SCHOOL FACILITIES FUNDING OPTIONS -- OVERVIEW
Information on funding methods for public school facilities construction and modernization, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools.
Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.
(U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Oct 2011)
Details best practices for financing and installing photovoltaic (PV) systems on school buildings. The report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Some highlights of the report include: an introduction to financing PV installations on schools; a look at the direct-ownership option, which takes advantage of financing mechanisms such as general funds, bonds, construction funds, and grants; and a review of the third-party finance model, including power purchase agreements and energy services performance contracts. In addition to comparing a range of financing options for PV installations, the report provides real-world examples of financing solar installations on K-12 schools and other public facilities. These examples may be used by school districts around the country to help them navigate the process of financing PV installations. 38p
Facilities Financing: Monetizing Education's Untapped Resource
(American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Aug 08, 2011)
The enormous costs and burdens of outmoded facilities arrangements represent an immense opportunity for the nation's school systems. In this paper, the author explores the causes of the nation's $300 billion funding shortfall in K-12 facilities and offers concrete recommendations to address this troubling trend. The author posits that public-private partnerships are a promising avenue for tapping the resources needed to address capital needs, but that current financial conditions in K-12 scare off potential investors. By overhauling facilities financing and exploring innovative approaches, policymakers can create the space for private investors to support school facilities. Helping schools better meet their facilities needs, the author argues, entails: (1) Holding educators and schools accountable for academic "and" financial performance; (2) Loosening regulations that limit the reach of charter schools and other nontraditional programs; and (3) Creating more opportunities for schools to take advantage of nontraditional financing options. Enacting such measures, the author asserts, will allow for a more stable and investor-friendly system for financing facilities. [Author's abstract]
Public Schools: A Toolkit for REALTORS®
(National Association of Realtors, Jun 2011)
Toolkit to help realtors enhance their knowledge and understanding of the public school system so they can become involved in improving their schools and communities. A section on Issues in Public Education includes the following topics: the benefits of green schools; walkability and safe routes to school; school building and siting; teachers living where they work; and how schools are funded. Section two shares examples of realtors and realtor associations around the country that are playing an active role in engaging local students and improving local schools by serving on school boards, volunteering at local schools, donating their time to community-wide efforts to improve schools, and advocating for local school-related initiatives.
Charter School Bond Issuance: A Complete History.
Balboni, Elise; Berry, Wendy; Wolfson, Charles
(Educational Financing Facilities Center of Local Initiatives Support Corp (LISC) , Jun 2011)
Examines the 13-year history of the charter school tax-exempt bond sector. Identifies the universe of 500 rated and unrated facilities transactions, provides cost and pricing information and examines the repayment performance of charter school borrowers to date. 64p.
Greening the Bottom Line: The Trend Toward Green Revolving Funds on Campus.
(Sustainable Endowments Institute , Feb 2011)
Reports on a survey conducted about green revolving funds (GRFs) in higher education. Research for the report took place between November 2009 and January 2011 and includes data from 52 universities in 25 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. Details how GRFs help cut operating expenses and greenhouse gas emissions at 52 schools. Funds surveyed range in size from $5,000 at the College of Wooster to $12 million at Harvard University, with an average size of $1.4 million. The breakthrough in this approach is how cost savings are used to replenish the fund for investment in the next round of green upgrades. 50p.
A National Study of State Tax Appropriations for Capital Needs in U.S. Public Higher Education
Harris, A. Delphine
(Dissertation, Department of Educational Leadership, Policy, and Technology Studies in the Graduate School of The University of Alabama, 2011)
This study investigated the relationship of key issues related to capital and operating budget practices of state tax appropriations and policies at the state level, including new facilities construction, renovation, replacement and renewal which may exist between and among states by governance structure. Recognized “good practices” in capital planning and allocation processes and funding mechanisms recommended by experts were also examined.Key findings include: (1) only half (18 out of 39) of responding states have a long range state master plan for facilities; (2) the majority of states do not conduct recommended periodic facilities audits; and (3) the total deferred maintenance has more than doubled from FY1997 to FY2008. Key conclusions include: (1) A major facilities information gap exists, with missing data at the federal and state levels; and (2) From FY1997 to FY2008, while the total US population grew by 36 million or 13.6%, and headcount enrollment in public higher education grew by 22.8%, state tax appropriations for public higher education operating budgets grew by only 21% and in the 18 states that provided data, state tax appropriations for capital budgets increased by 80%. However, this increase is tempered by the low initial amounts of capital appropriations, and the fact that no major federal investments in higher education facilities to spur matching state action to build up public higher education’s physical infrastructure occurred, as did in the Baby Boom era (1965-73). While headcount enrollment increased by 2.5 million or 22.8%, no significant federal investments and only limited state investments in public higher education’s physical infrastructure occurred. All-time record enrollment increases occurred simultaneously to an escalation of deferred maintenance. [Author's abstract] 283p
Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2nd Ed.
Perkins, Bradford; Bordwell, Raymond
(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Advises architects, planners, engineers, and their clients through all aspects of school facilities design. Chapters address predesign, circulation, design concerns and process, site planning, codes, sustainability, systems, technology, materials, acoustics, lighting, interiors, wayfinding, renovation, international design issues, operation and maintenance, and financing. Appendices provide sample space programs for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. The book examines technology's influence in the classroom, along with current research that shows how school buildings can impact teaching and learning. Design guidance is illustrated with school case studies, photographs, diagrams, floor plans, sections, and details. 350p.
Annual Report on the Status of Alternative Procurement, Project Delivery and Financing for Maryland Public School Construction.
(Public School Construction Program, Baltimore, MD , Sep 02, 2009)
Reports on alternative financing of public schools in Maryland, describing examples of the leasing and adaptive reuse of commercial buildings in Hagerstown and Bel Air, energy performance contracts throughout the state, private developer funding of schools, and in-kind donations. Project procurement and delivery strategies are described as well. 23p.
References to Journal Articles
Funding Our Future: Creative Financing Boosts School Construction
School Construction News; May 09, 2012
Public-private partnerships (P3s) are emerging as a promising way to tap the resources needed to address schools’ capital needs. Discusses public-private partnerships that are focused on renewable energy. In a different P3 scenario, school districts issue bonds and then loan the proceeds of their efforts to private developers, who in turn build the school. Once completed, the facility is leased to the district on a long-term basis at a lesser cost than the construction itself.
Funding Building Projects in a Tough Economy
District Administration; Apr 2012
Outlines sources for hidden funding to help construct and maintain school buildings, including local and state tax revenues, with some limited support from state and small federal initiatives; Local School Construction Bonds and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds; Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Grant Program and the Impact Aid Facilities Maintenance Program; Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program and the State Charter School Incentive Grants Program; Department of Defense Military Construction Program; State Energy Program Grants; Department of Agriculture Rural Community Facilities Program. Also describes competitive grant funds from federal or state agencies or from private grants awarded by community and corporate foundations.
A Capital-Financing Plan for School Systems and Local Government
School Business Affairs; , p28-29 ; Jan 2012
A capital-financing plan helps district leaders find a balance between funding operating and capital needs. Plan helps prioritize capital needs, obtain design work, and begin construction on a clearly defined timetable. Discusses Roanoke County Virginia Public Schools plan.
When Money Matters: School Infrastructure Funding and School Achievement.
Crampton, Faith and Thompson, David
School Business Affairs; , p14-18 ; Nov 2011
Discusses a new paradigm for analyzing the effect of investment in physical capital on student achievement. Includes a comprehensive definition of school infrastructure as including deferred maintenance, new construction, renovation, retrofitting, additions to existing facilities, and major improvements to grounds. Pointing to the limitations of previous research, describes a new paradigm that reinforces the importance of investing not only in human and social capital but also physical capital to insure student success.
A Job for True Political Leaders.
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p78 ; Aug 2010
Discusses changing the way tax revenue is related to school funding. The author argues that basing school income on real estate taxes, which are increasingly being capped by state and local jurisdictions, is no longer appropriate for providing services.
Crux of the Problem.
School Planning and Management; v49 n7 , p66 ; Jul 2010
Discusses the obsolete mode of taxing property to fund schools, in this era where ownership of property does not necessarily reflect wealth.
When Times Get Tough, The Tough Get Creative!
School Planning and Management; v49 n3 , p6 ; Mar 2010
Lists creative cost-saving and revenue-generating plans that some school districts are implementing to close budget shortfalls.
Facilities Funding Thaws.
Roger Bruszewski; Jung, Sam; Turner, Jeffrey
Business OFficer; Jan 2010
Discusses the trend toward public-private partnerships in higher education construction. Privatized housing is highlighted, as are benefits of federal stimulus funds and the tight bond market. Examples of seven creatively funded capital projects are described.
Identifying and Mitigating Sources of School Revenue Erosion.
Prombo, Michael; Dalianis, Ares; Metcalf, Scott
School Business Affairs; v75 n8 , p14-16 ; Sep 2009
Advises on how identify and counter threats made to school district revenue by shifts in tax collection. Tax increment financing districts, property tax reduction litigation, property tax abatement, impact fees, and depressed economic conditions are discussed.
School Building in Today's Crisis.
CELE Exchange; 2009/5 ; Jun 2009
Presents findings from a survey on the effect of the 2008-2009 economic crisis on educational building programs. The survey covered the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on projects funded by private finance initiatives or through a public-private partnership, and the extent to which the crisis has affected the constructionindustrys ability to build schools. A key point One key point emerging from the survey is that although countries are using public sector building and civil engineering construction, including education buildings, as one of the means to stimulate their economies, the primary focus of these initiatives is economic, rather than educational.
American School and University; v81 n7 , p40,42-44 ; Mar 2009
Identifies sources of funding to help build "green" schools, including federal and state programs, foundation grants, and partnerships with business.
EnergySmart Schools Program Helps Districts Clear Financial Roadblocks.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p17-20 ; 2009
Discusses Guilford County Schools in North Carolina and other districts around the nation that are discovering that high-performance schools conserve energy, help the environment, improve student and teacher performance and save money. Provide guidance on financing a high performance school, outlining ways to finance new construction, retrofits, and renovation projects.
School Facilities Funding and Capital-Outlay Distribution in the States.
Duncombe, William; Wang, Wen
Journal of Education Finance; v34 n3 , p324-350 ; Winter 2009
Traditionally, financing the construction of school facilities has been a local responsibility. In the past several decades, states have increased their support for school facilities. Using data collected from various sources, this study first classifies the design of capital aid programs in all 50 states into various categories based on the scope of state aid, selection of capital projects, method of grant distribution, and formula components of the grant. Using NCES finance data from 1998 to 2002, we examine the relationship between the type of facilities aid program and the level of inequality in capital-outlay distribution in the states. [Authors' abstract]