NCEF Resource List: School Facilities Funding - Federal
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Information on the federal government's role in funding school and university facilities repair, construction, and modernization, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Includes resources on schools managed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Department of Defense.

References to Books and Other Media

Education and the American Jobs Act: Creating Jobs through Investments in Our Nation’s Schools
(Domestic Policy Council, the National Economic Council, the President's Council of Economic Advisors, and the U.S. Department of Education, Dec 2011)
Provides analysis of condition of America’s schools, which have fallen into disrepair, and proposes $25 billion to renovate and modernize more than 35,000 public schools, and $5 billion to update infrastructure at community colleges. Chapters include: school modernization, a national imperative; building the future in our schools; keeping America's educators in the classroom; American Jobs Act education investments, by State. 68p

Fact Sheet: New Nationwide Independent Poll Reveals Majority of Americans Support Federal Investment in Green Schools
(U.S. Green Building Council; United Technologies, Oct 2011)
Results from a nationwide survey exploring Americans' attitudes toward public school buildings and investments to modernize America's school infrastructure. 2p

Qualified School Construction Bonds Issuance 2009, 2010, and 2011. Adobe PDF
(Thomson Reuters, The Bond Buyer, Sep 2011)
Lists date, issuer, and amount of qualified school construction bonds issued from 2009 through the present. The list is continuously updated.

Child Nutrition Reauthorization 2010: Indirect Cost Guidance. Adobe PDF
(United States Department of Agriculture, Jul 07, 2011)
The purpose of this memorandum is to provide guidance describing the Federal requirements State agencies and school food authorities must comply with in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program with respect to indirect costs. Includes rules for how districts bill school food programs for utilities, trash collection, and janitors, among other services, that are intended to eliminate variation from one district to the next and keep costs in check. The new guidelines provide examples of how charges could be calculated, what the difference is between indirect and direct costs, and what might be considered egregious charges. Page 21 of the document describes regulations about building a small kitchen; and page 92 details "Idle facilities and idle capacity" and page 98 discusses rental costs of buildings and equipment.

Stimulus Funding and Tax Credit Bonds for School Construction. Adobe PDF
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities., May 2011)
Summary chart of continuously updated information on sources of Recovery Act funding for school, college, and university facilities from the U. S. Departments of Education, Treasury, Energy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and more. Includes links to guidance documents and application forms, as well as announcements of winning projects. 1p.

Build America Bonds Issues Adobe PDF
(Thomson Reuters, The Bond Buyer, Apr 2011)
Includes sale date, issue, amount, ratings, and call provision of Build America Bonds issued in 2010. School districts, colleges, univerities, and community colleges are identified. The list is continuously updated.

PK-12 Public School Facility Infrastructure Fact Sheet. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Feb 2011)
Answers basic school facilities questions such as 1) How much PK-12 infrastructure is there? 2)What condition are our public schools in? 3)What difference does facility condition make? 4)How much does our PK-12 infrastructure cost? 5)Where does funding for PK-12 infrastructure come from? 15 references supporting the information are provided. 2p.

Replacement and Repair of Indian Schools.
(Department of Health and Human Services, Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Item 15.062, Washington, DC, 2011)
The objective of this program is to provide safe, functional, code-compliant, economical, and energy-efficient education facilities for American Indian students attending Bureau of Indian Affairs owned or funded primary and secondary schools and/or residing in Bureau owned or funded dormitories. This document includes elegibility requirements, financial and administrative information, contacts, assistance considerations, and post assistance requirements. 5p

Federal Spending on PK-12 School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary; O'Donnell, Sean
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Nov 2010)
Describes federal grant, tax, and finance programs dedicated to school construction, as well as grant, tax, and finance programs whose funds may be used for school construction. Each program is described in text, accompanied by charts that illustrate amounts allocated to and distributed from those programs in fiscal year 2009, through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the federal agencies managing the funds along with how much each agency was allocated. Also discussed and illustrated is the total United States capital outlay for public schools 2005-2008, and sources of operating and capital funding for U.S. schools. The document notes that the federal government considers school facilities a local responsibility, and that there is no staff dedicated to school the issue at the U.S. Department of Education. Twenty-nine links to the programs' websites are provided. 17p.

Report to Congress on the Department of Defense Education Activity’s Design Process and Procedures to Provide Outstanding Schools. Adobe PDF
(Department of Defense Education Activity , Sep 2010)
Reports on how the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) will establish a formal process whereby the best practices and design innovations in public and private school construction can be incorporated into the design of DoDEA schools, including the use of sustainable designs, green building systems, acoustics management, student safety/security, and interactive technology to create a positive learning environment for children and an efficient teaching environment for faculty. 41p.

Policy Letter from the Education Secretary on Qualified School Construction Bonds and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds.
(U. S. Deparment of Education, Jun 11, 2010)
Letter to Chief State School Officers, informing them about 2010 allocations for Qualified School Construction Bonds (QSCBs) and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZABs), as well as recent legislation and guidance concerning QSCBs and QZABs.

2010 Allocations to States of Volume Cap for Qualified School Construction Bonds Adobe PDF
(U.S. Treasury Department, Mar 17, 2010)
This shows how the $11 billion of allocation authority to issue qualified school construction bonds for 2010 will be divided up among states and large local educational agencies. Under the allocations for 2010, states will receive $6.6 billion of the authority and large local educational agencies will receive $4.4 billion. Among the states, California will receive the largest allocation of almost $720.1 million, followed by Texas at $547.7 million. Of the local entities, New York City will receive the largest allocation, roughly $664.0 million, followed by the Puerto Rico Department of Education at almost $380.4 million, Los Angeles Unified at almost $290.2 million, and the city of Chicago School District 299 at $257.1 million. 5p.

Interim Analysis of School Facility Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Including Expenditures through January 5, 2010. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund , Feb 08, 2010)
This brief report highlights initial findings related to the following questions: (1) How much disparity exists in school facility spending by state and locality?; (2) How were school facilities addressed in the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act?; (3) What has happened to our nation's school facilities as a result of ARRA provisions?; and (4) Which schools and which students benefited from ARRA expenditures?

Montana Deferred Maintenance & Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants
(Montana Department of Commerce, 2010)
Information on Montana's stimulus fund allocations for school facilities, including: Quick Start (HB645), Deferred Maintenance & Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants (HB645); Quality Schools Facility Grant Program (HB152); and Qualified School Construction Bonds.

U.S. Department of Education American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Report: Summary of Programs and State-by-State Data. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. , Nov 02, 2009)
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided approximately $100 billion to the U.S. Department of Education with the initial goal of delivering emergency education funding to States. Over $67 billion in formula grants to states were awarded as of September 30th, 2009. As of November 2, 2009, there have been $42,093,235 in infrastructure expenditures. This report includes a national overview, state profiles, reports by program, ARRA reform and outreach, a conclusion, and appendices. 251p.

Qualified School Construction Bonds' First Exam: Risks and Benefits for Issuers and Investors.
(Fitch Ratings, New York, NY, Oct 26, 2009)
Reports that school districts with low credit ratings still have to offer interest payments on special tax credit bonds included in the U.S. stimulus plan. To compensate for weaker credit ratings and changing market conditions, some issuers have had to offer supplemental interest payments or original issue discounts. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act passed in February created a new funding option for schools: construction bonds that offer federal tax credits in place of interest payments. Unlike past tax credit bonds, these offsets for federal income tax liabilities can be sold and traded separately from the bond principal. The credits allow schools to issue debt without having to pay interest, but some are finding they have to offer more incentives to attract buyers. 3p

New Orleans Schools Four Years after Katrina: A Lingering Federal Responsibility. Adobe PDF
(Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA , Oct 13, 2009)
Reports that K-12 students in New Orleans have made significant gains in school achievement during recent years, but that this progress is in jeopardy unless the federal government fulfills its "lingering responsibility" to help rebuild the public school infrastructure destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The report also examines New Orleans schools' looming financial problems that stem from existing debt incurred before Hurricane Katrina and from the financial challenges of rebuilding an entire city's devastated schools. In the past year, school officials have embarked on what could become a $2 billion, decades-long drive to rebuild and renovate dozens of campuses throughout the city. Locally, several groups have voiced alarm that the plan could exacerbate inequities in the city if some of the children move into state-of-the-art new buildings in the next five years, while even more remain in dilapidated structures. Includes 45 references. 38p.

IRS Releases Guidance on ARRA Bond Provisions.
(Internal Revenue Services, United States Department of the Treasury, Oct 2009)
The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) created several new types of tax-exempt bonds and tax credit bonds under the Internal Revenue Code. The latest guidance, forms and information on the ARRA bond provisions is available at links on this webpage, including Qualified School Construction Bonds, Build America Bonds, Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, various energy bonds,and Tribal Economic Development bonds. Information on Davis-Bacon is included.

Report to Congress on Department of Defense Education Activity's Military Construction Program. Adobe PDF
(Department of Defense Education Activity , Oct 2009)
Provides a comprehensive list of all current DoDEA schools with corresponding quality assessments. Includes a comprehensive list of all MILCON construction projects with associated costs required to correct facilities deemed “otherwise inadequate;” to eliminate temporary facilities; to bring facilities up to current standards as indicated by the DoDEA Education Facilities Specifications; and to address undersized facilities. Discusses the impact of base realignment and closure and global restationing actions on the student populations, as well as the subsequent effects on school construction. Provides an estimate of total annual sustainment, restoration, and modernization funds required to maintain the facilities of each DoDEA district at current standards, as mandated by the DoDEA Education Facilities Specifications, and the Department-prescribed recapitalization rate. 24p.

School Facilities: Physical Conditions in School Districts Receiving Impact Aid for Students Residing on Indian Lands. Adobe PDF
Ashby, Cornelia M.; Dorn, Terrell G.
(US Government Accountability Office. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate. GAO-10-32 , Oct 2009)
The Department of Education's (Education) Impact Aid Program provides funding to school districts that are adversely impacted by a lack of local revenue because of the presence of federal land, which is exempt from local property taxes. Impact Aid can be used for school expenses, such as facilities and teacher salaries. In response to concern about school facility conditions and concern that these conditions can affect student outcomes, GAO was asked to describe (1) the physical condition of schools in districts receiving Impact Aid because of students residing on Indian lands and (2) what is known about how school facilities affect student outcomes. GAO interviewed federal, state, and local officials; analyzed available independent school facility assessment data for three states; visited eight school districts that receive Impact Aid; and analyzed studies examining the relationship between school facilities and student outcomes. 46p

$59.4 Million In Recovery Act Funding Available For Elementary And Secondary School Construction Projects At Federal Impact Aid Communities.
Rissetto, Christopher L.;Helland, Robert; Mehfoud, Kathleen: and Lacy, D. Patrick
(Reed Smith, Sep 09, 2009)
The Department of Education announced the availability of $59.4 million in grants under the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Program funding for public elementary and secondary school facilities that enroll federally connected children, including children living on Indian lands. These projects fall in two areas: 1) emergency repair projects that address threats to the health and/or safety of students and staff, such as the need for upgraded fire alarm systems; 2) modernization projects that either help address enrollment concerns, such as the construction of new classrooms, or support educational programs, such as the construction of a science laboratory.

Recovery Act Bond Finance: Qualified School Construction Bonds.
Prussing, Mark; Blacker, Roan; Brown, Duncan
(Washington State Department of Commerce, Olympia , Jul 31, 2009)
Provides detail on the Qualified School Construction Bond (QSCB) finance program, as supported by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. An overview of the program and its mechanics is followed by a comparison of these funds with the Qualified Zone Academy Bond (QZAB) and the Build America Bond (BAB) programs. A case study from Broward County (Florida) schools is included. 16p.

Key Policy Letter from the Education Secretary to Chief State School Officers on Authorization of Qualified School Construction Bonds and Build America Bonds, and the Extension of Qualified Zone Academy Bonds.
(U. S. Deparment of Education, May 29, 2009)
This letter describes the benefits of the Qualified School Construction Bonds (QSCB), Build America Bonds (BAB), and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZAB) programs to help LEAs save money and make their repair, renovation, or construction dollars go further. Includes a fact sheet with basic facts on the bond programs, and a table with 2009 allocations to States of QSCBs and QZABs.

Qualified School Construction Bond Allocations for 2009.
(U. S. Department of Treasury, Internal Revenue Service Bulletin 2009-16, Apr 27, 2009)
This notice provides guidance on qualified tax credit bonds called Qualified School Construction Bonds (QSCBs) under section 54F of the Internal Revenue Code. The notice sets forth the amount of QSCBs that may be issued by each State and large local education agency in 2009. QSCBs may be issued to finance certain construction and land acquisition expenditures relating to public school facilities.

Build America Bonds and Direct Payment Subsidy Implementation.
(U. S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service Bulletin 2009-16, Apr 20, 2009)
This notice provides guidance on Build America Bonds under section 54AA of the Internal Revenue Code. It includes guidance on eligible types of projects and financings, initial implementation of the direct federal subsidy payment procedures, elections to use this program, and information reporting for this program. Certain guidance in this notice also applies to another type of Build America Bond in which a federal subsidy is delivered in the form of tax credits to investors instead of direct federal subsidy payments to state and local governments.

Qualified Zone Academy Bond Allocations for 2008 and 2009.
(U. S. Department of Treasury, Internal Revenue Service Bulletin 2009-16, Apr 20, 2009)
This notice provides guidance on qualified tax credit bonds called Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZABs) under section 54E of the Internal Revenue Code. The notice sets forth the amount of QZABs that may be issued within each State for each of the calendar years 2008 and 2009. QZABs may be issued to finance certain expenditures relating to a qualified zone academy established by a local education agency.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. CFDA 84.404 Impact Aid Construction Formula Grants, Recovery Act. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, Impact Aid Program., Apr 15, 2009)
Details of appropriation of $39.6 million to 179 grantees for impact aid construction. The exact award amounts to specific states and school districts is listed. 11p.

Guidance on the State Fiscal Stabilization Fund Program. Adobe PDF
(U. S. Department of Education, Washington, D. C. , Apr 2009)
Provides comprehensive information on the State Fiscal Stabilization Program, including the process for awarding funds to governors, eligible entities, application requirements, uses of stabilization funds by LEAs and by public institutions of higher education, the government services fund, and an extensive section on construction, modernization, renovation, and repair. Provides a Q&A on transparency, accountability, reporting, and other obligations, and a section on resources and information. 53p.

Proposed Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
(Congressional Research Service, Jan 22, 2009)
On January 15, 2009, the House Committee on Appropriations released a draft version of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The primary purposes of the act focus on promoting economic recovery, assisting those most affected by the recession, improving economic efficiency by "spurring technological advances in science and health," investing in infrastructure, and stabilizing state and local government budgets. As part of this act, funds would be provided to several existing education programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED), including programs authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The ARRA would also create new programs that would support school construction at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education levels and provide general funds for education to support state fiscal stabilization. This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or would be administered by ED that were included in the act under Title IX (Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education) and Title XII (State Fiscal Stabilization Fund). It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. The report will be updated as warranted by legislative action. 34p.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA): Growth Opportunities for Community Schools.
(Coalition for Community Schools, Washington, DC , 2009)
Advises community school advocates on making their case for receiving funding from the Act. While no funding is specifically targeted to school construction, community schools might be eligible for funding that addresses community services. Sources of federal funding from a variety of agencies are summarized. 5p.

Prevailing Wage Law--An Understanding of The Davis-Bacon Act.
Goodwin, Van
(Lorman Education, Milwaukee, WI, 2009)
This webinar provides information to understand the specific requirements of the Davis-Bacon Act, when it applies, and the process necessary to ensure compliance and avoid enforcement actions and potential penalties. Recently enacted federal legislation and executive orders issued by the Obama Administration involving the use of federal stimulus monies will also result in additional prevailing wage compliance requirements and increased enforcement by the federal government. Federal public works contractors often do not understand the requirements for complying with the Davis-Bacon Act when bidding on and performing federal public works contracts and the consequences of noncompliance. Failure to comply with the Davis-Bacon Act can have dire consequences, including debarment and the loss of a major source of business, in addition to the exposure to substantial damages and attorneys’ fees.

The Key Role of Construction in Each State's Economy.
Simonson, Ken
(Associated General Contractors of America, Dec 12, 2008)
AGC has compiled economic data which estimates the impact of $1 billion of construction spending on a state's economy. Fact sheets on each state are downloadable and include data on the economic impact of stimulus investment; construction employment; nonresidential construction; and construction industry pay. A state-by-state table of stimulus impact is provided, as well as a list of data sources and a description of the methodology used in estimating construction outlays and economic impact.

Economic Crisis Summit: A New Future for Education Funding.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , Dec 2008)
Discusses the impact of the present recession on education funding. The document outlines potential relief in public-private partnerships, venture philanthropy, government intervention, and alternative futures. Advice on planning for a sustainable financial future and immediate steps to take is also offered. 26p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings: School Infrastructure Funding Need, A State-by- State Assessment and an Analysis of Recent Court Cases. Adobe PDF
Crampton, Faith; Thompson, David
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2008)
Reports on a study that aimed to estimate the current level of school infrastructure funding need in all 50 states, on a state-by-state basis, to compare these estimates to those of a similar 2001 assessment, and to determine the impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. The report concludes that the total estimated national need is approximately $254.6 billion, representing a 4.3 percent decrease from 2001. Also examined are the nature and impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. Includes major policy recommendations that the federal government assume a strong leadership role and direct funding to states. 82p.

Federal Economic Stimulus for School Construction: Building the Economy by Building for our Children's Future. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C. , Nov 12, 2008)
This memorandum to the Economic Policy Institute outlines a proposal for a $10 billion federal economic stimulus investment in school construction that would support as many as 250,000 jobs and address critical needs in public school facilities. Includes two tables. 7p.

Impact Aid School Districts: Compilation of Pending Projects for School Construction, Modernization, Renovation, Repair, and Energy Improvement. Adobe PDF
(National Association of Federally Impacted Schools, Washington, DC , Nov 2008)
Presents the results of a survey of Impact Aid public school districts to find out about school infrastructure projects that can commence within 30-60 days. Information for each school district was written and directly submitted by the school superintendent or other administration staff. Highlights of the compilation are that the total cost of the school infrastructure projects contained in the compilation is about $630 million. About 68 Impact Aid public school districts across the country submitted entries for the compilation. About 30 of the over 5100 projects involve new construction to alleviate overcrowding and other issues. The rest of the school infrastructure projects deal with modernization, renovation, repair, or energy improvement projects. Related photographs are found at 20p.

Tax Credit Bonds: A Brief Explanation.
Maguire, Steven
(Congressional Research Service, Aug 20, 2008)
Tax Credit Bonds (TCBs) are a type of bond that offers the holder a federal tax credit instead of interest. This report explains the tax credit mechanism and describes the market for the bonds. Currently, there are four types of TCBs: qualified zone academy bonds (QZABs), clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs), gulf tax credit bonds (GTCBs), and forestry conservation bonds (FCBs). QZABs, which were the first tax credit bonds, were introduced as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-34) and were first available in 1998.

School Modernization: George Miller & Ben Chandler. [Video]
Jun 04, 2008
Rep. George Miller, Chairman of the Education and Labor Committee, and Rep. Ben Chandler, sponsor of the 21st Century Green High-Performing Public School Facilities Act, speak to the need to modernize public school facilities on the House floor on June 4, 2008. The bill they support was for funding to help schools renovate for increased energy efficiency.

Good Buildings, Better Schools: An Economic Stimulus Opportunity with Long-term Benefits. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Apr 2008)
Advocates federal spending to improve the condition of school buildings, noting the respective short- and long-term economic benefits of construction industry promotion and an improved learning environment. The document includes an examination of the size and condition of the U.S. school inventory, a discussion of the importance of school facility quality, details on how capital investment in schools can improve local economies and close achievement gaps between low- and higher-income students. Charts illustrate per student maintenance and operation expenditures, as well as construction spending according to school district levels of free and reduced lunch students. Includes 22 endnotes and references. 9p.

Final Convening Report: Negotiated Rulemaking Committee on Bureau of Indian Affairs-Funded School Facilities Construction. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington , Mar 05, 2008)
Based on interviews with tribal and school representatives in all 21 Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) offices, this report details findings on the condition, cataloging, funding for repair and renovation, funding for new construction, contracting and project management, and the negotiated rulemaking concerning schools on tribal lands. Also detailed are recommendations for improving the system, especially concerning fair representation of tribes and improved communication. 77p.

Modern Public School Facilities: Investing in the Future.
(California Dept. of Education, Sacramento , Feb 2008)
Presents the testimony of Kathleen J. Moore, Director of the California Department of Education School Facilities Plannning Division, before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor. The testimony discusses the impact of school facilities on student achievement and teacher retention, California s school facility need, the economic benefits of school construction, and successful federal school facility programs and the need for continued and expanded federal assistance. 12p.

Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Awards
(U.S.Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement, Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program, 2008)
Describes the U.S. Department of Education awards made to grantees for charter school facilities from 2001 through 2008.

Report on Condition of Schools Under Jurisdiction of Defense Education Activity. Adobe PDF
(Department of Defense Education Activity. Report to the Congressional Committees. , 2008)
This report provides a detailed summary of all 199 schools under DoDEA’s jurisdiction. It addresses the concern that the level of investment for the maintenance, repair, and recapitalization of DoDEA school facilities is not adequate to sustain acceptable conditions for the education of the dependents of military personnel. It provides an assessment of existing inventory of buildings; a master plan for repair, upgrade, and construction; and an investment strategy to maintain and modernize the facilities. 726p.

Qualified Zone Academy Bonds; Obligations of States and Political Subdivisions. Internal Revenue Bulletin: 2007-35.
(Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury. , Aug 27, 2007)
This document contains final and temporary regulations that provide guidance to state and local governments that issue qualified zone academy bonds and to banks, insurance companies, and other taxpayers that hold those bonds on the program requirements for qualified zone academy bonds. Includes an explanation of provisions and special analyses.

Detailed Information on the Historically Black College and University Capital Financing Assessment.
(U.S. Office of Management and Budget,, Washington, DC , 2007)
Reports that this federal program has not been able to develop acceptable performance goals or collect data to determine whether or not it is performing. The program's purpose is clear and it addresses an existing need, but the program has major flaws. Its viability is hampered by problems with its escrow account, contractor fee structure, and loan package inflexibility. The program has performance measures, but has not collected data or set targets yet. It does, however, provide these institutions with more affordable loans than they would have gotten on the open market. Steps being taken to improve the program are also described in the report. 15p.

Subpart 18 - Healthy, High-Performance Schools.
(U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington , 2007)
This portion of federal legislation outlines terms of federal grants to states that can be used to develop healthy, high performance schools. 3p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings. Turning Crumbling Schools Into Environments for Learning. Adobe PDF
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2006)
Describes negative consequences of poor and unhealthy facility conditions, mold, overcrowded classrooms, and noise in schools. Recommendations for federal and state actions to renovate or build new and improved schools using proven, cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions are presented, illustrated with examples from districts around the country. Describes the elements of well-designed, well-built, well-maintained schools. Includes 21 references. 23p.

Where Is the Money? Finding Facilities Funds.
Boggs, Lettie
(COLBI Technologies, Inc., Tustin, CA , Apr 2006)
Describes local, state, and federal funding options for school facilities in California. Local funding sources described includes bonds, school facilities improvement districts, developer fees, community facilities districts, parcel taxes, redevelopment areas, certificates of participation, and lease-lease back. State funding sources include the School Facilities Program, State Emergency Repair Program, State Relocatable Classroom Program, Deferred Maintenance, Facilities Hardship, Pre-School Modernization, and Library Bonds. Federal sources include Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZAB's), E-Rate funds, and brownfields cleanup funds. 13p.

Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 4: Public School Facilities Funding Policies. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve facilities funding. Policy recommendations cover long-term funding sources, the scope and form of funding relationship between state and local school districts, funding allocation for school building improvements and/or new construction and alternative financing methods. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 19p.

The Charter School Facility Finance Landscape.
Page, Barbara; Balboni, Elise; Chae, Clara; King, Katje
(Local Initiatives Support Corporation, Educational Facilities Financing Center, New York , May 2005)
Provides a national directory of private nonprofit and public providers of funding and financing for charter school facilities. Based on research and interviews with over 50 charter school stakeholders, the survey includes descriptions of financing products and geographic markets for the 21 private nonprofit providers currently active in the sector. The report also describes two public-private partnerships that have recently been developed in Indianapolis and Massachusetts. Public initiatives are also detailed, including explanations of and awardee information for two federal grant programs, three federal tax credit/bond financing programs, and an listing of state-level funding, loan, and credit enhancement programs currently authorized in the 41 jurisdictions with a charter law. The report includes available web site and statutory references, with active links in the electronic version. 24p.

21st-Century Schools: School Modernization and Healthy Design.
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2005)
This issue brief summarizes the American Institute of Architects' position that a proper built environment is vital to the health and safety of children and their ability to learn. The AIA recommends that school modernization, repair, and construction must be addressed nationwide and that there is a Federal role in providing assistance, tax incentives, and best practices information for local school systems as they design new schools. This includes a description of actions sought with an explanation and justification. 2p.

Federal Initiatives: An Overview.
Sullivan, Kevin; Utt, Ronald; Canavan, Bob; Houser, Jim; Strizzi, Sara
(American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Feb 2005)
Describes public-private partnerships and federal efforts for school modernization. 3p.

Detailed Information on the Impact Aid Construction Assessment.
(U.S. Office of Management and Budget,, Washington, DC , 2005)
Reports on the program to provide grants to districts that lose revenue due to the presence of children who live on or whose parents work on federally owned land in the district, which is exempt from local taxes. The program is not achieving its long-term goal, but data are showing improvement. The program has increased the percentage of schools receiving grant funds that report the overall condition of their school buildings as adequate from 44 percent in 2001 to 52 percent in 2005, and aims to have 61 percent of districts receiving funds reporting adequate conditions in 2007. The program is managed well and program managers have consistently sought ways to make the program more effective and efficient. 12p.

National Spending on Capital Outlay. Spending on Capital Outlay and Interest on School Debt: 1919 to 2000 (Local, State and Federal)
(Education Commission of the States. Data from the Digest of Education Statistics 2002, published by the National Center for Education Statistics, 2003. , Feb 2004)
This table illustrates the breakdown of total capital outlay spending for education facilities from 1919 to 2000. It includes figures on: 1) Capital Outlay; 2) Interest on School Debt; 3) Capital Outlay as a % of total education spending; 4) Interest on School Debt as a % of total education spending; and 5) Capital Outlay & Interest as a % of total education spending.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools: Expenditures in Selected Schools Are Comparable to Similar Public Schools, but Data Are Insufficient to Judge Adequacy of Funding and Formulas. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Sep 2003)
Reports that the Dept. of Interior, which administers Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Schools, does not collect and therefore has little data on which to base its school budgets. The researchers learned that BIA schools spent less on instruction and more on facilities than comparable public schools, and their transportation budgets did not cover actual costs. However, the goal of determining adequacy of these funding formulas was not achieved due to lack of data. 57p.

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals.
Boren, Susan
(Congressional Research Service , Aug 28, 2003)
Summarizes the federal government's role in direct and indirect financing of school construction and renovation, which continues to be an issue in Congress. Also discussed are recent upward revisions in the federal government's estimates of school construction needs, the general age of schools, enrollment projections, and recent legislative action. 6p.

ABC's of School Funding. [Qualified Public Education Facility Bonds] Adobe PDF
Skinder, Karen
(U.S.Internal Revenue Service, Washington, DC , 2003)
Qualified Public Education Facility Bonds (QPEFs) are a potential funding mechanism for both charters and public schools. QPEFs are a type of exempt facility bond created under section 422 of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. QPEFs allows state or federal agencies to enter into a public-private partnership with a for-profit organization, under which the for-profit agrees to construct, rehabilitate, refurbish or equip a public school facility. The bond proceeds are loaned to a private, for-profit corporation (developer) who owns the school facility and leases it to a public school. At the end of the lease term, ownership of the school facility is transferred to the public school for no additional consideration. This information packet includes; 1) IRS technical information on QPEFs; 2) a reprint of the Heritage Foundation report "How Public-Private Partnerships Can Facilitate Public School Construction" by Ronald Utt, and 3) IRS Form 8038, Information Return for Tax-Exempt Private Activity Bond Issues. 30p.

Building a Third Way on School Construction. Getting Past a Broken-Down Debate to Fix Broken-Down Schools.
Mead, Sara
(Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. , Nov 2002)
This policy report reviews the history of the six-year debate over the federal role in school construction that continues to be centered on the details for various tax credit proposals, including whether or not Davis-Bacon wage requirements would apply to these projects. This also discusses the difficulties charter schools have accessing facilities financing due to their brief operating histories, length of charters, and a high risk factor. This report makes two suggestions: 1) break the link between charter facilities aid and school construction and fund the so called Carper-Gregg initiatives, which authorize federal funds to serve as credit enhancement and to match state charter school facilities funding; and 2) establish State or Regional Infrastructure Banks as a broad federal approach to school construction. 6p.

Early Returns: Tax Credit Bonds and School Construction. Adobe PDF
Mead, Sara
(Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, DC , Sep 2002)
A small federal program piloting tax credit bonds to support school construction, the Qualified Zone Academy Bond (QZAB), has existed since 1997--providing evidence of how tax credit bonds could work. This paper analyzes the results of QZABs to date. The report concludes that, in the absence of more substantial federal assistance, QZABs play an important role in helping needy districts build and maintain school facilities, even though they are not the most effective long-term solution to the problem. The report recommends that the QZAB program, with some modifications, be continued while encouraging Congress to enact a more robust, durable school construction program focused on flexible and accessible initiatives. For example, state infrastructure banks, a promising remedy to the core problem of capital access for public schools, should be explored to replace current tax credit bond programs. 10p.

D.C. Public Schools' Modernization Program Faces Major Challenges. Testimony before the Subcommittee on the District of Columbia, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Statement of David E. Cooper, Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Adobe PDF
Cooper, David E.
(United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Apr 25, 2002)
This Congressional testimony focuses on the challenges faced by the District of Columbia in modernizing its public schools. Specifically, it addresses: (1) increases in the cost of modernizing the schools; (2) delays in completing the schools; (3) quality inspection problems; and (4) concerns about managing asbestos hazards. The testimony concludes that although the school system, with the Corps of Engineers' assistance, has accomplished much in the last few years, the modernization program will cost significantly more and take longer to accomplish than originally projected. It asserts that the school system needs to revise its plans to reflect these realities and to fully fund asbestos management activities this year and ensure that sufficient funding is budgeted in future years. 10p.
Report NO: GAO-02-628T

BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, Sep 2001)
The federal government has direct responsibility for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) school systems. This report provides information on student academic performance, teacher staffing, access to educational technology, condition of facilities, and expenditure levels in BIA and DOD schools. In addition to examining low student achievement, this GAO study gives considerable attention to deficiencies in the quality and safety of some BIA school buildings. This report estimates that the backlog of deferred maintenance and repair work on BIA school facilities would cost nearly $1 billion to address. 79p

New Tax Law Boosts School Construction with Public-Private Partnerships. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1463.
Utt, Ronald D.
(The Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC , Aug 2001)
This report describes a provision in a tax bill implemented in June 2001 that allows towns and cities to build public school facilities faster, better, and less expensively by forming public-private partnerships with qualified real estate investors and developers. Private sector investors can fund construction, then lease the facilities to public school systems at annual costs below the costs communities would incur if they built the schools themselves. Benefits of public-private partnerships include more timely school construction, lower costs through competition, and savings through maximum use of school facilities. Communities benefit from off-hour use of school facilities (e.g., for day care services, supplemental education programs run by private organizations, adult education programs, civic events, and religious events). Because the concept of public-private partnerships for school construction and ownership is flexible, various other innovative subcontracting arrangements could be devised to help address a community's educational and service needs (e.g., using the partnership approach to acquire state-of-the-art music facilities, to upgrade cafeteria kitchens, or to improve sports facilities). The report presents experiences with such partnerships in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It describes partnership schools as alternatives to smart growth restrictions. 10p.

Funding School Renovation: Qualified Zone Academy Bonds vs. Traditional Tax- Exempt Bonds.
(Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Washington , Jul 25, 2001)
Outlines the $1.6 billion Qualified Zone Academy Bond (QZAB) program and provides estimates of the implicit borrower subsidy and the estimated federal revenue loss arising from the tax credits it provides. QZABs are debt instruments that local education agencies sell to finance school renovation and modernization. The interest on these bonds is paid by the federal government through tax credits to the bondholder. The bond-holders are allowed to apply the credits to their federal corporate income tax or alternative minimum tax liability. 6p.

School Construction. Policy Report.
Mead, Sara
(Progressive Policy Institute, 21st Century Schools Project, Washington, DC , Jun 2001)
This paper discusses the policy and political issues surrounding school construction, and it illustrates how infrastructure banks would work to address this challenge. The paper explores the problems of overcrowding and crumbling schools, details the struggle many communities and States have in expanding their efforts to solve these problems, and reviews the policy and political issues within the current school construction debate. The author argues for the establishment of State or regional school construction infrastructure banks to help capitalize and leverage State and local resources and ensure customization and flexibility for the variety of schools that exist. The paper also explains how school infrastructure banks are the most efficient vehicle that the federal government can use to empower States and communities to address their new facilities issues. The report includes 14 endnotes. 12p.

School Renovation, IDEA and Technology Grants Fact Sheet.
(U.S. Department of Education, Educational Technology, Facilities, and Partnership Programs, Washington, DC, May 02, 2001)
The FY 2001 Omnibus Appropriations Act provided $1.2 billion for grants to local educational agencies for urgent school renovation, activities authorized under part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), technology activities related to school renovation, and charter school facility financing. Out of this total, nearly $1.1 billion was distributed to States based on Title I Local Educational Agency (LEA) grant shares, with a small State minimum of one-half of one percent. The remainder was reserved for Indian districts, the outlying areas, and charter schools.

Overview of Present Law and Issues Relating to Tax and Savings Incentives for Education. Adobe PDF
(Joint Committee on Taxation, Washington, DC , Feb 14, 2001)
The Senate Committee on Finance held a public hearing on issues relating to education savings incentives, education financing, and school construction financing proposals. Topics discussed include tax benefits for certain types of bonds for educational facilities and activities. 34p.

School Renovation, IDEA, and Technology Grants Program: Guidance for Fiscal Year 2001.
(U. S. Department of Education , 2001)
Guidance for applying for and using School Renovation, IDEA and Technology grants that are designed to help local educational agencies (LEAs) make school repairs and renovations and meet special education and renovation-related technology expenses. [Federal funding was available for this program only in 2001]. 21p.

Charter Schools: Limited Access to Facility Financing. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Sep 2000)
This report determines the degree to which charter schools have access to traditional public school facility financing, and whether alternative sources of facility financing are available to charter schools. Further discussed are potential options generally available to the federal government if it were to assume a larger role in charter school facility financing. It reports that charter schools generally do not have access to municipal bonds, the most common source of facility financing, and that charter schools that are part of local school districts might not share in local or state school construction funds. State charter school laws vary, and few of them address facility financing or provide funding for school construction or improvements, purchasing, or leasing buildings for use by charter schools. Sources of charter school financing include allocation of education funds from state, loans, and private donations; however, such funding may not adequately cover costs or are not widely available to charter schools. The federal government can broaden its role in financing charter school facilities through grants, direct loans, loan guarantees, loan pools, tax-exempt bonds, and tax credits. Appendices provide a comparison of state legislation on charter school independence, a summary of state legislation on how charter schools obtain facilities, and comments from the Department of Education. 28p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-00-163

Fixing Our Schools Now! Qualified Zone Academy Bonds: A New Approach to Financing School Renovation and Repair. Adobe PDF
Riley, Richard W.; Frost, Susan ; Brennan-Gac, Patricia
(U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC , Apr 2000)
This booklet examines the Federal government's Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZABs) system for helping school districts carry out needed school renovations and repairs, discusses why QZABs are good ideas for school districts, highlights eligibility criteria, and provides basic funding information along with state allocations for 1998 through 2000. A school deputy superintendent and a financier provide their perspectives on using QZABs, followed by profiles of QZAB programs to illustrate how school around the country are utilizing QZAB funds. Final sections list state contacts where information related to QZAB issues can be found; a list of cities, counties, or other areas that contain Empowerment Zones or Enterprise Communities; and responses to frequently asked questions. 69p.

School Facilities. Construction Expenditures Have Grown Significantly in Recent Years Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Mar 2000)
A General Accounting Office report examines how states and local school districts have been dealing with the issues facing their public school facilities: (1) the trends since 1990 in elementary and secondary school construction expenditures and how these expenditures were divided between land, buildings, and equipment; (2) trends since 1990 in the amount of expenditures for elementary and secondary schools construction by type of school and type of construction; and (3) the amounts and mix of state and local funding for elementary and secondary school construction. Data show a 39 percent increase in elementary and secondary school construction annual expenditures. Most of the increase was for new buildings; expenditures for equipment such as heating and air conditioning systems only slightly increased during the 8-year period. It also reveals most of the construction expenditures was for construction of primary schools and high schools, and most of the contract spending for new facilities and additions to existing facilities, with less being spent on renovations. Fifteen states provided little or no funding in 1998-99. Appendices provide the scope and methodology of the research, statistical tables, and comments from the Department of Education. 33p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-00-41

Revitalizing Rural Education. Community Facilities Programs and Organizations Concerned about Rural Education. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Development Service, Washington, DC. , 2000)
This handbook informs school personnel and the business community about the opportunities available to assist rural community's efforts in revitalizing their education systems.The handbook's first two sections examine the different funding sources available for school improvement programs and loan eligibility, and discusses the benefits lenders can realize when providing these loans. The third, and final, section details the components of the Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZAB) financing tool covering eligibility criteria, the required business pledges, how to quality for a QZAB, tax treatments, and benefits to lenders. An example of a QZAB success story is also provided. An addendum lists examples of different community facilities programs. 25p.

Good Enough for Congress? A Pictorial Representation of Why Americans Deserve Better School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(The American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Education, Washington, DC , Oct 14, 1999)
This booklet graphically depicts the current condition of public high schools attended by various members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees, including photos, statistics, and facts about each school and other public education facilities in each member's respective state. The number of schools in the state, total enrollment, state funding for public schools for 1993-94, the total state and local district school construction spending for 1995-96, data on current building conditions and projected needs, and the dollar amount of estimated tax credit bond allocations under legislation introduced in the 106th Congress for each state are also provided. 66p.

H.R. 2389, County Schools Revitalization Act of 1999 and H.R. 1185, Timber-Dependent Counties Stabilization Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health of the Committee on Resources, House of Representatives, 106th Congress. Adobe PDF
(House Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health , Jul 13, 1999)
This Congressional report provides testimony addressing the following two House bills: HR 2389 which restores stability and predictability to the annual payments made to States and counties containing National Forest System lands and public domain lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management for use by the counties of the benefit of public schools, roads, and other purposes; and HR 1185 which modifies the requirements for paying Federal timber sale receipts. Prepared statements and complete texts of both bills are included. 153p.
Report NO: HR-106-45

Hearing on Revenue Provision in President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget. Testimony before the House Committee on Ways and Means. Adobe PDF
Bouchard, Rene
(House Committee on Ways and Means , Mar 10, 1999)
In an address to the House Ways and Means Committee on the Revenue Provision in the Year 2000 Budget, Rene Bouchard, CEO of Steuben-Allegany Board of Cooperative Educational Services, discusses the needs of rural schools and how the Presidents school modernization proposal would help rural schools. Bouchard argues the need for federal assistance to school communities through a change in arbitrage rules and explains how much the public supports federal help to modernize its public schools. 5p.

Hearing on Revenue Provision in President's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget. Testimony before the House Committee on Ways and Means. Adobe PDF
Chico, Gery
(Chicago School Reform Board of Trustees , Mar 10, 1999)
In an address to the House Ways and Means Committee on the Revenue Provision in the Year 2000 Budget, Gery Chico, President of the Chicago School Reform Board of Trustees, discusses four basic characteristics of a good school modernization funding plans and offers observations and recommendations on the two funding proposals currently before the Committee. Attached are photographs renovation work resulting from the Chicago Public Schools Improvement Projects. 9p.

Public School Construction Partnership Act. S 526 IS.
(106th Congress. 1st Session. S. 526. , Mar 03, 1999)
This is the text of a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow issuance of tax-exempt private activity bonds to finance public-private partnership activities relating to school facilities in public elementary and secondary schools, and for other purposes.

Tax-exempt Bond Proposals To Increase Public Elementary and Secondary School Facilities. Statement Submitted for the Hearing Record, Senate Finance Committee
Zimmerman, Dennis
(Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, DC , Mar 03, 1999)
Federal financial support for public elementary and secondary schools has traditionally been minor compared to state-local support; is usually targeted to the disadvantaged, the disabled, system support, and the federally impacted; and does not influence taxpayer choice among capital facilities for different public services. This report addresses the state of public school facilities in the state- local sector and the use of tax-exempt bond proposals that would adjust the current tax treatment of state-local debt to increase federal financial support for school construction. Each proposal is described and its effect on the share of the debt service costs borne by state-local taxpayers. Additionally discussed is each proposal's targeting compared to the targeting of federal on-budget spending for elementary and secondary education. 8p.

How Public-Private Partnerships Can Facilitate Public School Construction.
Utt, Ronald D.
(Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC , Feb 23, 1999)
There is a growing number of proposals to develop a federal school construction program that shares the financial burden with local governments for renovating their obsolete school facilities or building new ones. This report examines public school construction today; the efforts to make school construction a federal responsibility; alternatives to federal and state borrowing, and the advantages and benefits of private-public partnerships in school construction in the United States. Concluding comments examine the federal role in school construction and the legislative direction, as well as the risks inherent in establishing such a role. 19p.

Historically Black Colleges and Universities Historic Building Restoration and Preservation Act
(Report of the House Committee on Resources To Accompany H.R. 1179. House of Representatives, 104th Congress, Second Session , 1999)
This report presents recommendations for long-term federal support of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Formulated by the "President's Advisory Board on Historically Black Colleges and Universities" (formed in November 1993 by Executive Order 12876). Its recommendations urge: (1) increased agency support from discretionary funding; (2) placement of federal centers at HBCUs; (3) HBCU participation in federal programs; (4) strengthening and broadening the undergraduate curriculum; (5) enhancement of doctoral education at selected campuses; (6) development of an urban grant university center program; (7) a role in public health for HBCUs; and (8) improved support for capital projects at HBCUs. Following an executive summary and introduction, sections of the report provide a review of the recommendations of the 1996 report; a discussion of federal agency support to HBCUs; and an explanation of the specific recommendations of this report. Appendices include a listing of the 1996 recommendations, graphs and tables showing federal agency support to HBCUs, and a list of historically black colleges and universities. 43p.

Tribal Consultation, May 1999 Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Education Programs, Washington, DC , 1999)
This consultation booklet provides background information on four items discussed at regional meetings in May 1999. Item 1 concerns tribal application for construction of replacement educational facilities. The BIA developed a streamlined application and instructions and specific criteria for ranking applications on the basis of need. An alternative funding scheme for facilities construction is also described, involving long-term financial partnerships with the federal government. BIA sources of technical assistance are listed. 88p.

Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 106th Congress. CRS Issue Brief for Congress Adobe PDF
Riddle, Wayne; Stedman, James; Irwin, Paul
(Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC , 1999)
This document provides an overview of primary, cross-cutting issues that are likely to arise as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Goals 2000; the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act; and the National Education Statistics Act are considered by the United States Congress for reauthorization in the future. Debate over legislation to reauthorize these programs is focusing on overarching questions concerning the primary purposes of federal aid to elementary and secondary education, its intended beneficiaries and outcomes, and its effectiveness. More specific issues being debated include funding for improvement of infrastructure--both technology and facilities. 10p.

BIA School Construction. Hearing Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, 105th Congress, Second Session on The Current Condition of BIA Schools.
(United States Senate, Committee on Indian Affairs, Washington, DC , Jun 10, 1998)
The Committee on Indian Affairs of the United States Senate sought testimony regarding the current condition of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools; reviewed the BIA selection process for building and repairing these schools; and discussed innovative measures for financing BIA schools. Among the information presented is the presence of a tremendous $1.5 billion backlog of needed repairs, renovations, and replacement for all federally owned and operated BIA schools. Half of BIA schools are over 30 years old, and one quarter of the schools are over 50 years old all of which fail to meet current codes and standards. Overall, BIA schools are generally in poorer physical condition than even central city schools, have less technology than the average American school, and have funding that is equally at crisis levels. Numerous statements and attachments illustrating these observations conclude the report. 446p.
Report NO: Senate-Hrg-105-717

Charter Schools: Recent Experiences in Accessing Federal Funds. Statement of Cornelia M. Blanchette, Associate Director, Education and Employment Issues. Adobe PDF
( Testimony before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate , 1998)
This report presents a study of charter schools' use of startup grants and grants under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). For this research, case studies were conducted in 7 states that accounted for 91 percent of charter schools operating in the 1996-97 school year. The results indicate that these schools used federal startup funds for a variety of purposes, including school equipment and curriculum materials, technology, and facilities renovation or leasing. The findings suggest that charter schools have not been systematically denied access to Title I and IDEA funds and that the barriers charter schools face in accessing these funds appear to have no relation to charter schools' treatment as school districts or as members of school districts. Rather, it is barriers such as state systems that base funding allocations on the prior year's enrollment that have affected charter schools' access to these funds. However, most charter-school operators still believed that Title I and IDEA funds are fairly allocated to charter schools. 19p.

Charter Schools: Federal Funding Available but Barriers Exist. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , 1998)
This report examines how selected states allocate Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds to charter and other public schools and identifies factors helping and hindering charter schools' access to funds in various states. Researchers found that states allocate funds for charter schools either directly or indirectly via a parent school district. About two-fifths of the charter schools surveyed received Title I funds; slightly over half received IDEA funds or IDEA-funded special education services. Most charter schools did not receive funds or did not apply for them. Access barriers included lack of enrollment and student eligibility data to submit to states and the application time and costs considerations. Several states and the Department of Education have begun initiatives, such as alternative allocation policies, to help charter schools access federal funds. 52p
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-98-84

District of Columbia Public Schools: Availability of Funds and the Cost of FY 1997 Roof Projects. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia Committee on Governmental Affairs Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Accounting and Information Management Div., Washington, DC. , 1998)
This document presents the results of a review of the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) efforts to repair school roofs during the summer of 1997. The statement details when funds were made available to pay for roof repairs, the costs of the roof repairs, and additional roofs to be fixed in fiscal year 1998 and beyond. Sufficient funding ($38 million) to begin roof work became available in 1997 and repairs were initiated that summer. A review of construction shows that the DCPS spent $37 million for roof repair in fiscal 1997. The cost included an extensive amount of work to ensure that facilities were structurally sound and watertight. Considering the costs for all the work involved, the average per spare foot cost was about $20. Contracts managed by the General Services Administration averaged $13 per square foot, whereas contracts overseen by the DCPS cost around $22 per square foot. Much of the cost was caused by extensive repairs that were required at particular schools. For fiscal year 1998, the DCPS Capital Improvement Program budget shows that about $35 million will be spent on 40 school-roof projects. 8p.
Report NO: GAO/T-AIMD-98-95

School Facilities. Reported Condition and Costs To Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Washington, DC , Dec 1997)
This report presents information on the funding required to repair Native American educational facilities, the condition the school buildings, adequacy of the school environment for instruction, and the extent to which schools can meet future technology and communication requirements. Compared to schools nationally, it reports that BIA schools are generally in poorer physical condition, often lack key facilities requirements for education reform, have unsatisfactory environmental factors, and are less able to support computer and communications technology. 22p.
Report NO: GAO-HEHS-98-47

A Study of Schools Serving Military Families in the U.S.: Education Quality, Federal Administration, and Funding. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Defense, Education Activity, Washington, Oct 1997)
Describes a study of two federally funded programs that provide for the elementary and secondary education of military dependents who live in the United States. One program, the Department of Defense (DoD) Domestic Dependent Elementary and Secondary Schools (DDESS), provides education for children living on military installations that are adjacent to communities where the local schools had at one time been deemed unable to provide a “suitable” education. The other program complements the DDESS program; it supports the education of military dependents in communities where these children are educated in the local public schools. The report discusses distribution and use of Impact Aid funds to local educational agencies (LEAs) that educate the children of military personnel, and possible transfer of these schools to their respective LEA's. 276

School Facilities: America's Schools Report Differing Conditions. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(U.S. General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC , 1996)
A 1995 General Accounting Office (GAO) study found that about one-third of schools nationwide serving 14 million students reported needing extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings. This document presents findings of a GAO followup study that identified the differences in the: (1) condition of schools; (2) amount of funding needed to repair or upgrade facilities; and (3) number of students attending schools in inadequate condition by the following: location (state and region), community type, percentage of minority and poor students, and school level and size. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of about 10,000 public schools in over 5,000 associated school districts. The sample was derived from the Department of Education's 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey and elicited a 78 percent response rate. The bulk of the study was conducted between January 1994 and February 1995, with additional analyses conducted through May 1996. Schools in unsatisfactory condition are concentrated in central cities and serve large populations of poor or minority students. Similarly, virtually all communities, even some of the wealthiest, are grappling with how to address school infrastructure needs while balancing them with other community priorities. 109 p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-96-103

School Facilities: Profiles of School Condition by State. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC , 1996)
Reports on the conditions of America's school facilities, this report organizes state-level information gathered into individual profiles for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The report presents new information about the roles that individual states play in support of school facilities. Each profile describes the financial and technical assistance provided by each state as well as the facilities information collected and maintained by that state. Each profile also presents the following state-specific results from the GAO's 1994 survey of school facilities previously not available in a state-by-state format: the condition of school buildings and building features; the adequacy of environmental conditions; the extent to which facilities are meeting the functional requirements of education reform and technology; the reported range of amounts needed to bring schools into good overall condition; and the money needed to address federal mandates for managing and correcting environmental hazards and providing access to programs for the disabled. Data were obtained through two separate collection efforts: a 1994 survey of school-building conditions at approximately 10,000 schools; and telephone interviews conducted in 1995 with state education agency officials. 193p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-96-148

Planning and Financing School Improvement and Construction Projects.
Bittle, Edgar H.
(National Organization on Legal Problems of Education, Topeka, KS; Education Law Association, Dayton, OH; American Bar Association, Chicago, IL , 1996)
Although a high-quality learning environment is crucial to educating America's youth, numerous studies have shown that the country s schools are in substandard condition. Suggestions and guidelines to help school administrators, business officials, board members, and others interested in improving school facilities are presented in this book. It opens with an overview of the legal and planning issues that school boards face and provides practical insights from a school administrator for planning and implementing capital improvement projects. It also offers an experienced architect's insights concerning the planning process. Financial concerns that school districts face in planning a capital improvement project are covered, as are considerations for complying with the Americans with Disability Act in building or renovating a building. How to conduct competitive bidding is described, and information on public policy is offered. The last two chapters present a detailed summary of the federal tax and securities laws, which govern the marketing of securities for financing capital improvement projects. It is hoped that this information will help school administrators and others understand the requirements of the federal tax and securities laws. 171p.
TO ORDER: Education Law Association

School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , Apr 1995)
Findings of a General Accounting Office study that examined the extent to which America's schools have the physical capacity to support learning into the 21st century. Specifically, it looked at facilities requirements, environmental conditions, educational technologies, and facility infrastructure. Findings indicate that although most schools met many key facilities requirements and environmental conditions for education reform and improvement, most were unprepared in critical areas for the 21st century. Most schools did not fully use modern technology and lacked access to the information superhighway. Forty percent of the schools reported that their facilities could not meet the functional requirements of laboratory science or large-group instruction. Over half reported unsatisfactory flexibility of instructional space necessary to implement many effective teaching strategies. Overall, schools in central cities and schools with minority populations above 50 percent were more likely to fall short of adequate technology elements and have a greater number of unsatisfactory environmental conditions than other schools. 71p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-95-95

School Facilities: Condition of America's Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, Washington, DC , 1995)
Presents information on the amount of funding the nation's schools need to improve inadequate educational facilities, and on the overall physical condition and prevalence of schools that need major repairs. The data project that the nation's schools need about $112 billion to repair or upgrade facilities. Of this, $11 billion (10 percent) is needed over the next 3 years to comply with federal mandates that require schools to make all programs accessible to all students and to remove or correct hazardous substances. About one-third of the schools, which were distributed nationwide, reported the need for extensive repair or replacement of one or more buildings. Almost 60 percent of the schools reported at leastone major building feature in disrepair, requiring extensive repair or replacement. Most of these schools had multiple problems. 68p.
Report NO: GAO/HEHS-95-61

Technology: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Health, Education, and Human Services Div., Washington, DC. , 1995)
Findings of a national survey of school facilities concerning whether America's schools have appropriate technologies, such as computers, and the facility infrastructure to support these technologies are reported. Ten thousand schools were surveyed, augmented with visits to 10 selected school districts. Remarks address: (1) the need for technology in the nation's schools, and (2) problems schools report having in meeting those needs. It was found that, overall, the nation's schools were not even close to meeting their basic technology needs. Most schools do not fully use modern technology, and not all students have equal access to facilities that can support education into the 21st century, even those attending school in the same district. 26p.
Report NO: GAO/T-HEHS-95-127

Improving America's Schools Act. Conference Report, To Accompany H.R. 6. Adobe PDF
(House of Representatives, 103D Congress, 2d Session , 1994)
This report from the United States House of Representatives presents the complete amended version of the House bill to extend for 5 years the authorizations of appropriations for the programs under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The current reauthorization bill is known as the "Improving America's Schools Act." The first half of the report is divided into five parts, including the School Facilities Infrastructure Improvement Act. 930p.
Report NO: House-R-103-761

Impact Aid: Most School Construction Requests Are Unfunded and Outdated. Report to Congressional Requesters Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, DC , 1990)
The Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (Public Law 81-815) provides federal funds for constructing and renovating schools in districts that educate "federally connected" children, such as those whose parents live and/or work on military installations and Indian reservations. A study was done to review the program for school districts affected by federal activities. It is recommended that: (1) Congress amend Public Law 81-815 to require that school construction payments to eligible districts be based on average state per pupil construction costs; and (2) that the Secretary of Education require school districts to apply annually for school construction aid to ensure that project requests reflect current data. It is further suggested that Congress might want to consider authorizing the Secretary of Education to distribute appropriations among a greater number of projects. 47p.
Report NO: GAO/HRD-90-90

Modernizing Academic Research Facilities: A Comprehensive Plan. Adobe PDF
(National Science Foundation, Jun 1989)
This report, prepared in response to a requirement in the Academic Research Facilities Modernization Act, proposes a plan for the modernization of general research facilities in which academic research is conducted, including research buildings, research laboratories, support rooms, and other institutional or departmental facilities in scientific and engineering disciplines. Federal research facility support programs of the 1960s and early 1970s are described as instrumental in helping to build and strengthen the academic research facility base, while the 1980s have seen few such programs. Recent studies indicate that U.S. academic research facilities have deteriorated and there is a growing need for additional research space. The roles of various key groups in supporting and investing in academic research facilities are spelled out; for example, institutions should consider greater use of debt financing, and state and local governments should encourage partnerships and consortia. A combination of funding support mechanisms should be established to provide the balanced and sustained support necessary to develop modern research facilities. The Academic Research Facilities Modernization Act calls for a competitive grant program for the repair, renovation, and, in exceptional cases, replacement of academic research facilities. Special features of the program are described. The appendix provides program guidelines (a revision of a draft published in the Federal Register April 20, 1989) that describe a two-phase annual proposal cycle for organizations seeking grants for the repair, renovation, or replacement of a research facility or facilities. A 37-item bibliography concludes the plan. 55p.

References to Journal Articles

Funding Building Projects in a Tough Economy
Love, Paula
District Administration; Apr 2012
Outlines sources for hidden funding to help construct and maintain school buildings, including local and state tax revenues, with some limited support from state and small federal initiatives; Local School Construction Bonds and Qualified Zone Academy Bonds; Impact Aid Discretionary Construction Grant Program and the Impact Aid Facilities Maintenance Program; Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program and the State Charter School Incentive Grants Program; Department of Defense Military Construction Program; State Energy Program Grants; Department of Agriculture Rural Community Facilities Program. Also describes competitive grant funds from federal or state agencies or from private grants awarded by community and corporate foundations.

A Look Ahead: Trends 2012
Thorburn, Steven; Schoff, Larry; Ramsey, John; Canady, Mo; and Edelstein, Fritz
School Planning and Management; , p12-16 ; Jan 2012
Experts make projections concerning the education system for the year 2012 in the areas of technology, energy, state and local politics, safety and security, and federal issues.

Outlook 2011.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n5 , p12-14,16-24 ; Jan 2011
Forecasts issues for schools in 2011. Subjects addressed include funding, class size, bond issues, community colleges, security, construction, sustainability, maintenance and operations, technology integration, and enrollment.

Outlook for Education in 2011.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p6 ; Jan 2011
Describes the impending decrease in federal assistance to states, and cuts made at state levels in response.

Reincarnation of Rebates. [New Energy Efficiency Programs and Financing Mechanisms Available.]
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p37,38,40,42 ; Dec 2010
Discusses the recent surge in rebates for energy-saving building upgrades. Funds and tax-credits are made available by utilities and governments at all levels. Measurements and documentation to prove savings are addressed. Four recently developed rebate programs, as well as four novel financing strategies are also described.

ARRA Funds Empower Schools to Power Down.
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v46 n10 , p34-36,38,39 ; Nov 2010
Describes the use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds in several states to improve school facilities. Kentucky's hiring of 36 energy managers, solar energy projects in Idaho, a wood chip heating system in New Hampshire, and energy-efficient upgrades in Virginia schools are described.

DoDEA Begins School Year with Facilities Renovation and Construction Initiative.
DoDDS Europe; Oct 08, 2010
Describes the Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) 2010-2011 major facilities renovation and construction initiative that will eventually result in the modernization of 134 schools worldwide.

Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v197 n10 , p34-26 ; Oct 2010
Profiles school construction and renovation funding that is available from the federal government. Details and procedures for the Qualified School Construction Bonds (QSCBs), Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZABs), and Eddie Tech are described, along with some school districts' experiences with these programs.

Revenue Enhancement-The Other Side of the Coin.
Cox, Ron
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p12,13 ; Jun 2010
Describes how the Missouri's Lee's Summit School District cut costs and even made money by recycling, replacing its gas-powered vehicles with electric (with a federal grant), and accessed national auctions to receive bids on its surplus equipment, which also reduced storage costs.

Qualified School Construction Bonds: One School District's Experience.
Morstad, Lisa
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p18,19 ; Jun 2010
Uses the example of Arkansas' Fayetteville School District to describe how a Qualified School Construction Bond was used to renovate a high school, even though the voters rejected an increased millage to pay for a new facility.

New Ways for School Districts to Issue Bonds under the Recovery Act.
Cowburn, Laura; Phillips, Kenneth; Unkovic, David
School Business Affairs; v76 n2 , p14,15 ; Mar 2010
Describes various federal bond programs favorable to school construction. Build America Bonds and Qualified School Construction Bonds are addressed.

Stimulus Response.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n7 , p16-18,20-23 ; Mar 2010
Discusses distribution of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds through the educational community, describing how some building programs have been enabled by grants and various low- or no-interest bond programs.

New Deal for Community Colleges.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v13 n3 , p22,24,26 ; Mar 2010
Highlights features of the American Graduation Initiative (AGI), which promises unprecedented federal support to community colleges. The 10-year program includes $2.5 billion for construction and renovation.

Qualified School Construction Bonds (QSCBs.) Adobe PDF
Moore, Kathleen
Cash Register; , p5. ; Mar 2010
Author describes how California will benefit from a new state law that clarifies that the California Department of Education and the California School Finance Authority, under the Office of the State Treasurer, are authorized to allocate federal Qualified School Construction Bond tax credits to local educational agencies (LEAs) and Charter schools, respectively.

Money Granted.
Sale, Lois; Womack, Jay
American School and University; v82 n7 , p26,28,30 ; Mar 2010
Discusses grant sources for "green" school facility construction or renovation. Matching the grant with the nature of the project and seeking donations, community sponsorships, and in-kind contributions are also discussed.

Facilities Funding Thaws.
Roger Bruszewski; Jung, Sam; Turner, Jeffrey
Business OFficer; Jan 2010
Discusses the trend toward public-private partnerships in higher education construction. Privatized housing is highlighted, as are benefits of federal stimulus funds and the tight bond market. Examples of seven creatively funded capital projects are described.

Ten Stimulating Ideas.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n4 , p16,18,20,21 ; Dec 2009
Briefly describes ten facilities-oriented benefits that can be executed with funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, as well as ongoing bond support and grant programs. This article presents 10 federal stimulus programs that offer education institutions an opportunity to upgrade their infrastructure and stimulate the economy: (1) Qualified School Construction Bonds; (2) Build America Bonds; (3) Bureau of Indian Affairs; (4) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); (5) Race to the Top; (6) Research Facilities; (7) Qualified Zone Academy Bonds; (8) Lunch Program Equipment; (9) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds; and (10) Rural Community Facilities Program.

The Hot Iron. [Saving Money on School Construction.]
Sack-Min, Joetta
American School Board Journal; v196 n10 , p34-36 ; Oct 2009
Discusses current opportunities for renovating schools, emphasizing funds available from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and use of funds to make school buildings more healthy and energy-efficient. Various federal bond programs are also discussed.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722

Opportunity and Danger: The Two Sides of the American Recovery and Investment Act.
Warner, Carolyn
School Business Affairs; v75 n8 , p8,10,12 ; Sep 2009
Presents cautionary advice for school districts receiving funds from the American Recovery and Investment Act of 2009. Careful listening to stakeholders, planning, cautious use of the funds, and thorough documentation are discussed. This is followed by a list four major caveats and advice on the partnership between school business officials and the federal government.

New Money for Labs: Tips for Responding to the Federal Initiative.
Ferrer, Marc
Laboratory Design; v14 n6 , p1-3 ; Jun 2009
Describes opportunities for funding of higher education science facilities, with grants distributed through the National Center for Research Resources. The article describes qualifying projects, application procedures, and criteria for awards.

Aid for Facilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v81 n11 , p16-18,20,22 ; Jun 2009
Reviews potential sources of school facilities improvement funds in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. School facilities needs will have to compete with a variety of other interests seeking funding from state stabilization dollars. Bonding assistance and grants to achieve energy efficiency are also discussed.

Navigating the Stimulus for Schools.
Williams, Isaac
Learning By Design; May 22, 2009
Describes measures educational jurisdictions can take to make the most out of their stimulus funds now, and create the conditions for designing outstanding 21st century schools, colleges, and universities, including: 1) start with pilot projects; 2) re-evaluate the classroom; 3) re-evaluate acreage standards; 4) reconsider property tax funding; and 5) search for community-school partnerships.

Stimulus Offers Funding Support for Ed. Facilities.
Ash, Katie
Education Week; v28 n29 , p1,14,15 ; Apr 2009
Reviews potential sources of school facilities improvement funds in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. School facilities needs will have to compete with a variety of other interests seeking funding from state stabilization dollars. Bonding assistance and grants to achieve energy efficiency are also discussed.

Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools.
Appel, Margo
School Planning and Management; v48 n4 , p46,48,50 ; Apr 2009
Describes opportunities for obtaining funding to create energy-efficient school, emphasizing new federal programs included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, as well as ongoing grants and tax credits. Advice on organizing a strong case for federal and state funding is included.

Education's Shot in the Arm.
Butler, Kevin
District Administration; v45 n4 , p20-24 ; Apr 2009
Describes categories of aid to schools available under the American Recovery and Reinvestment act of 2009. It is recommended that this one-time stimulus should be devoted to nonrecurring items, such as capital improvements.

Sustainable Facilities: Strategies for Today's Economy.
Damon, David
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p28,30,32,34,36 ; Apr 2009
Advises on engaging in and funding sustainability initiatives on higher education campuses. Programs that are eligible for federal support are described, with an emphasis on those that conserve energy or generate energy from alternative and renewable sources. Examples of sustainable building initiatives are also included, along with a review of LEED certification of higher education buildings.

How Much Will You Get?
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Apr 2009
Discusses how funds from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009 may be made available for school facility needs in states that choose to direct them there. Examples of school facility needs in a number of districts that do and do not anticipate receiving federal funds for school facilities are included.

Stimulus to Help Meet the Changing Needs of Today's Students and Communities.
The Education Innovator; v7 n3 ; Mar 26, 2009
This describes funding available from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act(ARRA) to upgrade school and college facilities. Information sources about school facilities includes a description of the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Schools as centers of community is explored.

Finding Funding.
Butnon, Paul
American School and University; v81 n7 , p40,42-44 ; Mar 2009
Identifies sources of funding to help build "green" schools, including federal and state programs, foundation grants, and partnerships with business.

Shovel-Ready Facilities Project Funds Tossed.
Ezarik, Melissa
University Business; v12 n3 , p14 ; Mar 2009
Discusses how higher education facilities funding was eliminated from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).

New Study On School Infrastructure Could Influence Obama's Economic Stimulus Plan.
Science Daily; Jan 22, 2009
Describes how a report by Faith E. Crampton, associate professor in the UWM School of Education, "School Infrastructure Funding Need," written for the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)became a resource for President Barack Obama in considering improvements to school facilities. The study, which documents infrastructure funding needs in each of the 50 states, is helpful in the planning process because it provides the numbers policymakers require.

Cost Concerns, Economic Anxieties Put Construction on Shaky Ground.
Ash, Katie
Education Week; v28 n18 , p1, 10-11 ; Jan 2009
This article reports that years of rising fuel and materials costs, compounded by current budget shortfalls and uncertainty about the marketability of construction bonds, have made school facilities directors eager to reap the benefits of President Barack Obama's economic-recovery initiative, which is slated to include federal money for building and modernizing schools. The Democrats in the U.S. House of Representatives released their version of the bill on Jan. 15. It would set aside $14 billion for local school districts for a school modernization and repair program, which includes technology upgrades and energy-efficiency improvements. Although no official date has been set for final action on an economic-recovery plan, the Senate will also offer its own version of such legislation.

Spending on School Infrastructure: Does Money Matter?
Crampton, Faith
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p305-322 ; 2009
Furthers development of an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital. The author uses canonical analysis, a multivariate statistical approach that allows for multiple independent and dependent variables. Level of student poverty is added as a control variable given an extensive body of research that supports its negative impact on achievement. Descriptive statistics are generated as well as a Pearson product moment correlation matrix to diagnose and address potential issues of multicollinearity and simultaneity. Three national databases are used: United States Census Bureau, US Department of Education s National Assessment of Educational Progress test score data, and the US Department of Education s Common Core of Data. Years analyzed are 2003, 2005, and 2007. The findings indicate that investment in human, social, and physical capital accounts for between 55.8 and 77.2 percent of the variation in student achievement in fourth and eighth grade reading and mathematics. Investment in human capital is consistently the largest influence on student achievement followed by social and physical capital.
TO ORDER:;jsessionid=

School Facilities and Tax Credit Bonds. Adobe PDF
Edelstein, Frederick
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n4 , p14,15 ; 2009
Describes the federal government’s Qualified School Construction Bonds, Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, and Build America Bonds. Details of amounts available, eligibility, and links to application instructions are included.

A Wish List for the New Administration.
Edelstein, Fritz; Robertson, Sue; Bode, Art; Schoff, Larry; Dorn, Michael; Musso, John
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p20-24 ; Jan 2009
Six school facilities experts reflect on possibilites for school facilities improvement from the Obama administration, and on the proposed federal stimulus package. Anticipated improvements include funding for school construction, early childhood education, and technology. Hopes that the funding will be spent on modernization of existing schools, not just repair or new construction are expressed, as is the desire that the funds not be accompanied by excessive restrictions, that energy saving be stressed, that proven school safety programs be promoted, and that the impact of the current global economic crisis be considered.

Getting a Piece of the Pie: Schools Need to Be Proactive, Flexible When Pursuing Stimulus Funding. Adobe PDF
Turckes, Steven
Educational Facility Planner; v43 n4 , p12-15 ; 2009
Outlines how funds from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009 may be made available for school facility needs in states that choose to direct them there. Examples of school facility needs in a number of districts that do and do not anticipate receiving federal funds for school facilities are included. Two types of tax credit bonds are also described, as are steps school districts should take toward receiving funding.

Election Day Follow-Up.
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , p54 ; Dec 2008
Reviews how younger voters in the November, 2008, election helped pass a substantial number of bond issues. Predictions and advice concerning the potential of significant federal funding for school facilities are also included.

Cut the Cost of Borrowing with Zero-Interest Federal QZAB Funds.
Peters, Laurence
School Business Affairs; v74 n11 , p23,24 ; Dec 2008
Explains how the U.S. Government's Qualified Zone Academy Bond (QZAB) loans work, who qualifies, how they are obtained, and what the money may be used for.

Moving In, Moving Out. (How Can Schools Cope with Base Re-Alignments?)
Stover, Del
American School Board Journal; v195 n5 , p18-23 ; May 2008
Discusses school construction campaigns in several school districts anticipating rapid enrollment increases due to expansion of nearby military bases. Problems with the federal impact aid system that funds them are discussed, as are reverse situations where school systems are shrinking due to closure of nearby bases.

Impact Aid Expanded with Construction Revenue Bond Option.
Livingston, John
School Business Affairs; v73 n8 , p32,34 ; Sep 2007
Reviews the creation and make-up of the federal government's Impact Aid program, the revenues from which can be pledged as security for the issuance of bonds. An example of how these funds have been put to work in school construction in Arizona's Whiteriver Unified School District is included, as is advice on considering this process in one's own district.

Federal Legislative Update. Adobe PDF
National Facilities Journal; Post-Conference Edition , p29 ; 2006
Reviews the federal governments efforts to fund school construction, repair, energy assistance, and healthy school environments. Summaries of current and pending legislation and grant programs are provided, as is a description of the actual nationwide need for school facility improvement.

Primer on School Funding.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p20,22,24,26,28 ; Jun 2005
Summarizes state and local school funding sources and the history of direct and indirect federal funding of school construction. Types of federal, state, and private grants are described.

QZAB Program Extended Through 2005.
OCRE Newsroom [Organizations Concerned about Rural Education]; Jan 25, 2005
Allocations of the Qualified Zone Academy Bond (QZAB) program through fiscal year 2005 have been issued to the states by the U.S. Treasury Department with $400 million authorized for each year since the program began in 1997. State education agencies are responsible for assigning the bonds to their local school districts.

Bill Allows Construction Bonds for Indian Schools
Zehr, Mary Ann
Education Week ; , p20, 22 ; Sep 29, 2004
A bill that would authorize Indian tribes to issue school construction bonds has a good chance of passing in 2004. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

New QZAB Rule Would Clarify Steps to Correct Proper Use.
Barnett, Susan Duff
The Bond Buyer; , p5 ; Mar 26, 2004
Discusses changes proposed by the Treasury Department to the qualified zone academy program that would clarify what an issuer must do to protect the tax credit status of its bonds when it has failed to use them for a proper purpose.

No Buildings Left Behind.
Kennedy, Mike; Agron, Joe
American School and University; v76 n7 , p20-25,29,30 ; Mar 2004
Narrates the recent history of school facilities issues, summarizing important research publications of the 1980's to the present. The rising and declining involvement of the federal government is described, along with the summaries of the 2004 presidential candidates' education positions.

Museum, School District Collaborate To Build An Unusual Hybrid.
Gonchar, Joann
ENR: Engineering News-Record; Feb 02, 2004
In South Central Los Angeles, a partnership between the district and a state-owned science museum will result in a neighborhood elementary school with a math- and science-focused curriculum and as a resource center for educators and the local community. The Science Center School project combines an early 20th-century armory with a two-story addition. The $48-million project draws on FEMA funds, several state financing sources, and QZABs (qualified zone academy bonds), a U.S. Dept. of Education program that allows disadvantaged school districts to issue interest-free bonds. The project has no land acquisition costs, since the district will lease the school from the state.

The Forgotten Side of School Finance Equity: The Role of Infrastructure Funding in Student Success.
Crampton, Faith E.; Thompson, David C.; Vesely, Randall S.
NASSP Bulletin; v88 n640 , p29-52 ; 2004
Traditionally, local school districts have shouldered the burden of funding school infrastructure in the name of local control, relying upon local property tax revenues and the willingness of local voters to approve bond issues. Given vast disparities in school districts' property wealth, gross inequities in school facilities will remain without new state or federal funding. With emerging research establishing the critical role of the physical environment of schools in student success, adequate and equitable funding of infrastructure takes on new urgency.

Washington Update.
Edelstein, Fritz; Larock, J. D.
School Planning and Management; v42 n7 , p14,16-17 ; Jul 2003
The main federal support for school modernization comes via the Qualified Zone Academy Board (QZAB) program, which helps districts raise funds and offers low-income schools freedom from bond and loan interest. The Better Classroom Act of 2003 proposes to extend the QZAB program by promoting new school construction. Two other bills currently before Congress would also extend the QZAB program but are considered unlikely to pass.

Modern Schools in the 21st Century. Local, State, and Federal Responsibility.
Canavan, Robert
The State Education Standard; v4 n1 , p24-28 ; Winter 2003
Cites the daunting need for school construction and repair funds. Explains how the federal Qualified Zone Academy Bonds and the America’s Better Classrooms Act allow certain schools to finance the renovating and/or equipping of school facilities on an interest-free basis through the allocation of federal tax credits. Tables list the state allocations for each award.
TO ORDER: NASBE, 2121 Crystal Drive Suite #350, Arlington, VA 22202; Tel: 703-684-4000; Email: publications@nasbe.

Reading, Writing, but No Arithmetic. Spheres of Influence.
Schmidt, Charles W.
Environmental Health Perspectives; v110 n6 , pA306-308 ; Jun 2002
Describes several legislative initiatives concerning indoor school environments, such as the Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2001, and the problem of lack of funding appropriations even for initiatives that gained lawmakers' support.

Law Gives Charter Schools Access to Tax-Exempt Bonds.
Howard, Mark
School Reform News [Heartland Institute]; Apr 2002
A change to federal law permits local school districts and charter schools to enter into public-private partnerships to take advantage of tax-exempt bonds for developing new school facilities as well as renovating, refurbishing, and equipping existing ones. This article includes definitions of a qualified public educational facility, public-private partnership agreement, and a school facility.

Putting School Renovation on a Fast Track.
Sawicky, Max; Harris, Doug
Economic Policy Institute Issue Brief; v167 , 3p. ; Dec 02, 2001
The authors recommend increasing federal funding for emergency school repairs and expanding tax credits on school construction bonds(QZABs). Both programs are targeted to areas most in need of better school buildings, and both programs have significant backlogs of potential projects waiting for additional funds. Expanded funding for these programs would provide a quick stimulus to the economy, while providing a long-term investment in education.

Iowa Is Laboratory for Federal Role In Building Schools.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v21 n8 , p1, 36-37 ; Oct 24, 2001
Describes a "demonstration project" now in its fourth year, set up by Iowa Senator Tom Harkin, that has channeled $37 million to the state for school construction. The program requires local districts to pay for 75 percent of a project, thus keeping most of the obligation local. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Qualified Zone Academy Bonds: A Financing Tool That Works for Schools
Musso, John D.
School Business Affairs; v67 n9 , 69-70 ; Sep 2001
Describes the origin and purpose of Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZAB) and how they work. QZABs were the outgrowth of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 that allowed school districts to borrow money, without paying interest, to fund such educational improvement projects as building renovation, new equipment purchases, and staff development.

New Law Boosts School Construction with Public-Private Partnerships
The Business Journal; Aug 31, 2001
A little-known provision in the major tax bill signed into law will give towns and cities throughout the country the opportunity to build public school facilities faster, better, and at lower cost by forming public-private partnerships with qualified real estate investors and developers. This important reform is encouraged by the provisions of Section 422 of the Economic Growth & Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 that extend the privilege of using tax-exempt private activity bonds to qualified public education facilities.

New Tax-Exempt Bond Program for Public School Construction. Feds Expand School Bonds Rebate Exception. Adobe PDF
Orrick School Finance Bulletin; Jul 01, 2001
Effective January 1,2002, federal tax law will provide two new incentives for school construction. The first creates a new type of tax-exempt private activity bond to encourage faster, more economical construction of public schools by the private sector. The second expands the "smaller issuer exception" to the rebate rules for school construction bonds.

USDA Program Available for Schools, Community Centers.
Organizations Concerned About Rural Education (OCRE) Newsroom; Jul 2000
Article describes community development loan and grant funds available from USDA’s Rural Housing Service that can be used to build schools in rural areas and small towns through its Community Facilities Program. The Community Facilities Program provides a flexible financing program for rural America that is versatile and capable of financing a wide variety of projects, including schools and community centers.

Class Struggle.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n8 , p16-20 ; Apr 2000
Explores the issue of school district financial needs and the construction of school facilities for low income areas. Discussions on state and federal aid are highlighted. Arizona's experience in providing educational equity by revamping its old system of paying for school construction is discussed.

QZABs: An Underutilized Resource for Renovating Poor Schools.
School Board News; Feb 22, 2000
About 100 school districts nationwide are renovating schools with federal assistance through Qualified Zone Academy Bonds (QZABs), but many others have not taken advantage of this program because they don't know about it. Twenty states haven't even implemented the program and will lose their allocations if school districts don't apply before the program expires.

Taking Care of Business.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n1 , p52-53 ; Sep 1999
Examines one Pennsylvania school district's efforts to upkeep and improve its 30- to 40-year-old school facilities that required no tax increases for 6 years. Highlighted are the district's use of the Federal Land Reuse Authority to transform abandoned government property to private use and utilizing the help of the community to provide mutually beneficial services.

Pork-Barrel Spending on Academe Reaches a Record $797-Million
Brainard, Jeffrey; Cordes, Colleen
Chronicle of Higher Education; v45 n46 , a44-a47 ; Jul 23, 1999
For the 1999 fiscal year, Congress earmarked specific spending measures that included at least $797 million for projects involving colleges and universities, a 51% increase over 1998. Earmarks are seen by some as inequitable because they are not subject to competitive, merit-based reviews typically used by federal agencies to distribute money for research, facilities, and other projects.

Construction Poses Extra Burden For Impact-Aid Schools.
Sack, Joetta L.
Education Week; v18 ; Jun 02, 1999
Many districts nationally have problems finding funding to build and renovate their facilities. But school construction puts impact-aid districts--particularly those with high numbers of students from federal properties--at the mercy of their federal allocations. Because they have little or no tax base, such districts often are unable to raise revenue through bonds or to take out loans for building projects.

Tattered Promise.
Schnaiberg, Lynn
Education Week; v18 n25 , p40-47 ; Mar 1999
Examines why tribal leaders are saying that deteriorating Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools are a symbol of the Federal government's unfulfilled pledge to the education of Native American children. The Santa Fe Indian School is discussed to illustrate the numerous safety and deterioration concerns faced by the BIA and the BIA's difficulties in fulfilling Native American educational needs.

Making the Grade: Can BIA Schools Educate Today's Kids in Yesterday's Classrooms?
American Indian Report; v14 n11 , p12-15 ; Nov 1998
Ninety percent of the 185 Bureau of Indian Affairs' schools have at least one serious environmental problem. Two-thirds of schools lack infrastructure to connect to the Internet. Tribes and states need to lobby the Senate Appropriations Committee for funding. Sidebar tells of successes, despite the problems, at Santa Fe Indian School (New Mexico) and Tiospa Zina (South Dakota).

Rundown Schools: Whose Responsibility?
Dahlkemper, Lesley
State Legislatures; v23 n8 , p15-19 ; 1997
Discusses the problem of school deterioration and why it happened, the costs for repair, and the lack of federal relief in correcting it. Arizona's state funding effort for school maintenance and repair and the legal hurdles faced in developing plans for that purpose are examined.

Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.
Moseley-Braun, Carol
School Planning and Management; v36 n1 , p.10-11 ; Jan 1997
Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect learning.

The Federal Influence: Initiatives and Implications Affecting Planning and Designing of Public School Facilities
Chase, William W.
Educational Facility Planner; v20 n2 ; Mar-Apr 1982
Chase provides an overview of federal legislation that affects school building design and operation, such as the Occupational Health and Safety Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and Title IX, among others.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).

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