NCEF Resource List: School Facilities Assessment
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Information on assessing school and university buildings for construction, repair, and facilities management purposes, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Recovery School District. Construction Compliance Audit Adobe PDF
(Louisiana Legislative Auditor, Jun 13, 2012)
Compliance audit of New Orlean's Recovery School District’s (RSD) Capital Construction Program to analyze planning, design, construction, and project management and to determine adherence to contractual obligations of all contracted parties during its execution. For the period August 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012, construction projects were analyzed with obligated funds totaling $210,168,688. The audit recommends that RSD should tighten controls over contract changes that drive up costs at some school construction sites, and policies for testing of construction materials also needed improvement. 19p

Oklahoma Green Schools 2012 Energy Assessment--Summary of Results Adobe PDF
(Brendle Group, May 2012)
Summary report outlines the results of energy assessments of 20 green schools and associated analysis. Data presented includes the following: utility use and cost totals for each school; utility use indices and benchmarks; efficiency opportunities identified, including savings projections and estimated capital costs; and total quantifiable savings identified through this project. Cumulatively the assessment team identified 1,755,900 kWh of electric savings per year and 1,441 Mcf of gas savings per year. Total annual estimated savings were $147,600 per year, and with a total estimated capital cost of $1,073,400 and $90,620 in estimated utility incentives, a combined simple payback of 7 years. There is a summary of additional opportunities schools can consider to further enhance their overall energy efficiency. This report concludes with a discussion of next steps for the schools and the Oklahoma Green Schools Program as a whole.

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

2011 Kentucky Facilities Inventory and Classification System Project Report Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Department of Education, Dec 2011)
According to this report, some 500 state schools need moderate to major repairs. And while $3.7 billion is needed to fix them, money is limited. This project was undertaken as mandated by 2010's Senate Bill 132 to assess the physical condition, educational suitability, and technology readiness of the schools relative to Kentucky's regulations and standards. Independent, onsite evaluations were performed in 146 districts for 485 instructional programs housed in 477 school buildings across the state. The schools evaluated had a previous designation as a Category 3 or Category 4 building as of September 2010. The reports show the list of schools with Kentucky School Scores and the individual School Reports with details of the assessment, such as general school information, deficiencies identified, educational suitability and technology readiness criteria evaluated.

Maryland State School Facility Inventory.
(State of Maryland Public School Construction Program and local Boards of Education. , 2011)
Provides a listing of every school facility owned by the local Maryland Board of Education. A user is able to search for facilities by county name or by school name. If a user is unsure of the actual name of a facility, the user can enter the part of the name that he/she is sure of and a listing of all facilities with the partial information will be displayed. The data for a specific facility is divided into six tabs. The tabs are: 1. Site Information, Grade Levels, Adjacent Schools, Square Foot History, Enrollment, and Remarks.

Utlization of PS 15. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , Apr 13, 2010)
Summarizes an analysis of space utilization of Brooklyn's PS-15 elementary school, a facility that houses a traditional and a charter school, as well as community services. The report reveals that the traditional classrooms are typically undersized and crowded, while the charter school classrooms are somewhat better. The report also addresses space for special education, impending issues for shared spaces (cafeteria, gymn, auditorium), and the inadequacy of the school library. 6p.

Colorado Statewide Financial Assistance Priority Assessment FY 2009-2010. Adobe PDF
(Public School Capital Construction Assistance Board. Colorado Department of Education , Mar 2010)
As a result of the Building Excellent Schools Today (BEST) Act, the Public School Capital Construction Assistance Board (CCAB) conducted a Financial Assistance Priority Assessment of public school facilities in Colorado for the period FY2009–2010 to address the considerations set forth in section 22-43.7-107 C.R.S1. The Assessment of approximately 8,419 facilities in 178 School Districts included main buildings, leased buildings, temporary classroom facilities, mini-buildings, school sites, athletic fields, athletic facilities, and other support buildings. Assessment findings are based on the Public School Facility Construction Guidelines as established in 22-43.7-107 C.R.S. that address health and safety issues, education technology requirements, site requirements, energy performance requirements, functionality or suitability issues, capacity requirements, accessibility issues, and historic significance considerations. The Assessment addresses needs for two time periods, the Current Period and the Forecast Period. The Current Period is the present year plus three forward years—in this report 2010–2013. The Forecast Period includes the five years following, 2014–2018. [Authors' abstract] 143p.

General Fire Requirements: Self Inspection Checklist.
(State of New Jersey Dept. of Education, Trenton , Mar 2010)
Provides a 31-item checklist for fire safety in schools, in accordance with New Jersey regulations. The checklist covers access, storage, fire supression systems, decorations, and facility condition. 5p.

21st Century Classroom Assessment Tool. Adobe PDF
(CDW-G, Vernon Hills, IL , 2010)
Offers three survey instruments to assess the extent and adequacy of classroom technology. The survey instruments are for students, faculty, and IT staff. Implementation and reporting advice are included. 29p.

Collaborative for High Performance Schools Operations Report Card.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA, 2010)
Provides a tool to benchmark the current performance of existing schools, provide a report card of results and make suggestions for improvement. Assessments take place in five categories: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, visual comfort, indoor air quality, and acoustics. The ORC is an interactive online tool. While designed for district-wide deployment over multiple school sites, it is also usable by single public schools, charter schools, and private schools.

Hawaii School Inspection Handbook
(Hawaii State Department of Education, 2010)
Provide Hawaii's forms and standards for school inspection, covering ground, exteriors, interiors, and sanitation. A form for an action plan is also included.

Kentucky Department of Education 2010 District & Building Assessments.
(Kentucky Department of Education, Frankfort, 2010)
These building assessments explain the relative building conditions for each Kentucky educational facility using the following descriptors: Excellent (new, generally less than 10 years; Better (generally 10-20 years old; Good/Average (20-30 years old); Fair/Poor (30-40 years old, needs renovation); and Poor (older than 40 years old). The accompanying "District Assessment Map" explains the relative district assessment for each district by using the following descriptors: Green-Districts with limited facility needs, Yellow-Districts with moderate facility needs, and Red-Districts with significant facilty needs.

Older and Historic Schools: Restoration vs. Replacement and the Role of a Feasibility Study. Adobe PDF
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , 2010)
Provides a checklist to help create a complete and fair feasibility study when deciding whether to restore or replace an older school. Selecting the proper consultant, proper accounting, building codes, public participation, cultural and historic significance, site plan, scheduling, and educational programming, components of the study, and steps in executing the study are addressed. 7p.

Rural School District Enrollment and Building Capacity: Projections for the Next 10 Years. Adobe PDF
Yan, Wenfan
(Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Sep 2009)
Research was conducted to provide a perspective on the potential building needs of Pennsylvania school districts over the next 10 years. The researcher developed an inventory of school buildings in rural Pennsylvania through a survey of rural school districts, analyzed enrollment trends for rural school districts over the next 10 years, developed a statistical model to examine future building needs, and determined whether school districts will be at risk of under- or over-capacity. The findings provide a complex portrait of Pennsylvania’s current rural school building conditions and projections of building use over the next 10 years. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends the following policy considerations: 1)The Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) and school districts should consider establishing a reporting system to effectively monitor school building conditions; 2) School districts should consider ways to use under-used school buildings and maximize public use of school facilities; and 3) PDE and school districts should consider the changing face of student learning environments to accurately assess building capacity needs. 16p.

International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES).
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, Paris, France , May 2009)
Provides a guide for those involved in the International Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Quality in Educational Spaces (EQES): national coordinators and research teams, teaching staff, students, school principals, and others. The purpose of this pilot project is to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in educational spaces. The manual describes four research tools: 1) priority-rating exercise for quality performance objectives, 2) educational facility analysis. 3) student and teaching staff questionnaires, and 4) focus groups. For each tool, this manual presents the tool's objectives, research questions, expected response time, step-by-step instructions on how to implement the tool, and presentation of results in the final report. 71p.

Facility Assessment Overview. Adobe PDF
(Howard County Public Schools, Maryland , Apr 2009)
Summarizes the steps taken by an architectural firm to assess the twelve high schools of the Howard County (Maryland) public school system. The assessment was divided into two components: a program assessment to identify how well each building is supporting the delivery of the educational program to the students; and a facilities condition assessment to identify the condition of the physical plant and systems in the buildings and an estimate of the deferred maintenance costs for each building. 4p.

Meeting the State's Future Needs through a Competitive Higher Education Facility and Technology Infrastructure. Adobe PDF
(Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus , Mar 2009)
Focuses on facilities and technology aspects of where Ohio stands in providing higher education services. Five questions form the core of report. These are: 1) Are Ohio's higher education facilities adequate to address the needs of and attract students for the 21st century? 2) What is the condition of facilities, and are adequate investments being made to protect the state's assets and benefit students? 3) Can recent trends in funding higher education capital projects, including institutional debt, continue? 4) Do current rules, regulations and practices inhibit the cost effectiveness of facilities construction? and 5) How is technology being used to serve current and prospective students? The report concludes that Ohio's substantial facility and technological assets must be utilized to a greater extent and in different ways than in the past. Trustee stewardship of facility assets are applauded, but larger investments are needed to address deferred maintenance, technology upgrades, building retrofits, and new facilities needed to accommodate program expansions for science, technology, engineering, math and health professions. State regulations, particularly in construction, can be modified in ways that result in high quality facilities at a lower cost. 32p.

Assessment Tool: 2009 Edition, Criteria for New Construction, Major Modernizations. Adobe PDF
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA , 2009)
Provides an update to Massachusetts Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Criteria, a green building rating system designed specifically for Bay State schools. The update reflects a move by CHPS to provide a core of green building benchmarks to states known as the "CHPS National Core Criteria" that can then be adapted by states. The new Core Criteria focus on not just the design of the building, but also pre-design planning, and the occupancy of the school. It also includes benchmarks for the building's site selection, water efficiency, acoustics, daylight in classrooms and environmentally-friendly building materials. 206p.

National Green School Coalition: Helping Schools Build Healthy, Sustainable Learning Environments
(National Green School Coalition, 2009)
This organization offers a "green" school certification process that starts with an assessment that credits all the environmental efforts made so far. The second phase is the gradual introduction of appropriate green practices that can be phased in over a period of one year.

Capital Needs Assessment Survey Results. Adobe PDF
(Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield , Dec 2008)
Presents the results of a 2005 capital needs survey of Illinois schools that reveals how much new construction, and repair and renovation are needed, as well as numbers of temporary classrooms in use to ease overcrowding. 4p.

Building Minds, Minding Buildings: School Infrastructure Funding Need, A State-by- State Assessment and an Analysis of Recent Court Cases. Adobe PDF
Crampton, Faith; Thompson, David
(American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC , Dec 2008)
Reports on a study that aimed to estimate the current level of school infrastructure funding need in all 50 states, on a state-by-state basis, to compare these estimates to those of a similar 2001 assessment, and to determine the impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. The report concludes that the total estimated national need is approximately $254.6 billion, representing a 4.3 percent decrease from 2001. Also examined are the nature and impact of recent court cases that have addressed school infrastructure. Includes major policy recommendations that the federal government assume a strong leadership role and direct funding to states. 82p.

K-12 Public Schools Facility Condition Assessment, A/E Project #26-30-03. Adobe PDF
(State of Montana, Dept. of Administration, Architecture and Engineering Division, Helena , Jul 2008)
This survey of Montana's public schools revealed that more than 95 percent of Montana's school facilities are in good or fair condition. The first phase of the survey was completed online by individual school districts. The second phase consisted of site surveys at each school. The study focused on facility condition, educational characteristics of buildings, energy use and technology equipment. The study revealed that there are only 45 school buildings in use built before 1910, and the largest period of school construction growth was from 1950 to 1970. In the past decade, 42 schools or school-related buildings have been built in Montana. The largest structural problem facing schools is that nearly 60 percent of the damages and worn-out facilities come in the form of floors, ceilings, walls, doors and frames. 59p.

Executive Summary for First Priority Projects (51-100 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 51-100 years. According to the assessment, these first priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 47.81 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to priority one schools is approximately $353.73 million. This cost reflects, to a great extent, the aging condition of facilities. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $163.64 million in additional funding needed over the next ten years. The current FCI of 47.81 percent would deteriorate to 69.93 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility system 10p.

Executive Summary for Second Priority Projects (31-50 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 31-50 years. According to the assessment, these second priority schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 55.53 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to Priority Two school facilities is approximately $1.69 billion. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $497.96 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 55.53 percent would deteriorate to 71.83 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 12p.

Executive Summary for Third Priority Projects (16-30 Years Old).
(Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD , 2008)
Reports on the condition of Prince George's County, Maryland, schools aged 16-30 years. According to the assessment, these third priority Schools have an average facility condition index (FCI) of 51.74 percent, which represents the relative physical condition of facilities (cost of needed repairs divided by replacement value). The total rough order of magnitude budget required to address the current backlog of repair and renovations to the Priority Three school facilities is approximately $77.33 million. In addition to the current backlog, the future continuing aging of facilities and their systems will add approximately $34.99 million in additional funding needed over the next 10 years. The current FCI of 51.74 percent would deteriorate to 75.15 percent if no funding was applied to renew expiring facility systems. 9p.

Facility Inspection Tool Guidebook. Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , 2008)
Assists with school facility inspections, with particular attention to the California Office of Public School Construction's Facility Inspection Tool(FIT). After an overview of health and safety impacts of facility systems and structures, the document provides practical tips on how to conduct a FIT-based inspection, identify and address health and safety problems required by the FIT, recommendations for maintenance and operations best practices, and extensive additional resources and information. 86p.

Family Guide to School Environments. Adobe PDF
(British Council for School Environments, London , 2008)
Assists families in performing an on-site inspection of a potential school. The guide presents descriptions of favorable situations and questions that should be considered while visiting the campus. These questions address the accessibility and safety of the campus, as well as the design of classrooms, availability of technology, the dining environment, the recreation areas, and the design and condition of restrooms and furnishings. 16p.

Master Facilities Plan Evaluation Checklist. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2008)
Provides a tool to assess a master facilities plan as it relates to vision, creation of high quality public education, vibrant and safe neighborhoods, fairness, comprehensiveness, coordination with other agencies, accuracy of data, feasibility, and openness to the public. The assessment tool was created for District of Columbia input, but is general enough to be of use to any school district. 10p.

Primary School Carbon Footing. Adobe PDF
(Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. , Jan 2008)
Presents the carbon footprint assessment of three British schools, built in the late 19th century, the 1970's, and in 2004 respectively. The methodology is described and the three schools attributes on energy use, comfort, lighting, noise, perceived health, and image to visitors are detailed. 12p.

Report on Physical Facilities Including Air Conditioning Feasibility.
(Baltimore County Public Schools, Baltimore, MD , 2008)
Reports on facility condition in Baltimore County Public Schools. The report provides a building inventory that includes number of buildings, square footage, age, work order inventory, and grounds information. Also included are a review of the capital improvement program, feasibility study summaries for school renovation and air conditioning, and abundant before and after photographs. 145p.

Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities
(Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)Programme on Educational Building, 2007)
The OECD Programme on Educational Building brought together experts from over 20 countries to discuss how they define and measure quality in educational facilities. This webpage describes the objectives, provides a list of experts, and includes abstracts, a draft report, and an international Facility Performance Evaluation Pilot Study to be launched in 2007.

Ten Year Facilities Plan. [Idaho] Adobe PDF
(Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise, 2007)
Presents documents suggesting what a ten-year facility plan should include, as well as examples of the various facility plan sections and spreadsheets that can be used to calculate demographic, capacity, and building condition data.

An Assessment of the Quality and Educational Adequacy of Educational Facilities and Their Perceived Impact on the Learning Environment as Reported by Middle School Administrators and Teachers in the Humble Independent School District, Humble, Texas
Monk, Douglas
(Texas A&M University, College Station , Dec 2006)
Investigates the adequacy and quality of middle school facilities in Humble ISD middle schools as reported by the primary users of these facilities, the teachers and administrators. These middle school educators also provide an assessment of the impact that these facilities have on the learning environment. The study also assesses the quality and adequacy of these middle school facilities through a quantitative evaluation conducted by an unbiased assessment team in order to ascertain which factors in each of these six facilities have the greatest quality and adequacy and the impact that they have on the learning environment. This study also investigates the relationship between what educators perceive as adequate and quality facility factors and their perception of the impact that these factors have on the learning environment. Finally, this study reviews any congruency or agreement between educator s perception of adequacy and quality and architect assessment of adequacy and quality. 329p.

Current and Future Facilities Needs of Texas Public School Districts.
(Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin , Oct 2006)
Illustrates in text and charts the results of an extensive survey of Texas public school facilities. The survey addressed the following questions: 1) How many and what types of facilities make up Texas school districts? 2) What was the age and date of the last renovation of all school facilities? 3) What are the conditions of all existing school facilities? 4) What are the average age, number of years since last renovation and condition of instructional facilities? 5) How much permanent and portable instructional square footage is available per student and what is the ratio of permanent instructional square footage to portable instructional square footage per pupil? 6) What is the projected cost of current maintenance needs and how long will it be before the buildings will need to be renovated or replaced? 7) Where are the greatest projected needs for new instructional facilities based solely on growth and when will they be needed? 8) When will instructional facilities need to be replaced? 9) How many and what type of permanent instructional facilities are overcrowded or underutilized? 10) What types of energy management activities are districts carrying out? 106p.

Assessing Secondary School Design Quality. Adobe PDF
(Commission on Architecture and the Built Environment, London, United Kingdom , Jul 03, 2006)
Presents the results of an audit by the United Kingdom s Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) of 124 secondary schools completed between January 2000 and September 2005. CABE assessed the quality of 52 of these, which were selected as a representative sample. The assessment was based on 111 indicators, grouped into three categories: the way the building is designed to be useful as a school (functionality), its building quality, and its ability to create a sense of place and have an uplifting effect on the local community and environment (impact). Each school was then given an overall rating. In this audit, half of the schools completed in the last five years were assessed as "poor" or "mediocre," although there was some indication that the situation was improving in schools from the end of the period. 100p.

Postsecondary Education Facilities Inventory and Classification Manual (FICM); 2006 Edition.
Cyros, Kreon L.; Korb, Roslyn
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC , May 2006)
Describes standard practices for initiating, conducting, reporting, and maintaining a postsecondary institutional facilities inventory. Updated definitions for building area measurements, space and room use codes, and other data elements that are useful for including in a facilities inventory are provided, along with the basic principles for developing a facilities database, guidance on required and optional data elements for inclusion in a facilities inventory, and suggestions for analytic, administrative and comparative uses for facilities data. Issues that are emerging in the collection, maintenance and reporting of facilities data are presented. 198p.

Needs Survey Report. [Massachusetts]
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , Apr 2006)
Presents the result of more than eight months of work commissioned by the Massachusetts School Building Authority to gather statewide baseline data about the general conditions of locally-owned public school facilities throughout the Commonwealth. The data collected are a result of the observations of teams of educators and engineers whose task was to utilize a standard survey to ascertain the general condition of each school in the Commonwealth. Data collectors visited every superintendent in every school district to receive an inventory of school committee-controlled school properties and then visited every one of those school facilities to gather these important baseline data. This report details the following findings: 1) The condition of the 1,817 Massachusetts schoolhouses is generally good. 2) Massachusetts has expended a substantial amount on schoolhouse capital facilities over the past 60 years. 3) A school building boom occurred between 2000 and 2005, even though statewide enrollment has been declining. 4) Almost one-half of the current school facility square footage is new or recently renovated. 5) There is very little temporary space in Massachusetts. 6) Massachusetts schools have been built 32% to 39% larger, on average, than the maximum gross square footage space requirements per student in the Department of Education regulations. 7. Beginning in fiscal year 2008, the reformed School Building Grant program should be able to provide sufficient resources to meet statewide school capital facility need as determined by the Board of the Authority. 138p.

North Carolina Public Schools Facility Needs Survey. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, Raleigh , Apr 2006)
Every five years, local North Carolina boards of education are required by G.S. 115C 521(a) to submit their Facility Needs Assessment (long range plans) to the State Board of Education. The results of this survey assess projected facility needs for the next 5-10 years, and is used statewide and locally. Total estimated costs are $9.7 billion. 7p.

A Review of the School Facilities Construction Commission. [Kentucky] Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Legislative Research Commission, Frankfort , Feb 10, 2006)
Analyzes the impact of Kentucky's School Facilities Construction Commission (SFCC) and other facility funding programs in the state. The study includes a review of school district facility needs assessment procedures, methods of calculating construction and renovation costs, and opinions of school superintendents and others of the SFCC and facility funding in Kentucky. Numerous figures illustrate levels of school facility funding, school condition ranking, per-pupil revenue, and costs per square foot. 131p.

Safe and Healthy School Environments.
Frumkin, Howard; Geller, Robert; Rubin, I.; Nodvin, Janice
(Oxford University Press, New York , 2006)
Explores the school environment using the methods and perspectives of environmental health science. Each section of the book addresses a different concern facing schools today. In the first six sections, the various aspects of the school environment are examined. Chapters include the physical environment of the school, air quality issues, pest control, cleaning methods, food safety, safe designs of playgrounds and sports fields, crime and violence prevention, and transportation. In the last two sections, recommendations are made for school administrators on how to maximize the health of their schools. Appropriately evaluating the school environment, implementing strategies to address children and adults with disabilities, emphasizing health services, infectious disease prevention and recognition, and occupational health for faculty and staff are all addressed. 462p.
TO ORDER: Oxford University Press

Assessing Learning Spaces.
Hunley, Sawyer; Schaller, Molly
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2006)
Describes a multi-factor, multi-method analysis process to assess the efficacy of learning spaces. The assessment process must address whether the assessment focuses on teaching or learning, the audience for the assessment information, and that learning and instruction is no longer confined to the classroom. The discussion then proceeds to internal and external accountability, informal learning, assessment structure and targets, a model for assessing change, person-environment interaction, learning outcomes, and engagement. Assessment methods are described that involve focus groups, interviews, surveys, and photographic studies. An example of an assessment conducted at the University of Dayton is included, as are ten references. 13.1-13.11p.

Capital Requirements Survey. [Colorado] Adobe PDF
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , Apr 2005)
Presents the results of a privately-funded survey of the superintendents and facilities managers of 178 Colorado school districts, with about 59% of the states student population represented in the responses. The report details building ages, construction types, occupancy vs. capacity, physical condition, and educational adequacy. Facilities managers reported about $2.1 billion in capital needs, and superintendents reported about $297 needed for deferred maintenance. Based on enrollment in the districts responding, a capital need of about $5.7 billion and deferred maintenance need of $1.3 billion is estimated. 34p.

School Facility Assessments: State of Colorado. Adobe PDF
(Donnell-Kay Foundation, Denver, CO , Apr 2005)
Provides the results of facility assessments for three schools in each of seven districts. The assessments considered facility condition, educational suitability, technology readiness, site condition, and capacity. Tables present cumulative score ranges and averages, divided by elementary, middle, and high schools, followed by the actual score sheets for each school. 247p.

An Appraisal Guide for Older and Historic School Facilities.
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2005)
Assists in the evaluation of the physical condition and educational adequacy of older and historic school facilities. The authors discuss principles of school facility assessments, the appraisal process, and preparation of the final report. Appraisal criteria include educational adequacy, educational environment, the school site, safety and security, structural and systems condition, and maintainability. A glossary and scoring instrument are included. 50p.

Planning and Managing the Campus Facilities Portfolio.
Daigneau, William A., ed.
(APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA, and National Association of University and College Business Officers, Washington, DC , 2005)
Discusses key elements for managing a higher education institution's facilities portfolio, with three sections presenting issues in the order in which they should be addressed. The first section discusses the importance of an institution's mission and strategic goals, estimating future demand through enrollment forecasting, and the development of a strategic vision for the campus in terms of development of its facilities. The second section reviews the elements of a comprehensive facility assessment, the importance of an "environmental scan" to determine external mandates that will affect capital decisions and the institution's resulting capital plan. The third section covers the essential components of a campus master plan, its financing issues and implementation strategies, and the organizational requirements for effective management of the facilities portfolio. 148p.
TO ORDER: APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA, 22314-2818; Tel: 703-684-1446

Planning and Programming for A Capital Project.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeff
(University of Georgia, College of Education, School Design and Planning Laboratory, Athens , 2005)
Advocates regular school facility assessment and outlines the stages of a capital planning project as steps A-Z-FF, in chronological order. The stages begin with the planning process and end with the completed warranty inspection. 7p.

The Non-Architect's Guide to Major Capital Projects: Planning, Designing, and Delivering New Buildings.
Waite, Phillip
(Society for College and University Planning, Ann Arbor, MI , 2005)
Introduces the steps and sequence of planning, designing, and delivering a capital project. The six stages of the project delivery process (planning or pre-design, schematic design, design development, construction documents, construction administration, and occupancy) are covered in order, with emphasis on the pre-design phase, where non-architects are the most involved. A glossary is included, as are appendices which explain how to interpret architectural drawings, suggest further reading, and categorize design services. Includes 30 references. 128p.

Arkansas Statewide Educational Facilities Assessment-2004. Adobe PDF
(Arkansas General Assembly, Task force to Joint Committee on Educational Facilities, Little Rock, AR , Nov 30, 2004)
Summarizes the state's 2004 assessment of its 6,569 permanent school buildings, with tables displaying numbers of school by type, facility conditions, educational suitability, enrollment growth projections, and associated cost summaries. The cost of addressing current needs of all buildings was determined to be $2.9 billion, with a projected cost over five years of $ 4.5 billion. 71p.

Asset Management Plans. [United Kingdom]
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, England , 2004)
The aim of these documents is to assist Local Authorities in Britain with asset management planning (AMPs) for schools. AMPs set out the information needed, and the criteria used, to make decisions about spending on school premises which will: raise standards of educational attainment; provide sustainable and energy-efficient buildings; provide innovative design solutions that reflect the future needs of technology-based education; increase community use of school facilities; maximize value for money; ensure efficient and effective management of new and existing capital assets; help governors and head teachers in developing plans for individual schools by making fair and transparent the process of decision-making on funding priorities across the Authority; help the development of partnership projects; and provide assurance to stakeholders that capital projects are soundly based and represent good value for the money. The guidance on formulating AMPs is presented in eight sections: (1) the plan framework; (2) property information systems and school premises data; (3, 3a) condition assessment; 4) suitability assessment; (5) sufficiency assessment; (6) appraisal guidance; (7) data analysis.

Creating Connections: The CEFPI Guide for Educational Facility Planning.
(Council of Education Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , 2004)
Guides new and experienced school planners from the conception of educational needs through occupancy and use of the completed facilities. Chapters follow the planning, design, and occupancy processes in sequence as follows: forming the educational plan, creating community partnerships, establishing a master plan, writing educational specifications, addressing design guidelines, evaluating and selecting the site, infusing technology, integrating sustainable design, working with a design team, evaluating project delivery options, identifying cost and funding options, monitoring construction, integrating maintenance and operations, and assessing the completed project. Numerous references, photographs, drawings, figures, and a glossary are included. 386p.

Denison University Learning Spaces Project: Checklist for Improving Your Learning Spaces. Adobe PDF
(Educause, Boulder, CO , 2004)
Offers a checklist for assessing and improving learning spaces. The checklist items address gathering stakeholders to discuss ideas, stating the teaching styles intended for the space, reviewing attributes of the space that are known to affect learning, and gathering the resources needed to implement the plan. A set of guiding principles covering diversity of learning styles, versatility, aesthetics, comfort, technology, and maintenance are included. 4p.

For Generations to Come: A Leadership Guide to Renewing School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , 2004)
This guide provides a framework for community involvement in modernizing or building new public school buildings. The process is broken down into the five steps of assessment, envisioning, planning, development and implementation of the project. The chapters for each step are preceded by an overview of how facilities affect the quality of education and community, and how to initiate the process of improving a school building. 60p.

Schools Asset Management. Data Analysis 2004.
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , 2004)
Provides benchmarks and contextual information on school building condition derived from asset management plan data collection exercises. This will be of interest to those concerned with the planning, provision, and management of school buildings in England. 76p.

Handbook of Facility Assessment
Piper, James
(Fairmont Press , 2004)
This guide is designed for facility and maintenance managers who are facing "repair or replace" decisions for their buildings. Filled with useful information and resources to aid in the decision process, this hands-on reference shows how to accurately rate the condition of existing equipment and components, effectively assess options, and avoid making costly mistakes. Detailed step-by-step instructions are provided, along with forms listing specific criteria identified for rating each building component. 452p.

School Facility Survey. Adobe PDF
(Maryland General Assembly, Annapolis , Nov 06, 2003)
Provides the results of a facility survey of 1342 Maryland schools. Facilities were evaluated against federal, state or local guidelines in 31 areas that covered building condition, environmental quality, size, configuration, accessibility, and support spaces. The criteria against which the schools were evaluted are provided, along with a chart for each school system that shows the percentages of schools not meeting each standard. For ten of the standards, a chart for that standard is provided that illustrates the percentages of failing schools in each school system. 61p.

Asset Management Plans, Section 3a: Getting into Condition. Adobe PDF
(Dept. for Education and Skills, London, United Kingdom , Feb 2003)
Shares good practice in commissioning and carrying out of school building condition assessments. Relates to 36p.

Facility Cost Tracking System. Adobe PDF
(Chicago Public Schools, IL , 2003)
Outlines the criteria and process for the the Chicago Public School (CPS) assessment process, entitled Facility Cost Tracking System (FACTs), intended to develop a comprehensive understanding of the conditions of all their educational facilities and the associated capital improvement costs of repairs and renovations. The assessment process strived to evaluate all building systems in terms of their condition and service life, and to provide: 1) a uniform city- wide assessment to accurately identify schools in need, 2) an updatable platform upon which future re-assessments and capital improvements can be tracked, 3) assessment information on a three- year increment, 4) budgetary costs and project scope for the development of future potential renovation projects, and 5) a usable tool for fiscal planning over multiple years. 28p.

Children's Physical Environment Rating Scale. Adobe PDF
Moore, Gary; Sugiyama, Takemi; O Donnell, Louise
(University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , 2003)
Proposes a 143-item scale for early childhood center directors, educators, policy makers and regulators to assess the quality of the physical environment of childcare, preschool, kindergarten and other early childhood education settings. The Children's Physical Environment Rateing Scale (CPERS) is based on a Piagetian ecological theory of child development and the environment; the research literature including empirical investigations in the United States, Canada, and Australia; the knowledge of many leading childcare researchers, educators, directors and teachers around the world; and childcare and preschool standards in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA. Includes 38 references. 12p.

Educational Adequacy Assessments: Making a Difference Where Our Children Learn.
Wilson, Donald T.
(Magellan K12 Consulting Firm, TX , 2003)
Describes the assessment of educational facilities for adequacy to the educational program, covering issues of capacity, educational program support, technology, security, equipment, physical characteristics, environmental quality, and relationship of spaces. 12p.

Schools Designed with Community Participation. Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Jul 2002)
This publication presents case studies of school buildings to demonstrate the application of a post occupancy evaluation (POE) during various stages of the design and planning process. It explains that because POE is a process for gathering information about a building in use, it can be applied effectively both to renovation and expansion projects and to new construction. The case studies were selected because each addresses community and user participation as an integral part of the school planning process. In Jamestown, North Carolina, a POE incorporating a school building assessment survey was used for the Millis Road Elementary School addition to help architects learn about existing conditions and improvements expected in the new classroom addition. The Davidson Elementary School project in Davidson, North Carolina, linked all stages of the school building process, from user participation in the development of the program to the evolving design solution, and a building evaluation after completion. The Centennial Campus Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina, began with a vision shared by university educators and county school officials about the creation of schools within a school. The Rosa Parks Elementary School in Berkeley, California, (formerly the Columbus School) demonstrated a participatory process that included parents, teachers, children, and community members who initiated and passed a bond measure to rebuild the earthquake-damaged school. The case studies include building plans and photographs. Appendices contain a six-factor school building checklist, a school building rating scale, an inclusive school building assessment checklist, and a classroom arrangement rating scale. 67p.

Myth and Reality: A Study of Excess Space in the District of Columbia Public High Schools. A Case Study of Cardozo and McKinley Technology Senior High Schools.
(21st Century School Fund; Senior High Alliance of Parents, Principals, & Educators, Washington, D.C. , May 2002)
This study involved an in-depth floor space analysis of Cardozo Senior High School, and a review of design plans for a modernized McKinley Tech High School (both in Washington, DC), in order to prompt District of Columbia public schools to develop accurate measurements of useable (i.e., net) floor space, thereby allowing design standards flexible enough to accommodate old and historic schools. Detailed findings from the floor space analyses led to the following recommendations: (1) revise the standard specs to allow greater flexibility so that existing high schools will not face a complete demolition of their interiors at extremely high cost; (2) change the floor space design standard value or eliminate its use altogether; (3) calculate the quantity of net floor space by measuring instructional and administrative space, thereby helping with the determination of enrollment capacities; (4) reexamine the quantity of total existing gross floor space, which is critical to the determination of excess space; and (5) undertake site studies to determine whether structured parking or other improvements are possible to alleviate site constraint problems. (Contains several tables of floor space analysis. Appendices contain floor plans, a list of rooms measured at Cardozo, and a comparison between Cardozo and standard specs of net floor spaces and student capacities.) 43p.

The State of Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the Practice of Educational Design Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Paper presented at the Environmental Design Research Association, EDRA 32, Edinburgh, Scotland. , Jul 05, 2001)
Over the past decade, thousands of new school buildings and renovations have been planned, designed, and constructed in the United States. Of these, only a small fraction will ever be evaluated against the educational needs of students and teachers. This paper reflects on the state of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in the practice of educational facility design in the United States within the context of the "School Construction News/Design Share Awards 2000" program. One of the objectives of this program is to encourage and publicize nationally the value of conducting POEs. The paper provides a description and a comparative analysis of the methods used in each POE, a summary of jury comments, and recommendations for the refinement of the awards program in promoting the POE. 30p.

West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management. Adobe PDF
(Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team, Bakersfield, CA. , Jul 02, 2001)
This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of community support, school safety, facility planning, maintenance and custodial services, facilities financial management, staffing and morale, and leadership. It then provides detailed findings in these areas. Each finding offers the legal standard, sources and documentation, findings, a recommendation and improvement plan, and a rating of standard implementation. 170p.

A Performance Audit of Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools.
(Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, TN , Jan 2001)
Compares the school system's performance to peer school systems and benchmarks. Facilities areas studied include maintenance, transportation, food service, central storeroom, capital projects, finance, and technology. These are measured against policies, procedures, and other standards promulgated by the Metropolitan Board of Education. For each area, major strengths and weaknesses, along with the reasons for them, are described. A long range-planning model, recommendations for improvement, and descriptions of non-compliance, fraud, and abuse are included. 1009p.

School Facilities Needs Analysis. Adobe PDF
(Prepared for the Clovis Unified School District by Michael Paoli and Associates, Fresno, California , 2001)
California school districts are allowed to charge a fee on new residential construction as an alternative to the traditional residential developer fee, if certain requirements are met. This analysis is organized into three sections: 1) an introductory section that sets forth the legal requirements that must be met in order to charge alternative fees on new residential construction; 2)projections of the number of unhoused students attributable to new residences projected to be constructed in the District during the next five years. The allowable building construction, site acquisition and site development costs for the unhoused students are calculated and divided by the projected square footage of residential development to determine the alternative fee; 3) a demonstration that a reasonable relationship exists between the fee and the development upon which the fee is to be charged. Appendices include existing school building capacity, allowable site acquisition and development costs, student generation rates, allowable building construction costs, etc. 19p.

School Building Assessment Methods. Adobe PDF
Sanoff, Henry
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , 2001)
This manual addresses whether schools and classroom spaces enhance or detract from the learning process and provides school assessment guidelines for communities anticipating the expansion of existing schools or the construction of new ones. It is a collection of survey and discussion tools that encourage stakeholders to discover and reflect upon the physical features of school buildings. The manual identifies what works and what does not work in K-12 school buildings. Each assessment tool presented is for a particular purpose. Building surveys focus on the assessment of existing school facilities, while photo questionnaires present alternative spatial arrangements for group discussions. Small group discussions are suggested as an effective method for creating a productive dialogue allowing people to consider many different viewpoints. 41p.

Assessing the Need. Adobe PDF
(Governor's Education Reform Study Commission, Education Facilities Committee, Atlanta, GA , Nov 28, 2000)
This issue paper presents an assessment of Georgia's need for school facilities--both current need as well as the additional need created by law HB 1187. For the purposes of this paper, the current unmet needs are addressed separately from the impact of HB 1187. The pre-HB 1187 needs are identified from the facilities plans in terms of classroom additions, new schools, renovations, and modifications and are expressed not only in terms of units but also in terms of eligible costs at a standard state rate that is applied to all systems. Then, the impact of HB 1187 is examined and an estimate of the additional need for classrooms as a result of HB 1187 is provided. For illustrative purposes only, the number of additional classrooms or instructional units is broken into new schools and additions. No definitive cost estimates are provided at this point until all 180 facilities plans can be examined with local facilities personnel to determine how many of these additional classrooms would be accommodated in new schools. 36p.

Comprehensive Facility Planning. Adobe PDF
(Governor's Education Reform Study Commission, Education Facilities Committee, Atlanta, GA , Nov 28, 2000)
This paper asserts that given the net growth in Georgia's student population and the need to house these students, a logical and systematic approach to disburse state funds based upon an assessment of needs is critical. It explains that a local facilities plan encourages the local school system to look into the future and assess their needs and how they will construct, add, renovate, or modify facilities to meet their future needs. This plan is then used as the basis for funding decisions both at the local and state level. The paper presents some background information related to facilities planning and discusses why planning is important and what triggers construction. Additionally, it provides a history of Georgia state facilities planning and explains in detail a typical local facilities plan and the development process. In the "Current Conditions" section, the paper analyzes current planning in relation to the requirements of the law. The "Findings" section highlights issues that need further consideration. The final section of the paper poses some alternatives for consideration to further improve the planning process and management of planning. 23p.

New Hampshire Public Schools Facilities Adequacy and Condition Study Report. Adobe PDF
(H. L. Turner Group, Inc., Concord, NH; State of New Hampshire Department of Education, Concord , Aug 23, 2000)
This report presents New Hampshire survey data, methodology, and the survey instrument used to measure a school's physical quality and educational effectiveness. The survey instrument collects data in the following categories: school site; building; building systems; building maintenance; building safety and security; space adequacy; and building environment for learning. Questions addressed in each category are included. Survey results from 391 New Hampshire schools are included along with a sample survey. 49p.

Engineering Checklist for Public School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, Division of School Support, Raleigh, NC , May 2000)
This reference document for public school facility designers includes code items, principles that experience has shown to be desirable and practical, and best practices from a variety of professional sources. Organized into the four major engineering categories of electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and structural, these guidelines represent the thinking of a cross-section of design professionals and are consistent with the North Carolina Public Schools Facilities Guidelines. 54p.

Assessing the Fit Between Educational Programs and Older Buildings.
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(University of Wisconsin, Madison , Feb 2000)
Explores the evaluation of an aged school facility's ability to support today's educational programs and ways of enhancing this support through building improvements. Covers national school condition assessments and considerations regarding building new or renovating; presents a methodology for performing a school condition assessment, including economic analysis; offers case studies used during the workshop. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation consisting of 50 slides used in a community workshop. 50p.

Florida Inventory of School Houses 2000. Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Department of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , 2000)
This document presents Florida's educational facility inventory process and guidelines school districts can use for reporting their facilities information. It includes access information to the Office of Educational Facilities Information System program which contains facility information reported by districts for all public schools, and explanations of the inventory update fields for on-line transmissions. Appendices provide examples of plot and floor plans, building types, and corridor loading. Also included are design codes for various school stations for K-12 educational facilities; site size minimum acreage requirements; viewing Florida Inventory of School Houses (FISH) information, update transactions, and on the Internet; and FISH forms. 98p.

Facilities Evaluation Handbook: Safety, Fire Protection, and Environmental Compliance, 2nd edition.
Petrocelly, K. L.; Thumann, Albert
(The Fairmont Press, Lilburn, GA , 2000)
Provides guidance to help plant and facilities managers conduct inspections and evaluations of their facilities in order to pinpoint and solve problems in the areas of maintenance, safety, energy efficiency, and environmental compliance. Describes how to develop cost-effective corrective action strategies. 294p.

School Facilities Report: The Results of a Statewide Survey To Determine the Physical Condition and Capacity of Wisconsin's Public Schools
Soldner, Bob
(Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison, WI , Jan 2000)
Offers survey results corresponding to three basic aspects of Wisconsin public schools: data on the physical structure and mechanical features of the school building, data on school safety issues, and information on the educational appropriateness and suitability of the school buildings. Notes that nearly 27 percent of survey respondents believed their school building to be overcrowded. Appendices provide the school facility survey questionnaire and listings of the 373 school districts and 1589 buildings represented in the survey results. 26p.

The Newark Public Schools Five-Year Facilities Management Plan. Summary Report. Adobe PDF
(The Hillier Group Architects; Newark Public Schools, Newark, NJ , Dec 15, 1999)
This report summarizes the Newark Public Schools Facilities Management Plan that describes the process by which the district assesses projected enrollments and program space needs to support the Core Curriculum Content standards; determines space deficiencies; and analyzes corrective options. The document presents district and plan overviews as well as data collected from the five School Leadership Teams (SLT) that examined school space issues within different geographical regions in the district. Each SLT report includes a summary of existing conditions, physical space analyses and deficiencies, facility operations costs, and deficiency and correction budgets for each school on an item-by-item basis. 190p.

Assessing School Facilities for Learning/Assessing the Impact of the Physical Environment on the Educational Process: Intergrating Theoretical Issues with Practical Concerns. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Sep 17, 1999)
This presentation explores a theoretical framework and a practical procedure for assessing the physical environment of urban schools to identify its perceived impacts on the educational process. Models identified in the literature for assessing the quality of the physical environment for learning are reviewed and critiqued. The assessment model presented offers a practical procedure based on a comprehensive theoretical perspective. The Baltimore City Public Schools Environmental Quality Assessment Project, which included five post-occupancy evaluations were to be used as a test case to illustrate the potential use of the assessment procedure in practice. The presentation concludes by emphasizing the value of institutionalizing an on-going process of environmental quality assessment that has implications for integrating facilities management and educational decisions for the benefit of the educational process. 35p.

Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment 1993 Update [Idaho]. Adobe PDF
(Idaho Department of Education; 3D/International, Inc.; Facility Planners, Co. , Sep 1999)
A comprehensive assessment of school facilities in Idaho was completed in 1993 and included an inventory of school facilities used for instruction purposes, an inventory of technology, an assessment of the physical condition of the schools, and the capacity of permanent school buildings to meet enrollment needs. This report is an update to the 1993 study and addresses health and safety conditions, the status of 71 buildings considered to be in the worst condition, the capacity to meet enrollment, and technology infrastructure. 57p.

Chicago Public Schools Five Year Capital Improvement Program Fiscal Years 2000 - 2004
(City of Chicago; Chicago School Reform Board of Trustees; Chicago Public Schools, Jun 1999)
This document outlines the current assessment and needs of the Chicago Public School's district's buildings as well as proposed plans to meet those needs. Includes an executive summary, capital program, funding sources, capital budget, details of elementary and high schools projects, and summaries of new construction, renovations, and educational enhancements.

Renovating Early and Middle 20th Century Schools [Conference] (St. Louis, Missouri, June 24-26, 1999). Adobe PDF
Biehle, James T.; and others
(Sponsored jointly by the American Institute of Architects National Committees on Architecture for Education and on Construction Management , Jun 1999)
A conference of school architects, construction managers, and school administrators convened to examine the question of renovation or replacement of aging public schools. The panel discussed such topics as turn-of-the-century architectural features and sources of renovation financing. The proceedings contrast the distinguishing characteristics of schools from the early 20th century and the mid 20th century and they address the unique design principles and materials typical of facilities constructed during these eras. Other subjects include evaluation and assessment of existing school buildings; the tools and techniques for condition assessment; management of K-12 renovation projects; construction management as a construction delivery method of school renovation; the role of the architect as construction manager; construction scheduling; renovation programs that preserve valuable resources; and alternative funding possibilities such as public/private development partnerships. 24p.

A Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools.
Tanner, C. Kenneth
(School Design and Planning Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA , 1999)
Design Assessment Scale for Elementary Schools (DASE) assists educators and architects in evaluating, planning, and designing developmentally appropriate learning environments for elementary schools. This article examines the DASE, its introduction and development, and the first step in the instruments validation process, and the initial reliability coefficients. Also described are each of the DASE facility design assessment components for measuring the degree of functionality, security, adequacy, environment, and overall impression. 15p.

Reading a School Building Like a Book: The Influence of the Physical School Setting on Learning and Literacy. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , Jan 1999)
This speech addresses the impact of schools on teaching and learning and explains the need to evaluate the following three influences of physical school settings: health and safety factors; ambient environmental factors; and curriculum-based environmental factors. Also addressed are the influences of school and classroom size, and the need for the school setting to be appropriate for the types of learning activities taking place. Concluding comments highlight the link between literacy, play, and the physical environment. A user rating scale to evaluate classrooms is included. 6p.

A Study of School Facilities and Recommendations for the Abbott Districts. [New Jersey] Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Department of Education, Trenton , 1999)
The New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE) presents a study of facilities' needs for the Abbott School District's 28 educational facilities and provides recommendations concerning how the state should address those needs, including appropriate and alternative funding. Study assessment data show the estimated cost for existing facility rehabilitation would be over $1.8 billion, of which half the amount would be for facility expansion and architectural and structural refurbishing. The study also lists recommended facility specifications deemed necessary to assure students can achieve the Core Curriculum Content Standards. Other state's educational facility construction and funding practices are highlighted as promising approaches for New Jersey to consider. Final comments address the state's plan for Abbott District facilities improvement, including the administrative actions of the NJDOE, and the issues related to the development of a state financing plan which is outside of the special areas of expertise of the department. 13p.

D.C. Public Schools Renovation Work.
(U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1999)
This reports on the Corps' Support For Others project working with the District of Columbia Public School system. Called upon to assist the school district in a multimillion dollar renovation effort, the Corps provides technical oversight on the capital improvements program, facilities assessments and the long range master planning process.

Educational Plant Survey (Florida).
(Florida Department of Education, 1999)
The Educational Plant Survey is a systematic study that aids in the formulation of plans for housing the educational program and student population, faculty, administrators, staff, and auxiliary and ancillary services of the district or campus. This lists the required components for an Educational Plant Survey in Florida.

New Design Features in Virginia's Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Gillespie, Monica McTeague; Epps, Beverly; Griesdorn, Jacqueline; Butin, Dan
(Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottsville, VA , 1999)
A study of new design features for public schools was conducted in Virginia in 1999 to determine what specific design features were being implemented in Virginia's schools. This report summarizes the major trends in facility design that were discovered in the following areas: safety and security features; classroom space; technology areas; administrative spaces; communal space; school grounds; teachers' facilities; community use of school facilities; energy use and sustainable design; organization of instruction; and special programs. While numerous innovative design features are being implemented in schools across Virginia, the data reveal that older schools built prior to 1990 have fewer of them. Older schools lack some of the benefits of flexible space and extra space for learning, have limited use of landscapes and community access to school assets, and lack central air conditioning. 23p.

Tennessee Public Infrastructure Needs Inventory Assessment for FY 1998
Green, Harry A.; Norman, John F,.; McClure, C. Bennett, II
(Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Nashville, Jan 1999)
This report represents the first effort by any public or private agency or organization to provide a comprehensive assessment of Tennessee's public infrastructure needs. The report is divided into two sections. The first part contains survey information on general infrastructure needs that was collected from local governments and other entities. The second part examines K-12 education infrastructure needs. All of the states 138 K-12 public school systems were surveyed. Results from the local-government surveys indicate that $13.7 billion is needed for infrastructure projects and improvements. These improvements included transportation projects, capital- improvement plans, mandated requirements, and water and waste- water accounts. The K-12 public education survey uncovered infrastructure needs totaling $2.5 billion. Needed improvements include basic repairs to bring all schools up to at least a "good" condition. (35 appendices provide further information.)
TO ORDER: The Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. Tel:615-741-3012.

Feasibility and Cost Analysis Forms. North Carolina Public Schools Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh, NC , Apr 08, 1998)
A comprehensive set of checklists and rating systems on 13 pages intended to help evaluate the cost and feasibility of renovating or replacing an old school building. The forms are intended to be used by North Carolina Schools whenever a new project would replace an older school building. 13p.

Asset Management Plan: 1998-2003. Jefferson County School District, No. R-1. Adobe PDF
Jefferson County Public Schools
(Jefferson County School District R-1, Denver, CO. , Mar 1998)
The Jefferson County School District (Denver, Colorado) presents its final scheduling and funding source information for the 1998-2003 capital improvement program and the status of the 1992-1997 completed capital improvement project costs compared to the budget. Funding data are detailed for each of the district's 182 public schools, special use facilities, support facilities; and community use facilities as well as any future capital improvement needs. The district's eight environmental regulatory programs are examined. Remaining sections provide assessment data and information on facility maintenance, pavement management, real property management, school and office equipment, sponsorship, technology, temporary buildings, and vehicle replacement.

Wyoming Department of Education Statewide School Facilities Assessment
(Wyoming Department of Education, Jan 26, 1998)
In August 1997, the Wyoming Department of Education commissioned an assessment of all buildings owned and operated by school districts throughout the state. The study, in response to Enrolled Act 2 of the 1997 Special Legislative Session, covered 1,221 buildings totaling 22.9 million gross square feet. As a part of the assessment, building condition, educational suitability, and technology readiness were evaluated. The need for additional space to accommodate student enrollment was also calculated. The study findings and recommendations are included.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Dominica.
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Dominica to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 24p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Anguilla. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Anguilla to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 20p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Antigua and Barbuda. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Antigua and Barbuda to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 33p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: Grenada. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on Grenada to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 37p.

Vulnerability Assessment of Selected Buildings Designated as Shelters: St. Kitts - Nevis. Adobe PDF
Gibbs, Tony
(Organization of American States, Washington, DC. , 1998)
Educational facilities in the Caribbean often serve roles as shelters during natural hazards, but they often sustain as much damage as other buildings. This study investigated the physical vulnerability of schools located on St. Kitts and Nevis to wind forces, torrential rain, and seismic forces in order to provide relevant local agencies with some of the input required for selection of properties for Caribbean Development Bank funding. 36p.

Guide for School Facility Appraisal
Hawkins, Harold L.; Lilley, H. Edward
(Council for Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , 1998)
This guide provides a comprehensive method for measuring the quality and educational effectiveness of school facilities and may be used to perform a post-occupancy review; to formulate a formal record; to highlight specific appraisal needs; to examine the need for new facilities or renovations; or to serve as an instructional tool. Suggestions are made for developing a facilities report. New trends in design and construction are summarized. Appraisal criteria are categorized into six areas: (1) the school site; (2) structural and mechanical features; (3) plant maintainability; (4) school building safety and security; (5) educational adequacy; and (6) environment for education. 52p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

California's Public Schools: a Needs Assessment. Adobe PDF
Wildman, Scott
(Joint Legislative Audit Committee of the California State Legislature, Sacramento , 1998)
This report is based on surveys of unified school districts, elementary school districts, high school districts, county offices of education, and state special schools in California. Performed by the Joint Legislative Audit Committee (JLAC), the document provides the state legislature an assessment of the facility and personnel needs facing California's schools as reported by the districts themselves. The report provides a breakdown of the needs and costs of administrators, teachers, classified personnel, and facilities. To maintain current services, districts reported it would cost over $18 million; the implementation of anticipated improvement would cost over $24 million. Also, all school districts reported that the class-size reduction program displaced other programs. The report discusses the need for emergency permits, for additional classrooms, the availability of sites for school construction, child development and child care, and joint-use facilities. 65p.

Lessons Learned From Recently Opened High Schools: A Study of Process and Outcomes. Adobe PDF
Withycombe, Richard
(Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , May 1997)
This case study of six newly-opened high schools explored: (1) What steps were taken to involve district staff members and community representatives in educational-specifications and design-development work? How effective did these steps prove to be? What impact did this involvement appear to have on the emergent and completed high school project? (2) What goals were established for the project? What specific school features and building elements were created in response to project goals? How were these decisions made? By whom? (3) How did value-engineering activities influence the eventual design of the project? Were design modifications made? What impacts were observed? (4) During construction, how did school district personnel align themselves with the project? Was a planning principal selected? Was a project-management service employed? How were facility-related concerns addressed over the duration of the project? How were educationally related concerns addressed over the same time frame? (5) Prior to the actual opening of school, what steps were taken to ensure the school's successful opening? What impact did these steps appear to have? How were responsibilities assigned and coordinated? (5) In the first six months after the school's opening, what did staff members and students "discover" about the new school? How were these discoveries made? and (6) During the new high school's first and second years of operation, how did staff members respond to the features of the school? To what degree were design visions and corresponding project goals realized in final construction? What lessons did staff members learn as they sought to effectively utilize the school's physical potential? What unanticipated consequences, if any, emerged from these efforts? The six schools studied were: Colville High School in Colville School District, Washington; Kamiak High School in Mukilteo School District, Washington; River Ridge/New Century High School in North Thurston School District, Washington; Lord Tweedsmuir Secondary School in Surrey School District, British Columbia; Westview High School in Beaverton School District, Oregon; and Walnut Grove Secondary School in Langley School District, British Columbia. 115p

Building Condition Evaluation Manual. Adobe PDF
(Washington State Board of Education, Olympia , 1997)
Provides checklists to enable a person of moderate training to make an accurate estimation of the structural, mechanical, and safety condition of a school buildings. The lists are divided into sections for exterior, interior, mechanical systems, and safety/building code considerations. Direct examples of the ratings to be entered on the building condition evaluations are provided, as is a means for indicating the nature of the condition, if the rating is lower than "good." 56p.

Martha Lake Elementary School Post Occupancy Evaluation. Adobe PDF
(Washington University, Center for Environment, Education and Design Studies, Seattle. , 1997)
This post-occupancy evaluation of Martha Lake Elementary School in the Edmonds School District, Washington, was designed to answer questions in two areas: (1) "What aspects of the facility are effectively supporting learning and the current educational program? Conversely, which aspects, elements, or components of the facility appear to be inhibiting learning activities?" and (2) "What do students, staff, and teachers think and feel about the building's character and functioning?" The report includes statistical data generated from responses to a questionnaire, and documentation of observations made by the evaluation teams. The report is organized to present a general overview of the site, common areas, and classrooms, followed by more detailed analyses of particular spaces in the school. 22p.

Guide for School Facility Condition Surveys
Hightower, Harley; Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael
(Alsaka Dept. of Education & Early Development, Juneau, AK , 1997)
A guide for helping facility managers determine their facility's overall physical condition. Includes regulatory data and codes pertaining to educational facility evaluation. Survey sections cover general site conditions, including athletic and play areas; architectural and structural exterior features and systems; interior spaces including classrooms,laboratories, kitchens, and corridors/commons areas; the mechanical system; and the electrical system. Samples of completed survey forms and recommendations narrative are included. 54p.

School Facilities: Condition, Problems and Solutions. Adobe PDF
McCall, H. Carl
(New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany , 1997)
This report summarizes some of the recent reports on school building needs and describes the initiatives in New York State's budget designed to address them. It also describes the environment in which school building and maintenance decisions are made, with particular attention to factors discouraging or impeding successful strategies for school construction and maintenance. Drawing upon this analysis and the results of audits, the report includes recommendations for improving the system. Some recommendations for meeting the needs in school building and maintenance include better enforcement of existing regular requirements, correcting the problems with aid formulas, reforming the existing annual inspections in school buildings, improved capital planning, mandated relief actions to decrease the cost of school construction and rehabilitation, and better reporting of facility conditions. Detailed tables list the average age of buildings, 1996 to 1997 enrollment, 10-year capital spending, and other information on each school district. 75p.

Quality In School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environment Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Adobe PDF
Lackney, Jeffery A.
(Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee , 1996)
Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an investigation of five elementary schools in the Baltimore City Public School System. The following issues are addressed: (1) the perception of the nature of environmental quality within the context of schools; (2) the attributes of environmental quality perceived to have an impact on educational outcomes; (3) the impact of facility management, if any, on the perception of environmental quality in schools; (4) whether environmental quality can be assessed in local school contexts; (5) whether environmental-behavior research contributes to the improvement of environmental quality in schools; and (6) the effectiveness of action research in defining problems, providing solutions, and increasing knowledge and awareness of environmental quality in schools. Volume 2 provides a summary of the project objectives, problem and approach, and process and procedures of the Baltimore Environmental Quality Assessment Project. It provides the case reports of each school in the study, documenting specific aspects of environmental quality of concern. Each case study provides a brief analysis of the relationship between the attributes of environmental quality concerns and their potential educational impact. Areas addressed include the school's physical comfort and health; classroom adaptability; safety and security; building functionality; aesthetics and appearance; privacy; places for social interaction; and overcrowding. 521p.

Task Force on Education Infrastructure for the 21st Century. Three-Part Facilities Survey of All Schools and Selected Administrative Units. Adobe PDF
(District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC , 1995)
The District of Columbia Public Schools is planning a framework to create safe and secure school environments for learning, develop facilities that will support and enhance educational programs, and provide facilities that will meet the diverse needs of the local school community. This document represents the survey instrument that is used to capture information to support these objectives. The survey is designed into three parts: questions involving general information about the school; the programs offered that have separate funding and/or being a "relocatable" unit; and the facility conditions.

Building Evaluation Techniques.
George Baird, et al.
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY , 1995)
Discusses step-by-step techniques for conducting an effective building assessment, including the evaluation of overall structural performance, spatial comfort, noise control, air quality, and energy consumption. Features sample forms and checklists tailored to specific building types. 207p.

District of Columbia Public School System (DCPS) Facilities Master Plan Using GIS
Kilical, Ferhan; Kilical, Adil
(The Catholic University of America Resources, Inc., 1995)
This describes how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used in evaluating the conditions of the 164 operating public schools in the District of Columbia. GIS themes utilized include ward boundaries, school locations, attendance zones, and streets.

Survey of School Facility Expenditures in Virginia. Adobe PDF
Earthman, Glen I.
(Presentation to the American Educational Finance Association Conference , Apr 1994)
To fill in gaps of information regarding the condition of school facilities in America, a survey was conducted for Virginia's schools. The results are reported here. For this study, a survey instrument was developed to obtain data on several phases of school facilities in the Commonwealth. The instrument contained 26 separate items to which local school personnel were asked to respond. Survey items were grouped around three main parts of the study: capital improvement projects, maintenance projects, and inventory systems. The population of the study included all 136 school divisions of the state, with a total of 121 divisions responding. The findings show that a high percentage of systems have an up-to-date capital improvement program in place and that these programs are concurrent with the state mandated, long-range plan approved by the school board. For the year under study, it is estimated that maintenance costs will consume approximately $200 million dollars. This represents only half of the total projected need. If school divisions could bring all buildings up to the standard of the best school, then approximately $1.5 billion would be needed. Inventory monitoring seems important in all districts, with 92 percent of school divisions keeping an up-to-date inventory. Some recommendations are offered. 22p.

Nebraska School Facilities: Educational Adequacy of Structures and Their Funding. Adobe PDF
Pool, Dennis L.
(Paper presented at the Annual Rural and Small School Conference, Manhattan, KS , Oct 1993)
In 1991, Nebraska school superintendents and building administrators were surveyed about the physical condition of school facilities, their adequacy for instruction, and each district's fiscal capacity to maintain and construct school facilities. Responses were analyzed by five categories: class (size) of school district, quartile of valuation per pupil, population change category on the 1990 county census, time period of facility construction, and instructional type of building (grade range). Overall, 40 percent of administrators felt that their facilities impeded desired changes in instructional programming, and 55 percent of buildings were not completely handicapped accessible. However, there were significant differences among districts by size, fiscal capacity, and recent population change. Small school districts reported higher rates of inadequate buildings, low sinking fund rates, little bond debt, and little confidence that bond issues would be successful. K-12 school buildings were reported only in small districts, usually districts experiencing population decline; most buildings were 40-90 years old and contained uncomfortable and obsolete classrooms. The inequity resulting from dependence on property tax for funding of school facilities construction means that poorer districts do not have the potential to construct or upgrade facilities. Statewide recommendations are outlined. 9p.

Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment. [Idaho]
Feb 1993)
Legislation enacted in 1991 called for a comprehensive assessment of Idaho school facilities and established the Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment Committee. This resulting report identifies the nature and extent of Idaho school facility needs. The assessment included an inventory of all school facilities used for instruction; an inventory of technology used by the schools; and an assessment of the physical condition of the schools, including suitability for educational purposes, ability to accommodate new technology, accessibility, and adaptability for alternative and non-traditional uses. In addition, the assessment calculated the capacity of existing permanent school buildings relative to current and projected enrollment using conservative but realistic space use criteria. Cost estimates were prepared covering repair, renovation, and modernization of existing buildings; adaptation of buildings to effectively use new technology; and provision of additional space to appropriately house existing enrollment. Future enrollment in Idaho schools was also forecast to provide an indication of the extent of future facility needs. In accomplishing the assessment, the Committee developed a comprehensive database of information which was provided to the Department of Education for its maintenance and continuing use, along with a computer model to estimate space needs. (Appendices contain assessment-related materials.) 433p.

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study. Adobe PDF
(California State Office of Emergency Services,Sacramento,CA , 1993)
The PTA in Berkeley was dissatisfied with their school's earthquake preparedness and took their concerns to the district, as well as involved the larger PTA Council. The Hayward fault in Berkeley was the focus of the PTA's investigation. The School Board identified four key tasks: (1) develop a districtwide disaster-preparedness plan; (2) provide training for staff involved in the plan; (3) stockpile emergency medical supplies; and (4) conduct structural and nonstructural hazard assessment. In an assessment of the school buildings around the Hayward fault, two schools were identified as hazards if an earthquake struck. The School Board closed one school completely and the other partially. One year later six more schools were identified as unsafe. In 1992 a ballot measure that proposed to raise $158 million for school reconstruction was passed. 13p.

Facilities Audit: A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions
Kaiser, Harvey
(APPA, The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Washington, DC, 1993)
This handbook is a step-by-step guide through all phases of a facilities condition inspection and helps the facility manager to assess the functional performance of school buildings and infrastructure. In addition, the book provides information on how to quantify maintenance deficiences,summarize inspection results, and present the audit findings for improved funding for capital renewal. 102p.

Building Condition and Suitability Evaluation Manual.
(MGT of America, Inc., Tallahassee, FL. , May 1992)
This educational facility evaluation manual contains the overall building condition rating form and the supporting check sheets which have been field tested in several states and, where appropriate, modified for use in the Idaho School Facilities Needs Assessment. The exterior building condition form examines the foundation, structure, walls, roof, windows, doors, and trim. The interior building condition form examines the floors, walls, ceilings, and fixed equipment. The form for mechanical systems condition examines electrical, water heating, air conditioning and heating systems, and lighting. The safety/building code form covers means of exits, fire control and alarm systems, emergency lighting, and fire resistance. Additional rating forms cover provisions for persons with disabilities, functional adaptability, and space suitability. 54p.

Statewide School Facilities Needs Assessment Study: Comparison of State Construction Assistance Programs.
(MGT of America, Inc., Tallahassee, FL , Mar 1992)
This survey presents school facility funding, technology, and non-traditional programs currently used in the public school educational systems of twelve states. Each state reveals its current appropriation, funding source(s), local matching ratio, eligibility criteria, priority factors and weights, use of space standards, periodic needs assessment, technology enhancements, and non- traditional use of public school facilities. Appendices contain a detailed list of priority factors and weights for Alaska, Florida, and Maine; and the survey form used to gather the data. 39p.

Facilities Planning and Construction. Adobe PDF
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, CA , 1991)
This self-assessment guide is designed to assist members of fiscal policy teams in assessing current district standards and practices in the area of school facility planning and construction in relation to the total educational program. Arranged to complement the components of a long-range master plan, the guide is divided into nine parts: (1) organization and process for planning a facility; (2) use of demographics in planning; (3) selection and acquisition of the site; (4) determination of the need for educational facilities; (5) program requirements; (6) selection of an architect; (7) financing for the facility; (8) construction of the school building; and (9) orientation and post occupancy evaluation for users. 95p.

Data Collection Training and Procedures Manual. The Building and Educational Technology Assessment. Adobe PDF
(Texas Education Agency, Austin , 1990)
A manual has been designed to assist Texas Education Agency investigators in their attempt to take a state-wide inventory of elementary and secondary school facilities and educational technology. This manual examines data collection activities, data storage and maintenance, deliverables, and reporting. Every campus is expected to be inventoried including a room by room inventory of size and condition, a condition rating of all building systems, and an inventory count of computer, printers, and other technology they contain. The methodology for data collection includes the use of high school students to perform measuring, counting, and other non- subjective data collection activities in order to limit undue burden on district staff. Students are to be monitored during survey activities by professionals, and individual rooms are to be inventoried after school hours to minimize disruption of classes. Appendices, comprising half the manual, provide data collection instruments, a sample pre-visit package, a glossary of terms, intended room use codes, a sample progress reporting system, and field test results. 131p.

Facilities Performance Profile, An Instrument to Evaluate School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(California Education Department School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, 1988)
The Facilities Performance Profile is designed to help architects and school administrators determine performance standards for new school construction or to evaluate existing schools. 19p.

Information Needs: for Planning Physical Facilities in Colleges and Universities. Overview. Adobe PDF
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Jul 1969)
Presents the planning information needs of an institution of higher learning, and an approach to the collection of appropriate activity and facility information. Emphasis is given to space management and activities data with regard to facilities planning effectiveness. A computer program for evaluation of alternate building programs is described; input data requirements are set forth and related to the activities and facilities data described. 90p.

To Build or Not to Build: A Report on the Utilization and Planning of Instructional Facilities in Small Colleges. Adobe PDF
Jamrich, John X.
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , Mar 1962)
Focuses on increasing the efficient use of existing space to make room for more students, rather than restrict enrollments or build additional facilities. Planning of college facilities must include analysis of the present plant, the instructional program, the student body, and the financial structure. Improvement of facility utilization is a function of 1) class distribution; 2) length of the week and the school year; 3) curriculum units and credits; 4) relationship of credits and class hours; 5) laboratory space; 6) flexibility of classrooms; 7) proliferation of courses; 8) proprietary attitudes of staff; and 9) pressures for more space. A space utilization workbook is included. 74p.

References to Journal Articles

Identifying and Funding the Greatest Needs in School Facilities
Gorrell, Bob; Salamone, Frank
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p30-34 ; Jun 2012
Describes a solution that New Mexico has developed to overcome key challenges common to school programs across the country. The new NM-PSFA system identifies schools and projects ranked according to facilities condition, educational adequacy, and other priorities, and the corresponding need for funding.

The Benefits of Guided Facility Self-Assessments
O'Leary, Keith
Facilities Manager; , p20-22 ; Mar-Apr 2012
Driven by professionally designed building system surveys, guided self-assessments deliver comprehensive facility condition information that includes remediation definition and estimated costs.

STARS: A Campus-Wide Integrated Continuous Planning Opportunity.
Martin, Richard
Planning for Higher Education; v39 n2 , p41-47 ; Jan 2011
Discusses the survey tool Sustainability Tracking, Assessment and Rating System (STARS), produced by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE). Examples of how STARS can be used to analyze resource usage in dining services, libraries, housing, and class scheduling are detailed.

Preparing Concise Repair Documents.
LeMay, Mark
Buildings; v104 n12 , p30-32,33 ; Dec 2010
Advises on preparing accurate building condition assessments in advance of building repairs, so that contractors can deliver accurate bids. Topics addressed include bid types, elimination of potential of variables, inclusion of limitations, timing, project uniqueness, and constraints that will affect access and timing of work.

Qualitative Facilities Assessment.
Kaiser, Harvey; Klein, Eva
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p12-14,16-18 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses comprehensive qualitative assessment of higher education facilities. The assessment process includes space capacity, facilities quality, special facilities, infrastructure and sustainability. Differing methodologies for qualitative assessment are detailed, with emphasis on the inclusion of pedagogues and others knowledgeable in space configurations and equipment, as well as implementation of the Facility Quality INdex (FCI).

Needs Indexing, Then Benchmarking, Now What? Adobe PDF
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v26 n5 , p47,48 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Explains how the facilities condition index (FCI) is implemented in assessing facilities, supporting master planning, and long-term capital budgeting.

Seven Steps to Successful Facility Inspections.
Daily, Bernie
Buildings; v104 n8 , p34,35 ; Aug 2010
Advises on facility inspection steps from creating a list of equipment, to planning the route, walking the route, and compiling the data.

Site Surveys: A Closer Look at Security.
Nason, Randall
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n1 , p12,13 ; Jan 2010
Advises on conducting a security assessment of an existing site, addressing the multiple components of facility security and the typical results that a site survey will produce.

Making the Case for Facility Modernization, Renovation, and Repairs.
Kwok, Michael
School Business Affairs; v75 n11 , p29,30 ; Dec 2009
Advises on maintaining a master plan for school facilities, accurate assessments of their condition, cost estimates for addressing deficiencies, and how to avoid the "build-neglect-build" cycle the often overwhelms school districts.

Mastering the Plan. [Using an Educational Adequacy Assessment.]
Haria, Hitesh
American School Board Journal; v196 n10 , p37,38 ; Oct 2009
Discusses facilities master planning, citing the St. Paul Public Schools example of assessing all properties for physical condition and educational adequacy. Elements of an assessment are outlined, and the use of the outcome to prioritize projects is addressed.

Building Envelope: Focus on Energy.
Seaverson, Eric
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses use of infrared technology and visual inspection to identify air leaks, wet insulation, and thermal bridging, along with suggested elements of a maintenance checklist and current products to remedy unsatisfactory conditions.

Enhancing Lab Sustainability with Energy Audits and Master Planning.
Platsis, Zach
Laboratory Design; v14 n7 , p5-7 ; Jul 2009
Discusses elements of an energy audit and planning that can enhance sustainability. Equipment and systems improvements, inclusion of researchers in the assessment and upgrade process, and inclusion of all types of building professionals are addressed.

Monitoring the Quality of School Buildings in Belgium's Flemish Community.
Leemans, Geert
CELE Exchange; 2009/8 , p1-7 ; 2009
Presents the results of a study by the Flemish Agency for Infrastructure in Education (AGIOn) that evaluated the quality of school buildings in Flanders using a monitoring system based on international experience. The results showed that most school buildings satisfy the basic requirements of habitability and safety, but they often fall short when it comes to the new pedagogical and social challenges of the 21st century.

Measuring School Facility Conditions: An Illustration of the Importance of Purpose.
Roberts, Lance
Journal of Educational Administration; v47 n3 , p368-380 ; 2009
Argues that taking the educational purposes of schools into account is central to understanding the place and importance of facilities to learning outcomes. The paper begins by observing that the research literature connecting facility conditions to student outcomes is mixed. A closer examination of this literature suggests that when school facilities are measured from an engineering perspective, little connection to learning outcomes is evident. By contrast, when school facilities are rated in terms of educational functions, a connection to learning outcomes is apparent. Using the schools in a Canadian division, the condition of school facilities was measured in two ways, including both conventional, engineering tools and a survey capturing principals assessments. School facility ratings using these alternate measurement methods were correlated with schools' quality of teaching and learning environments (QTLE). Two central findings emerge. First, engineering assessments of facilities are unrelated to the QTLE in schools. Second, educators' assessments of school facilities are systematically related to the QTLE in schools.
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Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project.
von Ahlefeld, Hannah
CELE Exchange; 2009/9 , p1-6 ; 2009
Provides an update on CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces, which aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximize the use of and investment in learning environments. The article explains the school selection and implementation process, which is currently being conducted in Mexico,New Zealand, Portugal and the United Kingdom.

On the Right Track.
Ezarik, Melissa
University Business; v11 n2 , p34,35 ; Feb 2008
Reviews the use of a facilities condition index to properly guide attention to the campus building conditions, illustrated with case studies from Florida State University and the University of Rochester.

Massachusetts Unlocks $2.5B for Schools.
School Planning and Management; v47 n1 , p96 ; Jan 2008
Reviews Massachusetts release of long-awaited funding for school construction and renovation. The disbursement of funds follows a statewide assessment of school buildings, with funds going first to the neediest facilities. A short description of how the assessment was conducted is included.

Where to Start when Previous Facilities Data are Questionable.
Watt, Catherine; Higerd, Thomas; Valcik, Nicolas
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p11-27 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the increasing awareness of the importance and difficulty in managing educational facilities as finite resources. The article discusses the clash of the value of research space with a lack of capital funds; the need to update, merge, and access data elements from multiple sources, including sponsored programs, finance, and personnel; and the theory of implementing change, the fitting of a new process into an existing institutional culture, and examples of actual experiences in implementing space systems. (Includes 4 references).

Recommendations to Improve Space Projection Models and University Space Usage.
Stigall, Sam
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p29-36 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the current space projection model for the State of Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) and compares this methodology to other select states. The article considers stewardship of public buildings and funds, improvement of space usage, and provision of the facilities necessary to enhance learning, particularly in an era when existing space must be used effectively to justify the need for additional space, increasing construction costs, and decreasing legislative appropriations.

Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions.
Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators; v21 n1 , p21-25 ; Sep-Oct 2007
School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks.

South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System. Adobe PDF
Gibberd, Jeremy
PEB Exchange; 2007/5 ; May 2007
Describes South Africa's school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) project, designed to address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the development of more sophisticated and more effective education environments over time. The project involved a number of stages. A context analysis and literature review served to develop an integrated building performance model. From the performance model, a school infrastructure assessment framework was designed. This framework was tested and refined through desk studies and fieldwork carried out at urban and rural schools throughout South Africa. Data from these studies was used to refine the assessment framework in order to propose key school infrastructure performance indicators. These indicators can be used by physical planners to plan school infrastructure and by schools to assess, plan and improve their own infrastructure, in more holistic and effective ways.

A Data-Driven Approach.
Dufresne, Ray
School Planning and Management; v46 n3 , p40,42,44,45 ; Mar 2007
Discusses the need for a school district to have an accurate assessment of existing facility conditions and outlines how a facility assessment is typically conducted and its results utilized.

A Proactive Solution.
Hayes, Francis
American School and University; v79 n3 , p310-312 ; Nov 2006
Explains benefits, types, and occasions for facilities assessments, as well as detailing four steps that every facilities assessment should involve: 1) Identify goals and select and appropriate audit. 2) Select the right person or team for the job. 3) Collect data. 4) Get a usable set of data at the end.

Maximizing Condition Assessment Efforts.
Peterson, Brad; Sebesta, James
Facilities Manager; v22 n5 , p70-74 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Details nine steps toward successful facilities condition assessment: 1) development of a survey mission statement, 2) establishment of the assessment criteria, 3) establishment of assessment standards and reference points, 4) development of standard assessment templates, 5) actual facility survey and assessment, 6) analysis of the data, 7) financial planning, programming and feedback mechanisms, 8) maintenance and renewal program development, and 9) execution of the plan.

Planning and Designing Facilities. Facility Design and Development--Part 1
Hypes, Michael G.
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance ; v77 n4 , p18-22 ; Apr 2006
Before one begins the planning process for a new facility, it is important to determine if there is a need for a new facility. The demand for a new facility can be drawn from increases in the number of users, the type of users, and the type of events to be conducted in the facility. A feasibility study should be conducted to analyze the legal issues associated with the proposed facility, usage (both current and future), site selection, financial feasibility, and administrative feasibility of the project. In addition to the feasibility study, it is necessary to evaluate existing facilities. To accomplish this, a facility audit should be conducted. Can existing facilities be upgraded to meet future needs? Renovation of existing facilities is often considered because it can be less expensive than building new facilities and can allow the use of existing space. Once it has been determined that a need exists, and a new facility has been approved, it is time to organize a project-planning committee. This article walks the reader through the steps of planning and designing the best and most appropriate facility for each organization's needs. (Contains 2 tables.)

Inspecting for Quality.
Jacobson, Linda
Education Week; v25 n16 , p22-25 ; Jan 04, 2006
Discusses California school site inspections compelled by recent legislation that was a result of lawsuits in response to poor facility conditions and lack of textbooks in schools. The facility inspections are typically thorough, including over 50 items that cover building systems, fire safety, pest infestation, windows and doors, structural conditions, interior surface conditions, restrooms, drinking fountains, and food service areas. Funding to help districts comply with the legislation has been made available and a general improvement in school facility conditions statewide is reported.

Tough Choices: Effectively Planning Long-Term Investments.
Raffin, David
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p24,25 ; Winter 2006
Proposes a frequency for campus facility assessments and explains how the facility condition index (FCI) is calculated and used to schedule repair and/or replacement of facilities.

Maintenance Crunch.
Simmons, Marjorie; Duce, Anthony
University Business; v8 n11 , p37-39 ; Nov 2005
Explains how a facility assessment can help an institution determine the extent and cost of its deferred maintenance. Ten steps that the process should cover are included, beginning with introducing the plan to staff and proceeding through collecting, analyzing, storing, and maintaining the data for perpetual benefit. Testimonials about the benefits of facility assessments are included.

The State of School Buildings.
Healy, Tracy; Staskiewicz, Carolyn
American School Board Journal; v192 n10 , p23,24 ; Oct 2005
Describes potential rewards of statewide school facility assessments, including determining budget needs, prioritizing projects, projecting enrollment, gathering demographic information, collaboration of state agencies, management of information, and possible creation of a state agency specifically tasked with school facility issues.

Master Plan. Adobe PDF
Johnston, Robert
Education Week; v25 n2 , p36-40 ; Sep 07, 2005
Describes the successes of school planner William DeJong and his Schools for Children of the World program in bringing decent school buildings to remote Honduran villages. The project evolved from a single school into a country-wide school facilities assessment, with many new schools built, used, and maintained by their communities.

Statewide Facility Assessments: Leaving No School Behind. Adobe PDF
Healy, Trace; Staskiewicz, Carolyn
Jul-Aug 2005
A statewide facility assessment provides education officials with a comprehensive overview of all education facilities so that they can develop a master plan to correct inequities. This article discusses the benefits of a facility assessment, and uses Arkansas and Ohio as examples. p38-39

Understanding the Facility Assessment Process.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v8 n3 , p14,16,18 ; Mar 2005
Explains the physical and functional building conditions that are examined in a facility assessment. In a physical condition assessment, the mechanical and electrical systems, structural integrity, building envelope, hazardous materials, accessibility, sustainability, and energy use will be examined. In a function condition assessment, the educational standards, technology, acoustics, lighting, and program suitability will be examined. The utilities infrastructure and landscaping is considered in a multi-building, campus-wide assessment.

Solutions Center: Facility Inventory
American School and University; Jan 2005
Answers to a question about a tool that will allow one to inventory a facility and project life cycles.

Smart Spaces.
Mangan, Mike
School Construction News; v8 n1 , p14,15 ; Jan-Feb 2005
Describes four "keys" to wise classroom space use: 1) Conduct a thorough inventory of existing space, including who uses them and when, and what the seating requirements are. 2) Know curriculum types and schedules. 3) Know teacher-student ratios. 4) Conduct a facility assessment.

For Now and Hereafter: Pushing Facility Assessments into the Future.
Sandall, Dan; Peebles-Jones, Traci
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p21-23 ; Jan 2005
Discusses three elements of an effective facilities assessment: 1)a complete inventory of systems that is more than a list of woes, 2) matching of data collected in the inventory with expected life spans of the systems, 3) compiling of the data within a flexible format that allows the user to change variables. Three case studies are included.

Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland. Adobe PDF
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; v2004/3 n53 , p11-13 ; Oct 2004
Describes the benefits of post-occupancy evaluation, along with the Scottish government's commitment to and procedures for them. An elementary school case study is included.

Life Cycle Cost Modeling: Replacement or Supplement?
Harrison, Daniel
Facilities Manager; v20 n5 , p70,71 ; Sep-Oct 2004
Contends that life cycle modeling should be considered as an addition to a facility condition analysis, but not a replacement for it. A facilities condition analysis will document short-term needs and help plan for addressing those needs, added to that, a life cycle model will account for future needs, changing uses and expectations for the facilities, and variable costs.

N.J. Principals Cite Unmet Facility Needs.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n37 , p24 ; May 19, 2004
This article discusses a survey of more than 400 New Jersey principals on the condition of their schools. While most principals give decent grades to the conditions of their facilities, the lowest marks are most likely to come from principals in high-poverty districts. A report on the survey urges the state to take another look at the facility needs of its most impoverished districts. [Free subscriber registration is required.]

Fads, Fancies and Fantasies: An Educator's Perspective on Current Educational Facility Issues.
Ryland, James
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p16-24 ; Jun 2003
Explores educational facilities issues from the personal perspective of being both an educator and an owner. Topics discussed include aligning curriculum and instruction with facilities design, green school rating systems, the relationship between facilities and achievement, longitudinal facilities research, post-occupancy evaluation, and communication during the planning and design phases between construction professionals and educators.

Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.
Hardy, Elisabet
School Business Affairs; v69 n5 , p27-28 ; May 2003
Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting.

Review of Building Quality Using Post Occupancy Evaluation. Adobe PDF
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; v2003/1 n48 , p15-18 ; Feb 2003
Describes post-occupancy evaluation of school buildings in terms of its aims, principles, benefits, methods, timing, and results. Offers three examples illustrating the evaluation of educational facilities in New Zealand.

Build New or Renovate: How Facility Assessments Can Help.
Denton, Bob
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p14-17 ; 2003
Explains what a facilities assessment consists of, what it measures, the benefits of engaging a professional, and how long it might take.

Preserving Our Older and Historic Schools: Rehabilitation Versus New Construction.
Gilberg, Mark; Weihs, Janell
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p3-5 ; 2003
Advocates a sequence for assessing older and historic schools for use by existing educational programs, and for special and alternative uses so that more older schools may be saved. (Includes 15 references.)

To Renovate or Build New: Looking Beyond the Numbers. Adobe PDF
Yurko, Amy M.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p6-8 ; 2003
Presents steps for reaching a decision on whether to renovate or replace a school: 1) Define the vision for the school. 2) Evaluate the existing school according to the vision. 3) Assess the resulting costs, life span, and community significance of a new or renovated facility.

Setting Priorities.
Vigue, Beverly
American School and University; v75 n2 , p29-31 ; Oct 2002
Discusses how comprehensive site surveys can help schools identify security deficiencies and develop a security plan.

A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.
Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.
Facilities Manager; v18 n5 , p57-64 ; Sep-Oct 2002
Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis.

The Next Phase.
Oualline, John; Rabenaldt, Carl
American School and University; v74 n12 , p172-74 ; Aug 2002
Discusses how phased facility assessments, rather than one comprehensive assessment, may be an answer to identifying and addressing capital renewal and deferred maintenance. Presents a table outlining the facility assessment levels and attendant measurement methods.

Getting a Grip on Facility Condition Assessments.
Bhimani, Karim; Pantaleo, Anthony
College Planning and Management; v4 n11 , p31-33 ; Nov 2001
Discusses how handheld pen computing devices and specialized software systems can make educational facility assessment more efficient. Explores how these tools can be used for information management and for developing short and long term maintenance and capital improvement plans.

Handling Rapid Growth; Renovate, Repair, or Rebuild?
Scheideman, Dale; Dufresne, Ray
American School Board Journal; v188 n10 , p24-26 ; Oct 2001
Nevada's Clark County, the fastest growing school district in the nation, uses a life-cycle facilities management approach that monitors the individual components of each building on a database. The district's 10-year building program is addressing facilities infrastructure renewal, deferred maintenance, replacement, and new school construction.

A Bold Plan.
Geiger, Philip E.
American School and University; v73 n12 , p162-63 ; Aug 2001
Illustrates how the Arizona School Facilities Board is moving ahead with a massive capital-improvements program for school facilities. Explains the board's guidelines for assessing buildings and funding levels, and ensuring student access to technology.

The Facilities Condition Index: A Useful Tool for Capital Asset Planning.
Briselden, Don J.; Cain, David A.
Facilities Manager; v17 n4 , p33-37 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Describes the development and history of the Facilities Condition Index (FCI) and its use in rating a facility's condition and measuring the amount of deferred maintenance needed. Also discusses the FCI's position within the Strategic Assessment Model and its usefulness to facilities managers.

A Fifty State Assessment of Capital Needs for Public Higher Education: Policy Objectives.
Manns, Derrick; Opp, Ron
Facilities Manager; v17 n4 , p39,42-44,46-49 ; Jul-Aug 2001
Assesses and compares states and their efforts to fund public higher education capital needs, ranking them by operating appropriations per student and capital appropriations per student. Data shows that states use varied assessment and appropriations methods, that states are challenged by deferred maintenance, and that they often lack long-range facilities master plans and do not conduct regular facility audits.

Facility Benchmarking Trends in Tertiary Education - An Australian Case Study. Adobe PDF
Fisher, Kenn
PEB Exchange; n43 , p20-22 ; Jun 2001
Presents how Australia's facility managers are responding to the growing impact of tertiary education participation and the increase in educational facility usage. Topics cover strategic asset management and the benchmarking of education physical assets and postsecondary institutions.

Letting Facilities See the Light
Fetters, John
Facilities Maintenance Online; Jan 2001
Suggests that lighting system audits can help managers set goals for system upgrades that will deliver quantifiable benefits. Notes that a lighting evaluation is the systematic examination and appraisal of a lighting system. The first step, a lighting audit, is important because it establishes a baseline of performance. The second step, identifying opportunities for improvements, and third step, calculating savings and potential payback, are substantially affected by the quality of the data collected during the first step. This resource includes additional information on lighting upgrades, high benefit lighting, and lighting costs.

Environmental Reality Check.
Manicone, Santo
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p52-53 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included.

A Proven Methodology for Assessing School Buildings.
Nair, Prakash; Chin-Santos, Nadine
School Planning and Management; v39 n12 , p59-61 ; Dec 2000
Discusses the methodology and benefits of the Building Condition Assessment Survey (BCAS) approach for evaluating school building conditions for long-range capital planning. The level of survey detail needed and its scope are examined as is BCAS preplanning tips.

Statewide Facility Databases
Adams, Matt
Facilities Manager; v16 n6 , p46-47 ; Nov-Dec 2000
Discusses state's use of web-based central facilities databases and software to efficiently address capital renewal projects. How to collect data to support the decision process for capital renewal requests is addressed.

Building a Safe Environment.
Reid, David L.
American School and University; v73 n3 , p386-90 ; Nov 2000
Explains how proper site and facility assessments can create a school atmosphere that discourages violence. Issues involving access, general appearance, surveillance, comfort and convenience, security systems and equipment are addressed.

Evaluation: How Are We Doing?
Ward, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v39 n11 , p33,34,36,38 ; Nov 2000
Discusses the elements of a successful project evaluation that helps determine whether projects are worth funding because they are making a positive difference in student learning and achievement. A successful project evaluation involving the Manchester (New Hampshire) public school district's infrastructure is highlighted.

Making Your Case. Facilities Upgrade and Retrofit.
Rabenaldt, Carl
American School and University; v72 n11 , p20,22,24 ; Jul 2000
Explains how a comprehensive analysis of school facilities' needs can help persuade decision makers to support budget requests. Steps discussed include establishing repair costs, measuring building conditions, forecasting future costs, determining the long-term budget, and communicating consequences.

Does Your Facility Promote Educational Success?
McGovern, Matthew
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p35,38,40,42 ; May 2000
Explains that schools must be maintained to ensure children have a good environment in which to learn and explores the following three components affecting a learning environment: site improvements; building shell; and interior spaces and systems. A building assessment form is included.

Compare SAM in a Nutshell.
Givens, Larry R.
Facilities Manager; v16 n2 , p26-27,30-33 ; Mar-Apr 2000
Explains what the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers' Strategic Assessment Model (SAM) is and how to use it to achieve organizational excellence through continuous improvement. Showing features of both the Malcolm Baldrige programs and the Balanced Scorecard, the SAM components are described along with an explanation of the four perspectives for understanding and enhancing performance levels.

Listening to Another Voice. Assessing the Work Environment.
Long, Laura
Facilities Manager; v16 n2 , p35-38 ; Mar-Apr 2000
Explores work environment assessment when the employees are asked to offer their assessment. A sample survey is provided along with an explanation of its components and tips on analyzing the work environment data collected.

Facility Condition Index: A Solution to a Persistent Problem.
Rabenaldt, Carl
School Construction News; v3 n2 , p24 ; Mar 2000
The FCI is an exacting measure of the condition of a facility. It gives the facility managers a tool to measure facility conditions from year to year. Using the FCI, managers can also measure the effectiveness of capital reinvestment and renewal. Obviously, a growing FCI means the condition of the facility is deteriorating. A shrinking FCI indicates progress.

An Update on Asset Management Plans in the United Kingdom. Adobe PDF
Patel, Mukund
PEB Exchange; n38 , p17-18 ; Oct 1999
Describes a current project in the United Kingdom designed to improve school buildings. The use of Asset Management Plans (AMPs) in providing the means through which likely future needs are assessed, criteria for prioritization are set, and informed decisions on local spending are made are examined.

Keeping Up With What You Have
Krysiak, Barbara H.
School Business Affairs; v65 n7 , p49-53 ; Jul 1999
Numerous studies have reported the deteriorating conditions in school buildings. One of the primary causes of this national problem is lack of proper maintenance of school facilities. Outlines a comprehensive assessment and planning process to provide a district with a road map for making decisions about facility improvement.

The United Kingdom's School Asset Management Plans. Adobe PDF
Jones, Alan
PEB Exchange; n36 , p14-16 ; Feb 1999
Examines the U.K.'s Asset Management Plans (AMPs) designed to help Local Education Authorities (LEA) identify and address the most important priorities in their school capital programs, and to help in their longer term planning and management of the school estate. Discussed are AMP objectives, the stages of developing an AMP, and how the Department of Education and Employment will use AMPs.

Today's Schools, Tomorrow's Classrooms.
Nixon, Charles W.
School Planning and Management; v37 i11 , p26,28,30 ; Nov 1998
Examines ways to extend the life of middle-aged school buildings when new construction budgets are lacking and renovation funds is scarce. It explains the importance of and provides guidance for making an objective school facility assessment, including assessing the building's purpose, technology requirements, and heating and air conditioning capabilities. Concluding comments address what to do if a middle-aged school fails the assessment process.

Hidden Opportunities.
Beaudin, James A.; Sells, Jeffrey A.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p131-133 ; Aug 1998
Discusses transforming outmoded educational facilities to meet the new and diverse educational needs of students. Describes how to assess an old facility's potential for new uses and create added-value benefits to an older building through careful renovation.

Power Play.
Aho, Timothy A.
American School and University; v70 n11 , p56-58 ; Jul 1998
Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades.

Critical Review.
Haerer, Deane N.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p38,40,42,44 ; Jun 1998
Recommends implementing a roof-maintenance program as part of a comprehensive assessment of all building components that is intended to identify potential or existing moisture problems before they become excessive and costly. Examines techniques for assessing roof conditions. Explains how to establish a critical priorities list. Identifies five key elements to properly manage a roof system and techniques to maintain the roofing management program.

Benchmarking the FCI at Illinois State's Residential Life.
Cain, David A.
Facilities Manager; v14 n3 , p11-16 ; May-Jun 1998
Discusses the infrastructure facilities audit process and results that helped the university analyze and adjust an existing capital renewal plan and assisted in the reprioritization of maintenance and operational needs. Describes the Facilities Condition Index (FCI).

Final Exam.
Coullahan, Richard
American School and University; v70 n9 , p66h-66j ; May 1998
Explains the use of a maintenance-management assessment process that educational facility managers can use to improve facility conditions while providing evidence for future capital investments in maintenance management. Questions a maintenance-management audit can answer are discussed as is how to analyze the data to gain maximum understanding of facility conditions and maintenance capabilities.

Assessment and Utilities Savings at UT Houston.
Yeoman, Brian K.; Palani, Manivannan M.; McKee, John C.
Facilities Manager; v14 n3 , p17-20,22 ; May-Jun 1998
Describes how one institution took advantage of an innovative internship program to conduct an assessment of its utilities operations. Describes how the program worked, the implementation of a "hot and cold deck optimization" approach, the savings that resulted from implementation, and the ongoing benefits of facilities assessment.

Long-Term Performance.
Vanderweil, Gary
American School and University; v70 n8 , p48,50,52-56 ; Apr 1998
Examines an approach to school maintenance budgeting that can improve the ability of schools to obtain maintenance and repair funds. The approach is based on the use of the Facilities Condition Index as a budgeting tool, where maintenance is viewed as keeping the physical value of facilities as close to 100 percent of replacement cost as possible.

American University Mobilizes to Gain Control Over Its Assets.
Millman, Howard
Facilities Manager; v13 n6 , p44-45 ; Nov-Dec 1997
Describes how American University's facility, financial, and information system managers created a comprehensive asset-identification, condition, and valuation database. Discusses assemblage of the team, project design, lessons learned, the use of bar codes to track materials, and the payoff of being able to generate specific numbers for budgeting requests.

Post Occupancy Evaluation of Educational Buildings and Equipment
Watson, Chris
PEB Exchange; n32 , p18-21 ; Oct 1997
Details the post occupancy evaluation (POE) process for public buildings. POE's are used to improve design and optimize educational building and equipment use. The evaluation participants, the method used, the results and recommendations, model schools, and classroom alterations using POE are described. (Contains 9 references.)

Trends in Facility Management Technology: The Emergence of the Internet, GIS, and Facility Assessment Decision Support.
Teicholz, Eric
Facilities Manager; v13 n5 , p32-33,37,39,41 ; Sep-Oct 1997
Reports research on trends in computer-aided facilities management using the Internet and geographic information system (GIS) technology for space utilization research. Proposes that facility assessment software holds promise for supporting facility management decision making, and outlines four areas for its use: inventory; evaluation; reporting; and ongoing facilities management. Examples of its use are provided

Planning for the Long Haul.
Blackwell, John D.
American School and University; v69 n11 , p16,18,20,22 ; Jul 1997
Describes the use of a comprehensive facilities needs assessment and master plan to help school districts successfully manage increased enrollments and deteriorating facilities. An example of master planning a successful bond issue is provided.

Firm Foundations
Pellicer, Leonard O.; Stevenson, Ken
American School Board Journal; v184 n7 , p32-33,39 ; Jul 1997
Describes a technique developed over the last 15 years in conjunction with South Carolina school districts to help them set priorities when addressing school building needs. Identifies five factors that are used to measure the overall impact of an individual facilities project in relation to other projects, thereby ranking projects according to an index of needs.

Evaluating Your Space.
Boynton, Rodney S.; Cecil, Daniel W.
American School & University; v68 n12 , p66+ ; Aug 1996
Discusses how a facilities study will allow school districts to meet current demands, as well as plan for future needs. Describes strategies for evaluating how educational programs fit into a building's existing space and offers tips for inventorying the facilities themselves. Lists items to include in a facilities study.

Lost in Space: Assessing the Adequacy of School Facilities
Glass, Thomas E.
School Business Affairs; v60 n1 , p13-20 ; Jan 1994
Notes that evaluating educational facilities requires utilizing an effective assessment process. Identifies key components of space adequacy, which include scheduling efficiency, design efficiency, technical capacity, practical capacity, site capacity, and suitability. Suggests what areas of a school building should be explored to determine physical adequacy when making a proper capacity assessment. These areas include environmental, structural, electrical, mechanical, thermal, acoustical, and visual. Provides calculation formulas.

A Step-By-Step Plan for an Inhouse Maintenance Audit of School Buildings
Mutter, Davida W.; Nichols, Randolph
Educational Facility Planner; v25 n4 ; Jul-Aug 1987
In order to fix the problem of deteriorating school buildings, one must start with a comprehensive evaluation of the maintenance needs. The authors provide a 7 step plan for assessing the condition of existing school buildings, from selecting a building survey, to creating a long-term building renewal plan. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting such an assessment are discussed, in order to help districts make an informed decision.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).