NCEF Resource List: School Flooring Cleaning and Maintenance
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Information on the cleaning and maintenance of floors and carpets in school and campus facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Covering All Options.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n6 , p30-32 ; Feb 2011
Reviews attributes of carpet, resilient flooring, and wood as school flooring, with particular attention to suitability, cost, and cleaning practices.

Characteristics of School Flooring Materials.
(Asthma Regional Council of New England, Dorchester, MA , 2005)
Presents a succinct table comparing indoor air impact, cost, maintenance, room quality, comfort, safety, environmental, and other considerations of carpet, VCCT, linoleum, vinyl, terrazzo, ceramic tile, and concrete flooring. 3p.

The Carpet and Rug Institute's Carpet Maintenance Guidelines for Commercial Applications.
(The Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Feb 2004)
Presents guidelines for carpet cleaning in non-residential settings, including schools. Chapters advise on the elements of a maintenance plan and schedule, developing a carpet maintenance plan, vacuuming, treatment of hard surfaces adjacent to carpet, deep cleaning, and spot removal. 22p.

A Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Floor Coverings in School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Bishop, Jeff
(The Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , Mar 2002)
Presents life cycle cost analyses of school building floors with light-to-medium traffic and heavy traffic, comparing them with the figures for carpet and vinyl composition tile (VCT). The initial purchase cost, installation charges, maintenance requirements and associated costs, plus the costs of cleaning chemicals are factored into the analysis to yield the true outlay of monies over time. The analysis envisions a twenty-two (22) year time period, which is the expected usable life of VCT flooring in schools. 11p.

Preliminary Study of Flooring in School in the U.S.: Airborne Particulate Exposures in Carpeted vs. Uncarpeted Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Shaughnessy, R. J.; Turk, B.; Evans, S.; Fowler, F.; Casteel, S.; Louie, S.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on analysis of data from 16 schools (grades K-6 and a Junior High), spanning 5 southwestern states to examine classroom airborne particulate levels and the buildup of contaminants on flooring systems. Data were collected from 2 separate sites (one carpeted, one hard flooring) within each of the schools. Measurements included indoor/outdoor airborne particulate mass concentration, indoor/outdoor particulate counts, and CO2/T/RH to characterize ventilation in the classrooms. A comparative analysis of the limited data sets suggests that school carpeted floor covering may present an increased exposure risk to children from particulate matter harbored on the flooring material as compared to hard-surfaced flooring. The study emphasizes the need for fastidious maintenance of all types of floor coverings in schools. (Includes fifteen references.) 6p.

Real-time Measurement of Dust Levels in a Carpeted and Non-carpeted School Gym Room.
Turner, W.A.; Caulfield, S.C.; Ellis, T.; Lewia, R.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Reports on research where particle data were collected in two school gyms for fifteen weeks in Kennebunk, Maine. The floor coverings of the two gyms were vinyl composition tile (VCT) and vinyl cushioned tufted textile (VCTT), or high-grade commercial carpet, respectively. Intensive one-minute data was also collected during three "experiments" that evaluated the measured effect of typical sweeping, vacuuming, and burnishing of VCT. It was concluded that advances to contain breathable dust during burnishing activities are needed and that modern vacuum cleaning devices likely produce the least impact on indoor air quality. In the two rooms studied, dust levels were similar in the hard and soft-surface floors. (Includes three references.) 6p.

Carpet in Schools.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, 2001)
Contains information on indoor air quality, carpet selection, allergy issues, maintenance, acoustics, and other issues.

Carpet and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1993)
Ways in which carpeting can affect a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) are discussed. Carpeting is defined as a system of components that includes pads, adhesives, floor preparation compounds, and seam sealers. For the last several years, these products have been increasingly scrutinized as to how they affect IAQ. Carpeting gives off volatile chemical vapors and it is recommended that schools test for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and work to lower these levels in the air. Other factors that school officials should consider regarding IAQ include microbial contamination, particularly through fungi growth, and water intrusion. Some recommended control methods involve using VOC emission data, using antimicrobial treatments, airing new products, minimizing the use of adhesives and sealers, "baking out" new carpet by raising the indoor temperature and then ventilating to accelerate the emission and removal of VOCs, cleaning new carpets with a high-efficiency particulate air filtration vacuum, and providing routine maintenance for the carpet, such as a vacuuming schedule, prompt stain removal, and shampooing or hot-water extraction. The strengths and weaknesses of having carpeting in a school are discussed. 9p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098

References to Journal Articles

Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools
Simmons, Brian
American School and University; Sep 2011
Schools can implement a cost-effective, sustainable floor cleaning program to meet green initiatives. Discusses equipment selection, cleaning chemicals, and green cleaning procedures.

Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools.
Simmons, Brian
American School and University; , p30-34 ; Sep 2011
Schools can implement a cost-effective, sustainable floor cleaning program to meet green initiatives.

Solving Your Summer Floor Care Woes.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n7 , p40,42,44 ; Jul 2011
Discusses major school floor cleaning that is best realized during the months when the school is unoccupied. Working in teams, improved equipment and chemicals, analysis and refinement of the cleaning program, and choosing low-maintenance flooring are recommended.

Maximizing Floor Safety.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p50,52,53 ; Jul 2011
Advises on selecting and maintaining floors for safety, particularly tripping and slipping. Developing a decision matrix to choose the right flooring for a space, installation, and matting are addressed.

Unsightly Walkways.
Baxter, Mark
American School and University; v83 n10 , p24-27 ; Jun 2011
Analyzes the usual causes of soiling of hallway carpeting and content of the soil. The most effective prevention is carefully planned matting with 5 feet of scraper matting outside the building entry, 5 feet of scraper/wiping matting adjacent to doors within the vestibule area or double-door engry area, and 5 feet of wiper matting inside the facility. Professional deep cleaning includes prespray with a pressure sprayer, and an extractor using water heated to 200 degrees.

Concrete Coating Considerations.
Deress, David; Vorley, Wade
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p15 ; Nov 2010
Discusses coating options for concrete floors and plazas. The choice between painting or coating is addressed, as are product selection, coating types, specifications, and post-installation issues.

A Clean Sweep.
McGrath, John
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p34,36 ; Nov 2010
Discusses proper floor care, with an emphasis on extraction with minimal water to reduce water infiltration into the substrate, which can shorten floor life and inhibit the floor replacement.

Routine Maintenance and Its Impact on the Specification.
Simoneau, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p22,24,25 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on considering maintenance requirements when specifying a floor. Ten questions to ask are presented, covering cleaning agents and frequency, resistance to chemicals and spills, sanitation, installation, durability, and maintenance cost.

Floor Health.
High, Jacalyn
American School and University; v83 n2 , p22,23 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the benefits to indoor air quality of floor cleaning with high filtration equipment. Reduction of dust and allergens in various studies are cited.

Bottom-Line Floor Care.
Hulin, Stanley
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n3 , p28 ; Apr 2010
Advises on floor care, including the selection of quality chemicals and the right equipment and utilization of skilled and certified floor care professionals.

Prevent Contaminants from Thumbing a Ride.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n1 , p22,24,25 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the importance of floor cleaning in the prevention of spread of disease. Intensity of floor cleaning due to risk, types of chemicals, and appropriate equipment are addressed.

Carpets and Floors.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p37,38,40,42,44 ; Nov 2009
Presents floor care recommendations from school districts, carpet and flooring manufacturers, and a manufacturer of floor care equipment on how to reduce the amount of time spent cleaning, while still maintaining

Floor Care: Five Tips to Stretch Your Dollars.
Godlewski, Rob
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n5 , p6,8,9 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Advises on precise knowledge of a facility's flooring types and the type of maintenance they need, employee-friendly equipment and chemicals, purchase of quality products, versatile equipment, and routine floor maintenance.

Creating a Sustainable Floor Care Program.
Brown, Lance
Facility Management Journal; v19 n4 , p36,37 ; Jul 2009
Advises on staff injury, building occupant safety, energy inefficiency, water and chemical waste in hard floor care procedures.

The True Benefits of Cleaning "Green."
Sisk, Ed
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n4 , p10,12,13 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Cites the health risks from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in carpet cleaning compounds, advises on how to identify environmentally compounds and methods such as encapsulation. Advantages of dry cleaning methods, certification of cleaners by the Carpet and Rug Institute, and improved school attendance where green cleaning has been implemented are also discussed.

Maintenance for Carpets and Floors.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v48 n3 , p52,54,56,58,59 ; Mar 2009
Discusses problems with carpet cleaning compounds and equipment that failed in previous studies, but have been dramatically improved. Matting, vacuuming, mopping, and extraction techniques for floor care are also addressed.

The Problem That Won't Go Away: IAQ and Floor Care.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Briefly reviews the consequences of poor indoor air quality, and discusses the use of matting, green carpet cleaners, and low moisture/hot water extraction for floor care that does not negatively impact indoor air quality.

Best Practices for Carpet Specification and Maintenance.
Corcoran, Kieren
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , pF3,F4 ; Dec 2008
Advises on selecting carpet for educational environments, citing the experience of the Los Angeles County Community College District. Details of their carpet specifications that address sustainability and durability are discussed, as is finding a manufacturer for their high standard of carpeting, since no one was currently producing such a product.

Floor Shields: Flooring Experts Recommend the Best Protection for Carpet, Stone, Tile Vinyl, and Wood Floors.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , pF6,F8,F10 ; Dec 2008
Advises on protective coatings for these floor types, emphasizing recent developments in the products that obviate former practices for cleaning and sealing.

Floor Maintenance and Economic Hard Times.
Hulin, Stanley
College Planning and Management; v11 n12 , pF3,F4 ; Dec 2008
Offers cost-saving ideas for floor maintenance in the areas of chemicals, equipment, and personnel. Concentrated and longer-lasting products, investing in equipment that saves staff time, and ensuring that technicians are properly trained and scheduled are recommended.

Matting Systems Are Class Leaders.
Tricozzi, Chris
College Planning and Management; v11 n12 , pF10,F11 ; Dec 2008
Advises on door matting products, discussing safety, strategic placement throughout the building, soil retention, and grit control.

Where Does All the Dirt Go?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p31,32,34,36 ; Aug 2008
Discusses results from dirt retention and cleaning tests on flow-through and non flow- through carpet, indicating a wide variance in the potential for dirty conditions in school carpeting due to the corresponding wide variance in types of carpet used. Particular attention is given to the behavior of dirt that is held within the carpet as people walk on it.

Programmed Carpet Cleaning for Commercial Buildings.
Travis, Ruth
College Planning and Management; v11 n8 , p35,36,38 ; Aug 2008
Discusses sources of soil that ends up in school carpeting, prevention strategies that help keep it out of the building, elements of routine carpet maintenance, and less frequent interim and intensive carpet cleaning. Procedures, equipment, cleaning agents, and drying are covered.

Walking on the Edge.
Kravitz, Robert
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n4 , p18,20,21 ; Jul 2008
Reviews strategies for minimizing the extra pathway soiling typically found down the center of the carpet, focusing on high-performance matting and extraction procedures.

Floor Care Equipment: Dedicated or All in One.
Cuddy, Mark
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p14-16 ; May-Jun 2008
Briefly narrates the evolution of floor care machinery from dedicated single-task machines to all-in-one machines, citing improvements in both types that can justify investment in either. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed, and the careful training of workers on whatever is selected is emphasized.

Eat My Dust: Matting Systems and Green Cleaning.
Tricozzi, Christopher
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p91,92 ; Apr 2008
Discusses potential environmental hazards that can be tracked into a school, and describes the function and placement of scraper, absorber, and finish mats.

Suck it Up.
Jansik, Dave
American School and University; v80 n7 , p44,46,47 ; Mar 2008
Reviews LEED and other considerations for vacuum cleaners, including capture rates for particulates, lift power, ergonomic design, and durable construction.

Thorough Control.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n7 , p24,26-28 ; Mar 2008
Reviews cleaning strategies for carpeted and hard school flooring, including vacuuming, spot removal, mopping, and polishing.

Green Floor Care.
Schaffer, Mike
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p24-27 ; Jan 2008
Reviews environmentally responsible options for vacuuming, floor care chemicals, and floor equipment. Training personnel in "green" cleaning practices is emphasized, and additional advice for carpet care and selection is provided.

Floor Shields.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p23,24,26,28 ; Dec 2007
Discusses specific protection strategies for types of flooring typically found in schools. Manufacturers' treatments, sealers and finishes, and cleaning strategies are addressed.

Hundreds of Vacuum Cleaners. One Purchase. How to Make the Decision.
Holmes, Jessica
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p22,24,25 ; Jul 2007
Reviews potential debates over vacuum purchases, including quantity versus quality of equipment, day versus night cleaning, backpacks versus uprights, and indoor air qulaity.

Campus Floor Finish Stripping Considerations.
Kupneski, Michael
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n2 , p25,26 ; Summer 2007
Discusses selection of floor stripping compounds and outlines five steps for effective stripping and refinishing of floors in order to achieve high gloss and durability.

Doing More with Less.
Weber, Mike
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p14-17 ; Jul 2007
Reviews floor cleaning and finishing considerations that lower maintenance time and costs. Ten tips for floor stripping and refinishing are included, as is a brief discussion of "green" floor care.

Vaporizing Soils for Effective Cleaning and Decontamination.
Shoemaker, Dawn
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , pG40-G42 ; Apr 2007
Discusses steam vapor cleaning that cleans without harmful chemicals and, in some systems, even help prevent re-soiling for a period after the cleaning. The procedure kills mold, germs, is quick, and not labor-intensive. Advice on selecting a vapor cleaning system is included.

Green Floor Cleaning and Care
Griffin, William R.; , 2p. ; Mar 05, 2007
This defines green floor care and discusses the key elements of green floor care including prevention, scheduling, training, safety, documentation and validation, chemicals. equipment, and products.

Day to Day.
Jurecki, Dennis
American School and University; v79 n1 , p40,42,43 ; Sep 2006
Discusses the virtues of daytime school cleaning, including reduced security and energy costs, and increased productivity and communications between occupants and cleaning staff. The particular problems of daytime floor care are detailed, and suggestions on complementary scheduling are included.

Summer Floor Repair
Weber, Mike
ICS Cleaning Specialist; , 3p. ; Mar 15, 2006
Throughout the course of the school year, the facility’s finished floors can take quite a beating. This describes the importance of using the most durable floor finish, a powerful supportive daily cleaning program, and the right process to keep floors looking their best throughout the entire school year.

Green Cleaning: Effective and Environmental Floor Care Products.
Kravitz, Robert
Environmental Design + Construction; Oct 2005
According to some estimates, more than a third of the cleaning products used today to clean schools contain ingredients that can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Floor care products — which are some of the most powerful chemicals used in the industry — include many of these same ingredients. Proper floor maintenance usually requires several cleaning chemicals and products. These include strippers to remove old floor finish, sealants and waxes to put a protective covering over the floor, cleaners and detergents for general cleaning and “deep scrubbing,” restorers for improving the shine and to prevent slips, trips and falls, as well as floor care equipment and pads. In order to “green” a floor care program, each part of this program may need to be examined.

Keeping Carpet Clean.
West, Jeff
American School and University; v78 n1 , p36,38,40 ; Sep 2005
Discusses elements to be considered when selecting carpet, including fiber type, construction, dye type, color, pattern, installation, and maintenance. A cleaning program is outlined that includes soil prevention, vacuuming, soil lifting techniques, and spot removal.

Enhancing the Life and Look of Flooring
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Jul 2005
This reviews the most common types of flooring available today, along with an update of the newest flooring options. A discussion of installation and maintenance is included.

Floor Care Basics.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v8 n6 , p34,36,38-40,42 ; Jun 2005
Reviews cleaning and maintenance procedures for carpet, rubber, wood, and terrazzo floors, with detailed advice on the removal of a variety of stains from wood floors and advice on the selection and training of employees who operate ride-on floor cleaning equipment.

Getting More From the Floor
Westerkamp, Thomas A.
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2005
Floor coatings and proper maintenance combine to help concrete, resilient flooring and wood retain their appearance.

There's More to Floors than the Shine.
Kravitz, Robert
School Construction News; v8 n5 , p25 ; May-Jun 2005
Discusses floor cleaning techniques that reduce the amount of dust thrown into the air. Passive vaccum systems, proper preparation for burnishing, burnishing pad and finish compatibility, quality and environmentally safer chemicals, cylindrical vs. rotary brushing, equipment maintenance, and worker training are covered.

The Hard Way.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v8 n3 , p20,22,23 ; Mar 2005
Describes vinyl, rubber, terrazzo, resin, and wood flooring, their histories, and their maintenance requirements.

A Healthier School Focus.
Weins, Janet
School Planning and Management; v44 n1 , p19,20 ; Jan 2005
Discusses the New York Department of Education carpet and rug guidelines, developed in response to unhealthy conditions discovered through testing. The guidelines cover types, placement, installation, and maintenance of carpet and rugs.

A Review of the Most Common Carpet Cleaning Methods.
Griffin, William R.
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p30,32,34 ; Aug 2004
Describes five standard carpet cleaning methods: 1) water extraction, 2) bonnet/spin pad, 3) absorbent powder, 4) dry foam shampoo, and 5) encapsulation. Also included are ten spot removal steps and a list of recommended vacuum cleaner maintenance practices.

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Flooring.
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF6 ; Jul 2004
Provides guidance in assessing the life expectancy and costs of ownership for flooring. Consideration of factors such as suitability for the area, years of use, maintenance, and cost of removal at replacement time help determine the best value.

Carpet Cleaning in 2004 and Beyond.
Griffin, William R.
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF10,F11 ; Jul 2004
Describes a complete carpet care plan, beginning with proper matting indoors and out, cleaning of sidewalks, vacuuming and spot removal scheduled according to the amount of traffic in respective areas, and cleaning which removes soil, rather than spreading it around.

Five Ways to Prevent Mold in Flooring and Carpets.
Harriman, Lew
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF3,F5 ; Jul 2004
Discusses five simple ways to prevent mold: 1) Design roofs with overhangs. 2)Install wall board 1/4 inch above the floor. 3)Make sure all concrete is dry before installing flooring. 4) Keep indoor air dew point low. 5)Locate and fix water leaks quickly.

Maximizing Hard Floor Maintenance.
Steger, Michael G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF13,F14 ; Jul 2004
Describes prevalent types of flooring, advises on how to develop a cleaning and maintenance schedule for floors, and recommends types of matting and how to maintain them.

Maintaining Your Cover.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n9 , p32,34,36 ; Apr 2004
Discusses appropriateness of carpet and hard flooring in different school areas and the significance of choosing environmentally friendly products. With whatever surface is chosen, it is essential to understand and commit to its proper care.

Clean Sweep.
Bynum, Marvin
Athletic Business; v27 n11 , p86-88,90,92 ; Nov 2003
Advises on a wide selection of floor finishes, cleaning equipment and cleaning solutions for the many varieties of floors found in athletic facilities. Offers criteria for matching use of the floors with finishes, equipment and chemicals, along with suggestions for scheduling of cleaning and stripping.

Carpet and Flooring.
Petersen, David
School Planning and Management; v42 n10 , p23-24 ; Oct 2003
Describes various types of vacuum and extracting equipment used in cleaning hard and carpeted floors. Selection criteria and application techniques are included.

Carpeting/Flooring: Revitalizing Carpets.
Woolford, Alison; Hill, Michael
American School and University; v75 n11 , p48,50,52 ; Jul 2003
With properly specified fiber and a comprehensive maintenance program, school carpets can retain their appearance longer. Discusses carpet characteristics; proper carpet installation; effective preventive-maintenance programs (keep outside areas clean, use soil barriers, protect desk areas, maintain HVAC systems, and specify eating, drinking, and smoking areas); and cleaning choices (bonnet cleaning; dry-foam cleaning; dry-compound cleaning; hot water extraction; and low moisture cleaning).

Flooring's Trade Secrets Revealed.
Wiens, Janet
College Planning and Management; v6 n5 , p24-26 ; May 2003
Presents tips from experienced facility professionals for the purchase, installation, and maintenance of flooring and carpet.

Hard Floors, Tough Decisions.
Weise, George
Maintenance Solutions; Sep 2002
Discusses how to find the right combination of equipment, products and processes to keep hard floors looking their best.

The Secrets of Effective Floor Care.
Michels, Ed
College Planning and Management; v5 n5 , p22,24 ; May 2002
Discusses the importance of staff training and a maintenance program to the care of hard floors. Describes four key features to look for in a computer-based training program and types of floor pads and matting used to keep flooring clean.

Comprehensive Carpet Care.
Franklin, Glen
Maintenance Solutions ; Jan 2002
Having an effective carpet maintenance program takes planning and commitment. The proper equipment and supplies, combined with regular training, will help ensure the carpets look clean and attractive, last longer, and promote a healthier indoor environment.

The Real Dirt on Carpets.
Lang, Susan S.
School Planning and Management; v40 n12 , p15-16 ; Dec 2001
Argues that carpets do not contribute to student complaints of respiratory problems, allergies, and asthma as long as they are properly cleaned with high-efficiency microfiltration bags. Discusses contributions to mite problems made by smooth floor covering compared to carpeting.

Selection and Care of Resilient Flooring
Pearce, Paul A.; Erisman, Thomas C.
The Construction Specifier; v54 n10 , p27-30 ; Oct 2001
Discusses the selection and care of the most common categories of resilient flooring, including linoleum, vinyl sheet flooring, vinyl composition tile, and specialty flooring. Covers pre-installation and post-installation coatings, as well as sealers and polishes.

Floor Maintenance Tips from the Experts.
O Connor, Shannon
College Planning and Management; v4 n10 , p30-33 ; Sep 2001
Presents advice from three university maintenance directors on what they see as the most important parts involved in keeping floors in top shape. Training, staff motivation, flexible scheduling, and proper use of supplies are addressed.

Carpet in Schools: Myth and Reality
Chan, T.J.; Richardson, Michael D.; Jording, Cathy
School Business Affairs; v67 n6 , p19-22 ; Jun 2001
Concludes that as a floor covering in schools, carpeting has strengths and weaknesses. Recommends that decisions on carpet use be made with students and educational programs in mind. Includes guidelines to assist in carpet installation decisions. Provides tips for keeing carpets dry.

Carpet: Creating a Better Learning Environment.
College Planning and Management; v4 n5 , p29,31-34,36-38 ; May 2001
Discusses how carpeting is a key factor in providing comfort, safety, acoustical enhancement, temperature control, and natural lighting enhancement for schools. Tips for choosing the right carpet and carpet maintenance are provided.

Mixed-Up Floors.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v73 n6 , p46-47 ; Feb 2001
Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials, which reveals the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Highlights a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University in Ohio.

Trends in Hard-Floor Care
Franklin, Glen
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jan 2001
Reports on the range of hard flooring in use today and the challenges related to keeping these floors clean and fit. New and updated materials may prompt managers to revisit their facilities’ floor-care programs. Discusses related air quality issues, natural materials, and the rise in the use of wood floors.

The Lowdown on Today’s Vacuums
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Maintenance Solutions Online; Dec 2000
Presents information about the increasing sophistication of vacuum cleaners over the last 20 years, noting the growing number of options that housekeeping managers have and the importance of selecting the right vacuum. Reports that new vacuum designs can increase productivity, cut costs, and minimize injuries caused by ergonomic strains. Discusses desirable features and functions, efficiency tips, and ways to maximize vacuum performance.

A Few Easy Steps.
Ellis, Tom
School Planning and Management; v39 n12 , p21-24 ; Dec 2000
Examines tested techniques that can keep a school's carpeting in good condition. Cleaning with hot water extraction, removing spills and spots, handling emergency cleanups, and cleaning soft surface flooring are addressed.

The ‘Craft’ of Carpet Care
Franklin, Glen
Maintenance Solutions Online; Nov 2000
A growing array of chemicals forces managers to revisit their approach to a once-straightforward task. Carpet cleaning has changed to become a science and a craft. Instead of selecting from a limited number of carpet care chemicals and systems, crews now have many different products to choose from. This report discusses chemical advances, the 'green' question, and carpet care strategies.

Carpet Considerations
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Maintenance Solutions Online; Oct 2000
Examines the use of carpet in a growing number of applications. Discusses carpets' durability, ease of maintenance, capacity for flexible installation, ability to meet special needs, and also its ability to add value such as color and acoustic properties. Also discusses life-cycle costs and equipment issues.

A Well-Grounded Plan.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n2 , p30,32,34 ; Oct 2000
Explains how establishing a cleaning and maintenance program for floors and carpets makes schools safer and more attractive. Offers recommendations for cleaning that help maintain good air quality. Highlights the problems of shorter opportunities for cleaning during summer.

From Classroom to Courtside: Extending the Benefits of Carpet in Schools.
Sellers, Kathryn
School Planning and Management; v39 n10 , pAF2-AF3 ; Oct 2000
Discusses the use of carpeting in athletic facilities, why it is a good idea, how it would look, and cleaning and maintenance issues.

Equipment Maintenance Strategies
Franklin, Glen
Maintenance Solutions Online; Sep 2000
Central to keeping floors clean is an arsenal of floor care equipment that delivers reliable, long-term performance. The challenge for housekeeping managers is to ensure that mechanics and equipment operators maintain the equipment properly so the right tools are available to keep floors looking their best. Proper attention to this task can pay dividends that extend far beyond the housekeeping department.

Life Cycle Costs in Education: Operations & Maintenance Considered.
Moussatche, Helena; Languell-Urquhart, Jennifer; Woodson, Carol
Facilities Design and Management; v19 n9 , p20,22 ; Sep 2000
Discusses life cycle cost analysis when deciding on flooring finishes and examines operations and maintenance cost effectiveness relative to hard, resilient, and soft flooring. A chart of evaluated flooring materials' characteristics, appropriate maintenance procedures, and recommended frequency is included.

Feet First.
Cohen, Andrew
Athletic Business; v24 n7 , p47-48,50,52,54-55 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the high priority nature and maintenance needs of keeping playing surfaces to sports and recreation facilities. Grass and synthetic field and track surface maintenance are discussed as are gym floors, hard-surface tennis courts, and ice surfaces.

Behind the Seams.
Watt, W. Bradford
American School and University; v72 n11 , p52-54 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance are emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered.

Must-Have Floor Equipment
Franklin, Glen
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jun 2000
A key goal in purchasing hard-surface floor care equipment is to select equipment with the widest application possible, no matter what type or size of facility. Whatever type of floors facilities have, crews need certain “must-have” equipment to properly care for floors. Discusses rotary floor scrubbers, water vacuums, scrubbers, and burnishers.

Programmed for Results.
Larock, Barb
American School and University; v72 n9 , p56-58 ; May 2000
Explores how establishing a floor-care maintenance program can reduce costs, improve safety, and enhance a school's appearance. Topics include the use of entrance matting to reduce dirt and water tracking, cleaning with floor pads and brushes, and proper chemical cleaning management of hard wood floors.

The Sports Floor Score.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v3 n5 , p41-42 ; May 2000
Discusses the issues to be considered when replacing an old gymnasium floor with a new. Issues involving aesthetics, safety, maintenance, and costs are addressed.

Carpeting Creates a Better Learning Environment [Carpet and Rug Institute Supplement].
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , 15p. ; Apr 2000
Discusses the benefits of carpet in the classroom; carpet maintenance vs. cleaning; step-by-step guide to life-cycle costing; and balancing the indoor air quality equation.

Treat Your Terrazzo Floor Right.
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p43 ; Apr 2000
Discusses terrazzo floor care after installation, and on a daily, weekly basis, and semi-annually basis. Cautionary notes on the types of cleaners to use are provided.

Carpeting's Top Tips.
College Planning and Management; v3 n3 , p46-49 ; Mar 2000
Provides 11 tips on how to effectively buy, install, and maintain campus carpeting. An example of carpeting and maintenance specifications used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute are highlighted.

Carpet Care Strategies
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Maintenance Solutions ; Mar 2000
Success arises from treating carpet cleaning as part of an overall plan, not as an isolated task. Discusses cleaning essentials, system issues, equipment considerations, and IAQ problems.

Might of the Machines.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n2 , p38,40 ; Oct 1999
Discusses the ways equipment innovations can help schools clean more effectively and improve staff performance. Advice is provided on cleaning strategies and types of equipment used for different areas, including tips for buying vacuum cleaners that fit the school's needs and conserve budgets.

Hard (and Soft) Facts.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v71 n10 , p35,37-38 ; Jun 1999
Provides guidelines to help schools maintain hard floors and carpets, including special areas in schools and colleges that need attention and the elements needed to have a successful carpet-maintenance program. The importance of using heavy equipment to lessen time and effort is explained as are the steps maintenance workers can take to make the cleaning faster and easier.

Whats New in Floor Care.
Griffin, William R.
College Planning and Management; v2 n5 , p49-53 ; May 1999
Examines some of the new equipment, chemicals, and procedures in floor care to help educational facility managers develop floor care programs and improve performance. Trends include more mechanization, more concentrated and environmentally preferable cleaning products, and the use of written cleaning procedures.

Floor Care 101: The Basics of Vacuuming and Damp Mopping.
Griffin, William R.
College Planning and Management; v2 n4 , p52-55 ; Apr 1999
Examines six steps to maintaining hard wood and resilient floors in educational facilities to provide a high level of appearance, safety, sanitation, and damage prevention. Specific cleaning techniques accompany each step.

Carpet Maintenance Guide.
Griffin, William R.
School Planning and Management; v38 n3 , p41-43 ; Mar 1999
School maintenance staff has a big job in keeping carpet and rugs stain- and odor-free. This article provides a guide on how to keep carpeted areas attractive and long lasting.

Extending the Longevity of Carpet.
Yeadon, Bill
College Planning and Management; v2 n3 , p37-39 ; Mar 1999
Explains how a well-planned maintenance program can result in a longer-lasting carpet and examines each of the plan's components, including vacuuming, spot removing, and interim restorative cleaning methods. How fibers contribute to a carpet's response to cleaning is also addressed.

Seeing Red Over Those Black Marks on Your Floors?
Rittner-Heir, Robbin
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p64-65 ; Jan 1999
This manager of custodial training has been dealing with the problem for 20 years. Here's the secret to his floor care program that alleviates those black mark problems – and saves his district some "green."

The Importance Of Floor Maintenance
Spielmann, Steve
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1999
Takes a closer look at floor and rug cleaning machines and discusses what factors should be considered before purchasing.

Tips for Cleaning Floors and Carpets.
Griffin, William R.
School Planning and Management; v37 i10 , p53-54 ; Oct 1998
Provides advice on developing an effective floor and carpet care program for public schools. It considers eight primary elements: writing cleaning procedures; establishing accountability policies; providing quality assurance guidelines; making daily and periodic assignments; developing a continuous quality improvement program; providing on-going staff training; establishing management and monitoring controls; and eliciting cooperation.

Hard Facts.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v71 n2 , p44,46,48 ; Oct 1998
Discusses the selection of floor-care equipment so that the equipment's features and performance attributes can match their intended purposes. Tips such as buying only composite-material buckets and wringers, choosing cleaning machines with good maintenance track records, and buying automatic scrubbers that can operate in both large and small areas are explained.

Improve Carpet Life with Proper Installation.
Grogan, Ralph
College Planning and Management; v1 n4 , p30,32 ; Jul 1998
Provides guidance on ways to extend carpet life in educational facilities by paying attention to the details of carpet installation. Issues to consider include choosing carpeting to meet specific usage requirements, whether fiber protectorants are used, whether the installation is properly done by qualified installers, and whether moisture testing is performed prior to installation.

Targeted Cleaning.
Frank, David J.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p35,36 ; Jun 1998
Discusses the creation of an effective carpet vacuuming program by combining area usage assessment and vacuuming requirements with a scheduling plan. It also explains vacuum cleaner suction and filtration and how it makes custodian work more efficient. A complementary articles discusses creating an effective floor-maintenance plan for resilient flooring.

Floor Chemical Basics.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; v70 n8 , p41-42,44 ; April 1998
Discusses the issues to consider when selecting floor-care chemicals, including the floor-finish systems for hard-surface floors and the care of carpeted floors. Thoughts on cleaning chemical usage and environmental awareness are provided.

Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.
Hilton, Michael
School Planning and Management; v37 n3 , p56,58,60 ; Mar 1998
Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance, and a healthful environment conducive to learning, at minimal cost.

Digging up the Dirt.
Knuffman, Susan M.
American School and University; v69 n10 , p43-44,46 ; Jun 1997
Explores ways of maintaining school floors and carpeting that ensure students and staff are comfortable, safe, and healthy. Carpet maintenance for high- to low-traffic areas and cleaning procedures are examined, as are ways maintenance staff can work together to help ensure a successful flooring-maintenance plan.

Thinking Green.
Spoor, Dana L.
American School and University; v69 n8 , p36-38 ; Apr 1997
Discusses a proactive approach to maintaining and improving the indoor environment through proper purchasing, maintaining, and recycling of carpeting. Considerations regarding vinyl asbestos tile removal and abatement are also discussed.

Maintaining Your Threads.
Delack, Renee J.
American School and University; v69 n2 , p28,30 ; Oct 1996
Describes how keeping carpets in good condition depends not only on proper maintenance but also on careful carpet selection at the outset. Offers advice for restoring a carpet's new appearance through vacuuming and hot-water extraction and suggests ways to manage spots and stains.

Cleaning up Floor Care.
Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug
American School & University; v67 n8 , p40, 42, 44 ; Apr 1995
Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted.

Tough Rubber.
Schmid, Sue
Athletic Business; v18 n5 , p49,52 ; May 1994
Describes the benefits of using rubber floor coverings in a gym's free-weight and cardiovascular equipment areas. Tips on purchasing rubber floor are highlighted as is an annotated list of suppliers and their rubber flooring products.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).