NCEF Resource List: Fire Safety in Schools and Universities
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Information on fire prevention and protection of school and university facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

University Housing Fires (2007-2009) Adobe PDF
(U.S. Fire Administration, FEMA, Topical Fire Report Series , Aug 2011)
Addresses the characteristics of university housing fires reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting Systems between 2007 and 2009; an estimated 3,800 university housing fires occurred in the United States each year. 12p

Fire Safety in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Manitoba Association of School Trustees (MAST), 2011)
Designed to reduce the number of potential fire incidents in schools, this covers fire prevention in laboratories, classrooms, gymnasiums, kitchen and home economics rooms, industrial arts, office and storage areas, halls and doorways, boilers and maintenance rooms. 3p.

Choosing School Control Panel Features: Simple as A, B, C.
Kessinger, Greg
(, Alpharetta, GA , Jul 2010)
Examines fire alarm technology at two typical schools. The first is a single-story elementary school, the second a college branch campus with three buildings. Wireless technology, networked panels, and the differences between a single- and multiple-building campuses are addressed. 4p.

General Fire Requirements: Self Inspection Checklist.
(State of New Jersey Dept. of Education, Trenton , Mar 2010)
Provides a 31-item checklist for fire safety in schools, in accordance with New Jersey regulations. The checklist covers access, storage, fire supression systems, decorations, and facility condition. 5p.

Explanation of 527 CMR 10.09 Governing School Work. Adobe PDF
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Public Safety, Dept. of Fire Services, Stow , 2010)
Summarizes Massachusetts' regulations governing the display of teaching materials, student work, artwork, etc. within schools as detailed in the State Fire Code. The State Fire Code applies to all schools, other than business training or vocational training, as long as they accommodate five or more persons for educational purposes through the 12th grade. 2p.

Frequently Asked Questions: School Decorations and Regulations. Adobe PDF
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Public Safety, Dept. of Fire Services, Stow , 2010)
Provides 20 questions and answers concerning classroom decorations and furnishings allowable under the Massachusetts fire and building codes. 3p.

Door Locking Options for Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2009)
Explains the building and fire code requirements governing doors in schools, discusses existing door locking options, and describes the varied and sometimes conflicting safety- and security-related functions of school doors. The California Department of Education's recommendations for school entrances, doors, and access control, as well as eight references 4p.

Wildfires and Schools. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Discusses conditions that feed wildfires, how a building catches fire, determining your school's risk, creating a survivable space for the school, the importance of maintenance, the fire-resistant school, meeting code requirements, related flood and mudslide risks, and an appendix on wildfire response. 22 additional resources are cited. 6p.

Determining Fire Hazards When Educators Decorate Their Classrooms in Clinton, Mississippi. Adobe PDF
Burnside, Johathan
(U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration, Emmitsburg, MD , Aug 2008)
Discusses what history reveals concerning fires that are attributed to classroom decorations and furnishings, what materials make up the decorations in the classrooms and in what configurations they are displayed, what the flammability characteristics for the materials are, what the implications are when classroom decorations and configurations do not meet fire code standards, and how other fire departments are addressing the quantity and type of decorations used in classrooms, corridors, and exits. 92p.

San Mateo County Public School Fire Alarm Systems. Adobe PDF
(Superior Court of California, County of San Mateo , 2008)
Presents grand jury findings resulting from a school fire alarm that did not alert the local responders. In the 21-page report, the jury details the three kind of alarms on campuses (manual, addressable and automated), determines all schools meet current state requirements and recommends upgrades to the latest system on campuses not already at those levels. School construction approved prior to January 2008 is under old rules. New schools or modernization projects over $200,000 require the installation of fire systems that link directly to a supervising station; these alarms are called automated. Manual alarms consist of a pull station or smoke detectors which trigger an alarm. Addressable systems trigger a campus-wide trigger when one is activated as well as send a signal to the school office noting the exact location of the problem. Although systems are within the law, the jury recommended upgrades to ensure public safety. 21p.

School Fires. Topical Fire Research Series. Volume 8, Issue 1. Adobe PDF
(US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C. , Aug 2007)
Using the past 3 years of data, for 2003 to 2005, from the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) database, the yearly national fire loss for fires on nonadult school properties is estimated at $85 million. Such losses are the result of an estimated annual average of 14,700 fires that required a fire department response. Fires on school properties caused an average of approximately 100 injuries. No fatalities were reported to NFIRS during this period. Forty percent of these school-related fires occurred outdoors on school property. Trash fires accounted for 36% of these outside fires, and fires in open fields or woods accounted for an additional 19%. Forty-three percent of fires on school properties, an estimated 6,300 fires, were structure fires. Slightly over half of these structure fires were confined to the object where the fire started, such as a small cooking fire (20%) or a fire confined to a trash can (28%). Six percent of fires on school properties were vehicle fires. This document discusses how to make schools safe when fires start on school properties, causes of school structural fires, juvenile firesetters, where school structure fires start, material ignited in school structure fires, and examples. 6p.

The Comprehensive School Health Manual, Chapter 4: A Safe and Healthful Environment.
(Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston , 2007)
This chapter of Massachusetts' School Health Manual covers the school environment, including building and environmental standards, indoor air quality, school buses, underground fuel storage tanks, asbestos, radon, environmental hazards, pesticides, laboratory and art studio product safety, shop safety, renovations in an occupied building, school maintenance and sanitation, school food service, lighting, water supply, plumbing, fire safety, outdoor safety, building security, disaster/terrorism planning, and risk mitigation. Includes 117 references and a variety of additional resources. 72p.

Fire Safety 101: A Factsheet for Colleges and Universities Adobe PDF
(U.S. Fire Administration, Mar 2006)
Tips to help reduce and prevent the loss of life and property in dormitory and university housing fires. 1p

Secure/Safe [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Safe Committee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2005)
Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates—and then protects—the building occupants, resources, structure, and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. This section of the Whole Building Design Guide discusses four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: Plan for Fire Protection; Ensure Occupant Safety and Health; Resist Natural Hazards; and Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets.

SMART School Tool (School Multi-hazard Assessment Resource Tool).
(Center for Infrastructure Expertise, 2005)
SMART is a multi-hazard vulnerability assessment for schools to use in analyzing their current safety and security level of preparedness. Each assessment module focuses on one hazard with specific questions matched to resources that may help your school better understand and learn more about a particular safety or security concern. Free registration is required.

Controlling Construction Costs of Educational Facilities.
Husoe, Oystein; Dewar, Buddy
(National Fire Sprinkler Association, Patterson, NY , 2005)
Describes methods of reducing construction costs while still including fire protection design and systems. Exemptions to expensive building compartmentation requirements may be obtained if sprinkler systems are used, and the author advocates for these and other code alternatives. Stand-by water fees charged for sprinkler systems are opposed, with specific recommendations for legislative action in California. A review of construction costs using passive versus active fire suppression for eight proposed high school buildings follows. 27p.

School Fires. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, Emmitsburg, MD , Dec 2004)
Details the following 2002 findings concerning school fires: 1)37% of all school structure fires and 52% of middle and high school structure fires were incendiary or suspicious. 2)Fatalaties from school fires are rare, but inuries per fire were higher in schools than in other non-residential structures. 3)The leading area of fire origin was the lavoratory. 4)K-12 school fires increased at the beginning and end of the academic year. Other fire causes, places of origin, and times of occurrence are also illustrated. 4p.

Description of the Minimum Adequate Fire Alarm System as Required by the School Facilities Board.
(Arizona School Facilities Board, Phoenix , Jun 2004)
Outlines the components of a "minimum adequate" fire alarm system for Arizona schools, covering wiring, location of equipment, horns, strobes, smoke detectors, and special requirements for kitchens, mechanical and storage rooms, and janitor facilities. 1p.

Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Day Room Fire Experiments. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD , Jun 2004)
Reports on a series of experiments where fires were initiated in days rooms with and without fire sprinklers, and open to the corridor of an abandoned dormitory. Descriptions of the building construction, the fuel load in the day rooms, and the location of the instrumentation used to measure temperature and heat flux in the day room and the adjacent corridor are included. Smoke alarm activation and sprinkler activation times are also reported. The results from the experiments comparing the sprinklered and non-sprinklered day room are presented, demonstrating the life safety benefits of smoke alarms and automatic fire sprinkler systems in college dormitories. 88p.
Report NO: NISTIR 7120

Manual for Fire and Building Safety Inspections in Public and Nonpublic Schools. [New York] Adobe PDF
(The University of the State of New York; The State Education Department, Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY , Jan 2004)
This manual is designed to provide instruction for the school administrator and the inspector for the performing of fire prevention and fire inspection. It provides background information and details about applicable regulations and codes and explains the inspection and enforcement processes. Chapters include: 1) standards and applicability; 2) enforcement of standards; 3) fire safety inspection process; 4) fire safety report; and 5) certificates of occupancy. Appendices include: 1) fire inspection zones; 2) leased facilities; 3) fire safety inspection code reference checklist. 38p.

Fire Safety in Buildings.
Grosse, Larry; Malvern, Fred
(National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, Washingon, DC, 2004)
This describes incorporating fire-safe design in buildings. Such measures must be considered early in the design process and revolve around three objectives: prevent ignition; control the effects of a fire should one start; and protect the building occupants and contents from a fire's effects. In order to provide fire-safe design, architects should identify occupant and building characteristics, including operations that are sensitive to heat, smoke, and water. 94p.
TO ORDER: National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1801 K Street, NW, Suite 700K, Washington, DC 20006; Telphone: 202/783-6500, Fax: 202/783-0290

Fire Safety in Schools, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Describes the statutory duty of the local education authority and headteacher in preventing school fires, satisfactory means of escape in the event of fire, and the fire dangers associated with certain high risk areas, electrical equipment, flammable substances, furnishings, and during building work. The preventative management duties of personnel in charge are outlined, and a step-by step fire risk assessment guide is provided. Advice on training of personnel, development of an emergency plan, fire detection and alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, emergency lighting, recovery planning, and design is included. 45p.

Fire Protection Handbook
Cote, Arthur
(National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2003)
This authoritative and comprehensive text covers major advances in fire alarm systems, life safety, rescue training, fire risk analysis, and water mist suppression. A chapter on fundamentals of safe building design details how design loads and forces, and building systems and components, impact safety in new and existing structures. A section on detection and alarm give fire protection designers and engineers the latest on fire alarm systems, fire alarm system interfaces, and carbon monoxide detection. 2,004p
TO ORDER: National Fire Protection Association

School Fires in New Zealand: Economic and Social Analysis. Adobe PDF
(New Zealand Institute of Economic Research, Wellington , Feb 2002)
Sets out the findings of a study aiming to help raise awareness of the factors contributing to school fires, and their implications for individual schools and communities, with the intention of raising awareness of risk reduction measures, and to encourage an increased sense of community responsibility for the protection of public assets. Included are case studies of state schools that had experienced serious fires in recent years, interviews with NZFS and Ministry of Education personnel, analyses of trends based on NZFS and Ministry of Education statistical databases, reviews of the relevant New Zealand and international literature, an outline of an economic analysis of fire protection in schools, summaries of current policy responses, including: Code Development, Business Continuity Planning , and the Fire Awareness Intervention Programme. 72p.

Catastrophic Fire Prevention Task Force: School Fires. Adobe PDF
(National Association of State Fire Marshals, Washington, DC , 2002)
Cites notable recent school fires, describing their causes and the amount of damage incurred. Typical ignition sources and types of combustible materials in schools are listed, as are the recommended elements of a fire protection plan that includes occupant education, management of building contents, egress, and sprinklers. 8p.

Dormitory Fires. [Topical Fire Research Series] Adobe PDF
(U.S. Fire Administration, Emmitsburg, MD, Mar 2001)
Each year in the U.S. there are an estimated 1,300 fires in high school, private and prep school, and university dormitories. These fires are responsible for less than 5 deaths, and approximately 50 injuries, and $4.1 million in property loss annually. This topical report examines the characteristics of fires coded in the National Fire Incident Reporting System occuring in dormitories. Subjects examined include loss measures, time of year, cause, materials ignited, injuries, smoke alarm performance, and conclusions. 3p.

Manual for Public School Facilities Fire Prevention and Fire Inspections. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Department,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY , Jan 2001)
This manual instructs school administrators and inspectors on how to complete the fire inspection report for educational facilities in New York State. The manual examines fire safety regulations, code requirements, and fire safety standards enforcement. The manual includes an outline of the fire inspection process. It provides directions for completing fire inspection reports. It discusses procedures for appealing disputes, and it comments on financial considerations. 53p.

Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities Guide 6. Adobe PDF
(Dept. for Education and Employment, London, England , 2000)
This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and overs the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape routes. Checklists are also provided on security risk assessment and fire safety, and hazard and fire precaution. (Contains 22 references.) 49p.

Facilities Evaluation Handbook: Safety, Fire Protection, and Environmental Compliance, 2nd edition.
Petrocelly, K. L.; Thumann, Albert
(The Fairmont Press, Lilburn, GA , 2000)
Provides guidance to help plant and facilities managers conduct inspections and evaluations of their facilities in order to pinpoint and solve problems in the areas of maintenance, safety, energy efficiency, and environmental compliance. Describes how to develop cost-effective corrective action strategies. 294p.

Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education and Science, London, England , 1997)
This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It includes major revisions in the requirements for means of escape and the requirements aimed specifically at the designers of new construction. It also provides recommendations on planning and construction of escape routes dealing primarily with the number, width, location and construction of these routes. The use of fire resistant construction in its ability to restrict the spread of smoke and flame are explored as are suggestions on installing wiring equipment; everyday precautions occupants should observe if other precautions are not to be nullified; the ways fires can be prevented through careful design, management, and maintenance practice; and ideas for limiting fire damage. 47p.

Underground Fuel Storage Tanks.
McGovern, Matthew
(Council of Educational Facility Planners,International, Scottsdale, AZ , May 1996)
Owners of underground storage tanks often fail to realize the legal requirements—federal, state, and local—associated with their ownership as well as the liability associated with leaking tanks. Leaking underground fuel storage tanks cause environmental damage to such elements as the underground aquifer (fresh water supply) and trees. In addition to environmental contamination, these leaking tanks also can cause fires and explosions, thus becoming a very real threat to human safety. 5p.

References to Journal Articles

Inspecting Fire & Life Safety Systems
Halligan, Mike
College Planning and Management; , p51-54 ; Jun 2012
A fire alarm system and accessory components are, without doubt, a necessity for life safety. By monitoring the environment and noticing any changes potentially related to unsafe conditions, a fire alarm system alerts the occupants of a building that there is an "unusual" condition, and all people need to be aware of the condition and take steps to evacuate.

Basics of Atrium Smoke Control
Klote, John H.
ASHRAE Journal; , p36-46 ; Jun 2012
Discusses different design approaches to take in dealing with smoke in large-volume spaces.

School Fires: Causes and Prevention.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; Oct 2011
Discusses national and local fire codes that have resulted in a dramatic decrease in school fires. Points to the three leading causes for school structure fires: incendiary or suspicious‚ 32 percent; cooking, 29 percent; and heating, nine percent. Describes fire prevention measures that take time and concerted effort, but are worth the cost compared to that of a fire.

Historic Preservation, Modern Fire Protection.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; , p26-28 ; Oct 2011
America's 2,500-plus college and university campuses comprise a treasure trove of historic buildings. Over the years, campus facility directors and campus architects have grown adept at maintaining these structures, often carrying out major adaptive-reuse renovations. Fire safety ranks as one of the most daunting challenges to successful adaptive reuse of historic buildings.

Beyond Automatic Sprinkler Systems.
Razwick, Jeff
College Planning and Management; v14 n7 , p44-47 ; Jul 2011
Discusses the reliability of fire sprinkler systems in buildings, and recommends fire-rated divisions between rooms and portions of buildings that will slow the spread of fire. Examples of aesthetically pleasing fire-rated partitioning materials are illustrated, and student behavior during fire emergencies is discussed.

Door Hardware: Code Considerations.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p19,20 ; Jun 2011
Reviews highlights of major codes regarding door hardware, with particular attention to maintaining both fire safety and security, as well as compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act.

Fire Plans.
Power, June
Journal of Access Services; v8 n1 , p37-41 ; Jan 2011
Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library; (4) University of North Carolina Wilmington Randall Library; (5) Vanderbilt Central Library; (6) Bay County Library System; (7) Wayne State Universities Library; (8) Central University Libraries-Fondren Library Center; and (9) University of Southampton.

Form and Function.
Razwick, Jeff
Doors and Hardware; v74 n12 , p10-12 ; Dec 2010
Discusses recent advances in glass technology that allow more extensive use of glass for daylighting and security, but offer fire resistance as well.

Safe Passage Out: Lessons in Life Safety Equipment.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p70,72,73,74 ; Oct 2010
Emphasizes meeting and exceeding codes where egress from schools is concerned. Working with fire and police professionals and equipment selection is also addressed.

A Drop of Prevention. [Fire Sprinkler System Retrofits]
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p31,32,34 ; Jul 2010
Describes advances in fire sprinkler technology that makes retrofitting a building easier, typical costs and benefits of retrofitting, code and plumbing requirements, and integration of sprinklers with existing safety systems.

Earth, Wind, and Fire: Managing Risk in Today's Schools, Part 1: Fire!
Weeks, Richard
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p32,34,35 ; Jun 2010
Reviews statistics on the sources and history of school fires, and discusses school-wide responsibility for fire vigilance. Maintenance of fire suppression system and cafeteria-based fires are also addressed. Four references are included.

What You Don't Know.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n5 , p44,46-48 ; May 2010
Alerts readers that fire marshals and inspectors are more vigilant in testing theatre or auditorium fire curtains, smoke vents, and stage curtains. New products, codes and inspection standards are listed.

Compatibility, Reliability, and Code Compliance.
Moore, Wayne
College Planning and Management; v13 n5 , p35,36,38,40 ; May 2010
Provides a set of guidelines for evaluating existing fire alarm systems and proceedes through the decision-making process to manage maintenance and upgrades compliant with National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code.

How Safe is Safe?
Razwick, Jeff
American School and University; v82 n10 , p30-33 ; May 2010
Describes need for both active fire prevention (sprinkler systems) and passive fire prevention (flame retardant building materials). The article further describes a school's unique needs for preparing students to exit a building in the case of a fire. It gives the example that too many fire drills result in students taking the sound of an alarm less seriously.

Fighting Fire with Forthought.
Musynski, Lacey
Building Operating Management; v57 n4 , p35,36,38 ; Apr 2010
Advises on proper planning and rehearsal for building fire emergencies, noting that every building must have a plan that accounts for its unique features and occupants, and that it is properly rehearsed. Regular maintenance and testing of fire safety systems is also discussed.

An Automatic Solution for Door Closing Force/ADA Conflicts.
Barth, Chuck
Doors and Hardware; v74 n3 , p16-18 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the use of automatic door operators when standards for closing force and standards for openability cannot be resolved. Conflicts between ANSI, ADA, and Fire safety codes are discussed, as are varying state requirements.

Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing.
Saidi, John; Davis, Richard
Facilities Manager; v26 n2 , p34-37 ; Mar-Apr 2010
Reviews recent developments with the National Fire Protection Association?s NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. Advantages and disadvantages of frequent testing are discussed, and less frequent testing is currently advocated.

Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?
Science Teacher; v77 n1 , p10-11 ; Jan 2010
When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. If flammables are present, the fire code requires the presence of fire extinguishers--even if other fire-suppression equipment, such as a sprinkler system, is available. This helps science teachers apply prudent professional and legal practices when working with combustible and flammable materials. (Contains 1 figure and 3 online resources.)

The Key to Door Closers.
Jeynes, Roger
Construction Specifier; v63 n1 , p44--49 ; Jan 2010
Advises on the selection of door closers, considering firm closure for security and fire safety, but also resistance low enough to pass accessibility requirements, where necessary. Applicable codes and accessibility tests are cited.

Fire Safety: Checklist for Success.
Ray, Lanny
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p16 ; Jan 2010
Discusses fire safety inspection, testing, maintenance, record-keeping, and typical trouble spots.

Fire Protection: A Three-Layered Approach.
Razwick, Jeff
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Describes a "three-layered" approach to fire safety that includes detection, suppression, and building compartmentation. Fire-rated glazing is also discussed.

Solving the System: Integrated Fire Alarm Monitoring.
Robinson, James
College Planning and Management; v12 n12 , p23,24,26,27 ; Dec 2009
Details the structure and function of an integrated fire alarm system, and cites the experience of the University of Maryland in installing, monitoring a system. Positive and negative lessons learned are also offered.

Fire and Life Safety.
Haligan, Mike
School Planning and Management; v48 n11 , p60,61,62,64 ; Nov 2009
Discusses the need to practice lockdowns as well as evacuations at schools. The components of lockdown plans are discussed, as well as the need to get these approved by local officials, just as evacuation plans are.

Campus Fires: Prevent to Protect.
Hermann, Michele
University Business; v12 n10 , p36-38,40 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses how awareness programs, community collaboration, and fire prevention technology can minimize incident numbers and the severity of campus fires. Examples from various institutions are cited, highlighting the latest integrated fire detection, prevention, and suppression technology.

What Is the Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act and How Will It Affect Colleges and Universities?
Konchesky, Terri; Key, Nancy
Facilities Manager; v25 n6 , p40,41 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Explains details of this act, including what constitutes a fire, reporting requirements, and the potential benefits to higher education institutions.

Fire Power.
Denker, Deb; West, Lee
American School and University; v82 n2 , p24-26,28 ; Oct 2009
Discusses fire prevention programs at schools. Typical sources of fires are cited, along with standard facility and behavioral preventive measures, fire protection and suppression equipment, and insurance.

Focus on Fire.
Trotter, Robert
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n9 , p10 ; Sep 2009
Discusses inspection and maintenance of fire alarm and suppression systems, emphasizing training of personnel, possible outsourcing of the work, and the benefits of vigilance.

Computer Fire and Egress Modeling.
Wolin, Steven
Buildings; v103 n9 , p54-56 ; Sep 2009
Discusses features of computer egress modeling, including its ability replicate the floor plan, account for the movement and interaction of occupants in an emergency, the behavior of smoke, structural fire resistance. The systems may also be used to model the performance of a building after a fire has occurred.

The Lake View School Fire.
Grant, Casey
Doors and Hardware; v73 n7 , p14-16,18-20 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the 1908 Lake View School fire in Collinwood, Ohio. The high death toll of 175 in the four-storey building was due in part to a combination of inadequate egress and panic, details of which are included.

Major Losses.
Kravis, Miles
American School and University; v81 n12 , p32-35 ; Jul 2009
Outlines statistics on school fires, and advises on how to limit risk by controlling access, removing combustibles from the buildings, and inspecting the grounds regularly for suspicious after- hours activity.

How to Comply with Your Annual Fire Inspection.
Frangiamore, Keith
Briefly reviews the benefits of fire inspections to building owners, and discusses recommendations for preparing a building for fire inspections and interacting with local fire inspection personnel.

Egress and Accessible Egress Planning.
Paarlberg, Kimberly
Doors and Hardware; v73 n3 , p48-51 ; Mar 2009
Reviews provisions in the International Building Code for refuge areas for the disabled, "defend in place" strategies, phased evacuations, and use of elevators during fires.

Keeping it Safe.
George, David
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p29,30,32 ; Feb 2009
Discusses an array of fire warning devices for schools, including addressable control panels, area-specific detection and suppression equipment, and training of personnel.

Where's the Fire?
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v12 n2 , p22,24,26 ; Feb 2009
Describes the Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act, part of part of the Higher Education Act which initiates new federal fire incident reporting requirements for higher education institutions.

California Wildfires Highlight Importance of Preparedness.
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p11 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews recent wildfires assaults on a southern California hospital and a college. The college responded by sheltering in the gymnasium, so while 50 percent of the campus burned, there were no injuries. Advice from college administration on managing such an event is included.

Campus Fire Facts. Adobe PDF
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p20,22 ; Jan-Feb 2009
According to a December 2008 survey by this magazine, half of college and K-12 school fire safety professionals say systems maintenance is one of their top four fire protection challenges. More than 48 percent also indicated false alarms are a significant problem. Integration with other non-fire systems, such as mass notification, is another challenge that was most often checked by participants. Of the 447 campus officials who took the survey, 141 (32 percent) marked this option as one of their top four concerns. The study also points out that one in five schools say their systems do not comply with National Fire Protection Association code.

Complying with the Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act.
Beranek, Joe
Campus Safety; v17 n1 , p24,26,28 ; Jan-Feb 2009
Reviews particulars of the 2008 Campus Fire Safety Right-to-Know Act, which requires higher education institutions to annually report considerable fire safety information to the U.S. Department of Education. Advice on achieving a balanced approach to fire safety, cost-effective fire prevention measures, standpipe fire hose stations, and special fire suppression systems for kitchens and laboratories is included.

Off-Campus Fire Safety.
Comeau, Ed
Doors and Hardware; v73 n1 , p30-33 ; Jan 2009
Discusses how Wesleyan University provides fire safety for its 130 "program" houses in which seniors with like interests live. This included installation of sprinkler systems, new fire alarms, and carbon monoxide detectors. Challenges included an absence of architectural drawings, the ages of the houses, and conserving aesthetics.

Security, Life Safety, and the Building Codes: Unlocking the Burning Mysteries of Door Hardware.
Tobias, Scott
The Construction Specifier; v61 n12 , p56-64 ; Dec 2008
Reviews door and wayfinding considerations for emergency egress. Luminescent exit pathways and signs on doors, audio-based wayfinding, fire door and frame testing, door smoke gaskets, fire tolerance of door hardware, and accessibility requirements are addressed.

Getting ahead of the Curve on Upcoming Fire Door Inspections.
Waterfill, Marty
Doors and Hardware; v72 n11 , p14,15,17 ; Nov 2008
Details Georgia State University's program to inspect, document, and maintain all of its fire doors in advance of state requirements for mandatory annual fire door inspections.

Special Considerations for Multiple Fire Alarm Systems in Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Anthony, Michael; Reiswig, Rodger
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p40,41 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Discusses a particular problem with "add-on" fire alarm systems for new additions in educational buildings, when resetting after an alarm is difficult to coordinate.

Ideal Solutions for Campus Fire Alarm Networks.
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n5 , p18,20,21 ; Sep-Oct 2008
Cites the advantages and disadvantages of proprietary versus non-proprietary fire alarm networks and the challenges of keeping an existing campus fire alarm system operational while a new one is being installed.

An Unseen Friend: The Role of Glass in Fire Protection.
Razwick, Jerry
Doors and Hardware; v72 n8 , p30-32,34 ; Aug 2008
Discusses the role of glass in building compartmentalization and fire suppression. Advances in the fire ratings of wired and unwired glass are discussed, as are transparent ceramics, resistance to thermal shock, glass firewall ratings, framing, and combinations of fire-rated glass and sprinkler systems.

CASBO Members Called to Action During Fires.
Faneldes, Julie
School Business Affairs; v74 n6 , p28-30 ; Jun 2008
Describes how school business officials in San Diego County responded to recent wildfires with a new mass notification system, software that matched affected areas to employee addresses, and use of schools as evacuation centers.

Sounding the Alarm.
Kneen, Jayson; Welch, Beth
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p68-74 ; Jun 2008
Discusses the evolution of simple fire alarm systems to emergency mass notification systems that increasingly use wireless technology and are more impervious to destruction by the event. Components of mass notification systems are discussed, as are applicable codes, and effective communication to occupants with disabilities.

Fire Systems Go Hand in Hand with Human Factors.
Niderfinger, Al; West, Lee
Buildings; v102, n6 , p128-130 ; Jun 2008
Emphasizes the importance of inspecting, testing, and maintaining fire prevention systems. Examples of negligence that have contributed to fires are provided, as are steps for inspection and maintenance of control valves, sprinkler systems, and water supply.

Preventing Disaster.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n5 , p48,50-52 ; May 2008
Reviews the standard building, egress, and fire prevention codes, and how they apply to schools. Their effectiveness and typical sources of school fires are also addressed.

A Quick Route to Saving Lives.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v11 n5 , p45,46,48,49-51 ; May 2008
Describes how the University of Massachusetts Amherst is retrofitting its residence halls with sprinkler systems, with each phase of the work being completed on a very tight Summer schedule. Significant pre-planning, mock-ups, and creative bidding shorten the construction times.

The Basics of Passive Fire Protection.
Aker, Jenna
Buildings; v102 n4 , p66-68,70 ; Apr 2008
Reviews fireproofing of structural materials, building compartmentalization, building opening protection, and firestopping materials as methods of passive fire protection. Codes and costs involved in these techniques are also addressed.

Planning That Saves Lives.
Connors, William
School Planning and Management; v47 n2 , p54,56-59 ; Feb 2008
Describes the basic implementation process of a fire protection system during a school renovation, including selecting and working with a fire protection engineer, and creating and implementing a life safety plan.

Where's the Fire?
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v11 n2 , p24,26,27 ; Feb 2008
Discusses fire safety training priorities for higher education staff, faculty, and students, and includes a case study of fire safety awareness at Montana State University.

Integrated Doors and Elevator Lobbies: Practical Applications under the Codes.
Hynes, Charles
The Construction Specifier; v60 n11 , p46-48,50-52 ; Nov 2007
Discusses the use of integrated door assemblies at an elevator entrance to create an aesthetically pleasing alternative to conventional fire doors that separate an elevator lobby from a corridor. Elements of design, installation, and two examples are detailed.

Fire Stopper.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v10 n11 , pS8,S10 ; Nov 2007
Reviews the benefits of intumescent paint as a fire retardant, noting recent advances in the product that make it more affordable and easier to work with, as well application procedures.

Unlocking the Mystery: Electrified Hardware and Electronic Access Control Systems.
Tobias, Scott
The Construction Specifier; v60 n11 , p38-44 ; Nov 2007
Reviews the benefits of electrified door hardware to security and life safety, describes electromechanical versions of locks, and discusses the components of an access control system, including the power source, load, control, and conductor.

NFPA 150: The Road Ahead for Animal Housing Facilities.
Hawthorne, Timothy; Davodi, Hoosein
Laboratory Design; v12 n9 , p8-10 ; Sep 2007
Discusses fire safety in animal housing facilities, according to the National Fire Protection Associations standard 150. The standard addresses society's value of animal life, an animal's inability to protect itself from fire when confined in structures, and the lack of animal considerations in current building, fire, and life safety codes. The three sections of the standard cover administrative requirements, general requirements for all animal facilities, and specific requirements focused on the class of the facility, with class being determined by amount of public access to the facility.

Facility Safety: Focus on Firestops.
Pankoski, Barbara
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n9 , p21,22 ; Sep 2007
Discusses the motive for compartmentalization of a building to control fire and smoke, focusing on strategies to maintain the integrity of firewalls that have been penetrated to accommodate building systems. Types of products and barrier management are also discussed.

Practical Products for Campus Fire Safety.
Halligan, Mike
College Planning and Management; v10 n8 , p34,36,38 ; Aug 2007
Reviews higher education fire statistics, and then describes and recommends smart extension cords that shut off power if the cord is compromised in any way, as well as fire extinguishers that are electronically monitored with wireless devices.

Seeing Through Today's Fire-Rated Glass.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v10 n8 , p40,42 ; Aug 2007
Reviews applications for fire-rated glass, typically constrained by the very high prices of the newest products. Advantages of glass to building transparency and subsequent reduced dependancy on artificial light can lead to energy savings that will offset the cost of the glass. Ratings, advantages, and disadvantages of old and new fire-rated glass products are discussed.

Fire Safety Systems.
White, Jeffrey
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p37,38,40 ; Aug 2007
Reviews fire safety in schools, including sprinkler systems, egress safety, evacuation plans, proper building and fire system maintenance, and fire safety design team selection.

Campus Fire Alarm Challenges.
Fire Protection Engineering; n35 , p48-50 ; Summer 2007
Reviews options for improved design, installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and use of campus fire alarm systems. Includes nine references.

Fire-Safety Challenges Facing College Campuses.
Alipour-fard, Mansour
Fire Protection Engineering; n35 , p8-16 ; Summer 2007
Advises on fire risk in campus dormitories, greek housing, and off-campus residences. Ignition potential in staff areas and laboratories is also discussed, with 20 tips on reducing fire risk in laboratories included. The article addresses risky student behaviors, proper housekeeping and storage, prevention of unauthorized construction, upgrading of aging facilities, fire sprinklers, and an inspection, testing, and maintenance program. Challenges are listed under the two main categories of ignition prevention and managing fire impact, acknowledging that absolute prevention of all fires is not possible. Also addressed are the particulars of off-campus and Greek housing, academic buildings, laboratories, and service areas. Includes seven references.

Community Collaboration: A College Administrator's View of Campus Fire Safety.
Caldwell, Ward
Fire Protection Engineering; n35 , p26,28-31 ; Summer 2007
Laments the poor state of college student fire safety awareness, where fire drills and false alarms cause apathy, and students experiment with risky behavior. Sprinklers, even though expensive as a retrofit, are recommended, as is outreach to off-campus housing landlords.

Campus Fire Safety: A U.S. Overview.
Comeau, Ed
Fire Protection Engineering; n35 , p18-22,24 ; Summer 2007
Discusses the difficulty in obtaining accurate data on higher education residence fires, since only 1/3 of college students live in dormitories, and national data on dormitory fires also includes communal living facilities that are not related to education. Efforts to include off-campus housing in campus fire statistics are discussed, as are keys to educating the 18-24 year-old college housing clientele.

Safe Passage.
Razwick, Jeff
American School and University; v70 n12 , p38-42 ; Jul 2007
Discusses thre primary elements of fire safety: detection, suppression, and compartmentalization of the structure. Particular attention is given to the properties of fire-rated glass and ceramics which offer compartmentalization without inhibiting visibility.

Fire and Ice.
College Planning and Management; v9 n11 , pS16,S17 ; Nov 2006
Reviews typical causes of residence hall fires and suggests steps to reduce them, as well as offering a checklist to use in preparation for snow and ice removal season.

A Head Start on Firestops.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n10 , p28,29 ; Oct 2006
Discusses the proper use of firestops to seal openings in fire-rated walls and doors. Code requirements and the most commonly used materials are described, as is maintenance and the technique of linking the firestop to fire alarm and suppression systems.

Flexible Design Can Improve Fire Safety
Carrigan, James
Building Operating Management; Sep 2006
An alternative to prescriptive building codes, performance-based designs are tailored for specific facilities, such as educational facilities configured around an elaborate atrium. The performance-based strategy uses customized fire- and life-safety solutions that meet or exceed the intent of the prescriptive code. This discusses laying the groundwork, making it work, staying legal, and making the decision.

Facilitating Fire Safety.
Halligan, Mike
College Planning and Management; v9 n5 , p22,24,25 ; May 2006
Reviews the role that facilities staff play in fire safety, including keeping mechanical spaces clear, maintaining egress lighting and fire suppression systems, testing alarms, and promoting fire-safe products.

A Life Safety Guide to Building Design: Fire Equipment and Codes.
Jaugstetter, Pat
The Construction Specifier; v59 n5 , p89-93 ; May 2006
Reviews building assessment and tools for fire safety. Features of a building's construction and use that impact fire safety are enumerated, and types of fire fighting and suppression systems reviewed include portable fire extinguishers, standpipe fire hose stations, and dry and wet chemical systems.

Fire Safety: Finding the Weakest Link.
Windle, Lynn
Building Operating Management; v53 n4 ; Apr 2006
Highlights typical fire safety oversights such as sprinkler valve condition, security measures that inhibit egress, storage in stairwells and electrical closets, and occupants' lack of awareness of a particular building's safety features.

Lessons from the Ashes: Advice after a Campus Fire.
Foster, Gary; Hendrickson, Darren; Freeland Lisa
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v52 n25 , pB9 ; Feb 24, 2006
Lists lessons learned from a fire at Eastern Illinois University, including keeping computer backups off site, purging obsolete materials so they won t incur recovery costs, and streamlining insurance procedures so that faculty and staff can be quickly and accurately compensated for lost property.

Towards the Design and Operation of Fire Safe School Facilities
Hassanain, Mohammad A.
Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal; v15 n5 , p838-846(9) ; 2006
The objectives of this paper are to present an assessment for the consideration of fire safety during the design stages of school facilities in Saudi Arabia; and to present the development of a fire risk assessment survey tool whereby existing school facilities can be evaluated for the purpose of identifying and eliminating fire hazards, and meeting the minimum requirements of current legislation.

How to Prevent On- and Off-Campus Fires.
College Planning and Management; v8 n11 , pS-20,S-21 ; Nov 2005
Suggests rules for residence halls and Greek society housing that will help prevent fires. These involve banning of candles, appliances with exposed heating elements, and halogen lighting. Safe electrical practices and fire safety training are also outlined.

The Way Out.
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , p34,35 ; Nov 2005
Reviews current National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code requirements for egress and emergency illumination and describes low-maintenance LED exit signs that use very little electricity.

Improving Fire Safety Protection.
Poss, Christa
School Planning and Management; v44 n11 , pS-3 ; Nov 2005
Describes directional sound technology that can help direct building occupants to the closest exit in case of an emergency.

Squelching Fire Safety Risks
Tatum, Rita
Building Operating Management; Jul 2005
A wide range of products and design strategies are being used in combinations to make buildings and their contents better able to survive a fire. This discusses sprinklers and smoke detection, noncombustible components, and communications systems.

Keep it Safe.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v8 n6 , p52,54,56,58 ; Jun 2005
Reviews recent changes in fire safety codes, with emphasis on sprinklers, exit doors, and wired or filmed glass. A fire sprinkler "Q & A" is included.

Emergency Preparedness: Path to Safety
Harrington, Gregory
Building Operating Management; Apr 2005
An emergency plan is more than just paperwork. A carefully prepared and regularly practiced plan might be the difference between life and death. This discusses evacuation or defend-in-place, facility fire protection and life safety systems, decision-making in emergencies, and the facilities executive's role.

Making Connections.
Haynes, John
American School and University; v77 n9 , p58,60,61 ; Apr 2005
Discusses Internet connectivity to fire and safety systems, which can enhance response by eliminating human error and providing more detailed event reporting. Examples of the unique safety challenges presented by various educational environments, as well as configuration and security options for such systems are also offered.

On Fire for Safety.
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v8 n2 , p26-28 ; Feb 2005
Describes efforts to improve fire safety on various college campuses, and to enhance relations with the local fire departments, especially since the campuses are typically exempt from local taxes. Also discussed are means of dealing with false alarms and students who refuse to evacuate in the event of an alarm.

Designing Schools with Fire/Life Safety Needs in Mind.
Fitzgerald, John; Sistare, Paul
School Construction News; v7 n8 , p26 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Describes multi-criteria fire detectors, which use a combination of ionization, photoelectric, and thermal sensing to help ensure accurate fire detection.

Balanced Approach to Fire Safety
Tatum, Rita
Building Operating Management; Nov 2004
When it comes to protecting people and property, a mix of active and passive fire protection measures is the best choice. This describes the role of alarms, the role of sprinklers, a code perspective, learning from experience, role of protected construction, and the role of the facility executive.

Shedding Light on Emergency Exits.
Gottwalt, T.J.
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p50-52,54 ; Oct 2004
Discusses ways to improve emergency egress lighting through stricter codes and the installation of low-level fixtures, photoluminescent strips and paints, and EL lamps.

Fire Power.
Razwick, Jerry
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p44-46,48 ; Oct 2004
Discusses the impact hazards of wired glass, and new fire-resistant glazing options offering higher impact ratings without loss of fire protection. These include fire-rated ceramics, glass layered with intumescent materials, and laminates. Also discussed are developments in framing and curtain wall systems.

Life/Fire Safety.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v43 n8 , p25,26,28 ; Aug 2004
Discusses recent improvements in smoke detectors, fire alarms, and glass that address the some of the reliability and safety concerns about these technologies.

Making Fire Safety Technologies Safer on Campus.
Fickes, Michael.
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p38,40-42 ; Aug 2004
Describes smoke detectors that announce tampering as well as smoke, networked fire detection and suppression technology, and sophisticated systems installed in dormitories at Boston's Northeastern University.

Getting Involved in the Code Process. Adobe PDF
Baker, Brooks H.
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p31-33 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Using examples from recent National Fire Protection Association actions, the author explains how facilities professionals should be involved in code writing, and how their lack of involvement can contribute to the adoption of onerous standards.

NFPA 90A Revises Standards for HVAC Systems. Adobe PDF
Erickson, Douglas S.
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p38-40 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Presents proposed changes to the National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems (NFPA 90A). Areas of interest to facility managers include changes in smoke damper requirements and rules for removal of abandoned cable.

New Codes for Stairwell Lighting.
Hart, G. Kimball
Facilities Manager; v20 n4 , p43-45 ; Jul-Aug 2004
Describes a new standard for stairwell lighting, recently approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1), and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). The standard increases the footcandle requirement ten-fold, but the use of motion sensors and timers has been allowed in order to reduce energy consumption.

Schools Try to Keep from Getting Burned.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
School Planning and Management; v43 n6 , p46,49,50,51,52,54 ; Jun 2004
Discusses fire safety criteria for floor, ceiling, and door materials, as well as sprinkler system versus passive fire protection.

Making the Upgrade.
Carrigan, James
American School and University; v76 n4 , p32B,32D-F ; Dec 2003
Recommends various campus-wide, addressable fire alarm technologies for replacement of standalone systems. Describes the way they communicate and discusses cost-effective means of making the upgrades.

Clearing the Smoke: Is it Time to Update Your Campus Fire Alarm System?
Sturgeon, Julie
College Planning and Management; v6 n11 , pS12,S14 ; Nov 2003
Describes smoke detection systems that require minimal wiring, more accurately indicate the source of smoke, and are programmable for varying sensitivities according to time of day and location.

The Heat is On.
Zernial, Wolfgang
American School and University; v76 n3 , p288-291 ; Nov 2003
Describes the features of fire-resistant glass that does transfer heat. The technology involves sandwiching substances within the glass that turn to foam when heated and keep the glass relatively cool on the non-fire side.

Balancing Safety and Security in the School Environment.
Szachnowicz, Alex
Fire Protection Engineering; , p17-20,22-24 ; Fall 2003
Reviews principles of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, school fire statistics and history, door features that offer property security without inhibiting emergency egress, features of combined fire/security alarms, and advice on preventing false alarms. Includes ten references.

Stay or Go?
Kroll, Karen
NFPA Journal; v97 n5 , p42-47 ; Sep-Oct 2003
Discusses whether U.S. schools equipped with fire sprinklers and fire detection and intercom systems should be able to use a delayed evacuation policy when it comes to fire drills or actual fires. A controversial project in Minnesota is examining that question. The paper discusses concerns about delayed evacuation, the impact of delayed evacuation on false alarms, issues related to school shootings, current school construction practices, and staff training needs.

New Fire Code in Mass. Targets Classroom Displays.
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Education Week ; v22 n42 , p3 ; Jul 09, 2003
This explores the ramifications of a new Massachusetts fire code aimed at curbing the amount of flammable artwork and decorations hanging in classrooms and hallways. In classrooms without sprinkler systems, teachers will be allowed to cover no more than one- fifth of the wall space with hanging paper displays that are not flame- resistant. Thirty percent of the walls can be covered with non-flame resistant paper displays in schools that have sprinklers throughout the building. The rules are most restrictive regarding paper displays in hallways and large gathering areas such as gyms and auditoriums. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Security/Life Safety: A Need for Change.
Ellsworth, Douglas
American School and University; v75 n11 , p30-32 ; Jul 2003
In response to legislation, colleges and universities in several states must prepare to install sprinkler systems. Four basic issues an engineering study should examine include: whether the existing water service has the size, capacity, and pressure to support a sprinkler system; whether the protected facility will have to comply with more stringent code requirements; what the sprinkler system will cost; and what project planning and management will cost.

Stopping Fire Where it Starts.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2003
By preventing the spread of fire throughout a facility, firestop technology and products aim to minimize damage. Firestops fill the spaces around such elements as conduit, cable ways and piping where they pass through fire-rated walls or floors, and provide an important adjunct to portable, manual extinguishers and fixed automatic sprinkler systems. Firestop products detect heat or fire and automatically discharge or expand at specific locations they were designed to protect, and can be connected to a fixed fire-alarm system so that they trip an alarm and identify a location even while fighting the fire.

How To Improve Cabling Fire Safety.
Michlovic, John
College Planning and Management; v6 n5 , p38 ; May 2003
Discusses two new governing standards from the National Fire Protection Association regarding plastic-coated cables, and other ways to improve cable safety.

Going Up? The Pros and Cons of Vertical Expansion.
Myler, Patricia A.; Boggs, Richard C
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p28-33 ; Dec 2002
Describes the advantages and disadvantages of the vertical expansion of school buildings. Considers such factors as fire protection, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, and cost. Discusses alternatives to vertical expansion.

Supply Side Focus: Fire Protection
Gardner, Thomas W. : Fisher, John E.
Maintenance Solutions; Oct 2002
The key to providing protection of facilities is the development of a program that delivers regular inspection, testing and maintenance of fire-protection and life-safety systems. This describes the newest technology, programmable protection, system maintenance needs, and contractor coordination.

Sprinkler Safety.
Tremblay, Dennis; McCarthy, John F.
American School and University; v74 n11 , p42-44 ; Jul 2002
Discusses the importance of maintaining sprinkler systems in school facilities. Provides facts about sprinklers and describes steps to take after accidental discharges.

How To Reduce the Risk of Residence Hall Fires.
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; v5 n6 , p30,32 ; Jun 2002
Explores reasons for the decline in the number of fires in college and university residence halls and describes a four-pronged program called PODS (Prevention, Occupant awareness, Detection, and Suppression) to help administrators organize fire-prevention efforts.

Campus Fire Safety Today.
Thompson, Mike
Facilities Manager; v17 n6 , p22-26 ; Nov-Dec 2001
Reviews information on recent college and university dormitory fire fatalities, and highlights five examples of building features reported to be major contributing factors in residence-hall fires. Explains how public awareness and expectations are affecting school dormitory safety.

In the Line of Fire.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n2 , p50B,D,F,H ; Oct 2001
Highlights the importance of using sprinkler systems in school residence halls to prevent fire fatalities. Understanding the risks involved, retrofitting schools to meet these risks, and realizing the need to extend safety education to off-campus housing are discussed.

Solving Another Fire Hazard Problem.
Trunko, Michael E.
College Planning and Management; v4 n6 , p34,36 ; Jun 2001
Discusses how rooftop grease containment systems can protect college roofs and prevent fires. Included are the rules and regulations for grease containment systems and tips for choosing a system.

The Flames Stop Here.
Brunette, Len
American School and University; v73 n3 , p406-409 ; Nov 2000
Explains how advancements in glass manufacturing can help prevent fire and smoke from spreading through a building. The benefits of using wired glass and see-through ceramics are highlighted, as is the importance of glass in minimizing smoke and reducing smoke-related mortality.

The Fires of 2000.
Jesse, Hugh
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p28-29 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses the University of Montana's handling of their own fire events occurring during the year 2000's major fire season disasters in the American West.

Sounding the Alarm.
Cordasco, Jerry M.
American School and University; v72 n11 , p44,46,48,50 ; Jul 2000
Explains the use of alarms and other early-detection devices to effectively protect students in life threatening fire situations. Ohio State University's multidiscipline approach to life safety is illustrated.

A Deadly Blaze Prompts Action
Lords, Erik
Chronicle of Higher Education; v46 n27 pA49,A51 , pA49,A51 ; Mar 10, 2000
Describes efforts toward improved fire safety measures and regulations by individual institutions of higher education, states, national associations, and Congress after three students were killed in a dormitory fire at Seton Hall University (New Jersey) last fall. Emphasis is on the need for sprinklers in all dormitory rooms.

Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.
Gervais, Romeo P.
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p64-65 ; Jan 2000
Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures.

Ten Fire Safety Tips for Schools.
Lake, James D.
School Planning and Management; v38 n6 , p32-24 ; Jun 1999
Provides 10 basic tips, compiled from the National Fire Protection Association's Life Safety Code 101, to ensure that educational facilities are fire safe. Tips include use of frequent and unexpected fire drills, limiting wall space of student artwork and teaching materials, being alert to preventing arson, planning speedy and safe emergency evacuations, and separating hazardous areas from the main school.

Residence Hall Fires.
Wright, Dorothy
College Planning and Management; v2 n6 ; Jun 1999
Discusses how one college's experience with a tragic fire in one of their residence halls prompted a reevaluation of its fire prevention and response strategies. Staff training, sprinkler installation, new alarm systems, and exit hardware to help make building exiting more efficient are discussed.

Putting Out Fires.
Dondero, Tom
American School and University; v71 n4 , p29,30 ; Dec 1998
The mission of the School Fire and Life Safety Partnership was to develop consensus on the application of new fire protection codes, adopted by California, which affected the addition of relocatable buildings to school sites. Describes a document on fire and life safety that resulted from this partnership.

Fire Power.
Meade, Jeff
Education Week ; v18 n11 , p32-37 ; Nov 11, 1998
Discusses the prevalence of school arson, motives for setting school fires, and sex and type of student involvement within the context of a detailed description of the high school burning in rural Cross Plains, Texas. Investigation findings and community and teacher reactions are given. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Fight Fire with These Safety Strategies.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n8 , p24-28 ; Aug 1998
Provides expert guidelines on ways to keep schools and children safe from building fires, such as maintenance of exits for easy egress in emergencies, maintaining fire protection systems, and utilizing evacuation planning and drilling. Fire safety ideas as part of school building and renovation projects are highlighted.

They've Seen Fire and They've Seen Rain
Chandler, Kurt
Education FM; v1 n2 , p18,20-22 ; May 1998
Recounts what school district facilities managers did and what they learned from the flood and fire disaster in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Examines the taxing and complex cleanup effort, which required officials to scramble to locate sufficient architectural and construction crews to meet repair demands. Identifies unforeseen problems that leaders faced, such as toxic biological growth. Also describes the damage and repair expenses.

Fighting Fire with Fire.
Spoor, Dana L.
American School and University; v68 n8 , p22-24 ; Apr 1996
School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California, and New York.

Safeguarding Underground Storage Tanks.
McGovern, Matthew
School Planning and Management; Feb 1996
USTs must meet new federal regulations by December 1998. Possible hazards from leaking underground storage tanks include: fires, health hazards, explosions and contamination of fresh water supplies. A school district’s underground, single-walled fiberglass, diesel fuel storage tanks’ leak is used as an example.

Alarming Possibilities
Salamone, Bob
American School & University; v67 n9 , p48,50-51 ; May 1995
Describes how new intelligent fire and life-safety systems help assure proper functioning through networking with other systems and providing detailed status reports. Considerations for system specifications that match facility functions and risks are discussed.

Trial by Fire (and Tornado) Taught Us to Plan for Crises.
Caylor, Mary Jane
Executive Educator; v13 n2 , p22-24 ; Feb 1991
Based on Huntsville (Alabama) schools' experience with a devastating fire, the superintendent later ensured adequate fire insurance coverage, promoted regular fire drills, and developed an emergency response plan that delineated staff responsibilities, communication modes, and training and updating procedures. The plan served the district well during a subsequent tornado warning.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).