FUNDRAISING CAMPAIGNS FOR SCHOOL FACILITIES
Information on planning and conducting a school facilities capital campaign, including general fundraising principles and practices, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Philanthropy at Independent Schools. Third Edition.
(National Association of Independent Schools, Washington DC, 2009)
This book covers fund raising for independent school heads, development directors, and trustees. It offers detailed guidance on: techniques to make trustees better fund raisers, segmenting and scheduling the annual fund, the nuts and bolts of capital campaigns, step-by-step advice on starting (and finding time for) a planned giving program, why major gifts must be a top priority. This updated edition offers a new chapter on policies and guidelines, including gift valuation and planned giving and endowment policies. Includes sample development and campaign plans, gift tables, budget forms, and gift-acceptance policies. 200p.TO ORDER: http://transact.nais.org/Purchase/ProductDetail.aspx?Product_code=B127
Fundraising Basics for Private School Facilities.
Roach, Arthur H.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign": a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report briefly covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including fundraising software and tips on implementing all the components of a development program. Campaign planning issues are discussed on using fundraising consultants, drafting and assembling specific campaign documents, conducting a feasibility or planning study, and developing a campaign strategy. Final comments explore what to expect and be prepared for while conducting a capital campaign. 5p.
Big-Time Fundraising for Today's Schools.
(Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006)
A fundraising consultant shows school leaders how to move away from labor-intensive, bake sales and car washes, and into the world of major fundraising. Following the model used by colleges and universities, the author presents practical strategies for supporting school finances by pursuing grants and gifts from corporations, foundations, the government, and individual donors. 208TO ORDER: http://www.corwin.com/
Capital Campaign: Early Returns on District of Columbia Charter Schools.
(Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Oct 2005)
Examines the history, present condition, and unique features of the charter school movement in the District of Columbia. Challenges to the movement are discussed, including the significant challenge of access to and funding for facilities. 40p.
Capital Financing For Private & Independent Schools.
(Wye River Group, Annapolis, MD, Feb 20, 2005)
This paper is a primer for school boards and management. It provides a basic overview of the key issues, considerations and options associated with the use of debt by private schools to address facility financing needs. In addition, for a school which has decided to pursue debt financing, it provides basic guidelines for the choice of debt modality and structure depending on that school's finances, type and amount of financing sought and the financial environment at the time of the planned borrowing. The paper discusses tax-exempt and taxable debt, bank loans, publicly-offered and privately placed bond issues and the use of derivative product (interest rate swaps, caps, etc.) in school financings. 34p.
Building a Foundation for Success: How Authorizers Can Help Schools with the Facilities Challenge.
Halsband, Robin; Hassel, Bryan C.
(National Association of Charter School Authorizers. Issue Brief Number 2. , May 14, 2004)
This brief explores the ways in which authorizers can, indirectly and directly, affect a school’s ability to obtain the financing necessary for a schoolhouse. Part I examines the indirect impact: how the quality of the authorizer, as perceived by a financial institution, can affect loan decisions. Part II considers the direct, proactive roles that some authorizers have taken to help schools meet their facilities financing needs. 12p.
Facility Improvements That Are Not Funded with Montgomery County Revenues. [Maryland]
(Board of Education of Montgomery County, Maryland , Nov 2002)
This provides guidelines for accepting non-Montgomery County government funds for facility improvements that qualify as capital investments. These guidelines outline the policy issue, the position of the Board, and desired outcomes. 4p.
Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.
Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.
(Wye River Capital, Inc., Annapolis, MD , 2002)
This PowerPoint presentation contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key quantitative considerations in a capital financing for a private school. 39p.
Are you Ready for a Capital Campaign?
(Zimmerman-Lehman [Consulting Firm], San Francisco, CA , 2001)
This article reviews the role of board members and other volunteers in the campaign, highlights the feasibility study and comprehensive donor research, examines the purpose and preparation of effective case statements, and gives the specifics of campaign management.
The Captial Campaign Feasibility Study: Always a Good Idea
(Zimmerman-Lehman [Consulting Firm],San Francisco, CA , 2001)
This article gives the five critically important reasons to conduct a feasibility study, and how one is conducted.
The Nonprofit Handbook: Fund Raising. 3rd Edition.
Greenfield, James M., editor
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2001)
This comprehensive handbook, a compilation of articles by highly-regarded and experienced fund-raising leaders, covers every aspects of the practice of fund development from preparatory, organizational and managerial issues, to both annual and major giving to specialized types of nonprofit organizations. 1,176p
Comprehensive Fund-Raising Campaigns: A Basic Guide for Governing Boards of Independent Institutions. Fund-Raising Topics. Board Basics.
Schrum, Jake B., Ed.
(Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC, 2001)
This guide for the governing boards of independent institutions discusses conducting a comprehensive fund-raising campaign. A comprehensive fund-raising campaign is broader and more strategic than past capital fund raising campaigns. Its financial goals include all potential gifts from annual fund donors, all gifts for the endowment, all gifts for capital purposes, and gifts for other restricted purposes as well. Comprehensive fund-raising campaigns require intensive planning with board leadership and a written campaign plan. Comprehensive campaigns, most of which last at least 5 to 7 years, cost money, and the board must assure that the campaign is adequately funded. The campaign budget should supplement, not replace, the operating budget of an already healthy fund-raising program. Campaign leaders will develop goals for individual trustee giving and cumulative board support, and all trustees must be prepared to participate. The board must ensure that the campaign is conducted with the highest ethical standards and with sound policies and procedures. 24p.TO ORDER: Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-356-6317.
Philanthropic Support for Public Education in the Southwest Region
Born, Laurie; Wilson, Dave
(Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX, Dec 2000)
This report examines the relationship between philanthropy (gifts and grants provided by private foundations and business concerns)and public schools in five states -- Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The study describes how much support goes to public schools; how it is distributed; who gets the money; for what types of activities; which are the most active grant makers and what are their characteristics; and the role SEDL can play in providing research-based information or other services for philanthropic organizations. The study found that philanthropy for K-12 public education is growing, but also that the realities of grant makers' priorities, varying philosophies, and charter restrictions establish a context in which the distribution of funds is erratic, dollars don't necessarily flow to districts that have high concentrations of impoverished students with poor academic performance, and anomalies can have unintended consequences. Further, it appears that schools are most successful in gaining philanthropic support from local donors for coherent, strategic initiatives and/or when the schools have staff with assigned responsibility for fund-raising.
Major Gifts and Capital Campaigns: A Compendium of Articles from Ideas & Perpectives and To The Point.
(Independent School Management, Wilmington, DE, 2000)
Articles include 1) Stability Markers: 10 Characteristics of the Major Gifts Program; 2) Wanted: A Great Development Director; 3)The Role of the Head in Fund Raising; 4) Readiness for a Capital Campaign; 5)Capital Campaign Readiness: The Board's Role; 6)When and How to Use Fund-raising Counsel; 7)Four Strategies That Turn Prospects Into Major Donors; 8) Why People Make Significant Contributions to a School; 9) Fund Raising With Families of Different Cultures; 10)Donor Recognition: The Key to Growing Annual and Major Gifts Efforts; 11) A Gift Acceptance Policy Manual: Why You need one and What It Should Contain; 12)The Timing of Fund-raising Campaigns and Events; 13) How to Jump Start a Stalled Campaign; 14)Tax-Exempt Bonds: Ill-Advised Debt.
Preparing Your Capital Campaign (An Excellence in Fund Raising Workbook Series publication)
Bancel, Marilyn; Seiler, Timothy L.
(Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 2000)
Covers the following topics: 1) understanding the capital campaign; 2) getting the organization ready; 3) launching the project; 4)conducting a feasibility study; 5) building the campaign framework; 6) raising early funding; and 7) looking ahead. Includes organizations and useful publications. 160p.
Creating Foundations for American Schools
McCormick, Dan H.; Bauer, David G.; Ferguson, Darly F.
(Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2000)
Provides the know-how and tools K-12 schools and districts need to build the types of foundations colleges and universities use so successfully to raise money. Using a question and answer format, this takes the reader through a process of conceptualizing, developing, and implementing a public school foundation. The appendices include forms, checklists, and sample letters. 250p.
Conducting a Successful Capital Campaign
Dove, Kent. E.
(Jossey-Bass, Inc. Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 1999)
Revised and expanded edition of the leading guide to planning and implementing a capital campaign. Provides discussions on such topics as linking strategic planning to fundraising, conducting external market surveys, defining leadership roles, and establishing a campaign and solicitation process. A resource section offers samples of key elements of a capital campaign, including a complete volunteer kit, sample budget report, program brochures, newsletters, a strategic plan, and market survey questionnaires. This new edition also provides updated real-world examples, and a new Continuous Lifetime Giving Program Model. 510p.
Capital Campaigns: Realizing Their Power and Potential
Kihlstedt, Andrea; Pierpont, Robert
(Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1999)
This explores both the technical aspects of conducting a capital campaign and the powerful transformational impact of campaigns on an organization's long-term development. Topics include creating the right conditions for achieving leadership gifts; setting-and resetting-realistic campaign goals; using computer systems to manage the information generated during a campaign; and developing an effective challenge grant strategy. This is the 21st issue of the quarterly journal New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising. 122p.
The Complete Guide to Fund-Raising Management
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1999)
A comprehensive treatment of fundraising principles and practices, including information about creating case statements, record keeping, prospect research, cultivating donors, major gifts, grants, direct mail, telemarketing, special events, planned giving, and capital campaigns. Covers management and human resources issues, planning, budgeting, ethics, and evaluation of a fundraising program. 307p.
Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign
Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.
(National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC , 1996)
This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school. Provides a historical overview of the capital campaign, explains why the campaign must be part of the total development focus, and offers guidelines for evaluating capital-campaign readiness. Procedures for conducting an internal performance audit of the existing development program are outlined, as well as the steps to be taken before beginning the campaign--developing a mission statement, formulating a long-range plan, and creating an institutional case statement. Describes the phases of the campaign, specific campaign activities, and campaign models and sample budget. Discusses the benefits of using external counsel and the roles of campaign leadership. Reiterates that the capital campaign has proved to be the most cost-effective method for raising a significant amount of money within a condensed time frame. 74p.TO ORDER: National Catholic Educational Association, 1077 30th Street, NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 20007-3852; Tel: 202- 337-6232
Questions and Answers on Gift Substantiation and Quid Pro Quo Disclosure Statement Requirements for Private Schools.
(CASE Publications, Washington, DC , 1994)
The guide answers questions concerning annual giving/capital campaigns, special events, and auctions. Specific topics covered include: under what circumstances to acknowledge a gift, how to acknowledge a gift, when to acknowledge a gift, quid pro quo disclosure requirements, and valuing auction gifts and purchases. The appendixes contain relevant sections from the tax statute, Internal Revenue Service publication 1771 concerning charitable contributions, regulations concerning substantiation requirements, and sample formats for gift acknowledgement. 43p.
Dollars for Excellence: Raising Private Money for Private Schools--and Public Schools.
Bunce, Roy K.; Leggett, Stanton
(Teach'em, Inc.,Chicago, IL , 1988)
This book was written to help school boards undertake a systematic campaign of fund raising for schools. The introduction describes the importance of fund raising that grows out of a school district's long-term goals and current programs. The two categories of fund raising include event- and donor-centered fund raising. Section 1 presents an overview of fund raising, including suggestions for identifying potential donors, developing a scale of gifts, communicating and acknowledging donors, and soliciting contributions. Section 2 offers guidelines for establishing and maintaining a complete institutional-development program--designing the program; planning for staff, equipment, space, and budget; and installing and maintaining an appropriate database. A case study describes how a private school developed a long-range fund raising plan. The third section is devoted to strategies for specific program management support: managing public relations and publications projects; organizing events; sponsoring programs; arranging for a specific gift contribution; and conducting a limited campaign. Section 4 describes the governance of the new school board and how to conduct an effective long-range-planning process. 292p.
References to Journal Articles
Funding Building Projects in a Tough Economy
District Administration; Apr 2012
Outlines sources for hidden funding to help construct and maintain school buildings, including local and state tax revenues, with some limited support from state and small federal initiatives; Local School Construction Bonds and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds; Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Grant Program and the Impact Aid Facilities Maintenance Program; Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program and the State Charter School Incentive Grants Program; Department of Defense Military Construction Program; State Energy Program Grants; Department of Agriculture Rural Community Facilities Program. Also describes competitive grant funds from federal or state agencies or from private grants awarded by community and corporate foundations.
American School and University; v82 n2 , p40-42 ; Oct 2009
Discusses the necessity of recycling disused electronics and the advantages of removing their clutter from the school premises. Hosting an electronics recycling event is a fund-raising opportunity for schools, and advice on organizing one and securing the financial arrangement is included.
Fee Contingent Services.
CASH Register; v29 n11 , p5,6 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Describes this arrangement between a school district and a contractor soliciting facilities funding on behalf of the district. Various percentage and flat fee arrangements are described, as are their connection to the degree of risk assumed by the contractor.
The Big Gift: A New Fundraising Strategy for Public Schools.
American School Board Journal; v193 n2 , p28-31 ; Feb 2006
Discusses the advantages of organizing sophisticated development offices and hiring experienced fundraisers in public schools. Types of major gifts and the strategies for asking for them are also outlined.
Primer on School Funding.
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p20,22,24,26,28 ; Jun 2005
Summarizes state and local school funding sources and the history of direct and indirect federal funding of school construction. Types of federal, state, and private grants are described.
Money (That's What I Want).
Edutopia; v1 n1 , p24 ; Sep-Oct 2004
Presents ten tips on how to write grant proposals that get funded.
Tax-Exempt Bonds: The Secret to Low-Cost Financing.
Carlucci, Joseph P.; Schneider, Robert C.
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p19-23 ; Dec 2003
Describes the use of tax-exempt bond financing for private schools that is particularly successful when combined with a traditional capital campaign. Such bonds are successful due to their flexible terms and attractive interest rates. Examples of successes and mistakes in the process are provided.
Making the Grade: Public Schools Raise Millions with Sophisticated Techniques.
The Chronicle of Philanthropy; Aug 21, 2003
In a growing number of cities and towns, fund raising for public schools is becoming increasingly ambitious and sophisticated. Many school districts have full-time fund raisers. As local governments face serious budget shortfalls, more public schools will be competing for philanthropic dollars.
Helping Donors Donate.
College Planning and Management; v6 n4 , p34-35 ; Apr 2003
Describes how a growing trend toward donor-advised funds, which function much like the creation of a private foundation, is helping higher education establish stronger ties to large donors.
Parents Buy In to Paying For the Basics.
Education Week; v22 n22 , p1,12,13 ; Feb 13, 2003
With the downturn in the economy, increasing numbers of parents are being asked to raise money for the necessities of public schooling: desks, teachers' salaries, and building improvements. Some parents are forming foundations to sustain their efforts. [Free subscriber registration is required.]
Fund Development for Science Facilities.
Appleton, James R.
New Directions for Higher Education; n119 , p103-09 ; Summer 2002
A college president shares his advice on the critical elements of a capital campaign program for science facilities.
The Latest at Longview: 10. Your Architect Can Be a Powerful Fundraising Tool.
College Planning and Management; v5 n2 , p56-57 ; Feb 2002
The tenth in a series of articles exploring a single building project from commission through occupancy (the expansion and renovation of Longview Community College's Liberal Arts Building), this article explores how the architect can help to raise funds for building projects.
Moving a School District Into Big-Time Fund Raising.
The School Administrator; Dec 2001
Fund raising is a billion dollar business in America, but the public schools have been slow to jump on the bandwagon. If public schools are to compete for needed dollars with private schools, colleges, universities and nonprofit organizations, superintendents and their staffs must aggressively apply the fund-raising strategies used so effectively by these other organizations. This article suggests creating a local education fund (LEF) to broaden the school constituency, keep the community informed, and facilitate the acquisition of grants and gifts.TO ORDER: American Association of School Administrators, 801 N. Quincy St., Ste. 700, Arlington, VA 22203-1730; Tel: 703-875-0745; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yates, Eleanor Lee
Black Issues in Higher Education; v18 n10 , p18-25 ; Jul 2001
Discusses how as competition grows for philanthropic dollars, and federal and state funding decreases, colleges and universities are launching record-breaking capital campaigns. Explores whether historically Black colleges and universities face different fundraising challenges than their White counterparts. Includes several tables on gifts and endowments at U.S. colleges.
Fundraising Today and Tomorrow.
Today's School ; Winter 2001
Reports on a National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) national survey of school administrators, trying to uncover the trends that are shaping school fundraising today-and what the future may bring.
Private Funds for Public Schools
Addonizio, Michael F.
Clearing House; v74 n2 , p70-74 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses sources of nontraditional revenue for public school systems: the result of donor activities (the solicitation of goods, services, and money via direct and indirect donations); enterprise activities (the selling or leasing of services or facilities); and shared or cooperative activities (pooling functions with other agencies or organizations to lower costs). Discusses implications for equity in public school finance.
Rising Goals for Raising Money.
College Planning and Management; v3 n11 , p24-26,28 ; Nov 2000
Discusses the increasing use of multiple-year capital fund raising campaigns to help colleges and universities defray the costs of attracting new students and quality faculty. An example details one university's changing goal structure to adjust to early success in its capital fund raising campaign.
Running a School During a Major Capital Campaign
Independent School; , p50-56 ; Spring 2000
Building Communities of Hope.
Momentum; v30 n4 , 47-49 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Describes the opening of Holy Angels Catholic School in Indianapolis, which is the nation's first new inner-city Catholic School to be built in more than 40 years. It offers Catholic education to inner-city youth through a unique partnership formed by the Archdiocese of Indiana, the city of Indianapolis, and local corporate leaders in a campaign called "Building Communities of Hope."
The Name Game.
Athletic Business; v23 n7 , p37-43 ; Jul 1999
Discusses why it is important to be cautious and do careful assessment before giving donors name recognition as a reward for their generosity. Examples of how some schools have handled naming rights deals are highlighted, and the problem arising when a donor's actions embarrass the school is addressed.
Public Bonds for Private Schools.
Hartman, Sally Kirby
Virginia Business Magazine; Feb 1999
In Virginia, a change in law gives private schools access to tax-exempt financing through industrial development authorities. Colleges and universities have used tax-exempt bonds for many years, and now private schools are using them to improve aging buildings and keep up with technology. Private schools can use the bonds if they have tax-exempt status from the Internal Revenue Service and enough financial stability to satisfy the underwriters and the issuing authority. For sone schools, bond financing is a sidekick to the traditional capital campaign.TO ORDER: http://www.virginiabusiness.com
The Name Game.
School Planning and Management; v37 i8 , p29-30, 32-33 ; Aug 1998
Discusses the selling of naming rights for school sports complexes as a way of funding the construction of school athletic facilities. It explains how schools can effectively manage such arrangements and provides an example of one such project involving the building of a $3 million ice center for the Arrowhead School District in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin.
Private Schools Learn Benefits of Bond Issues.
Education Week; May 20, 1998
Faced with rising enrollments and long-deferred maintenance and renovation needs, private K-12 schools now see debt financing as a way to pay for projects too costly for their typical capital-campaign drives. Includes several case studies.[Free subscriber registration is required.]
Making Technology Pay for Itself.
Sparks, Cindy; Schnitzer, Denise
School Planning and Management; v37 n5 , p46-48 ; May 1998
Discusses fund raising for school technology projects using the Internet. Web sites where federal government funding sources can be found are listed as are sites with more than 130 federal bulletin boards including the Department of Education's Grants Database and private sector grant funding in technologies.
Signs of Hope Across the Nation.
Butler, Francis J.
Momentum; v29 n1 , p6-8 ; Feb-Mar 1998
Describes the community and corporate support that has allowed Catholic inner-city schools to thrive despite initially bleak predictions for the future. Attributes the growing success and generous funding of Catholic inner-city schools to their religious foundations and identities.
A Welcomed Blessing.
Momentum; v29 n1 , p16-18 ; Feb-Mar 1998
Describes the Business Leadership Organized for Catholic Schools (BLOCS), which was created in response to the increasing need for revenues in archdiocesan schools and declining enrollments due to tuition increases. Through corporate and individual support BLOCS improves educational opportunities by providing tuition assistance, capital renovations, and special projects and scholarships.
Parents, the Cornerstone for New Capital Projects
Independent Schools; , p66-70 ; Winter 1998
Building Together in Faith
Momentum; v27 n4 , p33-34 ; Oct-Nov 1996
Discusses the efforts of St. Gregory the Great Parish to build new school facilities for its K-8 school. Describes the efforts of volunteers to contact every family in the parish. Indicates that donations ranged from $25 to $1 million per parishioner. Discusses fund raising ideas, such as auctions and Walk-A-Thons.
Dessoff, Alan L.
Currents; v19 n10 , p10-16 ; Nov-Dec 1993
Alumni leaders should be included in a school or college capital campaign drive. The alumni office can help find prospects, provide events and programs for fund raising, promote the campaign, involve alumni staff members. Alumni themselves can assist in campaign planning and inspire others to give by donating themselves.
Call for Bigger Pledges.
Currents; v19 n6 , p24-28 ; Jun 1993
The techniques and experiences of two private elementary and secondary schools and three higher education institutions with fund raising by phonathon are described. Institutions include the Columbus School for Girls (Ohio), Centre College (Kentucky), Kansas State University, Whitman College (Washington), and the Eaglebrook School (Massachusetts).
University Collaboration Strengthens School Development.
Momentum; v22 n3 , p57 ; Sep 1991
During a seminar on May 5-8, 1990, the university development staff of the University of Notre Dame (Indiana) shared its knowledge with Catholic elementary and secondary school leaders to promote increased support for local schools and dioceses. The 157 participants heard presentations on school development and fund-raising issues.
Four Views of Life after the Capital Campaign.
Walker, Richard O.; And Others
Currents; v17 n7 , p14-20 ; Aug-Sep 1991
Administrators concerned with institutional development at an independent elementary/secondary school, a state university, a school of theology, and a private college share suggestions for maintaining the fund-raising momentum between major capital campaigns. Suggestions address leadership, volunteers, donors, planning, and administration.
Dalessandro, David; And Others
Currents; v15 n6 , p16-56 ; Jun 1989
Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals, the lead gift, motivating trustees, alumni associations, role of public relations officers, special events, the campaign document, and case statements.
Educational Facility Planner; v2 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1986
Beginning with an historical review of philanthropic funding to promote public education for all groups in the South, the author chronicles the efforts of Julius Rosenwald whose funding gifts were designated for elementary schools for black children. The author traces the growth of the Julius Rosenwald Fund and building program from its inception in 1917 until 1932 when the last of 5,358 modern rural black schools was built. The author includes interesting accounts of the Rosenwald building program.
What Makes a Successful Development Program?
Stuhr, Robert L.
Momentum; v16 n3 , p10-12 ; Sep 1985
Examines five themes related to establishing a successful development program; i.e., articulating institutional aims or mission and the educational program supporting the mission; forming the development program and financial support phases; professionalizing the staff; recruiting, training, and serving volunteers; and identifying, cultivating, and soliciting major gifts.