculty members, and staff members who design, operate, and maintain chemical fume hoods in the academy in general and in the Regent's System in particular. Topics covered include: historical perspective, recent fume hood application trends, fume hood manufacturers and laboratory furniture manufactures, general and specific recommendations, observations and additional suggestions, and conclusions. Contains 8 endnotes and 23 references. 23p.

Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools. Adobe PDF
Day, David R.
(National School Boards Association,Council of School Attorneys, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to do if the school district is identified as a potentially responsible party. The document discusses ways to minimize future superfund liability in real-estate acquisitions, the identification of hazardous waste produced by schools, and definitions for "hazardous substance" and "environmental damage." Strategies for handling underground storage tanks and dangers within the school, such as asbestos, radon, lead, and other toxic substances are also detailed. An entire chapter is devoted to toxic torts and the unique proof problems that must be addressed in such cases. Information on the prevention of and response to environmental crises, such as those precipitated by construction and maintenance activities, are also addressed. 38p.

The Healthy School Handbook. Conquering the Sick Building Syndrome and Other Environmental Hazards In and Around Your School.
Miller, Norma L., Ed.
(National Education Association, Alexandria, VA , 1995)
This book compiles 22 articles concerning sick building syndrome in educational facilities in the following three areas: determining whether a school is sick; assessing causes and initiating treatment; and developing interventions. Articles address such topics as managing the psycho-social aspects of sick building syndrome; how indoor air quality affects pre-existing health problems; adverse effects of artificial lighting on learning and behavior in children; the least toxic approaches to managing pests in schools; the multi-disciplinary approach to treating environmentally triggered illnesses in school-age children; the practical and cost-effective approaches to building, remodeling, and maintaining schools; and the legal aspects of pollution in schools. 446p.

School Haze: Air Pollution near California Schools.
Walker, Bill; Hendricks, Marshall
(Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC , 1995)
Reports that half of the states schoolchildren attend class within a mile of reported air emissions of carcinogenic and other hazardous chemicals. Only four percent attended schools covered by the existing network of air pollution monitors. In four of six categories of pollutant, the state s largest emitter was within a mile of one or more schools, resulting in 10,000 children who attended school within these zones. Some schools lie within zones affected by multiple varieties of pollutants and students of color are disproportionally affected. Includes seven references. 22p.

Radon Measurement in Schools: Self-Paced Training Workbook. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1994)
Because radon may pose a threat in some schools, accurate assessment of the presence of this dangerous gas is essential. To help facility managers in this process, a workbook designed to educate personnel in radon detection is offered here. The workbook is intended for an audience of school officials, including administrators, business officers, facility managers, and maintenance and operations staff. It is meant to provide trainees with experience in planning a radon test, interpreting test results, implementing quality assurance during testing, and documenting the testing process for a school building. Each unit is prefaced by a unit overview and a list of participant objectives. Each objective relates to a segment of the unit, and the testing procedures are interspersed with exercises and activities. Some of the activities are fill-in-the-blank questions, whereas others require the application of information contained in the Environmental Protection Agency's testing guidance, entitled Radon Measurement in Schools. Answers to each section's activities can be found at the end of the unit, and it is hoped that these activities will reinforce the information presented in the workbook. 78p.
Report NO: EPA 402-B-94-001

Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Jun 1994)
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in ambient air that is estimated to cause thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year. This report outlines ways in which to ameliorate the presence of radon in schools buildings. The first section is a general introduction for those who need background information on the indoor radon problem and the techniques currently being studied and applied for radon prevention. The level of detail is aimed at developing the reader's understanding of underlying principles and might best be used by school officials or by architects and engineers who need a basic introduction. Instructions and guidelines for radon amelioration are provided in section two, which contains more technical details and may best be used by the architects, engineers, and builders responsible for specific construction details. When building in an area with the potential for elevated radon levels, architects and engineers should use a combination of radon prevention construction techniques. It is also recommended that when constructing a school in radon-prone areas the builder should install an active soil depressurization system; pressurize the building using the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system; and seal major radon entry routes. 51p.
Report NO: EPA/625/R-92/016

Interior Painting and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
The document presents an overview of paint formulations and the functional quality of different paints, paying special attention to the volatile organic compounds present in some paints. Contaminant sources such as the solvents used in paints and the emission rates of various paints are also detailed. The different factors that affect comfort and health, such as accumulated exposure, and what the standards and regulations are regarding human exposure are also covered. Administrators can use several control methods to enhance the IAQ in schools through careful paint selection, which includes checking the age of the paint, never using exterior paint inside a building, and ensuring that the paint is "rated" for the surface(s) to be painted. Communicating with those involved in the project; paint selection; developing a work plan; having adequate ventilation; and clean-up, proper disposal, and storage are control methods that are emphasized. 9p.

Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
Jacobs, Bruce W.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1994)
Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are explored, and an overview of exposure standards for air contaminant levels are discussed. Recommended control methods to avoid IAQ problems include eliminating or reducing the use of potentially harmful chemicals such as ether and mercury; ensuring that room ventilation meets government standards; and using hoods in labs to vent harmful vapors. Various laboratory hood exhaust systems are described and recommendations for hood placement are provided. It is emphasized that maintenance and sound operation policies are needed to ensure proper ventilation and that labs should use negative pressure whenever production of contaminants may occur. An overview of laboratory hood performance is provided. Others control methods include the proper storage of chemicals, careful disposal of laboratory waste, and implementation of a chemical hygiene plan. 10p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1993)
Ways in which carpeting can affect a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) are discussed. Carpeting is defined as a system of components that includes pads, adhesives, floor preparation compounds, and seam sealers. For the last several years, these products have been increasingly scrutinized as to how they affect IAQ. Carpeting gives off volatile chemical vapors and it is recommended that schools test for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and work to lower these levels in the air. Other factors that school officials should consider regarding IAQ include microbial contamination, particularly through fungi growth, and water intrusion. Some recommended control methods involve using VOC emission data, using antimicrobial treatments, airing new products, minimizing the use of adhesives and sealers, "baking out" new carpet by raising the indoor temperature and then ventilating to accelerate the emission and removal of VOCs, cleaning new carpets with a high-efficiency particulate air filtration vacuum, and providing routine maintenance for the carpet, such as a vacuuming schedule, prompt stain removal, and shampooing or hot-water extraction. The strengths and weaknesses of having carpeting in a school are discussed. 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

Radon Measurements in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1993)
Radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides instructions on how to test for the presence of radon. Section 1 includes information on radon facts, health effects, radon exposure, radon problems in schools, and radon entry into schools. Section 2 on radon testing in schools includes information on measurement strategy in schools, what rooms to test, when to conduct radon measurements, who may conduct testing, quality assurance measurements, summary of EPA recommendations, deciding how quickly to mitigate, and a decision making flow chart. Section 3 covers reducing radon concentrations. Section 4 includes frequently asked question on radon and radiation, planning for testing, conducting initial measurements, tampering and detector placement, weather conditions, conducting follow-up measurements, and quality assurance. 54p.
Report NO: EPA No. 402-R-92-014

Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992. Adobe PDF
(U.S. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2d Session. , 1992)
This two-part report deals with the Lead Exposure Reduction Act of 1992(H.R. 5730), an amendment to the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The amendment is intended to lead to the reduction of levels of lead in the environment and to lower the degree of childhood exposure to lead. The bill provides for a program of inspection for lead-based paint at covered schools and for lead hazards at covered day care facilities; inspections in cases of lead in drinking water at covered schools and facilities; a program for training and licensing of lead-based paint abatement contractors and their workers; and repair or recall of drinking water coolers. 156 p.
Report NO: House-R-102-852

Cost and Effectiveness of Radon-Resistant Features in New School Buildings.
Craig, A.B. ; Leovic, K.W. ; Saum, D.W.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Jan 1991)
The paper describes initial results of a study of several schools with radon resistant features that were recently constructed in the northeastern U.S.^These designs generally are based on experience with radon mitigation in existing houses and schools and radon-resistant new construction. The study was limited to slab-on-grade schools where the most common radon resistant school design is active subslab depressurization (ASD). The additional construction costs for eight schools built with ASD ranged from $3 to $11/sq m of slab area. The radon contractors who designed these systems have tended to overdesign the radon reduction systems in the absence of specific written guidance to follow to lessen potential liability in the event of system failure.^Design features include detailed sealing of all slab cracks, multiple exhaust stacks, and extensive subslab piping. Recent EPA research on radon mitigation suggests that simpler ASD systems may provide sufficient radon resistance in new buildings at lower costs. Components of a specification for radon resistant school construction are discussed, based on comments from radon system designers. Another school being studied was built with a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) pressurization radon control system, and considerations for this type of system are examined. 15p.

Environmental Hazards in Your School: A Resource Handbook. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 1990)
Prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this document provides information on many environmental hazards teachers and young children may be exposed to today in school buildings. Topics discussed include: (1) the definition, location, and health hazards of asbestos as well as responsible management practices, current legal requirements, and federal assistance related to assessing and managing asbestos in schools; (2) background information and causes of poor indoor air quality as well as related federal legislation and strategies for controlling the quality of indoor air; (3) the prevalence and health hazards of radon as well as measures being taken to address the problem and assistance available to schools; (4) some origins and health hazards of lead in drinking water, related federal actions such as the Lead Contamination Control Act of 1988, a three-step program to identify and remedy lead contamination in the school, remedial options, and control measures; and (5) recommendations for monitoring school-operated water systems and information on obtaining water sample analyses. A comprehensive list of state contacts is also provided, and information on other environmental concerns that may be apparent in schools such as underground storage tanks, recycling efforts, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyl is included 75p.

Radiation Effects: Implications for Educational Facility Planning.
Hathaway, Warren E.
(Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada , 1990)
Some of the available research on the effects of electromagnetic and electrostatic radiation on organisms is summarized and how these findings may influence designers and users of learning environments is discussed. Terms and concepts are also defined. The report reveals that the available research on electromagnetic and electrostatic radiators is inconclusive and insufficient to support any clear guidelines for educational facilities planners to use. However, research does clearly demonstrate some adverse effects are encountered at some level of exposure, information that facilities planners should be aware of and take steps to minimize by choosing the least risky alternatives available when planning facilities. It suggests three key areas facility planners should address to minimize hazardous levels of exposure: the siting of the educational facility; designing power distribution systems within buildings; and the planning, locating, equipping, and operating of work stations within buildings. (Contains 17 references.) 16p.

School Science Laboratories. A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances. A Supplement to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Safety and Health Hazards in the School Science Laboratory. Adobe PDF
(Council of State Science Supervisors, Washington, DC , 1984)
The purpose of this document is to identify potentially hazardous substances that may be in use in many school laboratories and to provide an inventory of these substances so that science teachers may take the initiative in providing for the proper storage, handling, use, and if warranted, removal of hazardous materials. 52p.

Industrial Education Ventilation Study. Volume 1. Final Report. Adobe PDF
Stanley Associates Engineering
(Calgary Board of Education, Alberta, Edmonton. , May 1983)
A study assessed aspects of ventilation in industrial education facilities in selected junior and senior highs schools in Alberta (Canada). This report describes the purpose of the study and the four test methods used to acquire school specific information. Also discussed are (1) the results of the instructors' perception survey, the ventilation systems' analyses, the dust measurements and the acoustical results; (2) an examination on the critical issues that have arisen from the testing; (3) the related regulations found in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario; (4) descriptions of working ventilation standards and developments on what constitutes tolerable exposure limits to airborne toxic substances; and (5) observations made by the study team followed by recommendations on mechanical design changes required, including recommendations regarding basic issues and future research needs. An appendix contains discussions regarding occupational exposure limits for airborne toxic substances. 26 references. 96p.

References to Journal Articles

Planning for a Healthier School Facility
Belew, Rachel
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p46-48 ; Jun 2012
Recommends that facility planners and managers specify low-emitting nontoxic products, called source control, for healthier schools. Reviews VOCs, children and poor indoor air quality, chemicals in green building, and other steps to good IAQ.

Watch Your Waste.
Biehle, James T.
Journal of College Science Teaching; v40 n3 , p40-44 ; Jan 2011
College and university science programs generate hazardous waste that must be dealt with and disposed of in accordance with state and federal regulations. During a recent renovation and addition project for the State University of New York at Plattsburgh (SUNY Plattsburg), the author was contracted to analyze existing regulations, research best practices at similar institutions, evaluate SUNY Plattsburg's facilities and procedures, and make recommendations for facilities modifications during the construction process. This article describes the findings of these efforts, describes sources of regulatory and other useful information, and lists the recommendations made to SUNY Plattsburgh.

How to Minimize the Risks of Used Fluorescent Lighting.
Brosseau, Lisa
Facility Management Journal; v20 n6 , p36,38,39 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the handling, storage, packaging, transport, and recycling of used fluorescent light bulbs, in order to keep their mercury out of the environment. Four references are included.

What's in the Caulking?
Wallace, Amy
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p46,48,50 ; Nov 2010
Outlines a strategy for building renovation and demolition when the potential for caulk containing PCBs is present. PCBs were used in caulking compounds from the 1950's through the 1970's. Typical and less common locations for caulk in buildings are described, as are government regulations for the handling of PCBs in general.

Reducing the Hazard in Hazmat.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p14,15 ; Oct 2010
Advises on the handling of hazardous materials in institutions, with a stepped approach to evaluate current management, identify hazards, communicate procedures, provide personal protection, and reduce hazardous waste.

Cradle to Grave: What You Need to Know.
Brown, Geoffrey
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n5 , p18-20 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses categories of hazardous waste, common hazardous waste generated by schools, individual generator statuses of hazardous waste, and storing, shipping, and reducing hazardous waste.

PCBs in School? Persistent Chemicals, Persistent Problems.
Herrick, Robert
New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v20 n1 , 116-126 ; 2010
Examines a rapidly emerging base of evidence shows that PCBs can be widely found in caulking and paint in masonry buildings constructed or renovated from about 1950 to the late 1970s. These materials can cause extensive PCB contamination of the building interiors and surrounding soil, and people who teach, live, or attend school in these buildings can have elevated serum PCB levels. The potential risk associated with this source of PCB exposure is not known; however, it is worth noting that the specific PCB congeners found at high levels in the building environments, and in biological samples from the occupants, include some that are suspected of being potent neurotoxins. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving to address this issue in schools; however, the costs of remediating contaminated buildings will pose a formidable obstacle to most school districts.[author's abstract]

PCBs in Schools: What about School Maintenance Workers?
Newman, David
New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy ; v20 n2 , 189-191 ; 2010
Addresses the insufficient consideration of the school maintenance workers and contractors who maintain and replace PCB caulk, even though they may constitute the school population with the highest exposures and risks. The commentary briefly assesses recent PCB-related developments at the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the New York State Education Department from an occupational health perspective. [author's abstract]

Risk Managers Extend Their Turf to Every Corner of the Campus.
Kelderman, Eric
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v56 n14 , pA1,A16,A17 ; Nov 27, 2009
Discusses the advent of risk managers on higher education campuses, who monitor a variety of issues including facility design and construction, hazardous materials, special events, and compliance.

Environmental Liabilities and Sustainability for Educational Institutions. Adobe PDF
Heft, John
Facilities Manager; v25 n6 , p34-37 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses an educational institution's potential liability for property contamination. New and renovated facilities are addressed, with typical sources of contamination and specific instances cited. Risk management, liability coverage, and recovery of damages from contractors are also discussed.

Hazmat: Safety Solutions.
Camplin Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n10 , p18,19 ; Oct 2009
Advises on how to manage hazardous materials using inspection, inventory, and regular cleanout. Also addressed are special considerations for flammables, proper storage, and recordkeeping strategies.

Safer Science: Chemical Storage.
Roy, Ken
The Science Teacher; , p12,13 ; Oct 2009
Reflects on the danger of an "It's always been done this way" attitude towards chemical storage in school science laboratories. References are provided to national standards for the storage of chemicals, and a list of 17 safe storage guidelines from the Centers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are offered. Links to five references are provided. Registration is required for free download.

Hazmat: The Sustainability Link.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p11,12 ; Feb 2009
Outlines the facility manager's role in reducing hazardous waste by replacing toxic products with less harmful ones, recycling, reducing production of hazardous waste, and developing a written program to monitor and improve hazardous waste handling.

Hazardous Materials: Strategies for Safety.
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p9,10 ; Oct 2008
Advises on management of hazardous materials within facilities, addressing identification, OSHA requirements, signage, chemical storage, compressed gases, and emergency response.

Lead Astray.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v32 n8 , p32-34,36,38 ; Aug 2008
Elaborates on a recent discovery of lead in artificial playing turf fibers. The evolution of the discovery and warnings that were issued, the responses from the artificial turf industry, the ingestibility of lead-contaminated dust from the fields, controversies concerning the sampling and actual risk, and other issues surrounding lead content in products to which children might be exposed are covered.

Hazmat Management 360.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p32,33 ; Jul 2008
Details a strategy for hazardous materials management, beginning with a nine-point review of items on site, knowledge of and compliance with regulations, engineering controls and personal protection for safety, training on hazardous materials emergency response and proper disposal, and migration to the use of environmentally preferable materials.

Electronic Waste: Reuse, Recycle, or Dispose?
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p25,26 ; Apr 2008
Describes types of electronic waste, what can typically be refurbished, access to recycling, EPA designations for these wastes, and hazardous materials found in batteries, lamps, and cathode ray tubes.

Time to Heal. (School Hazardous Materials Accidents Are Preventable.)
Cook, Glenn
American School Board Journal; v194 n4 , p44-47 ; Apr 2008
Reviews the 1937 London School natural gas explosion that destroyed a school and killed an estimated 319 students, and draws attention to continuing chemical hazards in schools.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Risky Business, Safe Solutions.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p8,10 ; Jan 2008
Describes categories of hazardous waste, advises on reducing and handling hazardous waste, and savings that can be realized through proper streaming of hazardous and non- hazardous waste.

Reducing the Risk of Dangerous Chemicals Getting into the Wrong Hands. Adobe PDF
Mathews, Nancy
Facilities Manager; v24 n1 , p44-47 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Discusses the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) efforts to enhance the security of facilities that store chemicals that could be stolen or used by terrorists to inflict mass casualties. The article details the steps necessary to comply with federal regulations once a facility has determined they are storing Chemicals of Interest (COI) as defined by Appendix A of the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Final Rule.

Lamp Recycling, Step by Step.
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p26 ; Oct 2007
Advises on inventory of fluorescent lamp purchase, use, and disposal; employee training for lamp handling and disposal; developing a purchasing and recycling plan; and choosing a lamp recycling company.

The CMMS-Hazmat Connection.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n10 , p8,9 ; Oct 2007
Reviews features of software for hazardous materials management, including tracking purchasing, storage, regulatory compliance, liability, inventory, safety, emergency response, and disposal.

Healthy and Safe School Environment, Part II, Physical School Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and PRograms Study 2006.
Jones, Sherry; Axelrad, Rober, Wattigney, Wendy
Journal of School Health; v77 n8 , p544-556 ; Oct 2007
Presents facility-related information from The Centers for Disease Control's 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS). Computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts. Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a sample of elementary, middle, and high schools. The study revealed that 35.4 percent of districts and 51.4% of schools had an indoor air quality management program; 35.3% of districts had a school bus engine-idling reduction program; most districts and schools had a policy or plan for how to use, label, store, dispose of, and reduce the use of hazardous materials; 24.5% of states required districts or schools to follow an integrated pest management program; and 13.4% of districts had a policy to include green design when building new school buildings or renovating existing buildings.

Training Spotlight: Hazardous Materials.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n9 , p13,14 ; Sep 2007
Emphasizes hazardous materials training and awareness for facilities personnel. A training program should include assessing workers' present skills and competencies, implementing an environmental management systems that "cross-trains" workers in a variety of environmental procedures, and systematic compliance with Environmental Protection Agency requirements.

Hazmat Management: Tools of the Trade.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n8 , p23,24 ; Aug 2007
Advises on management of facilities-related hazardous materials. Instructions for inventory, labeling, storage, shelving, and emergency response are included.

Patrolling Academia.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v10 n1 , p25,26 ; Jan 2007
Advises on paying attention to environmental regulations, especially regarding emissions and hazardous waste. Examples of higher education institutions that have been fined and how some are managing compliance are provided.

The EPA is Studying You.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p25-27 ; Jan 2007
Advises on paying attention to environmental regulations, especially regarding hazardous materials, underground storage tanks, and wetlands. Examples of school systems that have been fined are provided, as well as software that can help schools keep track of the regulations and compliance.

The High Cost of Cleanup. Adobe PDF
Buchanan, Bruce
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p22-25 ; Dec 2006
Reviews the threat of asbestos, lead, and mercury in schools. Sources of these toxins and options for their removal or containment are covered.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Geissler, Rebecca
American School and University; v79 n2 , p32,34,36 ; Oct 2006
Discusses site hazard management in schools, noting that many areas where hazardous materials are kept are not properly equipped for emergencies involving those materials. Specifications for the installation of drench stations and eyewashes are outlined, and advice on selecting aesthetically appropriate and vandal-proof fixtures included.

Hazmat Compliance Considerations.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p26,27 ; Oct 2006
Describes schools' responses to recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency investigations into how hazardous materials are handle on their campuses. Many schools have voluntarily reported violations and have been granted amnesty from fines, while those not volunteering information were targeted for inspections that have resulted in 25 penalty actions and $3.8 million in fines.

A Crash Course in Chlorine.
O'Toole, Kelly
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p16 ; Oct 2006
Reviews the history and efficacy of chlorine as a disinfectant, and advises on how to select a pool chlorine product as well as how to evaluate alternatives to chlorine.

NSF Standard 50: Ensuring Pool Water Treatment Products Are Safe and Effective.
Purkiss, David
Recreation Management; v7 n8 , p10,11 ; Oct 2006
Explains the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute Standard 50 (NSF 50) that establishes establish minimum requirements for materials, design, construction, and performance of equipment commonly included in the water circulation systems of residential and public swimming pools, spas or hot tubs.

Chemical Hazards: Know the Facts.
Wagner, Daniel
Facilities Manager; v22 n4 , p30-32 ; Jul-Aug 2006
Discusses safe handling of hazardous materials by school staff, citing the Occupational Safetly and Health Administration Standard Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. The Standard's three elements of material safety data sheets, container labeling, and employee training are detailed, as are typical communications violations, right-to-know laws, and employer responsibilities.

Mercury Exposure: Kentucky, 2004.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; v54 n32 , p797-799 ; Aug 19, 2005
Discusses the mercury contamination and cleanup of a school, a home, and vehicles resulting from mercury carried out of a dentist's office by a student. The multi-agency effort resulted in increased coordination and communication, as well as an awareness campaign in the school. Includes four references.

Asbestos Suite Nearing Conclusion.
Gross, Anne
Facilities Manager; v21 n4 , p60,61 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Describes the upcoming resolution of a higher education class action suit to recover money spent on asbestos abatement, including suggested steps to take now and an online link to documentation.

Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges Among Students on Shooting Teams.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; v54 n23 , p577-579 ; Jun 17, 2005
Summarizes the results of an investigation of potential lead exposure in 66 members of shooting teams, aged 7--19 years, who used five indoor firing ranges. The findings suggest that improper design, operation, and maintenance of ranges were the likely cause of elevated blood lead levels among team members at four of the five firing ranges. Public health officials should identify indoor firing ranges that have not implemented lead-safety measures and offer consultation to reduce the risk for lead exposure among shooters, coaches, and employees.

Hazardous Matters
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2005
As EPA's compliance efforts expand to more education facilities, managers very soon will need a much fuller picture of all hazardous materials in their facilities, from laboratory chemicals and solvents to mercury-containing equipment such as computer monitors and fluorescent lamps. More importantly, managers will need the resources and support to take action.

Reducing the Risk of Chemical Exposures in Schools.
Davis, Jennifer; Runkle, Kenny
Journal of Environmental Health; v67 n5 , p9-13 ; Dec 2004
Reports on chemical handling practices in Illinois schools that revealed inadequate amount and condition of storage for chemicals, excessive quantities of chemicals, unused and unneeded chemicals, unlabeled and unidentified chemicals, improper adjacencies of stored chemicals, corroded and leaking containers, and untrained staff in charge.

An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings.
Herrick, Robert; McClean, Michael; Meeker, John; Baxter, Lisa; Weymouth, George
Environmental Health Perspectives; v112 n10 , p1051-1053 ; Jul 2004
Reports on an investigation of 24 buildings in the Boston area revealing that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB levels in indoor air ranged from 111 to 393 ng/m3; and in dust taken from the building ventilation system, < 1 ppm to 81 ppm.

Mercury Experiments in Class Can Be Poison.
Galley, Michelle
Education Week; v23 n8 , p1, 18 ; Oct 22, 2003
More than eleven states have decided that the educational benefits that mercury might have in lessons do not outweigh the hazards associated with handling the toxic element, and have taken steps to rid schools of the substance through legislation or other means. An incident at Ballou Senior High in Washington, D.C. is discussed. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

School Oil Wells Cause Beverly Hills Willies.
Walsh, Mark
Education Week; v22 n34 , p3 ; May 07, 2003
News story about allegations made by Erin Brockovich and lawyer Ed Masry that toxic emissions from oil wells under Beverly Hills High School caused as many as 300 cases of Hodgkin's disease, non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, and thyroid cancer among alumni and nearby residents. The law firm filed administrative complaints with the Beverly Hills Unified School District and the city of Beverly Hills on behalf of 25 alleged victims of toxic emissions. The firm plans to sue those agencies as well as three oil companies with past or current involvement in the oil operation. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

What Lies beneath.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n9 , p18-25 ; May 2003
Discusses why schools and universities must be diligent as they build new facilities to make sure construction sites are not contaminated with toxic chemicals and other hazardous materials. Addresses why schools often inadvertently choose these sites, the drive for national regulation, lessons from a situation in Los Angeles, tips for acquiring safe school sites, and new standards.

Study Cites Threat From Exposure To Lower Levels of Lead.
Brown, Hattie
Education Week; v22 n33 , p13 ; Apr 30, 2003
A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine shows that blood lead levels officially considered safe are now believed to hurt a person's intellectual development. This has implications for school administrators who are tackling numerous instances of lead found in water used in drinking fountains and cafeteria cooking because of lead pipes, in soil surrounding playgrounds, and in dust from chipped lead paint, which was banned in 1978. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Science-Lab Safety Upgraded After Mishaps.
Hoff, David J.
Education Week ; v22 n3 , p1,20,21 ; Apr 30, 2003
According to this article, science classrooms might be the most dangerous places in American schools. Most safety experts agree that teachers and administrators aren't doing enough to protect their students from injury. This outlines steps that can be taken to curtail accidents. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Getting the Lead Out.
Ness, Erik
Rethinking Schools; v18 n2 , p18-21 ; Winter 2003
Describes the effects of lead poisoning. Because the source of lead poisoning in most children is old house paint, and is found mostly in substandard housing, lower-income children are disproportionally affected. Suggestions to teachers are included.

Releases of Hazardous Substances in Schools: Data from the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System, 1993-1998.
Berkowitz, Z.; Haugh, G.S.; Orr, M.F.; Kaye, W.E.
Journal of Environmental Health; v 65 n2 , p20-7, 37, 39 ; Sep 2002
This report describes the adverse public-health effects resulting from releases of hazardous substances in schools. Data were analyzed from emergency events reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system by 14 participating states during 1993-1998. Compared with all other types of events, a higher proportion of school-related events resulted in victims (relative risk [RR] = 3.94, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 3.37-4.60) and in evacuation (RR = 5.76, 95 percent CI = 5.16-6.43). The most common cause of these events was operator error, followed in frequency by equipment failure, improper mixing, and deliberate releases. The majority of victims were exposed to spills emitting noxious gases, and their resulting symptoms were primarily associated with the respiratory tract. [Authors' abstract]

Biological and Chemical Impact to Educational Facilities.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p37-39 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Discusses preparing an educational facility to address the threat of biological or chemical terrorism, including understanding the potential impact, implementing information and communication systems, and improving medical surveillance and awareness.

An Award-Winning Approach To Lead Safety.
Compton-Lilly, Catherine
Science and Children; v39 n4 , p26-30 ; Jan 2002
Details how a lead safety project funded in the Toyota Tapestry Grant program provided students with the resources to test for and discover lead present in their recently renovated school. Discusses how the lead safety project played out across grade levels within the school.

Heavy Metal.
Black, Susan
American School Board Journal; v188 n12 , p50-52, 56 ; Dec 2001
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that more than 1 million children ages 5 and under are afflicted with unsafe amounts of lead. Schools can be a source of lead poisoning. Other sources include playgrounds near freeways, playground equipment, contaminated soil, and technology rooms with lead-bearing supplies. Sidebars list what schools should do about lead and provide selected references.

Staying Green.
Davis, Lee; Siegel, Gary
American School and University; v74 n3 , p324-27 ; Nov 2001
Shows how schools are establishing environmental-management systems to help them comply with stricter federal regulations. Topics addressed include hazardous waste management and use of third-party audits to prepare for Environmental Protection Agency inspections. Environmental guidelines for laboratories and special concerns confronting science buildings are highlighted.

Preventing Mercury Pollution.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v17 n4 , p73-75 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Discusses mercury pollution as a source of many of today s school closings and provides insight for developing a spill response plan as well as hints for reducing mercury pollution occurrences.

Chemical Safety Programs.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v73 n4 , p32-33 ; Dec 2000
Discusses the need to enhance understanding of chemical safety in educational facilities that includes adequate staff training and drilling requirements. The question of what is considered proper training is addressed.

Taking the ‘Haz’ from Hazmat
Burkhart, John
Maintenance Solutions Online; Sep 2000
This reviews a range of challenges common to two major types of facilities — education and health care — and takes a closer look at hazardous materials (hazmat) issues that can provide maintenance and engineering managers with a framework for updating management plans.

Preparing for an EPA Inspection and Avoiding Common Mistakes.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v16 n3 , p68-71 ; Jul-Aug 2000
Discusses how a higher education facility can prepare for an Environmental Protection Agency inspection with some quick topics designed to smooth the process. Tips include determining if waste is hazardous, labeling waste properly, preventing pollution, improving housekeeping, and having good hazardous materials management practices.

Methods of Exposure Assessment: Lead-Contaminated Dust in Philadelphia Schools.
Shorten, Charles V.; Hooven, Marijane K.
Environmental Health Perspective; v108 n7 , p663-666 ; Jul 2000
This study was conducted to accurately assess children's exposure to lead in schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The authors conclude that current cleaning methods are effective at preventing lead-contaminated dust exposure within classrooms. Prior studies, which the researchers say assessed only the presence of lead-contaminated dust, assumed that children were necessarily exposed simply because lead was present in the rooms.

Detroit-Area Schools Respond To Mercury Incidents.
Richard, Alan
Education Week; v19 n39 , p5 ; Jun 07, 2000
Mercury exposure can pose a serious health risk, and many districts long ago took steps to rid their schools of the element or carefully monitor its use in science classes. In Michigan, recent incidents have reminded educators and the public about the potential problems for schools where quantities of the liquid metal may sit unnoticed in classrooms, or even outside the schools in places where students might find it. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Ashes to Ashes: New York City Schools Are Doing Away with an Industrial Age Relic--the Coal-Fired Boiler
Drummond, Steve
Teacher Magazine; Special Edition , p14-15 ; Apr 2000
The New York City School Construction Authority is on a mission to replace all coal-fired boilers in schools with gas-and-oil-fired heating systems over the next four years. The coal boilers are costly, a source of pollution, and can produce fumes that are dangerous to students.

Common Covert Chemical and Physical Hazards in School Science Laboratories. Part 2.
Roy, Ken
Science Education International; v11 n1 , p22-23 ; Mar 2000
Explains that mercury is a dangerous substance to use in school science laboratories and gives several examples of mercury poisoning. Lists some precautions that should be taken in case of mercury spillage in the lab. Advocates using non-mercury laboratory equipment and limiting student access to mercury to prevent dangerous situations.

Mechanisms Underlying Children's Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants.
Faustman, E.M.; Silbernagel, S.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Burbacher, T.M.; Ponce, R.A.
Environmental Health Perspectives; v108 Suppl 1 , p13-21 ; Mar 2000
In the first section of this article, example mechanisms of susceptibility relevant for toxicity assessment are identified and discussed. In the second section, examples of exposure factors that help define children's susceptibility are presented. Examples of pesticide research will be given for illustration. The final section discusses the importance of putting these considerations of children's susceptibility into an overall framework for ascertaining relevancy for human risk assessment. [Authors' abstract]

Modern Classrooms See Chalkboards Left in the Dust.
Mullan, Meghan
Education Week; v19 n17 , p6 ; Jan 12, 2000
Examines the benefits of using dry-erase boards in elementary school classrooms in student health and teaching efficiency. Chalkboard and dry-erase surfaces are compared. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

New Rules for Refrigerants.
Jackson, Robert
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 ; Jul 1999
Discusses how educational facilities can comply with new Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding commercial refrigerants. Tips include developing a compliance plan with a manager in charge of it, and developing an accurate and complete refrigerant systems assessment.

Think Tank.
Governick, Heather; Wellington, Thom
American School and University; v70 n11 , p34d,34f ; Jul 1998
Examines the options for upgrading, replacing, and removal or closure of underground storage tanks (UST). It reveals the diverse regulatory control involving USTs, the Environmental Protection Agency's interest in pursuing violators, and stresses the need for administrators to be knowledgeable about state and local agency definitions of regulated tanks.

Environmental Hazards for Children in USA
Landrigan, P.J.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health ; v11 n2 , p189-94 ; 1998
Children are not little adults. Their tissues and organs are rapidly growing, developing and differentiating. At various stages these growth processes create windows of great vulnerability to environmental toxicants. Children's patterns of consumption and exposure are very different from those of adults. Children's combination of disproportionately heavy exposure plus biologic vulnerability makes them very susceptible to injury caused by toxicants in the environment. Development and adoption of a child-centered agenda for research and risk assessment will be necessary if disease in children of toxic environmental origin is to be controlled, prevented and eventually eradicated. This agenda will need to be multidisciplinary. It should include epidemiology, pediatrics, exposure assessment, toxicology, and health economics. The ultimate goals of this agenda need to be (1) the identification of etiologic associations between environmental exposures and pediatric disease; (2) the elucidation of disease mechanisms; (3) improved treatment; and (4) prevention. [Author's abstract]

Risk Management: A Leader's Responsibility.
Rowe, Roger E.
Facilities Manager; v13 n6 , p35-36 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Discusses what facilities management leaders can do to ensure the safety of students and employees. Focuses on six specific tasks, such as detecting hazards and assessing the risks, and offers three rules underlying the application of risk management, including do not accept unnecessary risk. Provides an outline of prevention responsibilities.

Mechanisms of and Facility Types Involved in Hazardous Materials Incidents.
Kales, S.N.; Polyhronopoulos, G.N.; Castro, M.J.; Goldman, R.H.; Christiani, D.C.
Environmental Health Perspectives; v105 n9 , p998-1001 ; Sep 1997
The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate hazardous materials (hazmat) releases and determine the mechanisms of these accidents, and the industries/activities and chemicals involved. We analyzed responses by Massachusetts' six district hazmat teams from their inception through May 1996. Information from incident reports was extracted onto standard coding sheets. The majority of hazardous materials incidents were caused by spills, leaks, or escapes of hazardous materials (76%) and occurred at fixed facilities (80%). Transportation-related accidents accounted for 20% of incidents. Eleven percent of hazardous materials incidents were at schools or health care facilities. Petroleum-derived fuels were involved in over half of transportation-related accidents, and these accounted for the majority of petroleum fuel releases. Chlorine derivatives were involved in 18% of all accidents and were associated with a wide variety of facility types and activities. In conclusion, systematic study of hazardous materials incidents allows the identification of preventable causes of these incidents. [Authors' abstract]

Navigating the Hazardous Waste Management Maze.
School Planning and Management; v36 n7 , p31-31 ; Jul 1997
Hazardous waste management is a continual process. Administrators should maintain good relations with state agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency and use them as resources. Contacts with businesses and professional groups as well as forming coalitions with neighboring districts are ways to share information and expenses.

Are Your Custodians Exposed to Excessive Lead Levels?
School Business Affairs; v63 n7 , p36-39 ; Jul 1997
Data from a 1994 University of Maryland study suggest that typical janitorial tasks (sweeping, vacuuming, emptying trash receptacles, cleaning fixtures, and other related housekeeping activities) would not result in an airborne lead exposure that exceeded Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Lead abatement work should incur potentially greater exposure risks.

Healthy Advice or Alarmist Literature? National Education Association Handbook Creates Unease in Cleaning and Maintenance Industry
Cummings, Sean
Cleaning Management and Maintenance Online; , 4p. ; Jun 1997
The publication of an educational handbook on indoor environmental quality has renewed the contentious debate between advocates for the cleaning and maintenance industry and environmental activists on whether American schools are safe. But both sides may be missing the point that quantifiable and significant improvements can be made to the indoor environment without using scare tactics or laboratory findings.

Getting the Lead Out.
Whipple, Charlie
American School & University; v69 n9 , p48-50 ; May 1997
Examines plumbing standards and laws regarding lead content in school bathroom faucets and how to address these concerns. Issues to consider when building new school facilities are highlighted.

Building a Healthy Environment.
Simon, Elizabeth
Learning By Design; n6 , p17-20 ; Mar 1997
Describes how school districts, with the help of a good architect, can construct or renovate schools and avoid most environmental hazards. Issues concerning indoor air quality, asbestos, lead poisoning, ergonomics, and adverse exposure to radon and electric and magnetic fields are addressed.

Safeguarding Underground Storage Tanks.
McGovern, Matthew
School Planning and Management; Feb 1996
USTs must meet new federal regulations by December 1998. Possible hazards from leaking underground storage tanks include: fires, health hazards, explosions and contamination of fresh water supplies. A school district’s underground, single-walled fiberglass, diesel fuel storage tanks’ leak is used as an example.

Cleaning Up on Environmental Damages
Berger, Bruce J.
School Business Affairs; v62 n1 , p19-20, 22-23 ; Jan 1996
A public entity facing an environmental cleanup can take certain measures to dramatically increase its chance of coverage. Argues that many comprehensive general-liability insurance policies have coverage if the pollution is "sudden and accidental."

Schools Respond to Risk Management Programs for Asbestos, Lead in Drinking Water and Radon.
Fisher,Ann; Chestnut,Lauraine G.;Chapman,Ruth H.;Rowe, Robert D
(Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH, 1993)
Risk: Health, Safety & Environment; v4 ; 1993
This paper summarizes the findings of a study that examined the effectiveness of risk communication materials, information dissemination and assistance efforts and selected regulatory design strategies for three different risk management programs for public schools that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated in response to Congressional mandates.
TO ORDER: Franklin Pierce Law Center, Two White Street, Concord, NH 03301; Tel: 603-228-1541

Environmental (Pre-Buy) Assessments
Spencer, Darrell, Ed.D.
Educational Facility Planner; v31 n1 ; Jan-Feb 1993
An environmental assessment of the site for a new school should be done to determine if the property is contaminated with hazardous wastes or other toxic materials which might pose a potential hazard to students, staff, and the environment. It will also assess if the site might be a liability to the district. The work should be done in two phases: 1. list steps for evaluating the potential for site contamination, 2. list a step-by-step approach for assessing the extent of on-site contamination.

Safety Point: Ventilation
Qualley, Charles
School Arts; v81 n3 , p8-9 ; Nov 1981
Discusses the danger of toxic fumes from common art materials and the importance of an adequate ventilation system in the art room.

Reducing Liability: Art Department Safety Guidelines
Olson, John R.
Art Education; v34 n5 , p41-42,44,46 ; Sep 1981
This article is intended to help school districts evaluate and monitor safety in the art classroom. It lists the responsibilities of administrators, teachers, students, and custodians. It suggests safety standards for the art facility and for use of tools, safety equipment, and hazardous materials.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).