NCEF Resource List: School Facilities Management
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Information on the operations and management of school buildings and campus facilities, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies
National Forum on Education Statistics
(National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Mar 2012)
This guide provides a framework for collecting, evaluating, and maintaining education facilities data. It is written to help officials design a school facility information system that supports policy and decision making; management and operation; capital budgeting and project management; public participation in school facilities planning; and the integration of facilities data into other education and municipal data sets. Best practices are given for the design, development, implementation, and use of facilities management information systems, along with a list of standard data elements. These elements can be used to develop indicators for measuring and comparing the quality of education facilities; and, in turn, answering policy questions and informing new education policies. The facility data elements presented in this guide are described in greater detail in the NCES Handbooks Online at 80p

Operational Guidelines for Educational Facilities: Custodial, third edition
Bigger, Alan S. editor
(APPA, 2012)
Addresses topics including: the cost of cleaning, sustainability, determining APPA Levels of Cleanliness in buildings, and scientific measurement of cleanliness. Special sections address the cleaning of residence halls and healthcare facilities. In addition to the cleaning operations of four-year institutions, solutions for public and private K-12 facilities as well as vocational, trade, and community colleges are covered. 356p

Operational Guidelines for Educational Facilities: Maintenance, second edition
Bigger, Alan S. editor
(APPA, 2012)
A guide for maintenance in facilities. Subjects include zero-based staffing build-up, levels of maintenance and benchmarking; compliance, safety, and sustainability; job descriptions and career ladders; and much more. 297p

Facility Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference 2011-12
(Whitestone Research, Nov 2011)
Provides detailed maintenance and repair costs for 75 building and utility types in all major U.S., Canadian, and international areas. Data is included for over 1,600 building components, over 30 trades, and more than 4,500 maintenance tasks. 688p

Digging Deep Through School Trash: A Waste Composition Analysis of Trash, Recycling and Organic Material Discarded at Public Schools in Minnesota.
(Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul , Sep 2010)
Presents an analysis of all garbage, recycling, and organic material discarded by six Minneapolis area schools over a two-day period. Two days'worth of refuse from six schools (two elementary, two middle, and two high schools) were sorted in 19 different categories. The study revealed that over 78% of school waste could be diverted from the trash to organics composting and container/paper recycling collection programs, 50% of school waste could be managed via organics composting programs that accept food waste, liquids, and nonrecyclable paper, 23.9% was food waste, and 23.5% was recyclable paper. The schools had an average per person total waste generation of just over half a pound per day. Reflections on how to reduce waste and increase recycling are included. 72p.

School Facilities Joint Use Cost Calculator.
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC and The University of California, Center for Cities & Schools, Berkeley, Sep 2010)
One obstacle to sharing public school facilities is recovering the cost of joint use. This joint use cost calculator helps school districts determine what to charge users to recover costs for joint use, particularly in situations where the district is unsure know what it costs to own and operate the school buildings. The calculator helps: 1) identify the elements of school district facility related costs, 2)calculate full cost of ownership on a per square foot and per hour basis, 3) determine policy decisions school districts need to make about which users to subsidize, and 4) create fee structure options for various non-school users, based on the real cost of ownership

Closing a School Building: A Systematic Approach. Adobe PDF
McMilin, Edward
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Sep 2010)
Cites a decline in some regions' school enrollment due to demographics, economics, and school choice. The author then presents a step-by-step analysis for deciding to close a school, and then for closing the building once the decision to close has been made. De-commissioning steps for each month of the last year of the school are suggested, and advice for maintaining the vacant building included. Re-purposing the building while maintaining ownership is strongly recommended, and successful examples of this are cited. 23p.

Whitestone Facility Operations Cost Reference 2009-2010.
Romani, Luca; Towers, Michael; Abate, Douglas; Dotz, Richard
(Whitestone Research, Santa Barbara, CA , Oct 2009)
Provides information to assess the cost of operating a facility over its lifetime, the effect of inflation rates on operating costs, regional differences in operating costs, and the effect of varying levels of service on costs. 320p.

Guide to Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Guides a district or school-wide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The Guide provides organizational and technical information for integrating energy and high-performance facility management into existing operation and maintenance practices. The Guide helps school district management, facility managers, business officials, and administrators identify energy savings, develop an energy management plan, and address technical considerations. Accompanying the Guide are Action Plan Templates that provide a snapshot of customizable checklists used for planning and implementing energy-focused operations and maintenance. The Action Plans, which are organized by building system component, are tools for senior facilities managers and custodial staff to schedule preventative maintenance and training. 64p.

The Whitestone Facility Operations Cost Reference, 2009-2010.
(Whitestone Research, Santa Barbara, CA, 2009)
Profiles operations costs for 72 building and utility types in all major U.S. and Canadian areas. Alternative levels of service and costs are estimated for custodial, energy, grounds, management, pest control, refuse, road clearance, security, telecommunications, and water & sewer. 320p.

Checklists and Step by Step Instructions: Funding, Building and Maintaining Schools in New Mexico.
(State of New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority, Santa Fe , 2008)
Provides step-by-step guidance, checklists, and forms to New Mexico school districts in taking advantage of state resources for school construction. The contents accommodate the planning, funding, project development, construction, and occupancy stages. 88p.

Educational Facilities Disaster and Crisis Management Guidebook. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee , Jan 02, 2007)
Provides direction for disaster preparedness planning and management in a variety of disasters affecting school districts and community colleges. The book is intended for facility managers, and is organized around four phases of emergency management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The dual issues of schools as emergency shelters and their prompt return to an educational function are covered. 38 references are included, as is an appendix advising on sheltering, mental health, debris removal, family preparedness, and other related topics. (This very large document may take several minutes to download. Or, you can right click on the link and save it to your computer.) 232p.

Understanding the Needs of Arkansas School Districts Relative to Building Use and Control, Utility Tracking, Personnel, and Facility Planning.
Keazer, Jay; Nutter, Darin
(Texas A&M University, College Station , 2007)
Reports on a study of Arkansas school districts' utilities use that documents community use, and utility use and tracking practices. Concerns over rising costs, differences between large and small districts, and the need for utility tracking personnel are particularly noted. 5p.

Environmental Compliance and Best Management Practices: Guidance Manual for K- 12 Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides an environmental compliance model for a typical K-12 school or school. The manual is divided into organizational units that have common regulatory compliance requirements or would likely be managed as separate operational units of the school or school district. Next, the target audience for each organizational unit is defined. The manual then defines numerous activities that would likely occur within each organizational unit, and for each activity it discusses what is required to comply with the appropriate federal environmental regulations and/or which best management practices apply to one s area of responsibility. 224p.

Model Policies in Support of High Performance School Buildings for All Children. Adobe PDF
(Building Educational Success Together (BEST), Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides policy guidance to states for building and maintaining high-quality schools. The report identifies key areas needing attention, and covers school facilities and community planning, schools as centers of communities, public school facilities management, and public school facilities funding. Challenges, policy intent and rationale, and model policies are described under each topic, with examples of exemplary state legislation for each topic provided as well. 44p.

Rule R277-471. Oversight of School Inspections.
(Utah Dept. of Administrative Services, Salt Lake City , Jun 2006)
Presents Utah's rules for school inspection oversight, including definitions of and responsibilities of school district building officials, as well as state requirements to develop, distribute, and maintain a resource manual, and to conduct an annual school construction conference. 3p.

State Laws on Heart Attacks, Cardiac Arrest & Defibrillators.
(National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO , Jun 2006)
Summarizes the benefits of having automated external defibribillator (AED) readily available in public buildings, and the laws in all fifty states regarding their placement, use, and liability issues. 9p.

Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Best Practice Manual: Volume IV, Maintenance and Operations.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), CA, 2006)
This volume presents high performance guidelines for the maintenance and operation of schools. Information in this volume will help ensure that high performance school buildings continue to operate as their designers intended, providing optimal health, efficiency, and sustainability. Introductory chapters are geared toward district and managerial staff. The remaining chapters address the needs of maintenance, custodial, and groundskeeping staff and cover such topics as cleaning and calibrating building systems, selecting green cleaning products, and reducing waste. Specific guidelines are included for the building envelope, lighting, HVAC, landscaping, plumbing, and snow management and de-icing. 82p.

Key Legal Issues for Schools.
Russo, Charles, ed.
(Rowman and Littlefield Education, Lanham, MD , 2006)
Covers a variety of legal issues for school officials, with facilities issues being included in chapters on school board contracting, transportation, technology, and special education students. 216p.

Educational Facilities Planning: Leadership, Architecture, and Management.
Tanner, C. Kenneth; Lackney, Jeffery
(Allyn and Bacon, Pearson Education; Boston, MA , 2006)
This textbook on educational facility planning and design covers conceptual, descriptive, and applied aspects of the development of educational facilities. The 17 chapters are organized in eight parts entitled: Educational Architecture: History and Principles of Design; Educational Facility Planning, Planning, Programming, and Design of Educational Learning Environments; School Construction and Capital Outlay Activities; Management, Maintenance, and Operations of School Buildings; Legal and Financial Issues in Developing Educational Facilities; Research on the Physical Environment; and Models, Examples and Applications. How-to examples, step-by-step procedures, case studies, and learning activities are included which encourage unconventional thinking, and an applications toolkit includes a procedure for forecasting student populations, supported by accompanying online content containing student population forecasting programs. 437p.

Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 3: Public School Facilities Management Policies. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve school facilities management. The policy recommendations cover statewide school facility inventories, minimum adequacy standards, environmental design and construction practices, maintenance criteria, and taxpayer investment protection. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 21p.

The Duties, Responsibilities, and Challenges of Opening a New Elementary School.
Sims, Kathy
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville , May 2005)
Examines the challenges to principals who opened new elementary schools and identifies the essential responsibilities and duties they encountered. Identifying the role and latitude of the principal at different phases of the school construction was also examined. The sample for the study included three principals from three Tennessee public elementary schools who opened a new school for the first time during the 2001-2002 or 2002-2003 school years. Several findings emerged revealing observations about the duties, responsibilities, and challenges that principals encounter opening a new school. These included: 1)The planning and design stage of the new school was developed before the principal was appointed. 2)The latitude of the principal during the construction phase varied depending on when principals were appointed. 3)There was a diverse list of duties and responsibilities consisting of processes, procedures, and functions for which no assistance was provided or formal guidelines established. 4)An incredible amount of time and energy was spent by the principal dealing with unexpected and unavoidable challenges and concerns. 5)There is a need to consult and involve all stakeholders in the process of establishing a new learning community. 6)Specific skills and attributes are needed by those who open new schools. 7)A sufficient amount of time is needed by new school openers to focus solely on the task of organizing and implementing a new school setting. 8)There is a rewarding personal and professional feeling that accompanies the challenge of opening a new school. The following recommendations are drawn from the findings of the study. The recommendations of the study suggest: 1)Principals should be appointed early in the design and planning phase of new schools. 2)Specific knowledge, skills, and characteristics are needed by those who open new schools. 3) A support system is needed for new school openers. 4)Principal preparation programs need to be improved. 168p.
Report NO: 3180924

TO ORDER: Proquest, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106-1346; Tel: 734-761-4700, Toll Free: 800-521-0600, email:

Custodial Issues: Workload, Work hours, and Work Schedules.
(National Education Association. Education Support Professionals, 2005)
This provides information on team cleaning, workload (square footage), full-time vs. part-time, privatization, shift abuses, and wage and hour law.

Practical Ideas for Cutting Costs and Ways to Generate Alternative Revenue Sources.
Adsit, Tim; Murdock, George
(Rowman and Littlefield Education, Lanham, MD , 2005)
Details the present environment of declining school funds and offers advice on cost savings in a variety of management areas, including building scheduling, custodial services, and groundskeeping. Specific chapters are dedicated to ideas for community colleges and suggestions for alternative revenue sources. Appendix B offers a lengthy list of cost-saving tips presented as a checklist for consideration within the reader s own district. 224p.

Ins and Outs of School Facility Management.
Chan, Tak Cheung; Richardson, Michael
(Scarecrow Education, Lanham, MD , 2005)
Discusses the proper maintenance and renovation of schools, and how proper maintenance makes economic sense even in difficult economic times. The authors offer tips and guidelines for addressing school maintenance and renovation issues, details on planning and implementing maintenance and renovation projects at both the school and district levels, and a discussion of future issues confronting school maintenance and renovation. Scenarios, case reviews, and practical exercises in school renovation and maintenance are considered in an issue-by-issue format. Includes 176 references. 190p.

Driving More Money into the Classroom: The Promise of Shared Services. Adobe PDF
Eggers, William; Wavra, Robert; Snell, Lisa; Moore, Adrian
(Deloitte Research , 2005)
Discusses opportunities and benefits for sharing administrative and support services between schools and school districts, particularly as a means to mitigate the necessity to consolidate. Types of shared services described include purchasing, transportation, food service, administrative support, technology, and facilities management. Seven benefits of shared services described are savings, standardization, attracting of highly qualified personnel, retention of local control, flattening out peaks and troughs, and lowering political opposition. Includes 70 references. 29p.

Competition or Consolidation? The School District Consolidation Debate Revisited.
Murray, Vicki; Groen, Ross
(Goldwater Institute, Phoenix, AZ , Jan 12, 2004)
Advocates competition over consolidation as a means to achieve school efficiency in Arizona, with school choice and expansion of charter school opportunities recommended. The costs and experiences of Arizona and other states with consolidation as well as the impact of consolidation on student achievement are discussed. 46p.
Report NO: 189

Custodial Procedures. Adobe PDF
(Office of Plant Operations, School Board of Brevard County, Rockledge, FL , Jan 2004)
These procedures describe the following: plant operations and maintenance policy; safety in school operations; supplies; basic office cleaning; restroom cleaning and sanitation; hard surface floor maintenance; classroom and corridor cleaning; and basic carpet care. 56p.

Custodial Standards. Adobe PDF
(Brevard Public Schools, Office of Plant Operations and Maintenance, Rockledge, FL , 2004)
The Brevard County School Board has issued this document detailing maintenance and custodial standards district wide for its schools. Guidelines first address the general procedures and maintenance for the school, including universal precautions for the protection of the custodial staff. It then details maintenance and cleaning requirements for each area of the school, including classrooms, restrooms, cafeterias, gymnasiums, locker rooms, and corridors. Samples of facility custodial assessment forms; emergency lighting, fire extinguisher inspection, and air conditioner maintenance/service log sheets; and monthly custodial preventative maintenance forms are included. 51p.

School Maintenance and Renovation: Administrator Policies, Practices, and Economics.
Earthman, Glen; LeMasters, Linda
(Proactive Publications, Lancaster, PA , 2004)
Written for decision-makers in school buildings, district offices, and boards, this book outlines the major aspects of school maintenance and renovation, with a focus on cost-effectiveness. Chapters include: 1) How Schools are Funded; 2) Organization of Maintenance, Engineering, and Operations Staff; 3) School Board Policies for Maintenance and Operations; 4) Administrative Process--The Paper Chase; 5) Capital Improvement and Maintenance Planning; 6) Cost Maintenance; 7) Deferred and Preventive Maintenance; 8) Emerging Role of Technology; 9) Contract Maintenance--External Management Service; 10) Regulatory Aspects of Maintenance and Operations; 11) Cost-Effective Procurement Processes; 12) Deciding to Renovate; 13) Planning the Educational Program; 14) Selection of the Architect; 15) What the Architects Does; 16) Renovation Funding; 17) Alternative Funding Plans; 18) Bidding and Contractor Selection; 19) School Operating During a Renovation; 20) Bringing Closure to the Project; and 21) The Price of a Good Education. 200p.
TO ORDER: ProActive Publications, 1148 Elizabeth Avenue #2, Lancaster, PA 17601.

Handbook of Facility Assessment
Piper, James
(Fairmont Press , 2004)
This guide is designed for facility and maintenance managers who are facing "repair or replace" decisions for their buildings. Filled with useful information and resources to aid in the decision process, this hands-on reference shows how to accurately rate the condition of existing equipment and components, effectively assess options, and avoid making costly mistakes. Detailed step-by-step instructions are provided, along with forms listing specific criteria identified for rating each building component. 452p.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools: New Facilities Management Information System Promising, but Improved Data Accuracy Needed. Adobe PDF
(General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2003)
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for providing over 48,000 children with a safe place to learn. In response to concerns that data in its old information system did not accurately reflect the condition of facilities, BIA acquired a new system, called the Facilities Management Information System (FMIS). GAO was asked to determine whether FMIS addresses the old system's weaknesses and meets BIA's management needs, whether BIA has finished validating the accuracy of data entered into FMIS from the old system, and how well the quality control measures are working for ensuring the accuracy of new data being entered into the system from individual schools. 39p.

Facilities Information Management: A Guide for State and Local Education Agencies. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Forum on Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , Jul 2003)
The document was developed as a guide for designing and maintaining an information system about the condition, design, use, management, and financing of elementary/secondary education facilities. It includes commonly used measures, data elements, and a list of additional resources for the practitioner. Chapter 1 describes the purpose, scope, and intended audience for this guide. Chapter 2 describes how to use this guide to develop a customized information system, including how the facilities data should link to other data systems. Chapter 3 examines some key measures, such as school utilization, functional age, deferred maintenance, and expenditures per student, and discusses the challenges in standardizing the definitions of these terms. Chapter 4 lists hundreds of facility data elements, including standard definitions and options. Chapter 5 identifies additional resources, including sources for data elements and their definitions, that will be helpful to those involved in compiling school facilities data. [Authors' abstract.] 92p.
TO ORDER: U.S. Department of Education, ED Pubs. Tel: 877-433-7827

Save a Penny, Lose a School: The Real Cost of Deferred Maintenance.
Lawrence, Barbara Kent
(Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC. , Jun 2003)
Describes the problem of deferred maintenance for school facilities, especially from the perspective of small rural districts. It examines the extent, causes, and consequences of deferred maintenance as well as recommendations for policy, practice, and funding that can help correct this national problem. 23p.

Planning Guide for Maintaining School Facilities. Adobe PDF
(National Forum on Education Statistics, School Facilities Maintenance Task Force; Association of School Business Officials International, Washington, D.C. , Feb 2003)
The planning guide was developed to help readers better understand why and how to develop, implement, and evaluate a school facilities maintenance plan. The guide is designed for staff at the local school district level, where most facility maintenance is planned, managed, and carried out. This audience includes school business officials, school board members, superintendents, principals, facilities maintenance planners, maintenance staff, and custodial staff. The document is also relevant to the school facilities interests of state education agency staff, community groups, vendors, and regulatory agencies. The guide focuses on: (1) school facility maintenance as a vital task in the responsible management of an education organization; (2) the needs of an education audience; (3) strategies and procedures for planning, implementing, and evaluating effective maintenance programs; (4) a process to be followed, rather than a canned set of "one size fits all" solutions; and (5) recommendations based on best practices, rather than mandates. The document offers recommendations on the following issues, which serve as chapter headings: (1) "Introduction to School Facilities Maintenance Planning"; (2) "Planning for School Facilities Maintenance"; (3) "Facilities Audits (Knowing What You Have)"; (4) "Providing a Safe Environment for Learning"; (5) "Maintaining School Facilities and Grounds"; (6) "Effectively Managing Staff and Contractors"; and (7) "Evaluating Facilities Maintenance Efforts." 184p.

Facility Management Skill Set Assessment.
(Association of School Building Officials International, Reston, VA , 2003)
Consists of three forms for assessing an individual's facilities management skills. One form is for the user's self-assessment, one is for distribution by the user to colleagues so that they may assess his/her skills, and the third form is an analysis sheet use to compile the results of the previous two sheets to form a completed assessment. 12p.

School Estate Management Plans, Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2003)
Offers guidance on facility management plans, describing their purpose, content, scope, and preparation. Clarity and flexibility is emphasized, and a model plan is provided. 23p.

Doing Business with Entrepreneurial America: Protecting School District Interests.
McCord, Robert S.; Mattocks, T. C.; Kops, Gerald
(In: Balancing Rights: Education Law in a Brave New World. Papers [of the] Education Law Association (ELA) 48th Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, Nov 2002)
This paper attempts to identify benchmark considerations when entertaining the question of private management of public school facilities. Management possibilities include contracting for services and charter conversion. The paper also highlights elements of contract law pertinent to formal agreements made between school districts and private providers. In the early stages of doing business with private providers, care must be taken to control the spin of public opinion. Building support for reform efforts is an incremental process requiring a constant flow of factual information, anecdotal evidence, and independent research findings. Emphasis must be placed on beginning contract negotiations early in the process to ensure that all provisions are artfully crafted and meet with broad acceptance--particularly important when negotiating how those provisions affect existing labor agreements. The paper includes a suggested list of contract contents, starting with recitals/preamble; definitions; establishment or determination of school sites; term of agreement and starting date; mission statement; goals, objectives, and pupil performance standards; and financial arrangements, among other provisions. This list provides a starting point for drafting the contract between school authorities and a school management vendor.

Principles of Controlled Maintenance Management
Johnson, P. Dale
(Association of Energy Engineers , 2002)
This guide to the improvement of maintenance operations focuses on organization, inventory, continuous inspection, planning, scheduling, and program management. It provides guidelines on implementing a management system, and on customizing it to fit the needs of a particular organization. Chapters discuss the principles of controlled maintenance, history files, work classification, work input control, planning and estimating, material coordination, scheduling, work performance, buildings and grounds, predictive maintenance, and cost accounting. 137p.

Planning and Managing School Facilities. Second Edition.
Kowalski, Theodore
(Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT , 2002)
This book addresses the administrative procedures associated with planning and managing school facilities and discusses planning from the perspective of both individual facility projects and more comprehensive district-wide efforts. Part One examines historical and contemporary perspectives on school facility planning. A systems perspective is provided for defining the adequacy of school buildings, and the effects of changing demographics, school reform, technology, and obsolescence are detailed. Various planning paradigms and needs assessment are the focus of Part Two. Part Three examines specific tasks related to completing a facility project, including public opinion polling, securing professional services, and management responsibilities before, during, and after construction. Part Four includes focused issues: planning elementary schools, planning secondary schools, making enrollment projections, working with other agencies, choosing between renovation and new construction, financing capital outlay, and maintaining facilities once they become operational. 279p.
TO ORDER: Bergin & Garvey, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Tel: 203-226-3571

How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices Series.
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2001)
This brochure shows how school facility administrators and business officials can make smart energy choices to reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation. 7p.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102001-1431.

Maintenance Planning, Scheduling and Coordination.
Nyman, Don; Levitt, Joel
(Industrial Press, Aug 2001)
This book focuses on and deals specifically with the preparatory tasks that lead to effective utilization and application of maintenance resources: planning, parts acquisition, work measurement, coordination and scheduling. It addresses maintenance management, performance and control, and it clarifies the scope, responsibilities and contributions of the Planner/Scheduler function and the support of other functions to Job Preparation, Execution, and Completion. 320p
TO ORDER: Industrial Press

A Performance Audit of Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools.
(Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, TN , Jan 2001)
Compares the school system's performance to peer school systems and benchmarks. Facilities areas studied include maintenance, transportation, food service, central storeroom, capital projects, finance, and technology. These are measured against policies, procedures, and other standards promulgated by the Metropolitan Board of Education. For each area, major strengths and weaknesses, along with the reasons for them, are described. A long range-planning model, recommendations for improvement, and descriptions of non-compliance, fraud, and abuse are included. 1009p.

Educational Performance, Environmental Management, and Cleaning Effectiveness in School Environments. Adobe PDF
Berry, Michael A.
(Carpet and Rug Institute, Dalton, GA , 2001)
This paper briefly discusses research on the negative impact of indoor air environments within educational facilities and the positive impact of a scientifically based cleaning process. Included is a form for calculating the environmental performance for a school environment and definitions of relevant terms. Final sections discuss building management and cleaning and list the principles of cleaning effectiveness in school environments. 10p.

Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs? Adobe PDF
Duncombe, William; Yinger, John
(Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Citizenship and PUblic Affairs, Center for Policy Research , Jan 2001)
Evaluates the cost impacts of consolidation in rural school districts in New York over the 1985 to 1997 period. Holding student performance constant, school district consolidation substantially lowered operating costs, particularly when small districts were combined. The operating cost savings ranges from 22 percent for two 300-pupil districts to 8 percent for two 1,500-pupil districts. In contrast, consolidation lowers capital costs only for relatively small districts, and capital costs increase substantially when two 1,500-pupil districts come together. Overall, consolidation is likely to lower the costs of two 300-pupil districts by over 20 percent, to lower the costs of two 900-pupil districts by 7 to 9 percent, and to have little, if any, impact on the costs of two 1,500-pupil districts. State aid to cover the adjustment costs of consolidation appears to be warranted, but only in relatively small districts. Includes 44 references 56p.

Facilities Engineering and Management Handbook: Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Buildings
Smith, Paul R.; Seth, Anand K.; Neitlich, Mark M.
(McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 2001)
Tools for analyzing, comparing, anticipating, and managing the implications of engineering, maintenance, operating, and design decisions, and integrating facility systems for best results. The Handbook's life-cycle approach helps put relevant issues in context -- cost, durability, maintainability, operability, safety, and more. Includes information on facility financial management; facilities management; facility life-cycle process; facilities engineering; electrical, lighting, and mechanical systems; facility construction process; and facilities maintenance. 1,100p.

Facility Design and Management Handbook
Teicholz, Eric
(McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, New York, 2001)
This thorough reference covers all aspects of facility management, from design and construction to business practices and the technology infrastructure Includes a CD-ROM with budget samples, plans, cost-benefit analyses, project schedules, audit checklists, sample documents, standards, and links to all the relevant organizations and associations on the Web. The books 31 chapters are organized into five parts, with most fitting into the areas of planning, analysis and design, implementation and management, or technology. Chapters address benchmarking and strategic planning issues. 752p.

Implementation Recommendations for School Districts. GASB Statement No. 34.
(Association of School Business Officials International , 2000)
Explains the GASB Statement 34 reporting model, which affects every public-school organization that issues financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The term "reporting model" is used in this publication to describe the minimum set of financial statement, note disclosures, and required supplementary information that must be presented in a financial report for an independent auditor to assert, without qualification or further comment, that a government's financial statements are fairly presented in conformity with GAAP. Statement 34 will improve operational accountability by highlighting the districtwide perspective that was frequently lost in the detail of fund accounting. Although the statement includes significant requirements that enhance financial reporting, it does not abandon the traditional public-sector approach to accounting and fiscal disclosure. The requirements are also designed to make annual reports easier for the public to understand and more useful to stakeholders. The document presents the new standards and provides examples of the required financial reports. 71p.

Maintenance & Operations Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of Improving School Facilities.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Facilities Project Team, Reston, VA , 2000)
This paper examines the impact current maintenance and operations (M&O)practices have on U.S. school performance and offers possible opportunities for improvement through the judicious use of technology and methodology. The paper also presents a regional comparative analysis of M&O costs across the country. A list of equipment and their service life is provided as are suggested equipment to be considered for M&O programs, the financial benefits of preventive maintenance operations, and ways of integrating new M&O into existing plans. Final sections examine the budgeting of M&O processes in new school construction projects, and the steps school officials can take to implement a proper M&O plan that can avoid excessive costs, protect assets, and increase staff productivity. (Contains 16 references.) 16p.

Accessible Design Handbook
Callahan, Roselyn
(Race Point Press, Provincetown, MA, 2000)
With easy to read instructions and illustrations, this book makes the process of maintaining accessible facilities readily achievable. It is divided into four sections: Guidelines, Definitions & Diagrams, Checklists, and ADA & ADAAG. The first section includes instructions for maintaining accessibility in areas such as entrances, lobbies, corridors, assembly rooms, and cafeterias. With the checklists in hand, the person responsible for ADA compliance can easily and accurately assess the facility's accessibilty and make notes of any areas in need of modification. 246p.
TO ORDER: Race Point Press, PO Box 770, Provincetown, MA 02657; Tel:(508)487-1626

Custodial Methods and Procedures Manual.
Johnson, Donald R.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 2000)
This manual discusses school facility cleaning and maintenance from the expanded perspective of work management, physical assets management, and resource management. Work management encompasses the organization of work and personnel, scheduling of daily or routine duties and tasks, and handling of demand work. Physical asset management includes developing historical data relating to the facilities, updating and changing that data, managing facility assets, and providing asset accounting. Resource management includes identifying cleaning procedures, developing and maintaining a preventive maintenance program, supporting a full inventory and purchasing system, tracking in-house and outside service costs, and interfacing with the school district's financial management system. A reference section contains guidelines and forms for custodial equipment storage and care, including safety measures and employee management forms. 96p.

The Newark Public Schools Five-Year Facilities Management Plan. Summary Report. Adobe PDF
(The Hillier Group Architects; Newark Public Schools, Newark, NJ , Dec 15, 1999)
This report summarizes the Newark Public Schools Facilities Management Plan that describes the process by which the district assesses projected enrollments and program space needs to support the Core Curriculum Content standards; determines space deficiencies; and analyzes corrective options. The document presents district and plan overviews as well as data collected from the five School Leadership Teams (SLT) that examined school space issues within different geographical regions in the district. Each SLT report includes a summary of existing conditions, physical space analyses and deficiencies, facility operations costs, and deficiency and correction budgets for each school on an item-by-item basis. 190p.

Operation and Maintenance Assessments: A Best Practice for Energy-Efficient Building Operations. Adobe PDF
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. OR, Sep 1999)
This describes what an O&M assessment is, who should perform it, the benefits of an assessment, what it costs, and the process for performing an assessment. Includes a glossary of terms and sample site-assessment forms, a request for proposal checklist, sample procedures and plan, and a sample master log of findings. 54p

Facility Management Child Care Resource Book. Adobe PDF
Kinney, Patricia F.; Grandy, Susan
(General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service, Child Care Operations Center of Expertise, Washington, DC. , Jul 1999)
This guidebook provides maintenance and operations guidelines for managing General Services Administration (GSA) child care centers within the same standards and level of a GSA operated facility. Areas covered address cleaning standards and guidelines; equipment funding and inventory; maintenance of living environments and problem areas; checklists for school safety, health, and security; designing and remodeling; and playground maintenance. Also covered are the roles and responsibilities of child care providers, and comments on operation costs and quality. Final sections address issues on fundraising such as legal considerations and steps to fundraising success. 115p.

Caretaking Manual
Abbott, Lynn; Boehme, Daryl; Hoffart, Rodd; Malcolm, John; Merkowsky, Gary
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Saskatchewan, Canada , 1999)
Information for school maintenance staff in their role of providing clean, attractive, and pleasant educational facilities for students and staff. Addresses local school division policy. Presents general guidelines of first aid and safety, including guidelines for treating choking, giving CPR, treating of burns and poisonings, handling of environmental injuries, and caring for and using various types of safety and disaster equipment. Presents the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. Examines the development of a properly supplied and maintained caretaker's room. Explains the types of chemicals available to caretakers and their intended use. Covers cleaning procedures from dusting and cleaning chalkboards to all aspects of floor care, including finishing/sealing, spray buffing, and stain removal, and troubleshooting. Presents a sample facility review form which provides a means of determining that the various areas of a facility are acceptable or needing improvement. Includes a glossary of terms related to building maintenance and cleaning.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840

Facilities Operations and Engineering Reference
Greene, Mary; et al
(R.S. Means Co., Kingston, MA, 1999)
This book is divided into 10 chapters, covering management, engineering economics, civil engineering and construction projects, maintenance, energy efficiencies, HVAC, mechanical engineering, instrumentations and controls, electrical engineering, and environmental health/safety. The book is intended as the primary reference source for Certified Plant Engineers who usually work in the industrial sector, however it covers duties applicable to educational facilities operators. 729p.

The School Business Administrator. Fourth Edition.
Stevenson, Kenneth R.; Tharpe, Don I.
(Association of School Business Officials Internationl, Reston, Virginia , 1999)
This book examines the profession of the school business administrator within a city school system. It opens with a brief history of school business administration and then examines the responsibilities, duties, and educational and experience requirements; the procedures for establishing or restructuring a school business administrator's position , compensation, and evaluating an administrator's performance. The final chapter explores emerging issues, problems, challenges, and concepts of school business administration. 132p.
Report NO: ISBN-0-910-170-77-0

Facilities Management Planning Guidelines.
(New Jersey Dept. of Education, Trenton , Sep 22, 1998)
Assists New Jersey's Abbott districts with the preparation of their five-year facilities management plans so that the districts and the State will comply with the requirements of the Abbott v. Burke decision. The guidelines describe the educational adequacy assessment process and indicate options that districts should consider during the planning process. Also included is a summary of information to be included in each district's plan and evaluation criteria that will be used to review them. 24p.

Program Evaluation: Custodians/Security. Des Moines Public Schools.
Morgan, Pat; Stokes, Tom
(Des Moines Independent Community School District, Des Moines, IA , May 05, 1998)
The Des Moines Independent Community School District (Iowa) has initiated management support services in the custodial/security areas that have reduced administrative costs, provided for more efficient use of staff time, and streamlined inventory and maintenance management. This presents data tables on the department's operating budgets; describes its computerized inventory tracking system; and details its general operational responsibilities, including staff job descriptions and staff selection, evaluation, and development. Finally, the document presents an evaluation on department adherence to standards, policies, and regulations regarding personnel, in-service/staff development, commendations, maintenance procedures, equipment replacement, supplies, budgeting, security, the establishment of regulatory committees, and areas of future planning.
TO ORDER: Des Moines Independent Community Schools, 1800 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50309; 515-242-7903.

Maintenance Matters: Maintenance and Minor Works in Primary Schools. A Manual for Boards of Management. Adobe PDF
(Department of Education and Science, Dublin, Ireland , 1998)
This manual provides guidance in the maintenance requirements of primary education schools covering roofing; floors and walls; doors and windows; external and internal finishes; heating, plumbing, and drainage; electrical installations; paved and grassed surfaces; and furniture and loose equipment. The basic considerations are covered for each area followed by a list of the types of problems encountered, why these problems arise, and tips for maintenance surveillance. Also included is advice on work planning covering applications, appointing consultants and contractors, and key points on health and safety regulations. An appendix contains grant regulations for minor works to national schools and maintenance checklist sample forms. 213p.

Good School Maintenance: A Manual of Programs and Procedures for Buildings, Grounds and Equipment
(Illinois Association of School Boards, Springfield, IL , 1996)
Describes the basics of good school maintenance, including managing the program, using computers, controlling energy costs, ensuring safe practices, designing buildings for efficient maintenance, and being informed about environmental issues. Included are guidelines for operating cleaning and general building services and guidelines for building maintenance, specifically, caring for the exterior and roof. Procedures for maintaining school grounds are detailed, as well as the maintenance of mechanical equipment, including heating and air conditioning systems, sanitary systems and fixtures, sewage treatment plants, and electrical systems. 279p.
TO ORDER: Illinois Association of School Boards, 430 East Vine Street Springfield, IL 62703; Tel: 217/528-9688

Efficient and Adequate Standards for Building Specifications for the Construction of Schools. [Illinois] Adobe PDF
(Illinois State Board of Education, School Construction and Facility Services, Springfield, IL , 1995)
This is the maintenance code for school facilities constructed in Illinois between July 1, 1965 and March 24, 1995. Chapters cover General Requirements; Use of Model Codes and Standards; Construction Requirements; Special Occupancies; Protection Requirements; Heating, Ventilating, and Incinerators; Electrical Systems; and Plumbing. 151p.

Maintenance and Operations and the School Business Administrator. A Compilation of Articles from School Business Affairs.
(Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA , 1995)
This book compiles what is considered the best maintenance and operations articles that have appeared in the journal "School Business Affairs, International" in recent years. The collection ranges from an overview of maintenance program management to specific maintenance projects such as recycling and pesticide use. Articles are categorized under the following broad topic areas: maintenance and operations management; contracting out maintenance services; energy management; security and safety; roofing; and environmental issues. 142p.

Handbook of Facility Management: Tools and Techniques, Formulas and Tables
Piper, James E.
(Prentice Hall, 1995)
Handbook provides clear, straightforward methods, plus over 200 tables, charts, graphs, and forms for solving problems and saving money in mechanical, electrical, and building and grounds maintenance, as well as in energy use. The book includes a fast, accurate method for comparing heating fuel costs; how to select the right light source for an application; how to diagnose paint and protective coating problems; how to select appropriate floor coverings and establish a preventive maintenance program; and, instructions for running a quality control program for housekeeping. 678p.

Educational Facilities: Planning, Modernization, and Management. Fourth Edition
Castaldi, Basil
(Allyn and Bacon; Boston, MA , 1994)
As a sourcebook and textbook, this publication provides a comprehensive treatise on the planning, design, remodeling, and maintenance of educational facilities. The first chapters deal with the theory, principles, and techniques related to the educational planning of school buildings, including the application of selected principles of educational psychology. These chapters contain theoretical considerations that serve as a basis for long-range education planning and the specific educational facilities in any school district. The remaining chapters offer timely and practical information that reflects the state of the art in the planning of functional and futuristic educational facilities. It also includes information specific for planning child-care facilities. Besides containing information on curricular matters for the architect, this book also offers suggestions and solutions to a variety of problems related to educational facilities confronting school officials, school maintenance personnel, college and university officers, boards of education, and other stakeholders. 435p.
TO ORDER: Allyn & Bacon (A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.), 160 Gould St., Needham Heights, MA 02194

Maintenance of Electrical Services. Maintenance and Renewal in Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 76. Adobe PDF
(Department of Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch,London, England. , Jul 1992)
This document provides guidance on the overall electrical services and maintenance strategy in educational facilities, the individual components of which are considered in the following sections: record documentation and systems; inspection and testing; condition appraisal; maintenance requirements; and maintenance works procedures. Other sections include discussions on electrical requirements for particular uses, community use, spare capacity, and tasks for school staff. Many specific types of electrical services are considered and their planned maintenance requirements are dealt with in the appendices. 64p.

Decentralisation and Educational Building Management: The Impact of Recent Reforms.
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France , 1992)
Examines the legislative and administrative framework within which schools are planned and built, they way in which resources are allocated for their construction and maintenance, and how they are run on a daily basis. Part 1 provides a synthesis of recent developments in five OECD countries--France, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Diagrams illustrate each country's educational structure. Part 2 presents eight papers, which deal in more detail with aspects of educational planning management, drawing particularly on the Dutch experience. The papers show how the daily operation and management of educational buildings is irrevocably linked to the initial capital investment, and why it is essential to provide adequately for maintenance. Five figures are included. The annex contains a list of issues discussed 87p.

References to Journal Articles

Stick With a School Maintenance Plan
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jun 2012
Schools and universities must follow through on their maintenance management plans to ensure that facilities are kept in good shape. Includes a formula for determining how many workers are needed to get the job done properly. The factors weighed: number of teachers, number of students, type of school, size of facility and the number of washroom fixtures:

JOC Be Nimble, JOC by Quick
Schreyer, Paul R.
Educational Facility Planner; v46 n1 , p43-45 ; Jun 2012
Explores the Job Order Contracting (JOC) procurement method that allows school administrators to complete a large number of high quality maintenance projects quickly with a single, competitive bid contract.

Make Your School Control Itself
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; Apr 2012
Describes how to control energy use by integrating the mechanical, lighting, and other building systems so that each system can be scheduled and the systems can work together and monitor performance.

From LEED For Schools: Tips On Green Design And Construction For Facility Managers
Kessler, Helen
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
LEED for Schools includes a range of suggested strategies that can be considered for projects that can help to ensure that a school building is designed right in the first place, as well as applying equally to the many existing school facilities.

Showcase: Paints
Lewellen, David
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
4-part series on the latest developments in greening paints. Manufacturers have developed the whole package: low-VOC paints that are readily tintable at the point of sale with low-VOC colorant and low-odor properties. Part 1: Paint Innovations Offer Facility Managers Green Benefits, Performance; Part 2: Check Paint's Certifications To Avoid Greenwash; Part 3: New Standards, Research, Promise Continuing Improvement In Paints; and Part 4: Showcase Products: Paints.

Lighting Controls
Snyder, Loren
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
4-part series on lighting controls. Part 1: Careful Planning for Lighting Controls Can Prevent Problems; Part 2: With Lighting Controls, Facility Managers Should Understand Products, Building's Wiring; Part 3: Testing Is Key To Avoiding Lighting Control Projects Problems; and Part 4: Lighting Controls: Facility Managers Should Understand, Educate Occupants.

Close-Up: ADA
Stein, Joan
Building Operating Management; Apr 2012
Part 1: ADA Excuses Won't Keep Facility Managers Out of Court; and Part 2: ADA Complaints: How Facility Managers Can Evaluate Their Risks.

Outlook 2012
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; Jan 2012
Education institutions must keep a tight rein on spending in 2012 as they search for signs that the national economy is back on its feet. A slow, uncertain economic recovery has improved finances in some parts of the country, but for others, the absence of recovery may require further cuts. Describes the outlook in the following specific areas: funding; charter schools; construction; equity; closings; growth; maintenance & operations; No Child Left Behind; nutrition; security; technology; and sustainability.

Lifts: Elevated Safety Considerations.
Camp;lin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n8 , p16,18 ; Aug 2011
Introduces OSHA regulations, as well as proper testing and inspection of aerial work platforms.

Paper, Paper, Go Away.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p38,40 ; Aug 2011
Describes how Indiana's Metropolitan School District cut $125,000 in printing expenses by equipping schools with multi-function printers (MFPs) and enabling teachers to scan and convert documents to PDF format before distributing them electronically to students.

Drain Cleaning: Critical Operations.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p21 ; Jul 2011
Provides information for assembling drain-cleaning equipment that is flexible, reliable, and powerful enough to help tradespeople meet the demans of an expanding institution.

Snow and Ice Management: Cold Treatment.
Moore, Bruce
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p19,20 ; Jul 2011
Describes changes in snow and ice management from exclusive use of granular materials to luquid anti-icing materials.

Motors and Drives: Repair or Replace?
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p8,9 ; Jul 2011
Makes case for pro-active and cost-effective equipment decisions. To streamline the management of motors and drives, maintenance and engineering managers need to develop strategies for efficiently cataloguing and analyzing these products within their facilities, identifying problem equipment, especially as it relates to energy efficiency, and fully understanding replacement options.

Maintaining Perspective in the Maintenance Department
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n10 , p32-35 ; Jun 2011
Opines that in the slow economic recovery, schools facilities managers will be forced in the short term to do less. Unappealing choices include deferred maintenance, less heating and cooling, less service, outsourcing, reduced operations, and closing schools. Greater efficiency can be achieved with a work-order system, facilities condition index, inspections, and commissioning.

Total Cost of Ownership.
O'Brien Stephanie
College Planning and Management; v14 n6 , p53,54,56,58,59 ; Jun 2011
Discusses total cost of ownership (TCO) when making purchasing decisions, i.e., considering all costs expnded over the life of an item, both hard and soft. Faculty desks, staff chairs, and microscopes are used as examples in considering TCO. The article highlights a new awareness of hidden costs, and "green" considerations in decisions to replace existing supplies.

Cloud Computing's Limitless Options.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n5 , p42,43 ; May 2011
Describes how three school systems have converted to cloud computing, and discusses administrative, management, bond proposal, and transportation applications.

8 Tips for a Smooth Handoff of New Green Buildings.
Sinopoli, Jim
Greener Buildings; Apr 28, 2011
Details eight steps for an effective transition of a green building from its builders to its operators. These concentrate on including the facilities management staff in the construction process and training them on systems as they are completed.

MRO Storerooms: Bottom-Line Issues.
Murphy, Frank
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n4 , p22,24 ; Apr 2011
Advises on maintaining well-organized, well-stocked, and inventoried facilities parts storerooms. Reduction of staff time spent looking for parts, consolidated inventory, and quick response to facilities situations are emphasized.

Infrared Imaging: Tracking the Evolution.
Sirmans, David
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n3 , p13,14 ; Mar 2011
Discusses the evolution of infrared detection of facilities issues, with a rapid progress to less expensive, smaller, lighter, and more technologically advanced machines. It is now possible, even advisable, to train in-house staff on the use of this technology, rather than to hire outside contractors.

PPE: Making Protection a Priority.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p10,11 ; Feb 2011
Discusses personal protective equipment (PPE) guidelines. These include: performing a workplace assessment to identify and control physical and health hazards; identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees; training employees in the use and care of the PPE; maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged products; and periodically reviewing, updating, and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program.

Drain Cleaning: Keeping the Lines Open.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n2 , p18,20 ; Feb 2011
Describes the often-neglected issue of drains, including their use and mis-use. Discarded items and grease can create significant problems. New equipment is available but risks inattention by those who are supposed to maintain it.

Tech Gets Physical.
Ravage, Barbara
Campus Technology; v24 n6 , p22-24,26 ; Feb 2011
Discusses technological innovations that enhance campus energy management, facilities maintenance, and otherwise enable physical plant and energy management on college campuses.

No Easy Decisions.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v83 n4 , p18,20,22 ; Dec 2010
Lists 10 strategies used by many school districts for cutting costs. The author considers the merits and disadvantages within each category. They include consolidation, class size, layoffs, closings, fees, advertising, outsourcing, performance contracting, computerized maintenance management, and online purchasing.

Inventory: Low-Hanging Savings.
Gager, Andrew
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p12 ; Nov 2010
Advises on computerize inventory management for facility supplies, noting the features that it can provide and the benefits to flow, economical purchasing, and a reliable supply of correct parts. Supply vending machines and radio frequency identification (RFID) of parts and personnel are also discussed.

BIM in the Facility Manager's Toolkit.
Peglow, Timothy
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p34-39 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advocates the use of building information modeling (BIM) in school facilities maintenance as well as design and construction. The features and abilities of BIM software are described, and advice on conversion to BIM from other applications is offered. Potential interface possibilities with facilities management software is also addressed.

Snow and Ice: An Outside Job.
Kobach, Ellen; Birch, Brian
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p25,27 ; Oct 2010
Advises on pricing structures, contract, and insurance coverage for snow removal contractors. Accurate and detailed records of the contractor's work, various fee structures, typical challenges to snow removal, and prepared removal routes are discussed.

Bridge Builder.
Zimmerman, Greg
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p34-36,38,40,42,44 ; Oct 2010
Profiles New York City's Division of School Facilities executive officer John Shea. Beginning with compliance with the city's recycling rules, Shea has gone on to implement energy-saving strategies, train operations and management staff, retrocommissioning, and using school buildings as instructional tools within the curriculum.

Your New Role as Chief Sustainability Officer.
Conley, Bill
Facility Management Journal; v20 n5 , p58-60,62,63 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Discusses the opportunities for facilities managers to become the sustainability officers in their organizations. With their skills in the built environment, operations and maintenance, energy use, and waste the author proposes that the facilities manager is uniquely qualified for this position that is being created in many organizations. The advice is to learn how to communicate well and be financially astute.

Power Players. [UPS: Power-Management Strategies.]
Newbury, Michael
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p7,8 ; Sep 2010
Advises on testing and maintenance of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Frequent testing of batteries is emphasized, as their performance may degrade over time. Advice on specifying a UPS system is included.

Aerial Lifts: Reaching for Safety.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p18,20 ; Aug 2010
Describes importance of rigorous training for workers using aerial work platforms.

Equipment Rental: Eight Essential Questions.
Detmer, Dick
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n7 , p16,18 ; Jul 2010
Presents eight questions to consider when renting facilities maintenance equipment. These cover prioritizing which equipment to rent, costs, contracts, insurance, and training.

A Checklist for Meeting Green Goals.
Gregory, Bill
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p67-69 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Offers an annotated checklist for working with suppliers to meet requirements for "green" facilities operations and maintenance. Areas covered are green supply chain protocols and product selection, maintenance to extend useful life, and end of life options.

Under Pressure.
Leiss, Dan
Facility Management Journal; v20 n4 , p36,38-40 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Advises on the maintenance of pressure washers, which can last many more years than they typically do if properly cleaned and maintained. Instrutions on rinsing out cleaning compounds, oiling, checking hoses, inspecting tires, and cleaning air filters are described, as well as winterizing during long periods of disuse.

Tough Economy Prompts Innovation-Savvy Leaders Find Ways to Succeed.
MacKenzie, Bob
Shop Talk; Summer 2010
Reports on facility managers' strategies to do more with less as staff numbers are reduced through budget reduction or baby boomer retirement.

Power: Ready When Needed. [Power Reliability.]
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; v57 n7 , p37-39 ; Jul 2010
Describes types of back-up power generators, the maintenance they require, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), switchgear, and common pitfalls to avoid when installing a back-up power system.

Got Risk? Using Risk Transfers to Control Costs.
Bambino, Robert
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p14-16 ; Jun 2010
Discusses hold harmless and indemnification agreements to lower liability risks for school systems. Traditional insured endorsements and coverage limits are also addressed.

Self Control Is Secret to Energy Savings.
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v57 n6 , p65,66,68,70,71 ; Jun 2010
Provides technical advice to make case that rigorous maintenance of existing facilities can be as effective as upgrading to new systems.

Tracking Costs.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v82 n10 , p22-25 ; May 2010
Augments information on energy-saving construction and operations with information on measuring the cost-effectiveness.

Navigating the Mail Services Treasure Map.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v49 n5 , p38,40,41 ; May 2010
Provides examples for very significant postage costs for schools or school districts. These include the use of non-profit postage rates, or engaging the services of a third-party presort firm to reduce labor costs. In some instances, using the Postal Service for delivery of supplies within the school system will dramatically reduce the costs of transportation.

Lifts: Seven Key Questions.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p15,16 ; Apr 2010
Proposes seven questions to ask when choosing a lift for building maintenance. These address the type of job the lift will be doing, the capacity, ease of use, power source, site condition, and operator training.

Hang On to Those Buildings.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p94 ; Jan 2010
Advises on how to operate small schools when enrollment declines, in order to avoid selling school buildings that might be needed when enrollment rebounds. Multi-grade classrooms, careful scheduling of school specialists, doing without a principal, and inviting community programs to use surplus space are discussed.

Winter Maintenance.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v49 n1 , p77-79 ; Jan 2010
Describes winter school facility issues in Yakima, Washington; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Ohio. Fowl weather responses, aging facilities, staff and budget shortages, and a state-wide building upgrade and replacement plan are described.

Preparing a Facility for Winter.
Wallis, Steve
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p78,79 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Offers a checklist for conversion of HVAC systems from cooling to heating that includes the steps for shut down of cooling equipment, start-up of heating, cleaning, and replacement of belts and filters.

A Worthwhile Investment.
Dragan, Edward
American School Board Journal; v196 n12 , p26,27 ; Dec 2009
Advises on managing risks in schools to prevent accidents and costly litigation. Inspection tips for teachers and administrators are included, including the building, furnishings, and equipment.

Check the Green Credentials.
Hanford, Desiree
Building Operating Management; v56 n12 , p37,38 ; Dec 2009
Advises on how to confirm the credentials of a vendor claiming to provide "green" products or services. Green Seal certification and experience with sustainable practices in real setting rather than just laboratories is emphasized. In-house knowledge of what constitutes green practices is also essential.

Ten Steps for Success in 2010.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v82 n4 , p10,12,-15 ; Dec 2009
Offers suggestions for success in school facilities management, even when budgets are reduced. Budget management, sustainability, health and safety, energy saving, maintenance, security, strategic planning, furnishings, and building community are discussed.

CMMS: Beyond the Basics.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n12 , p13 ; Dec 2009
Advises on how to maximize the benefit of a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) by accessing typically underutilized features such as web-based purchasing, preventive maintenance scheduling, warehouse and inventory control, and human resources functions.

Now More Than Ever!
Bagadia, Kris
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n6 , p18,20,21 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Reviews historical problems with paper-based building maintenance management, and then describes the benefits of computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS). The abilities of handheld devices, the software applications that use the information they gather, wireless communication, and advice on selecting a system are addressed.

Five Details That Make a Significant Difference.
Lemmon, Karla
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n6 , p14,16,17 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses emergency notification systems, recommending opt-out, rather than opt-in systems, testing of the system, and multi-modal delivery.

Reaching for Productivity.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n11 , p16,17 ; Nov 2009
Advises on selecting the right type of lift equipment for overhead facilities jobs. Types of lifts are described, as well as application strategies and a variety of work platform options that will expand the usefulness of the lift.

Protecting the Power. [Creating Reliable Backup Power.]
Schlattman, Paul; Weber, Robert
Building Operating Management; v56 n10 , p51,52,54,55 ; Oct 2009
Discusses uninterruptible power supply (UPS) configurations. Efficiencies, scalable design, compatibility, standby generators, sound attenuation, and exhaust are discussed.

Tough Economic Times May Call for Downsizing Facility Resources. Adobe PDF
DeJong, William
School Construction News; v15 n6 , p23,30 ; Sep 01, 2009
Advises on the process of downsizing school facilities, discussing the inclusion of community members, data collection and analysis, establishing school closure criteria, developing options, making the recommendations, and presenting the final project.

Making Space: School Planning Expert Provides Tips for Facility Utilization. Adobe PDF
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v15 n6 , p21,22 ; Sep-Oct 2009
Presents an interview with Amy Yurko, an efficiency programmer and planner for schools. She discusses capacity, scheduling, removing clutter, sharing spaces, adaptability of buildings from different eras, and current trends in school facility management.

Cut the Wires, Cut the Cost. [Wireless BAS Systems Grow Up.]
Thompson, Josh
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p31,32,34 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the advantages of wireless building automation systems, which avoid the disruption and expense of cabling, conduit, or other infrastructures. Both proprietary and more open standards- based systems are discussed, as is battery life, the reluctance of IT staff to open their networks to additional wireless access, and system security.

CMMS: Going Mobile.
Bagadia, Kris; Kossik, Ronald
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n7 , p16,17 ; Jul 2009
Reviews the use of wireless devices in facilities management that can hold more data, create electronic forms, produce reports, access the Internet, and synchronize with other hardware. Advice on selection of wireless devices covers screen size, memory, durability, keyboard, wi-fi ability, real time versus synchronized transmission, capacity, CAD and code table support, operating systems, and costs.

Trimming the Budget: How to Make the Cuts.
Cortner-Castro, Christy
School Business Affairs; v75 n7 , p27-29 ; Jul 2009
Advises on how to reduce school budgets, emphasizing formation of a budget team, prioritizing positions for retention, and receiving community input.

Warm Weather, Cool Strategies. [Snow and Ice Removal: Summer Strategies.]
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n7 , p19 ; Jul 2009
Suggests preparations for Winter weather that can be done during warm weather. These include training staff, maintaining equipment, ordering supplies, and securing replacements for equipment that has reached the end of its usefulness.

Construction Tips to Reduce Operating and Maintenance Costs.
McCarthy, J.
Facility Management Journal; v19 n4 , p79,80,82 ; Jul-Aug 2009
Discusses changes that facility managers can suggest during the construction phase that may reduce operating costs. These include design of curbs and sidewalks, plumbing and fire protection systems zoning, freight elevator size, and standardization and reduction of numbers of light fixtures. Advice on gaining acceptance by the design and construction personnel and effective timing of requests is included.

Unexpected Side Effects.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v48 n7 , p6 ; Jul 2009
Discusses how the current economic downturn might encourage a fresh look at how we do things.

Taking Safety to a New Level.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p17,18 ; Jun 2009
Advises on safe use of mobile aerial work platforms, or lifts, in facilities maintenance. Adherence to manufacturer guidelines, knowledge of the equipment, thorough training, an environment of attention to safety, and securing of work areas are addressed.

Today's School Risk Manager.
Johnson, Cheryl; Levering, Steve
School Business Affairs; v75 n6 , p12,13 ; Jun 2009
Discusses the work of a school districts risk manager and team the assisting risk management team. Regular meetings to identify risks, and prioritizing and funding them for remediation are discussed.

Getting Started and Working with Building Information Modeling. Adobe PDF
Smith, Dana
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p20-24 ; May 2009
Advises on achieving thorough communication from planner to designer to contractor and then to facility operator through building information modeling (BIM). Tools for getting started are recommended and the particular advantages to large portfolio operators, such as school systems and universities are addressed.

BIM: How it Has Changed FM.
Valentine, Ellen; Zyskowski, Pete
Facilities Management Journal; v19 n3 , p28,30-32 ; May 2009
Advises facility managers on how to obtain and then use building information modeling (BIM) in their work.

BIM for Educational Facilities: Change is on the Horizon.
Wittaker, Jim
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p62,63 ; May 2009
Describes the advantages of building information modeling (BIM) to facility management, including minimizing the effort and cost of collecting data, convenience and accessibility of documentation, efficiencies with projecting moving of people and equipment, accurate analysis and minimizing of energy use, enhanced information for first responders, and improved space and asset management.

Kroll, Karen
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p31,32,34 ; Feb 2009
Advises on elevator care and maintenance, noting that monitoring of the elevator's performance is critical, with special attention to waiting time and down time. Contents of typical service agreements and methods of evaluating them are discussed, as is advice to avoid bargain contracts that offer very little preventive maintenance.

Facilities Maintenance Management Practices in Large Public Schools, Texas.
Lavey, Sarel; Bilbo, David L.
Facilities; v27 n1/2 ; Jan 2009
The purpose of this paper is to present previous studies and reports which have shown that most school buildings in the USA suffer from inadequate physical conditions. As American school buildings become “older”, it is essential for every school district to have an effective facilities maintenance management plan of its facilities. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze how facilities maintenance is planned, managed and carried out by large public schools in the State of Texas. The overall findings of this research indicate a poor quality of facilities maintenance management practices exists in large public schools in Texas. [Authors' abstract]

Let it Snow.
Michael Fickes.
School Planning and Management; v48 n1 , p25-27 ; Jan 2009
Discusses snow removal at schools, highlighting the practices of Kentucky's Jefferson County Public Schools. Types of equipment, salt and brining practices, staffing, plowing and piling advice, and protection of interior floors are addressed.

Maintenance at a Higher Level.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n1 , p16 ; Jan 2009
Advises on selection of the most appropriate lift equipment. Issues such as capacity, elevation, reach, maneuverability, footprint, handling, safety, ergonomics, stability, and warranty are addressed.

As the Baby Boomers Retire: Preparing to Fill the Open Positions.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p22,24 ; Oct 2008
Discusses the impending retirement of a significant number of school personnel, along with local national efforts to recruit and retain teachers, administrators, and other key personnel.

Buying Performance, Getting Flexibility, Too.
Walker, Cathy
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p28,30 ; Oct 2008
Advises on utility vehicle selection, discussing the virtues and limitations of gas, electric, propane, and hybrid vehicles, sizes, loads, passenger capacity, maneuverability, safety features, flexibility, costs, and speed.

Making Equipment Rental Work.
Hounsel, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p26,27 ; Aug 2008
Advises on maintenance equipment rental, including equipment condition, availability of staff to use the equipment in a timely manner, proper training, how to obtain honest appraisals of models, and when it is time to buy rather than rent.

Data Loggers: Tools for Productivity.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p10,12 ; Aug 2008
Describes how portable data loggers work, the types of system problems they can help analyze, and what can be learned from the data they collect and transmit. Time and money saved from system corrections made can quickly pay back the modest expense of the loggers.

Tall Task: Selecting the Right Lift.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p29,30 ; Jul 2008
Describes types of aerial lift equipment and advises on selecting the proper lift for a given space. Items to consider are the size of the base, height and horizontal reach needed, frequency of use, platform size, storage. Various power options and cost considerations are detailed, and a 31-point inspection list is included.

MRO Storerooms: Strategies for Efficiency.
Murphy, Frank
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p24.26 ; Jul 2008
Discusses elements of an effective maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) storeroom. These include an effective computerized maintenance management system with bar- code capability, a clean and organized space, restricted access, parts accountability, and a trained storeroom operator. Six steps for effective part distribution, accounting, purchasing, and inventory control are also detailed.

Electronic Waste: Reuse, Recycle, or Dispose?
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p25,26 ; Apr 2008
Describes types of electronic waste, what can typically be refurbished, access to recycling, EPA designations for these wastes, and hazardous materials found in batteries, lamps, and cathode ray tubes.

Under Construction: A National PK-12 Data Model.
Doar, Bertha
School Business Affairs; v74 n4 , p30,32 ; Apr 2008
Discusses this data model, currently under development, to help users, software developers, researchers, and community members have access to timely, accurate, and thorough data on their schools.

To Rent or Buy? That Is the Question.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p33,34 ; Apr 2008
Advises on deciding between rental or purchase of irregularly used facilities equipment. Cost comparison steps that include initial and operating costs, life expectancy, and depreciation are included.

Bringing FM into the Design and Construction Process.
Murdock, Michael; Lehmann, Chris
Facility Management Journal; v18 n2 , p14,16,18,19 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Advocates involving facility managers in the planning and design process for buildings, citing numerous cleaning, maintenance, and engineering issues that frequently arise post-occupancy.

School Building Codes: A Basic Guide for Facility Managers.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p34,36,37 ; Dec 2007
Briefly discusses building code issues and practical building features that apply to schools. These include handicapped accessibility, maintaining egress, energy efficiency, fresh air, fire safety, framing, and classroom security.

School Building Utilization: Effective Space Management.
Volkman, David; Malinowksi, Matthew
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p8-10 ; Dec 2007
Addresses maximizing school space use by examining current usage and demographic trends. A diverse task force should be created to focus on creative uses of facilities and potential for flexibility within existing space. A recommended make up and operation of the task force is illustrated with an example from the Susquehanna Township School District

Where to Start when Previous Facilities Data are Questionable.
Watt, Catherine; Higerd, Thomas; Valcik, Nicolas
New Directions for Institutional Research; v2007 n135 , p11-27 ; Oct 2007
Reviews the increasing awareness of the importance and difficulty in managing educational facilities as finite resources. The article discusses the clash of the value of research space with a lack of capital funds; the need to update, merge, and access data elements from multiple sources, including sponsored programs, finance, and personnel; and the theory of implementing change, the fitting of a new process into an existing institutional culture, and examples of actual experiences in implementing space systems. (Includes 4 references).

Fixed-Asset Inventories: Why, What, How, and What Now?
Smith, Sheldon
School Business Affairs; v73 n8 , p26,28 ; Sep 2007
Discusses the importance of accurate inventory of school equipment and furnishings, basic steps in the inventory process, desirable features of fixed-asset inventory software, and interpretation and use of inventory data.

Hazmat Management: Tools of the Trade.
Camplin, Jeffery
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n8 , p23,24 ; Aug 2007
Advises on management of facilities-related hazardous materials. Instructions for inventory, labeling, storage, shelving, and emergency response are included.

Ins and Outs of Outsourcing.
Maciejewski, Jennifer
District Administration; v43 n8 , p50-54 ; Aug 2007
Reviews advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing of school support services, as well as typical community and staff objections. Advice on making outsourcing work is offered, addressing clear and detailed communication with constituents and contractors, liability, performing due diligence, and accurately assessing the costs and savings.

Equipment Rental and the Bottom Line.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v15 n8 , p17,18 ; Aug 2007
Advises on how to assess in-house construction projects to determine the proper equipment for rental, training on the use of equipment, vendor insurance, and equipment inspection. Deciding whether to rent or purchase equipment is also covered.

Realize the Full Potential of Your New Facility. Adobe PDF
Kalina, David
Techniques: Connection Education and Careers ; v82 n5 , p27-28 ; May 2007
Even when the building project is completed, there is still work to be done. This entails readdressing academic delivery and developing new approaches to operating the new facility. This article on how to use new learning environments to their fullest potential presents tips and suggestions on how to have a great building and how to manage and operate it for the enjoyment and benefit of students and teachers.

Business and Operations.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v79 n5 , p64,65 ; Jan 2007
Presents an interview with John Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials, concerning trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in the near future. Resource allocation problems and the evolving role of the school business official are addressed.

Caterpillars and Butterflies: Whole-System Change Through Facility Planning.
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v73 n1 , p32-35 ; Jan 2007
Advocates radical change in district facility management through identifying successes, exploring and overcoming fear, confirming and validating current practices, defining needs, renovating for programmatic as well as physical needs, and involving the community.

Snow and Ice Management Checklist for School Administrators.
Anderson, Rodney
School Planning and Management; v45 n11 , pS8 ; Nov 2006
Offers a checklist to use in preparation for snow and ice removal season.

Effective Teams for Improved School Facility Management.
Bessette, Harriet; Bowen, Charles; Chan, Tak
School Business Affairs; v72 n7 , p6-8 ; Jul-Aug 2006
Discusses organizing school facility management teams at the district and school level, citing the goals and responsibilities of each team and how to coordinate them. Benefits of such an approach include shared responsibilities, community involvement, communication, sense of ownership, and student involvement. Includes three references.

Risk Management in the Procurement of Energy.
Moltzan, Bruce
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p11-13 ; Jun 2006
Discusses "lowest price" and "price certainty" methods of energy procurement, citing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Whatever method is chosen, school district budgets must be configured accordingly and tolerance for risk accurately assessed. Once a method is chosen, a variety of products, approaches, and partnerships are available to facilitate energy procurement.

Managing a Nationwide School District.
Hopwood, Mark
School Planning and Management; v45 n2 , p52-55 ; Feb 2006
Explains how the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs manages operations and maintenance of its 7,465 buildings nationwide with a client-server system. Future alignment of the system with other federal systems is discussed, as well as plans for its use in building asset and deferred maintenance management.

Critical Issues in Educational Facilities and Business.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v78 n5 , p60-67 ; Jan 2006
A panel of professionals shares creative solutions to educational facility and business operations. The influence of No Child Left Behind (NLCB), shrinking budgets, competition from charter schools, staffing, technology trends, "run to fail" operation of systems, and indoor air quality are covered.

Managing Large District Facilities.
Moss, David; Horstman, Eric
Educational Facility Planner; v41 n1 , p3-6 ; 2006
Describes the construction, renovation, and maintenance program of Plano Independent School District, outlining their 20-year renovation target and illustrating the program with a description of renovations at one elementary and one high school. Includes three references.

Beating the Odds.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v13 n12 ; Dec 2005
With 360 facilities and twelve new schools and 12,000 new students every year, the Las Vegas Schools' maintenance department is meeting it's growing challenges by assessing priorities, creative workload tactics, and focusing on quality.

The Why and How of Maintenance.
Dillon, Naomi
American School Board Journal; v192 n6 , p28-31 ; Jun 2005
Details reasons behind deferred maintenance, including willingness to cut maintenance and operations budgets to preserve educational program funding, lack of master planning for maintenance, lack of administrative understanding of maintenance due to insufficient communication from maintenance administrators, and lack of priority for maintenance.

An Asset Management System for School Buildings in Quebec. Adobe PDF
Gerbasi, Dino; Marchand, Gilles
PEB Exchange; v2005/2 n55 , p10,11 ; Jun 2005
Reviews the age and condition of Quebec schools, reasons for establishing an asset management system (AMS), the evolution of AMS and computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS), and the particular AMS approach taken by Quebec Public Schools.

Adaptable Spaces.
Maas, Richard
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , p22-24 ; May 2005
Describes the use of portable room dividers to adapt school spaces according to needs. Available features and finishes of many brands of dividers are described.

Facility Management Outsourcing: Seven Steps to Success.
Maechling, Timothy
School Business Affairs; v71 n5 , p6,8,10,12,13 ; May 2005
Describes seven steps toward successful facility management outsourcing: 1) Develop a site-by- site scope-of-work and service level agreements. 2) Understand baseline facility management costs. 3) Pinpoint opportunities to reduce costs. 4) Choose an outsourcing partner based on total results, not just price. 5) Ensure executive-level sponsorship. 6)Make a commitment to mutual trust and effective communication. 7) Keep the proposal process as simple as possible.

Everything Old is New Again
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; Apr 2005
The challenge at the College of William and Mary is ensuring a renovated historic building is maintained and operated efficiently. Maintenance technicians and others in the department worked closely with architects and contractors to work out the details of the renovation work and to make equipment and structural changes to the building that would both ensure its historic nature and its cost-effective maintainability in the future.

Renovating Buildings, Images
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Feb 2005
A four-year facility retrofit program revamps Charleston, South Carolina’s schools. The projects addressed critical issues, including inefficient HVAC systems, leaking roofs, and inadequate life-safety systems. To date, 97 percent of the district’s 78 schools have received improvements in various areas, including lighting, windows, air filtration, air-handling systems, security, and communications technology. While the project’s goal was to create healthier and more conducive learning environments for students, it also sparked admiration for the district’s maintenance department.

Want to Save Big Money on Insurance?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n2 , p18,20,22,24 ; Feb 2005
Describes self-insurance cooperatives that some districts have joined in order to save money and improve safety. Financial surpluses that result are used to finance additional safety measures.

Making the Most of It.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n5 , p51-53 ; Jan 2005
This discusses 10 ways that administrators can try to accomplish more with the resources they have: facility assessment, computerized maintenance management systems, commissioning, performance contracting, life-cycle costs, outsourcing, online procurement, alternative fuels, cool roofs, and sharing space.

Smart Spaces.
Mangan, Mike
School Construction News; v8 n1 , p14,15 ; Jan-Feb 2005
Describes four "keys" to wise classroom space use: 1) Conduct a thorough inventory of existing space, including who uses them and when, and what the seating requirements are. 2) Know curriculum types and schedules. 3) Know teacher-student ratios. 4) Conduct a facility assessment.

Really Smart Buildings.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n12 , p32,33 ; Dec 2004
Discusses the next generation of HVAC control, which includes web-based monitoring, programming, and scheduling, with online linkage to security and safety equipment.

Volume Purchasing Strategies.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p17-19 ; Nov 2004
Describes money-saving purchasing strategies that include cooperative buying plans involving several districts, even across state lines, in which significant savings on equipment, supplies, food and energy are realized. Also described is the piggybacking of a small school system's orders with those of a larger neighboring district.

Looking Good.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v43 n11 , p25,26 ; Nov 2004
Describes various school districts' approach to maintenance of the exterior elements of walls, roofs, windows, stairs, and landscaping.

Stretching Construction Dollars.
Carey, Kelley
American School Board Journal; v191 n10 , p26-30 ; Oct 2004
Describes a three-stage "downward spiral" that many school districts fall into, consisting of poor maintenance budgets, rushed renovation decisions, and faulty building addition decisions. Warning signs that a district is starting down the bad-planning spiral are offered, and steps toward good planning are described, including gathering sound data, outlining clear objectives, developing alternative means of achieving these objectives, and setting program priorities.

Using Schools in Summer.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v43 n8 , p46 ; Aug 2004
Advocates the use of school buildings during the Summer for diverse programs, not just remedial education. Adding these three months to the building's use will help justify building a quality building and air-conditioning it.

Training Spotlight: HVAC Systems
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Aug 2004
Managers seeking to improve technicians’ HVAC inspection and troubleshooting skills must make tough decisions related to worker training. To ensure workers receive proper training, managers must devote time to identify needs and training resources and overcome challenges, such as tight budgets and scheduling conflicts.

Getting More for Less.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n5 , p65-68 ; Jan 2004
Offers ten suggestion for more efficient facilities operation: a facilities database, preventive maintenance, reduced water use, energy management, multi-school residence halls, joint use of facilities, upgrading of technology for construction, involving stakeholders, outsourcing, and online purchasing.

Building Knowledge.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n2 , p38-39 ; Oct 2003
Outlines the inventory, condition, design, utilization and budget information that form the essential elements of any school facilities management database. Also describes the guide "Facilities Information Management: A Guide for State and Local Education Agencies," which may be found at

Solving the O&M Equation.
Flach, Robert: Dorgan, Chad B.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p40-45 ; May 2003
Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training.

Contracting Maintenance Services: An Easy Question, a Difficult Answer.
Geiger, Philip E.
School Planning and Management; v42 n5 , p38,40-41 ; May 2003
Discusses issues involved in outsourcing school maintenance and custodial services. There are many advantages to this approach, but it has definite drawbacks. In many instances, a combination of contract and employee services works well.

Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.
Hardy, Elisabet
School Business Affairs; v69 n5 , p27-28 ; May 2003
Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting.

Machines that Manage.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n9 , p47-48 ; May 2003
Describes how facilities-management systems use technology to help schools and universities operate their buildings more efficiently, reduce energy consumption, manage inventory more accurately, keep track of supplies and maintenance schedules, and save money.

A Permanent Fix.
Fransen, David
American School and University; v75 n8 , p42-43 ; Apr 2003
Discusses the benefits of a preventive maintenance program for a school's building envelope, especially roofing, including avoiding a crisis-management mentality and gaining greater control over time and finances.

Automatic Transition.
Popke, Michael
Athletic Business; v27 n4 , p105-10 ; Apr 2003
Describes how new automation technologies are providing more amenities to users, and energy and cost savings to facilities managers, in the areas of lighting, mechanical systems, and water.

Growing Pains.
Snyder, Loren
Maintenance Solutions; Mar 2003
This article describes how the maintenance department for the Clark County, (Nevada) School District keeps pace with the expansion into 38 new schools in three years and 1,000 new students a month.

A Gameplan For Access.
Thorpe, Barbara
Maintenance Solutions; Mar 2003
Compliance with the ADA is a legal requirement, and it is the right thing to do. To make facilities accessible for individuals with disabilities and meet the requirements of Title II of the ADA, managers need a plan. In many facilities, the task of spearheading facilities compliance often falls to maintenance managers. This article discusses strategies and tactics designed to help managers develop a successful barrier-removal plan for public facilities such as schools.

Can You Cut Budgets and Improve Programs?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v42 n2 , p71 ; Feb 2003
Presents ideas for creative planning ahead to provide equal or better services at lower costs, particularly in a situation where budget cuts are inevitable.

Cutting Costs.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p20-23 ; Jan 2003
Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to maximize their budgets: energy upgrades, security technology, maintenance management systems, partnerships, modernized washrooms, windows, facilities assessment, outsourcing, alternative fuels, and building commissioning.

Going Modular.
Ewald, Michael
American School and University; v75 n3 , p324-25 ; Nov 2002
Describes how schools that install modular wiring systems can reap benefits in cost savings and service advantages.

Can You Really Do It Cheaper?
Edds, Daniel
School Planning and Management; v41 n10 , p20-22 ; Oct 2002
Suggests principles for making decisions about outsourcing, privatizing, or contracting school services: know your costs, specify results within the request for proposal (RFP), and face reality and focus on the mission.

Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.
Conroy, Pat
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , p54-57 ; Jul 2002
Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection.

An Infrastructure Roadmap.
Furgeson, Steven P.
American School and University; v74 n10 , p26-29 ; Jun 2002
Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital- improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans.

Keeping It Clean.
Hale, Olivia
American School and University; v74 n10 , p30-33 ; Jun 2002
Describes how the dirt and grime tracked onto school building floors can be minimized with a few simple steps, such as walkoff mats, and using vinyl composition tiling.

The New Breed.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n10 , p20-24 ; Jun 2002
Discusses how, as they struggle to improve academically and manage their facilities and finances more effectively, some school systems--especially large urban districts--are seeking out leaders with business expertise outside the field of education. Includes sidebars on one such leader and on schools that have chosen this path.

Safety Program Guidelines for Public School Facility Construction and Operations.
Usmen, Mumtaz; Baradan, Selim; Jayyousi, Kifah
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction; v7 n2 , p74-80 ; May 2002
Facilities management programs at public schools covering capital improvement projects and facility operations and maintenance functions need comprehensive safety programs to ensure that workers, school staff, and students are provided a safe and healthy environment during all related activities. This paper reviews the elements of a school safety program and discusses program implementation issues to make it successful. Program guidelines are provided for safe construction, operations, maintenance, and design in the context of school facilities. [Authors' abstract]

The Growth Equation.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v74 n8 , p18-22,24 ; Apr 2002
Using the example of Clark County school district in Las Vegas, discusses the challenges faced by administrators of rapidly growing areas. Districts confronting rapid growth must find enough money to build needed facilities, secure appropriate sites for new schools, juggle multiple construction projects, and not let the focus on new facilities overshadow the maintenance needs of existing facilities.

Deferred School Maintenance Creates National Crisis.
Geiger, Philip E.
School Business Affairs; v68 n1 , p43 ; Jan 2002
This article reports that at least 30% of the country's schools require extensive repairs and another 40% need replacement of at least major components. Adequate maintenance programs could have avoided the estimated expenditure of nearly $2 million per school that will be needed to bring these schools up to good condition. Elements of a school district's quality maintenance program are listed.

The Learning Curve.
Raiford, Regina
Buildings; v96 n1 , p28-30,32 ; Jan 2002
Examines how a group of private corporations can bring new skills to the difficult task of designing, constructing, starting up, and maintaining educational facilities.

Planning for Maintaining School Facilities? Help is on the Way.
Szuba, Thomas; Young, Roger
School Business Affairs; v67 n12 , p34-35 ; Dec 2001
Describes cooperative effort between Association of School Business Officials, International and National Forum on Education Statistics to develop a guide to facilities maintenance planning, to be completed in 2 years, for use by local school districts.

The Entrepreneurial Challenge.
Franklin, Douglas
School Planning and Management; v25 n10 , p85-91 ; Oct 2001
Discusses how, despite tight budgets and changing clientele, campus recreation professionals are using the entrepreneurial spirit to do more with less in developing feasible facilities and programming.

Planning Maintenance and Repairs.
Fitzemeyer, Ted
American School and University; v74 n1 , p30,32,34 ; Sep 2001
Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems.

Facility Benchmarking Trends in Tertiary Education - An Australian Case Study. Adobe PDF
Fisher, Kenn
PEB Exchange; n43 , p20-22 ; Jun 2001
Presents how Australia's facility managers are responding to the growing impact of tertiary education participation and the increase in educational facility usage. Topics cover strategic asset management and the benchmarking of education physical assets and postsecondary institutions.

Pass or Fail?
Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v40 n6 , p29,31-33 ; Jun 2001
Examines how states are handling aged, overcrowded, and obsolete school facilities. Includes interviews with the directors of facility programs in Arizona, Ohio, and West Virginia to see what works and what doesn't work in state-run programs that seek to strike a balance between state money and local control.

Dwindling Support. American School and University 30th Annual School M & O Cost Study.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v73 n8 , p24,26-28,30,32 ; Apr 2001
Presents trend data of school districts fund allocation for school maintenance and operations of their facilities across the United States. Data reveal a continuing decline in funding for maintenance and operations of school facilities.

Opening Up New Possibilities.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n6 , p20-22,24 ; Feb 2001
Discusses technology's impact on educational facilities and operations. Examines technology's influence on a school's ability to streamline its business operations and manage its facilities more efficiently. Describes how Baylor University in Waco, Texas, used technology to reduce its energy expenditures.

Is Your Staff Productive?
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jan 2001
Notes the pressure managers are under to wring every last bit of productivity from their work forces, even as many struggle to define and quantify what constitutes productive time. Espouses the idea that, by scrutinizing their operations, managers can find opportunities to increase productivity in quantifiable ways, whether it’s through better scheduling, more technology applications, or streamlining the flow of work orders. Includes a game plan for productivity and online links to additional resources.

Job Ordering Contracting: Obtaining Construction Services Efficiently and Economically Through the JOC Delivery System.
Kashiwagi, Dean T.
Educational Facility Planner; v36 n2 , p4-10 ; 2001
Discusses what job order contracting (JOC) for facilities managers is and its advantages and disadvantages. Also discusses the Center for Job Order Contracting Excellence, the impact of the "low- bid" award process, the benefits of JOC's use of multiple on-site contractors, and utilization of performance-based procurement and performance information.

The Top 10 Issues Impacting School Administrators.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n5 , p18-22 ; Jan 2001
Discusses the top challenges commonly confronted nationwide by school districts. These include facility construction and repair, enrollment, funding, security and safety, technology, maintenance, staff training and retention, and unfunded mandates.

Condemned: America's Public Schools.
Vangen, Clara M. W.
Buildings; v95 n1 , p62-63 ; Jan 2001
Presents some facts about Government Accounting Standards Board 34/35, which mandates that all government facilities institute an accounting system that will depreciate all capital assets, and what this means for state educational facilities.

New Directions in Staffing
Patterson, Kelly
Maintenance Solutions Online; Dec 2000
Explains that mapping out a successful staffing plan includes both finding the right people and using them the right way. Notes that budget constraints, a tight labor market, and growing and changing facilities conspire to make the staffing challenge that much more difficult for maintenance managers. Discusses setting priorities, developing a staffing plan, and making adjustments. Includes additional information on recruiting and staffing in the 21st century.

Taking the ‘Haz’ from Hazmat
Burkhart, John
Maintenance Solutions Online; Sep 2000
This reviews a range of challenges common to two major types of facilities — education and health care — and takes a closer look at hazardous materials (hazmat) issues that can provide maintenance and engineering managers with a framework for updating management plans.

Paper Gains
Bigger, Alan; Bigger, Linda
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jul 2000
Every manager wants to get the biggest bang for the buck, and paper goods are one of the most expensive commodities a custodial operation will invest in on the supplies side of the budget. By implementing a proactive management program that matches quality paper goods with the appropriate dispenser, managers will be better able to minimize complaints and maximize savings on paper products and labor.

Wired for Performance
Qayoumi, Mohammad A.
Maintenance Solutions Online; Jul 2000
The rules of cabling and wiring are changing rapidly these days, and they are creating a series of issues that engineering and maintenance managers are having to address to keep their facilities operating smoothly. This discusses power and communication wiring; cabling distribution; an integrated solution; and common distribution benefits.

Summer Is No Vacation When It Comes to Maintenance.
Enderle, Jerry
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p26,28-30 ; Apr 2000
Discusses maintenance scheduling in schools that are being used year-round for various purposes. Rethinking maintenance work beyond the traditional summer vacation is described as are school district budgeting for year-round maintenance scheduling and the need for cooperative planning.

Getting Their Due.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n5 , p28,30 ; Jan 2000
Presents 1999-00 data of K-12 school administrator's compensation in the areas of base salaries and pension payments compared to private-sector executives. Data reveal that administrative salary increases outpaced those received by other non-education professionals. Includes salaries for director of facilities planning, director of security/safety, and superintendent of buildings and grounds.

Monitoring Building Systems.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v39 n1 , p62-63 ; Jan 2000
Examines how simpler school building monitoring systems can be the answer to a school district's maintenance needs, particularly in cold climates. The Sensaphone system which can be configured to monitor any number of building systems is described.

Take It or Leave It.
Agron, Joe
American School and University; v72 n1 , p28-30,32,34 ; Sep 1999
Discusses survey results that show a school districts aversion to privatize non-educational services. Top reasons why some school districts and colleges turn to, or resist, privatization are provided. Also revealed are the administrators who are most likely to be directly involved in privatization efforts and statistics on how much privatization is occurring in both secondary and postsecondary institutions.

To Outsource or Not To Outsource?
Haertsch, Tom
School Planning and Management; v38 n8 , p29-30 ; Aug 1999
Discusses the trends towards school districts outsourcing selected support services as a means of attaining organizational efficiency and cost control. What decision makers should look for when considering outsourcing is examined.

Outlook 2000.
Lieberth, Jane
School Planning and Management; v38 n1 , p16-20 ; Jan 1999
Presents predictions from experts, consultants, and educators on the future of public education and how it could affect school facilities management. Topics cover school security and crisis management, school management and accountability in response to the increasing competition for students, and technology integration into the classroom.

Ins and Outs of Privatization.
Daneman, Kathy
American School and University; v71 n1 , p16, 18 ; Sep 1998
Discusses the pros and cons of privatization as a way of saving money while improving non-educational operations. The question of why some services should be kept in-house are addressed as well as what to look for when considering outsourcing. One school's experience with outsourcing health care services is highlighted.

Final Exam.
Coullahan, Richard
American School and University; v70 n9 , p66h-66j ; May 1998
Explains the use of a maintenance-management assessment process that educational facility managers can use to improve facility conditions while providing evidence for future capital investments in maintenance management. Questions a maintenance-management audit can answer are discussed as is how to analyze the data to gain maximum understanding of facility conditions and maintenance capabilities.

Building a Staffing Plan.
Shaw, Richard
American School and University; Feb 1998
Physical plant managers need a staffing plan for their departments. Although some have made attempts through internal staffing guidelines and fairly sophisticated computer software, these devices are only part of a plan.

Facilities Management.
Bete, Tim, Ed.
School Planning & Management; v37 n1 , p48 ; Jan 1998
Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find a pressing need to install self-cleaning toilets to save costs.

Smart Supervision.
Sutton, Rodney K.
School Planning and Management; v35 n8 , p25-28 ; Aug 1996
Three school officials explain why their districts recognize that facilities management requires district-level oversight by trained personnel. Beyond maintenance and construction, facilities managers serve as district experts on risk management and student safety.

Facility Accounting: Hammering Out a Capital Replacement Budget
Readinger, Jay
School Business Affairs; v62 n7 , p48-51 ; Jul 1996
Most facility and finance managers cannot adequately handle school infrastructure issues because they lack the tools to describe the problem appropriately. Facility accounting gives managers accurate deferral and projected replacement costs, using nationally recognized life-cycle and cost data. Facility accounting enables proper management of physical assets, ensuring that they contribute to an institution's overall competitiveness.

Using Benchmarking to Analyze M&O Efficiency
Hughes, Jonathan T.; Jones, Helayne B.
School Business Affairs; v62 n4 p52-59 , p52-59 ; Apr 1996
This study developed efficiency indicators (grouped into price, personnel, productivity, and policy categories) as part of an ongoing internal benchmarking process to help six affluent New York school districts manage their facilities maintenance and operations processes. Based on data analysis, the greatest area for potential savings (from interdistrict cooperation) is in maintenance and operations personnel.

The Business of Support Services.
DePatta, Joe
School Construction News; v8 n1 , p24,25 ; Jan-Feb 1995
Presents an interview with the chief executive of the Office of School Support Services, New York City Department of Education. Food and transportation services, as well as a unique system of contracting for custodial services, are described.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).