NCEF Resource List: School Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines -- State and Local
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SCHOOL FACILITIES PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES -- STATE AND LOCAL

Guidelines and regulations published by states, counties, and municipalities regarding school facility planning, design, and maintenance, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

A Practical Guide to Planning, Constructing, and Using School Courtyards
(Maryland State Department of Education School Facilities Branch , Jul 24, 2012)
The Maryland Department of Education guideline for courtyard design is for use by local planning committees and architects in designing new schools and developing major renovation/addition projects. This guide also will be useful to school systems, school-based staff, and parent/community groups seeking to revitalize and make better use of existing courtyards. It includes recommendations for building and plant materials; safety and security; size, volume, and orientation; construction, accessibility, maintenance, and code compliance. The guide is illustrated with numerous color photographs, diagrams, and examples from Maryland and around the world. It documents the benefits of school courtyards, including: letting natural light and ventilation into classrooms; providing a safe, contained, outdoor area for instruction; supporting environmental education programs; and offering opportunities for creative, hands-on educational activities. p103

Virginia CHPS Criteria for New Construction, Major Modernizations: Assessment Tool.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA , 2011)
Offers a Virginia-specific benchmark system for the design and construction of high performance school buildings in Virginia. The guide contains prerequisites and credits that reflect the changing nature of school design and construction in Virginia and reflects the unique codes and regulations, climates, opportunities, and local priorities of the state. A credit for BIM (Building Information Modeling) acknowledges how technology can be used to reduce wasteful construction mistakes in the design phase. The development of the Virginia CHPS Criteria also marks the first time a state has used the new CHPS "Core Criteria" to design a high performance building rating system. The Core Criteria reflect CHPS' three major priorities of improving health and student performance, reducing operating costs and mitigating environmental impacts. 199p.

North Carolina Public Schools Facilities Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Aug 2010)
Provides school systems and designers with design information that can be used as a basis for new schools, additions, and renovations when building public schools in North Carolina. Further, it serves as a planning guide for those in the process of building or renovating school facilities. Guidelines detail minimum requirements for each area of an educational facility, allowing for minor deviations in spatial requirements where design efficiency dictates. Comments and recommendations are offered for each area s guidelines. Appendices present the General Statute for erecting school buildings, feasibility and cost analysis required by the statute, class sizes and teacher allotments, suggested sizing for media center main rooms, recommended lighting systems with illumination levels, and forms for use when deviations from the guidelines are required. 78p.

Selected Laws Relating to the Construction and Repair of Public School Facilities in North Carolina. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Jul 2010)
Focuses mainly on financial concerns covering areas such as bids, sources of state funds, selling or buying school property, bonds, capital outlay funds, and general loan information. Other statutes covered include architectural and engineering services, public contracts, classroom sizes, the duties of local educational and civic authorities, inspections, energy savings contracts, lease properties, long-range facility plans, the North Carolina Historical Commission, facilities guidelines, repair of damage to school property, replacement of buildings, and fire safety. 107p.

Life Cycle Cost Guidelines for Materials and Building Systems for Florida's Public Educational Facilities, 2010. Adobe PDF
(University of Florida, Gainesville , Jun 30, 2010)
Provides an evaluation of current and emerging materials, products, and systems for application to the construction of educational facilities in Florida, based on a wide range of cost and performance criteria. Current data regarding first cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and replacement costs were used in the life cycle evaluation of the materials, products, and systems. The ratings for each material, product, or system are indicated using a matrix of systems versus criteria for ranking the systems. Each material, product, or system typically or potentially used for educational facilities has been evaluated with respect to life cycle and other performance criteria. 242p.

How a Strict Earthquake Safety Law Doesn't Apply to All Schools.
Alpert, Emily
(Voiceofsandiego.org, San Diego, CA , Apr 27, 2010)
Notes that California's charter and private schools do not always have to comply with the state's Field Act, which has imposed strict seismic building codes on schools since 1933. Some argue that since the Field Act's passage, improved civil codes have been imposed, and that these codes provide ample safety. Arguments for retaining the Field Act, with its intense, but expensive scrutiny; for handing over the Act's requirements to local supervision; or for dispensing with it altogether are cited. 3p.

Wyoming School Facilities Commission Design Guidelines.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne, Feb 2010)
Presents the state's facility guidelines, covering the topics of site design, foundations, structural systems, exterior walls, roof assemblies, interior partitions, doors/windows, wall and ceiling finishes, interior floor finishes, plumbing systems, HVAC systems, electrical systems, technology/special systems, fixed equipment, safety and security, specialty spaces. Includes appendices on energy and building systems life cycle analysis, FF&E list, and design construction standards for outdoor athletic facilities. 134p.

Cehcklists and Step by Step Instructions: Funding, Building and Maintaining Schools in New Mexico. Adobe PDF
(State of New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority, Santa Fe , Sep 15, 2009)
Provides step-by-step guidance, checklists, and forms to New Mexico school districts in taking advantage of state resources for school construction. The contents address the planning, funding, project development, construction, and occupancy stages. 134p.

State of New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority Educational Specifications Process Checklist: Resource Document.
(State of New Mexico Public Schools Authority, Santa Fe , Feb 03, 2009)
Outlines steps and provides worksheets for creating educational specifications. These include the formation of the educational specifications committee, suggested agendas for work sessions, program requirements worksheets, sample program requirement narratives, square footage guidelines, and a suggested table of contents for the final specifications document. 27p.

Environmental Mitigation Handbook. (California) Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , Feb 2009)
Assists California school districts with navigating environmental mitigation requirements. The handbook identifies the many state and local agencies that may have mitigation requirements, the permissible scope of these requirements, opportunities for negotiation, and best practice advice for compliance. Includes water and sewer service impact, traffic impact, air quality, and climate change. 57p.

Colorado Criteria for High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA , Jan 2009)
Presents the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) guidelines for Colorado. Sections of the document address leadership, education, innovation, sustainable sites, water use, energy use, effect on climate, materials and waste management, lighting and daylighting, indoor air quality and thermal comfort, and acoustics. 214p.

Washington's High-Performance School Buildings: Report to the Governor and Legislature. Adobe PDF
(Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Washington , Dec 30, 2008)
Provides a status report on the implementation of Chapter 39.35D RCW High-Performance Public Buildings for Washington state K-12 schools. The law requires that all state assisted K-12 new construction or modernization projects over 5,000 square feet are designed and built to high-performance standards. Between 2006-2008, Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) monitored 18 projects that volunteered to use the Washington Sustainable Schools Protocol (WSSP) before it became mandatory. This report presents the results and findings of their experience with implementing the WSSP, as well as the environmental and performance impacts and benefits resulting from the high-performance strategies they chose to pursue. Consistent and detailed financial information was not available at the time of the writing of this report. OSPI is currently developing a cost reporting tool for schools what will help with data consistency 46p.

Commissioner's Rules Concerning School Facilities 61.CC. Chapter 61. School Districts Subchapter CC. Commissioner's Rules Concerning School Facilities. (Texas)
(Texas Education Agency, Austin , Sep 2008)
Presents the Texas rules for school facilities, covering details of educational specifications, school construction, long-range planning, space requirements, specialized classrooms, environmental quality, and code compliance. 12p.

Review and Evaluation of the Building and Facility Adequacy Standards of the Wyoming School Facilities Commission.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , Jun 2008)
Reports the results of the Commission s review process that included reviewing the design and construction of school facilities across Wyoming, analyzing school facility guidelines from other states and school districts, and gathering insight from school facility experts and school designs from across the nation. A key conclusion of these efforts was that the facility design guidelines adopted in 2003 remained competitive with those guidelines available from other states and localities. These guidelines, as a whole, also remained adequate to deliver an appropriate Wyoming educational program and to provide school districts and their designers a great deal of flexibility to design schools. Some minor changes were deemed necessary in the elementary school model due almost exclusively to the Wyoming Legislature's adoption of full-day Kindergarten. In addition to the recommended changes to the elementary school guidelines, some additions were also recommended to the high school guidelines. The 2003 guidelines for high schools only included guidelines up to 750 students. Thus, work was done to estimate the square footage needs of high schools with larger enrollment capacities. 42p.

The Kentucky School Facilities Planning Manual.
(Kentucky Board of Education, Frankfort , Jun 2008)
Guides Kentucky school districts in the development and adoption of written plans describing their construction needs and use of school facilities. The facility planning process is described step by step. This is followed by an explanation of the facility plan format, facilities analysis instructions, state submission requirements, and procedures for facilities plan modifications. 74p.
Report NO: 702 KAR 4:180


2008 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , Mar 15, 2008)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. The guidelines are organized by CSI Masterformat divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 123p.

Elementary School Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , Feb 2008)
Offers guidelines to be used in planning and designing new, as well are remodeling and renovating existing Wyoming elementary schools. It describes the facility requirements to accommodate the instructional program, activities, and support facilities. Areas addressed are administration areas, academic areas, special education, art, music, the media center, the computer laboratory, physical education, cafeteria/multi-use room, kitchen, circulation, custodial areas, mechanical and electrical rooms, communications, plumbing, technology wiring, special systems, security, and square footage per student. 41p.

High School Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards.
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , Feb 2008)
Offers guidelines to be used in planning and designing new, as well are remodeling and renovating existing Wyoming high schools. It describes the facility requirements to accommodate the instructional program, activities, and support facilities. Areas addressed are administration areas, instruction areas, science, art, music, multi-purpose shop, family and consumer studies, business education, the media center, the computer laboratory, physical education, the auditorium, the cafeteria/commons, kitchen, circulation, custodial areas, mechanical and electrical rooms, communications, plumbing, technology wiring, special systems, security, and square footage per student 58p.

Middle Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards. Adobe PDF
(Wyoming School Facilities Commission, Cheyenne , Feb 2008)
Offers guidelines to be used in planning and designing new, as well are remodeling and renovating existing Wyoming middle schools. It describes the facility requirements to accommodate the instructional program, activities, and support facilities. Areas addressed are administration areas, academic areas, art, music, multi-purpose shop, the media center, the computer laboratory, physical education, commons/cafeteria, kitchen, circulation, custodial areas, mechanical and electrical rooms, communications, plumbing, technology wiring, special systems, security, and square footage per student 46p.
TO ORDER: http://www.wyoming.gov/loc/03302010_1/Pages/default.aspx

General Criteria for Public Facility Construction. [Georgia]
(Georgia Dept. of Education, Atlanta , Jan 31, 2008)
Summarizes design and construction standards for all new school buildings including codes, air conditioning, spacing of buildings, and location on site. 4p.

Arkansas School Facility Manual.
(Arkansas Division of Public School Academic Facilities & Transportation, 2008)
Includes policies and procedures; standards and guidelines including program requirements, space guidelines, and building systems; custodial and maintenance; furniture, fixtures, and equipment procurement; and technology.

Building Project Procedures Manual. [Georgia]
(University System of Georgia, Office of Real Estate and Facilities, Atlanta, 2008)
Defines the process by which facilities projects in the University System of Georgia are initiated, funded, planned, designed, bid, and constructed. Each chapter begins with a general step-by-step process for project development with references to supporting documents in the corresponding appendices of the manual. These appendices support and coordinate with the chapters in the first part of the manual and consist of detailed documentation, forms, checklists, guides and examples of correspondence that may be used throughout the process.

Checklists and Step by Step Instructions: Funding, Building and Maintaining Schools in New Mexico.
(State of New Mexico Public School Facilities Authority, Santa Fe , 2008)
Provides step-by-step guidance, checklists, and forms to New Mexico school districts in taking advantage of state resources for school construction. The contents accommodate the planning, funding, project development, construction, and occupancy stages. 88p.

Educational Specifications (EDSPECS) For Elementary Schools. [Hawaii] Adobe PDF
(Department of Education, State of Hawaii, 2008)
Includes general background, information on planning, guidelines for spaces, sustainable design criteria, acoustic design, mechanical design, electrical design, multi-media, safety and security, landscape design, and numerous appendices. 367p.

Educational Specifications (EDSPECS)For High Schools. [Hawaii] Adobe PDF
(Department of Education, State of Hawaii, 2008)
Includes general background, information on planning, guidelines for spaces, sustainable design criteria, acoustic design, mechanical design, electrical design, multi-media, safety and security, landscape design, and numerous appendices. 521p.

Educational Specifications (EDSPECS)For Middle/Intermediate Schools. [Hawaii] Adobe PDF
(Department of Education, State of Hawaii, 2008)
Includes general background, information on planning, guidelines for spaces, sustainable design criteria, acoustic design, mechanical design, electrical design, multi-media, safety and security, landscape design, and numerous appendices. 463p.

Facilities Guide for Career and Technical Education. Adobe PDF
(Division of Career and Technical Education, Kentucky Department of Education, 2008)
The material in this guide is designed to aid school administrators, teachers, boards of education, advisory committees, and architects who share responsibility in the planning and equipping of a facility for career and technical education programs. This guide may be used in the construction of new facilities and/or the remodeling of existing facilities. Includes space requirements. 268p

Kentucky Design Manual: Kentucky Green and Healthy Schools Design Criteria. Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Enivronmental Education Council, Frankfort , 2008)
Outlines 20 design criteria to assist Kentucky school districts build and renovate efficient schools. Each design criteria includes a fact sheet providing information on how the criterion interacts with other systems, best practice recommendations, reference standards and guidelines, industry and government resources, and a checklist for the criterion. The 20 design guidelines are organized under the four categories of energy, health and comfort, environment, and safe and accessible. 94p.

Planning Your School Building Project: Putting the Pieces Together.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2008)
Offers extensive guidance in the school facilities planning and construction process, with particular reference to Ohio requirements. Individual large sections are arranged to follow the general project timeline of preplanning, planning approval and funding, contracting, design, bidding, construction, occupancy, and post occupancy. Numerous examples forms and documents to assist with job descriptions, planning, policies, procedures, budgeting, and commissioning are included. 601p.

School Facilities Manual for the School Construction Assistance Program. Adobe PDF
(Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Washington , Jan 2008)
Explains activities involved in the planning, design, and construction of successful and cost-effective school facilities in Washington state. Chapters cover advance planning; financing; site selection; educational specifications; consultant selection; school design; bidding, evaluation, and award of construction contracts; the construction, closeout, acceptance, and occupancy process; and planned facility management. Also included is an explanation of the procedures school districts must follow to apply for and receive state funds for school planning, design, and construction. Appendices provide a glossary and addresses for associations and state agencies involved in school facility planning, construction, and finance. 194p.

Vermont School Construction Planning Guide: A Publication Providing Technical Assistance to School Boards and Administrators.
(Vermont Dept. of Education, Montpelier , 2008)
Provides general guidance in planning for schoolconstruction projects and in Vermont, and securing necessary state approvals. The contents are relevant to the construction of a new school, school addition, or alterations to an existing school that increases its program or enrollment capacity, or ensures that it remains a safe and healthy place for students, faculty and community members. 105p.

State Requirements for Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Florida Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , Dec 11, 2007)
Provides guidance for those involved in Florida's educational facilities procurement process, and includes recent legislative changes affecting the state of Florida's building code. Chapters of the document cover the administration of educational facilities funds, financing, survey procedures, construction procedures, existing facilities, and size and design criteria. An appendix provides state forms. 175p.

Building Better Schools-Improving Buildings to Support Learning. Adobe PDF
(Tasmanian Dept. of Education, Capital Planning and Development, Hobart , Nov 2007)
Presents the Tasmanian Department of Educations priorities and procedures for building better schools. The project planning principles, application process, and project selection criteria are detailed. 36p.

Design and Construction Procedures. Adobe PDF
Oct 2007)
Identifies a number of procedures, regulations, and agencies associated with the construction of school facilities in North Carolina, and provides information that can expedite logical and efficient planning. The document covers the project development phase, plans and specifications procedures, and post-construction procedures. Modular units and charter schools are also addressed. 34p.

State of Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(University of Minnesota, Center for Sustainable Building Research, Minneapolis , Jul 01, 2007)
Assists with creating high performance structures for Minnesota, as required by the state legislature. The guidelines are organized into the following categories: performance management, site and water, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and materials and waste. The guidelines are required when they clearly contribute to the desired human, community, environmental, and life-cycle economic outcomes. Some guidelines are recommended rather than required until their direct financial benefits to the State can be clearly demonstrated. 80p.

Building Schools, Building Communities: A Forum on the Role of State Policy in California. Adobe PDF
(Center for Cities and Schools, University of California, Berkeley , Jun 2007)
Presents the proceedings of a forum of policymakers and practitioners from across California, along with national experts, examining the wide range of California state policies on school planning, design, and construction, and the ways those policies influence local decisions. Specifically, the forum was convened to understand what California policies and practices influence, promote, and/or hinder: 1) the location and size of new school sites, 2) building shared use and joint use school facilities and/or sites, and 3) innovative school design (especially in relation to location, site size, and use of schools). The report presents the forum's three conclusions and a set of recommendations for each. 33p.

RIDE School Construction Regulations.
(Rhode Island Dept of Education, Providence , May 24, 2007)
Covers requirements for school construction, with sections detailing the state's authority, purpose, scope, definitions, product categories and priorities, followed by standards for construction, site, space, cost. Procedures and processes for application, approval design, review, regulation enforcement, asset protection, maintenance, housing aid reimbursement, program integrity, closing of schools, and waivers complete the document. 27p.

21st Century Schools Design Manual. [New Jersey] Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Schools Construction Corporation, Newark , May 15, 2007)
Establishes a uniform and detailed approach to school facilities design for the New Jersey School Construction Corporation. The details 25 required criteria that inform the design process and sets individual goals for each. Required design and construction standards follow, organized according to the phases of concept, schematic design, design development, construction document, bidding and contract award, construction administration, project close- out, and post occupancy reviews. Required deliverables for each major phase of work are included. Appendices explain how project progress reports will be made and provide a LEED checklist. 314p.

Building Codes Illustrated for Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Guide to Understanding the 2006 International Building Code for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Winkel, Steven R.; Collins, David S.; and Juroszek, Steven P.
(Wiley, Apr 2007)
This illustrative guide presents the complex code issues inherent to designing schools in a clear, easily understandable format. It highlights major changes between the new international code and previous model building codes to help readers better understand how these changes will affect their practice. 432p.

2007 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide.
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , Mar 15, 2007)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. The guidelines are organized by CSI Masterformat divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 115p.

NYC Green Schools Guide. Adobe PDF
(New York City Dept. of Education, New York City School Construction Authority , Mar 15, 2007)
Offers guidance for the sustainable design, construction, and operation of new schools, modernization projects, and school renovations. The Guide and Rating System will assure compliance with Local Law 86, which established sustainability standards for public design and construction projects in New York City. The implementation of the GSG and Rating System makes NYC one of the first and largest school districts in the nation to have sustainability guidelines required by law. The guide covers water-conserving fixtures such as metered faucets, dual flush toilets, low-flush urinals, and low-flow showers that may result in the reduction of potable water usage in each school by more than 40%. New efficient classroom lighting fixtures, stringent acoustical standards, the selection of building materials, and the manner in which materials are removed from the construction site for proper disposal are also detailed. 212p.

NY-CHPS Version 1.1. Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , Feb 2007)
Presents the Collaborative for High Performance Schools' (CHPS) High Performance Schools Guidelines tailored to New York code requirements and the priorities of the New York State Education Department. New York has organized and added new material to emphasize criteria that directly contribute to student learning, reduced maintenance, and long building life. The Guidelines are divided into seven sections: site; water; energy; materials; indoor environmental quality (IEQ); operations and maintenance; and extra credit. Each section has prerequisites that must be achieved, with the remainder of the Guidelines consisting of optional credits. These prerequisites and credits allow the district to show that their completed school meets the criteria for a New York High Performance School. 135p.

The Field Act and Public School Construction: A 2007 Perspective. Adobe PDF
(California Seismic Safety Commission, Sacramento , Feb 2007)
Post-earthquake studies conducted by engineers and researchers over the past 20 years have conclusively proven that public schools constructed under the Field Act, when subjected to destructive earthquakes, save lives, reduce property damage, and lower reconstruction costs. A significant ancillary benefit of Field Act-constructed buildings is that public school facilities can also serve as temporary emergency shelters and as places to assist the community in recovery. Complications pursuant to approval of school facility design under the Field act are discussed, as are improvements underway or underway to address the problems. 16p.

High Performance School Design and Construction Standards: Recommendations for Vermont Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Vermont Dept. of Education, Montpelier , Jan 15, 2007)
Pursuant to an act of the Vermont legislature, these recommendations were created to develop a comprehensive proposal to incorporate high performance school design and construction standards into Vermont school construction projects. The authoring committee recommends adopting the Northeast High Performance School Protocol, which makes up the majority of this document, along with their own Vermont addenda, which is also included. 143p.

CHPS Verified Program User Guide. Adobe PDF
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA , 2007)
Describes the benefits, requirements, deadlines, and procedures for school projects to receive third-party verification of compliance with the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) criteria. This is of particular significance in California, where state incentive grants are available based upon attainment of CHPS points. 10p.
TO ORDER: Collaborative for High Performance Schools, 142 Minna St. 2nd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105; Toll Free: 877-957-9888, Fax: 415-957-1381

Northeast Collaborative for High Performance Schools Protocol. Adobe PDF
(High Performance Schools Exchange, Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA , Jan 2007)
Details performance standards and best practices for energy efficient, sustainable school building design and construction. The Protocol is intended for use by individual state education departments as a guide to meeting state mandates and/or performance based incentive programs. It is divided into eight sections: policy and operations, indoor environmental quality, energy efficiency, on-site renewable energy, water efficiency, materials selection, site selection, and design innovation. Each section contains a list of criteria or standards, a description of the standard, the reason it is included, how to document compliance, and additional resources available. These criteria are listed as prerequisites or electives. The prerequisites alone define a high performance school and can be achieved in renovation and modernization projects as well as new construction projects. 110p.

Ohio School Facilities Commission Resource Guide. Adobe PDF
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2007)
This overview of the Ohio School Facilities Commission programs and operations describes the mission and history of the Commission, the roles of its members and staff, its funding, and its programs. Also provided is the Commission's outline of the major steps in a school construction project, Commission policies and procedures, and contact information. 40p.

Putting the Pieces Together: A Guide to Your Building Project, 2005-2006 Edition.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2007)
Provides public school facilities planning and construction guidance for Ohio. The documents of the Guide are arranged to follow the general project timeline, with distinct sections for school preplanning, approval and funding, contracting, design, bidding, construction, occupancy, and post occupancy. An extensive list of additional resources accompanies the manual. 557p.
TO ORDER: http://www.osfc.state.oh.us/

School Building Authority 2007 Guidelines and Procedures Handbook [West Virginia].
(West Virginia School Building Authority, Charleston , 2007)
Provides guidance for compliance with the Building Authority. The document addresses comprehensive educational facilities plans, funding of School Building Authority projects, funding specific facility plans, project administration and review, and School Building Authority contracts, agreements, and procedures. Extensive appendices detail the Authority's regulations and procedures, as well as providing numerous forms for assessment, review, and submission. 240p.

School Design Review Checklist. [New Hampshire]
(New Hampshire Dept. of Education, Concord , 2007)
Briefly outlines major points to consider when reviewing school design drawings and specifications. 3p.

Ten Year Facilities Plan. [Idaho] Adobe PDF
(Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise, 2007)
Presents documents suggesting what a ten-year facility plan should include, as well as examples of the various facility plan sections and spreadsheets that can be used to calculate demographic, capacity, and building condition data.

Washington's High Performance Schools: Raising the Bar. [Video]
(Washington Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, 2007)
This 15-minute video includes information for Washington state school districts on building requirements for high performance schools and features some of Washington’s pioneer high performance schools.

Construction Document Guidelines for School Districts and Design Professionals.
(Conncecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford , Oct 20, 2006)
Provides an overview of the steps to be taken by design professionals and local education agencies to successfully and expeditiously move through Connecticut s plan development approval process. It is designed to highlight the steps where particular attention to detail must be paid in order to avoid errors that result in costly delays. Sections of the document cover code information, eligible costs, document submission, document preparation, sample formats for drawings, checklists, relocatables, play equipment, fixtures, furnishings, and equipment. 76p.

Massachusetts High Performance Green Schools Guidelines: Criteria.
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , Oct 16, 2006)
Provides a benchmark for green school buildings in the state. The document is divided into six sections: site, water, energy, materials, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and policy and operations. Each section has prerequisites that must be achieved, but the rest of the guidelines are optional credits. The state is authorized to award up to 2% additional reimbursement for a public school construction project that achieves certain point thresholds as specified in these guidelines. 138p.

Planning for School Facilities Can Be Improved to Better Serve the Needs of All Students. Adobe PDF
(Legislative Research Commission, Frankfort, KY , Oct 12, 2006)
Addresses accessibility and growth issues for Kentucky schools. The report examines relevant best practices, as well as useful examples of relevant facilities-related policies and procedures in Kentucky and other states. The formula for local and state sharing of capital expenses is examined, along with procedures incumbent upon the school district. The evolution of school accessibility, beginning with laws implemented in 1977 is addressed, as are the expanded requirements of the 1992 Americans with Disabilities Act and expectations of bringing all schools into compliance. Best practices for school facilities construction, recommendations by the Building Educational Success Together (BEST) organization, and profiles of 21 states selected for their potential use by Kentucky as examples to consider for their practices of long-range planning, needs assessment, capital improvement planning, comprehensive maintenance planning, technical assistance, and planning for and maintaining accessibility are included. 120p.
Report NO: Research Report 341


Model Policies in Support of High Performance School Buildings for All Children. Adobe PDF
(Building Educational Success Together (BEST), Washington, DC , Oct 2006)
Provides policy guidance to states for building and maintaining high-quality schools. The report identifies key areas needing attention, and covers school facilities and community planning, schools as centers of communities, public school facilities management, and public school facilities funding. Challenges, policy intent and rationale, and model policies are described under each topic, with examples of exemplary state legislation for each topic provided as well. 44p.

California School Facilities Planning: A Guide to Laws and Procedures for Funding, Siting, Design, and Construction.
Gorsen, Maureen; Wilkeson, Kevin; Roux, G. Christian; Cavanaugh, Thomas; Dusnton, Dennis
(Solano Press Books, Point Arena, CA , Jul 2006)
Discusses laws and regulations that govern planning, funding, siting, design, and construction of educational facilities in California. The book guides the reader chronologically through the stages of school facilities planning, from initial conception through construction. An introduction on the history of schools in America and California is followed by detailed chapters on funding, planning and design, siting, and construction. 300p.
TO ORDER: P.O. Box 773, Point Arena, CA, 95468; Tel: 800-931-9373
http://www.solano.com

Educational Program Space Standards and Guidelines.
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , May 2006)
This 2006 draft specifies the state's standards for square feet per student in elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as square footage for various program areas within the school. Prototype elementary, middle, and high school programs are included. 18p.

Needs Survey Report. [Massachusetts]
(Massachusetts School Building Authority, Boston , Apr 2006)
Presents the result of more than eight months of work commissioned by the Massachusetts School Building Authority to gather statewide baseline data about the general conditions of locally-owned public school facilities throughout the Commonwealth. The data collected are a result of the observations of teams of educators and engineers whose task was to utilize a standard survey to ascertain the general condition of each school in the Commonwealth. Data collectors visited every superintendent in every school district to receive an inventory of school committee-controlled school properties and then visited every one of those school facilities to gather these important baseline data. This report details the following findings: 1) The condition of the 1,817 Massachusetts schoolhouses is generally good. 2) Massachusetts has expended a substantial amount on schoolhouse capital facilities over the past 60 years. 3) A school building boom occurred between 2000 and 2005, even though statewide enrollment has been declining. 4) Almost one-half of the current school facility square footage is new or recently renovated. 5) There is very little temporary space in Massachusetts. 6) Massachusetts schools have been built 32% to 39% larger, on average, than the maximum gross square footage space requirements per student in the Department of Education regulations. 7. Beginning in fiscal year 2008, the reformed School Building Grant program should be able to provide sufficient resources to meet statewide school capital facility need as determined by the Board of the Authority. 138p.

NY-CHPS Version 1.0 High Performance Schools Guidelines.
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , Mar 2006)
Presents the Collaborative for High Performance Schools' (CHPS) High Performance Schools Guidelines tailored to New York code requirements and the priorities of the New York State Education Department. New York has organized and added new material to emphasize criteria that directly contribute to student learning, reduced maintenance, and long building life. The Guidelines are divided into seven sections: site; water; energy; materials; indoor environmental quality (IEQ); operations and maintenance; and extra credit. Each section has prerequisites that must be achieved, with the remainder of the Guidelines consisting of optional credits. These prerequisites and credits allow the district to show that their completed school meets the criteria for a New York High Performance School. 122p.

Illinois Resource Guide for Healthy, High Performing School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Illinois Capital Development Board, Springfield , Feb 2006)
Provides school administrators, school boards and community members with guidance to help make informed decisions about health and energy efficiency issues important to schools. This resource guide contains the design elements of a healthy, high performing school and the policies to support the school once it is open. Also included are case studies from new schools in Illinois, information on financial resources, tips on selecting a design team and a glossary of terms, and information about educational materials that can help turn a school into a hands-on learning laboratory for students. 83p.

2006 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , 2006)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. Organized by CSI Masterformat divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 111p.

Elementary School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for elementary school buildings, organized according to program area. 8p.

Guidelines of Best Practices for School Building Projects. Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Department of Education, Frankfort , 2006)
Provides assistance to those building school facilities in Kentucky. Included are the regulations for the Capital Construction Process, the Kentucky Department of Education s Project Review Process, and a suggested document filing system. Additionally, the document discusses the Kentucky Facility Programming and Construction Criteria Planning Guide. Appendices provide school design and construction information accumulated from school construction projects, a plan review checklist for school building projects, and forms for developing requests for proposals and project account summary sheets. 38p.

High School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for high school buildings, organized according to program area. 15p.

Manual for Planning and Construction of School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(New Hampshire Dept. of Education, Concord , 2006)
Guides New Hampshire school districts in the development and completion of school construction projects. The manual covers the role of design professionals, site selection, design and construction considerations, building materials, construction practices, classrooms, instructional elements, support spaces, furniture, equipment, health, safety, contracting, project delivery methods, financing, and presenting the program to the public. Applicable state requirements are discussed throughout the manual, and appendices provide special considerations for renovation projects, a recommended timeline for school construction projects, and checklists for design review, security, itemization of construction costs, and bonding. 197p.

Middle School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Missouri Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City , 2006)
Outlines the state's standard per student square footage for middle school buildings, organized according to program area. 12p.

Mississippi School Design Guidelines.
(Educational Design Institute at Mississippi State University and the Office of Safe and Orderly Schools, MS Department of Education., Jan 2006)
These guidelines cover school facility issues from planning new facilities to maintaining existing ones. They were developed to help link educational goals and facilities design, to facilitate flexible, performance-based application, to encourage collaborative development, to become a tool to train superintendents, and to guide future capital improvements. The Guidelines are organized into five primary sections: Introduction; Schools in Everyday Life; A Student's Place; Enduring Construction; and Index.

The Ohio School Facilities Commission 2005 Annual Report.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2006)
Describes the funding, management oversight, and technical assistance provided by the Ohio School Facilities Commission (OSFC) to meet Ohio school district construction and renovation needs for fiscal year 2005. The report highlights the work of the OSFC programs for urban schools, planning for the future, school safety, and partnering. A statewide district-by- district summary of Commission work completed or in progress is included. 32p.

Washington Sustainable Schools Protocol: Criteria for High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Washington , Jan 2006)
Addresses multiple facets of high performance school buildings by providing credits in the environmental categories of energy efficiency, water efficiency, site planning, materials and indoor environmental quality. In addition, it offers an "extra credit" section that emphasizes comprehensive planning and evaluation actions that cross the environmental categories, as well as innovative actions that go above and beyond what is described in existing credits offered within the environmental categories. For each of the environmental categories, the Protocol comprises both required and optional credits. A number of points are assigned to each optional credit. A scorecard is provided whish summarizes the requirements and applicable points for each credit. 72p.

Space Planning for Institutions of Higher Education.
Abramson, Paul; Burnap, Edward
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Jan 2006)
Provides a general framework for planning of higher education facilities, with statewide to individual department perspectives. The document begins with overviews of facilities master planning and programming, followed by space planning guidelines that reflect changes in the higher education environment since 1985. Programming guidelines for specific higher education spaces conclude the document. 64p.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840
http://www.cefpi.org

Title 126 Legislative Rule, Board of Education, Series 172, Handbook on Planning School Facilities (6200) [West Virginia] Adobe PDF
(West Virginia Legislature, Charleston , Oct 2005)
Presents West Viginia's requirements for the development of a 10-year comprehensive educational facilities plan, which are required of each of the states counties, along with annual updates and revisions every ten years. Chapters examine the CEFP process and requirements in the following areas: educational facilities planning; site design; common facilities necessary for school operation; facilities for early childood/primary education, and junior high and high school education; instructional areas for exceptional students; vocational educational facilities; general support facilities; facility safety; surface and other facilities such as those involving engineering and custodial services; and environmental controls. The final section addresses statutes, procedures, and tasks relative to preparing and submitting the CEFP for approval, including on-site inspections by state officials and current standards for existing facilities. 285p.

Vermont School Construction Planning Guide.
(Vermont State Dept. of Education, Montpelier , Sep 29, 2005)
This guide for Vermont administrators beginning a school construction project is to be used in conjunction with Vermont State Board of Education Rules for Capital Construction. Its intent is to identify key state agencies, and the stage or stages in the development of a school project at which each agency should be consulted. Described are the procedures that school officials should follow in the development of a project. Guidelines are organized in the following areas: (1) the process; (2) professional assistance, construction methods, and the bidding process; (3) suggested procedures for school boards; (4) roles of the different state agencies; (5) other construction issues; (6) capital outlay formula; and (7) applications. 107p.

Maryland Community College Facilities Manual.
(Maryland Higher Education Commission, Annapolis , Jun 06, 2005)
This manual was jointly prepared by Maryland Higher Education Commission, the Maryland Department of Budget and Management, the Maryland Department of General Services, and the Facilities Planners Council to assist the Maryland community colleges in the planning, design, and construction of buildings, site improvements, and facilities. The Manual also covers the preparation of facilities master plans, capital budgets, and the planning and acquisition of real property or interests in land required in connection with buildings, site improvements, and facilities of Maryland s public junior or community colleges and regional community colleges. 217p.

Education and Expansion: Model School District Policies for Protection of Staff and Students During School Construction.
(New Jersey Work Environment Council, Trenton , May 30, 2005)
This contains recommendations for school districts on maintenance of good indoor air quality and a safe learning environment during school construction. Lists elements to be included in a safety policy in chronological order, under headings that correspond to the stages of building construction: pre-construction planning, establishment of communication procedures, safety items to include in the bid specifications, and project completion. 11p.
TO ORDER: http://www.edlawcenter.org/

Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 1: Public School Facilities Planning Policies. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve facilities planning in order to support and enhance the delivery of educational programs and services. The document proposes policy reform as one tool for affecting the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and funding practices and processes at the state and local school district levels. However, state level standards and control must be carefully developed and applied, so that creativity, public participation, and local priorities can drive the facility planning and design outcomes. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 14p.

Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 2: Schools as Centers of Communities Policies. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve the creation of schools as centers of community. The recommended policies cover extensive and innovative community use of the public school facility, community partnerships that support high quality education and contribute to life-long learning, co-location with local government agencies and/or community organizations resulting in creative program service delivery and more efficient utilization of public land and buildings, and opportunities for new and/or additional sources of funds for financing building improvements and program delivery. Preservation of historic and other neighborhood schools is particularly encouraged. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 15p.

Recommended Policies for Public School Facilities, Section 3: Public School Facilities Management Policies. Adobe PDF
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2005)
Provides policy guidance and recommendations to officials and administrators at the state, local, and school district level to improve school facilities management. The policy recommendations cover statewide school facility inventories, minimum adequacy standards, environmental design and construction practices, maintenance criteria, and taxpayer investment protection. Best practices examples and a list of resources are also provided. 21p.

Hawaii High Performance School Guidelines.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Mar 31, 2005)
Advises on planning, designing, and building a high performance school in Hawaii. Topics covered include project planning and budgeting, life-cycle cost analysis, commissioning, air conditioning, natural ventilation, daylighting, and acoustics. 83p.

2005 Building Condition Survey Instrument.
(New York State Education Dept., Albany , 2005)
This is the New York State Education Department's survey form for assessing the type, age, features, and condition of school facilities. 22p.

2005 South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. Adobe PDF
(South Carolina Dept. of Education, Columbia , 2005)
Provides mandates and recommendations for school construction according to codes and laws adopted by the state. Organized by divisions as follows: 1) general requirements, 2) site selection, 3) design criteria, 4) barrier-free design, 5) emergency preparedness,6) schematic and design development phase, 7) construction documents phase, 8) bidding and award phase, 9) construction phase, 10) plumbing, 11) mechanical, 12) electrical, 13) sample forms, 14) checklists, and 15) reference material. 108p.

Facility Guidelines for General Classroom Design.
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore , 2005)
Advises on classroom design, covering current educational theories, and then presenting two chapters that cover educational and architectural components for all classrooms, K-12. Individual chapters then consider classroom design for pre-K and kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4 and 5, grades 6-8, and then grades 9-12. Extensive photograps, plans, elevations, and 42 references accompany the text. 107p.
TO ORDER: Maryland State Department of Education School Facilities Branch
http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/bus_svcs/sf/order_form

Kansas State Department of Education School Construction Project and Plan Submittal Guide. Adobe PDF
(Kansas State Department of Education, Topeka , 2005)
Presents Kansas' requirements for the design, construction, and accessibility of schools, along with the attorney general's opinions clarifying the statues, a list of applicable codes, plan submittal instructions, and guidelines for portable classrooms. 19p.

Major Capital School Construction Project Workbook.
(Maine Dept. of Education, Augusta, 2005)
Provides guidance for the school construction projects, covering architect selection and approval, new construction versus renovation, site selection and approval, educational specifications, space allocation, financing, technology, bond approval, life cycle analysis, energy efficiency standards, design and funding approval, reporting requirements, and equipment.

21st Century Schools Design Manual. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Schools Construction Corporation, Trenton , Sep 30, 2004)
Establishes a uniform and detailed approach to school facilities design for the New Jersey School Construction Corporation. The guide sets forth 24 required criteria that inform the design process and sets individual goals for each. Required design and construction standards follow, organized by CSI Divisions. Required deliverables for each major phase of work are described. Appendices explain how project progress reports will be made and provide a LEED checklist. 237p.

Master Educational Facilities Plan Guidelines.
(Kentucky Dept. of Education, Frankfort , Jun 2004)
Provides guidance to Kentucky local school planning committees in the evaluation of information and the development of a master educational facility plan (MEFP) and a district facility plan (DFP). The MEFP contains an assessment of various facets of the school district's attributes and operations including the district profile, educational program, demographic information, facility conditions, transportation information, and finances. This plan provides a comprehensive view of the overall program needs of the district and facility improvements needed to provide an equitable educational opportunity to all students in the district. The DFP for capital construction is developed subsequent to the MEFP. 17p.

Rural School Facilities: State Policies that Provide Students with an Environment to Promote Learning. Adobe PDF
McColl, Ann; Malhoit, Gregory C.
(Rural School and Community Trust, Arlington, VA , Jun 2004)
Defines the essential components of a fair and effective state school facilities policy and suggests a series of policies in five key areas: 1) Setting priorities for approving and funding school facilities; 2) Adopting funding mechanisms that do not penalize rural and low wealth districts; 3) Creating standards for school facilities; 4) Defining the appropriate state role, setting ethical standards, and encouraging local participation; and 5) Establishing processes to evaluate state school facility programs and projects. Appendices offer guidelines and a checklist for state school facility programs and referrals to additional resources. (Includes 76 references.) 23p.

Health/Life Safety Handbook for Public Schools in Illinois, 2nd. ed.
(Illinois Asssociation of Regional Superintendents of Schools; Illinois State Board of Education , Mar 2004)
The provides technical assistance to Illinois public school districts, regional superintendents, architects, and engineers. It is a reference manual for understanding various requirements, processes, and forms used in administering the health/safety code for public schools. Chapters cover: School Construction Process; Annual Building Inspection; Ten-year Safety Survey Report; Health/Life Safety Amendment Process; Temporary Facilities; Condemnation/Demolition Process; Recommended Practices and Commonly Asked Questions. 123p.

Education Laws and Regulations, 603 CMR 38.00: School Construction. [Massachusetts]
(Massachusetts Department of Education. , 2004)
Presents Massachusetts' laws for school construction in situations where state building aid is sought. The laws cover general requirements for design, materials, and construction, along with standards for sites, programs, costs, renovations. Procedures and requirements for the granting process, emergencies, reimbursals, waivers, and maintenance are also covered.

INF31 One-Stop Shop for School Facility Approval.
(California Performance Review, Sacramento , 2004)
Reviews California's current four-stop process for school facility approval, where funding eligibility, allocation, site check, and plan approval occur. There is duplication of effort, with different agencies repeating the same work, and no coordination of checks or consolidation of information. The process takes many months and is subject to a variety of delays. The report then describes its recommended streamlined, one-stop process with a single submission of documentation, some mandatory checks made optional, and with fees for certain services. 13p.

Maine High Performance Schools Program. Adobe PDF
(Maine Public Utilities Commision, Efficiency Maine, Augusta , 2004)
Presents an overview of energy-efficient technologies that may be eligible for financial assistance from the Maine High Performance Schools Program. Artificial lighting, daylighting, mechanical systems, heating systems, and life cycle cost analysis are described. 24p.

Miami-Dade County Public Schools Educational Facilities Planning and Standards. Design Criteria.
(Miami-Dade County Public Schools,Facilities Planning and Construction Office, Miami, FL, 2004)
This details current design criteria for the Miami-Dade County Public Schools, with sections on general requirements, site work, materials, equipment, furnishing, technology integration, thermal and moisture protection, mechanical, conveying, and electrical systems.

Miami-Dade County Public Schools Educational Facilities Planning and Standards. Master Specification Guidelines
(Miami-Dade County Public Schools, Facilities Plannng and Construction Office, Miami, FL, 2004)
Guide specifications for the design and construction of Miami-Dade County Public Schools are provided for the sixteen divisions including general requirements, site work, materials, equipment, furnishings, technology integration, thermal and moisture protection, mechanical and electrical systems.

Ohio's Education Matters: KnowledgeWorks Foundation 2004 Poll.
(Knowledgeworks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH , 2004)
Presents the fourth year of this poll which surveys Ohioans' opinions on educational adequacy in order to help form public policy. The survey revealed that Ohioans give the schools only an average (C+) rating, and want to be more involved in decision-making. They also favor multipurpose schools available for community use. 15p.

Planning and Licensing a Child Day Care Center in Chicago.
(Chicago Dept. of Human Services, IL , 2004)
Guides the potential day care provider through the process of planning, programming, and designing a day care center, including Chicago licensing information. Steps in the process are presented as chapters in the guidebook, arranged in much the same order as a child day care provider might use the information to plan and design a center. The chapters are: Getting Started, Programming Center Spaces, Creating a Project Budget, Review of City Licensing Requirements and Process, Selecting a Site and Building, Planning Indoor Space, Site Planning and Outdoor Spaces, Sustainability, Universal Design, Working with an Architect and Other Professionals, Case Study, and Health Requirements for Child Care Centers and City of Chicago Fire Alarm Requirements for Day Care Centers. 165p.

School Construction Handbook.
(Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Mechanicsburg , 2004)
Advises school board members on a variety of school condition and construction issues, including the impact of facilities on student achievement, how to get started with capital improvements, new construction versus renovation, project management, selecting design professionals, key components of school design, "green" construction, financing, and typical legal problems of school construction. 186p.
TO ORDER: http://www.psba.org/bookstore/publicationcategory.asp?cid=36

No Place to Learn: California's School Facility Crisis. Adobe PDF
Billingsley, K. Lloyd
(Pacific Research Institute, San Francisco, CA , Jan 2004)
Describes the state's difficulty building schools, due to bureaucratic delays and regulations that drive up construction costs. A plan for reform is proposed that includes exemptions from the state's Field Act, a single-payer system which provides grants to districts, reduction of Field Act staff and consultants, conversion of administrative facilities to classrooms, elimination of class-size reduction requirements, year-round schooling, no universal preschool, encouragement of developer-built schools, elimination of prevailing-wage laws, encouragement of home schooling, expansion of charter schools, and school choice. 57p.

Hard Lessons: Causes and Consequences of Michigan's School Construction Boom.
McClelland, Mac; Schneider, Keith
(Michigan Land Use Institute, Beulah, MI , 2004)
This provides a detailed review of how school construction decisions — whether to renovate existing buildings or build new, greenfield facilities — are made in Michigan and their effect on development patterns. The report aims to help school officials, community leaders, homeowners, and parents evaluate the full cost of new school construction or renovation. It recommends changes in state policy that, if implemented, will capture the economic and cultural benefits of renovating older schools or building new ones in town. 20p.

Charter School Facilities: A Resource Guide for Planning School Space and Understanding Building Codes. Adobe PDF
Weeks, William; Hollins, Susan
Jan 2004)
Assists with space and facility planning for charter schools, with particular attention to New Hampshire's charter school laws. The document outlines the work of the facility committee or team, offers succinct space planning considerations for the various instructional and non- instructional spaces, and advises on air and water quality, asbestos, fire safety, hazardous materials, security, playgrounds, and transportation. Additional space cost considerations for new construction or existing spaces, as well as re-use of civic, organization, commercial, retail, or industrial spaces are also included. 106p.

Square Footage Requirements for Use in Developing the Local Facilities Plans and State Capital Outlay Applications for Funding. [Georgia]
(GA Dept. of Education; Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta, Dec 08, 2003)
This document presents the space requirements for Georgia's elementary, middle, and high schools. All square footage requirements are computed by using inside dimensions of a room; the square footage of support spaces in suites may be included when computing the square footage of the suite. Examples of support spaces include storage rooms, offices, kilns, and others. The space requirements are classified by building section: classrooms, including access to work counters; corridors, which must be at least eight feet wide; art rooms; music rooms; science rooms; vocational needs such as agriculture, technology, and various clusters including metals, auto body, and electronics; the media center; the reserve officers training corp; the theater; physical education area; food service area; and toilets, including the number of fixtures for student toilet rooms and the separate toilet fixtures and facilities for each sex. 16p.

School Facility Survey. Adobe PDF
(Maryland General Assembly, Annapolis , Nov 06, 2003)
Provides the results of a facility survey of 1342 Maryland schools. Facilities were evaluated against federal, state or local guidelines in 31 areas that covered building condition, environmental quality, size, configuration, accessibility, and support spaces. The criteria against which the schools were evaluted are provided, along with a chart for each school system that shows the percentages of schools not meeting each standard. For ten of the standards, a chart for that standard is provided that illustrates the percentages of failing schools in each school system. 61p.

General Criteria for Public School Construction. [Georgia]
(Georgia Department of Education, Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta , 2003)
Summarizes design and construction standards for all new school buildings including codes, air conditioning, spacing of buildings, and location on site. 4p.

State Education Department Implementation of the RESCUE Program.
(New York State Office of the State Comptroller, Division of State Services, Albany , Sep 19, 2003)
Examines the New York State Education Department's administration of their RESCUE program, which requires school districts to develop maintenance plans for their school buildings and prepare an annual report card of building conditions. The report finds that many of the districts have not prepared maintenance plans and most have not prepared the required report cards. Another finding was that some districts are inappropriately deferring maintenance so they can claim state capital construction aid to cover their costs. The report recommends changes in reporting within RESCUE and modifications to State Building Aid to encourage compliance and decrease abuse of both programs. 24p.
Report NO: 2002-S-51


School Site Size-How Many Acres Are Necessary? Adobe PDF
Weihs, Janell
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Sep 2003)
Summarizes CEFPI's acreage guidelines for elementary, middle and high schools; lists the acreage requirement formulas for all fifty states; and provides contact information, comments and documentation resources for each state. Information was collected from state facility reports and manuals and verified through direct contact with personnel from state educational agencies and practitioners. 7p.

The Future of School Siting, Design and Construction in Delaware. Adobe PDF
Hunter, Anna W.; Sawak, Camile
(Intitute for Public Administration, College of Human Services, Education & Public Policy, University of Delaware, Newark , Jul 2003)
Presents the recommendations of a March, 2003, summit. These were: 1)Coordination between Delaware Department of Transportation and Department of Education concerning siting of new schools, 2) Standardization of school interior designs (but not the exteriors), 3) Development of a certificate of necessity program to assess the need and impact of a proposed school, 4) Increasing the state's awareness of planned growth areas, 5) Compliation of best practices from summit attendees and school personnel, 6) Exploration of shared use of facilities and retrofitting of available buildings for school use, 7) Examination of charter school siting, 8) Exploration of financial issues including energy efficiency and busing. 50p.

Commissioner's Rules Concerning School Facilities: 61.1033. Instructional Facilities Allotment. [Texas]
(Texas Education Agency, Austin , Jun 2003)
This section of the Texas Administrative Code defines instructional facilities and codifies the funding, debt, and bond repayment processes for individual districts. Standards for school facilities construction before and after January 1, 2004 are enumerated, with cross- references to the Texas Educational Code.

Commissioner's Rules Concerning School Facilities: 61.1033. School Facilities Standards for Construction before January 1, 2004. [Texas] Adobe PDF
(Texas Education Agency, Austin , Jun 2003)
Enumerates the state of Texas' rules for certification of design and construction, space minimum square foot requirements, educational adequacy, construction quality, educational specifications, and specialized areas in school facilities. 13p.

State of Delaware School Construction Technical Assistance Manual.
(Delaware Department of Education, Dover , Jun 01, 2003)
Provides a reference guide for those involved in school planning, maintenance, repair and construction funded through the Capital Improvement Program for Delaware Public Schools. Included in the manual are the Major Capital and Minor Capital Improvement Programs, Vocational Equipment Replacement Program, Satellite Schools and building construction materials. Also included are regulations adopted by the Department of Education. Following each regulation is technical assistance to support the regulation. 90p.

State Policies and School Facilities: How States Can Support or Undermine Neighborhood Schools and Community Preservation. Adobe PDF
Beaumont, Constance E.
(National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC , May 2003)
This report reaffirms the contribution made by historic neighborhood schools to their communities. It offers guidance to officials and local preservationists for creating state policies that help preserve and maintain historic community schools, and for building new schools that serve as community centers. The report describes state requirements for community involvement in school planning, the overly generous site standards that contradict the creation of community schools and preservation, and funding mechanisms that help preserve historic schools. Information for the report was gathered from telephone interviews, correspondence with state school facility officials,and online reviews of printed school facility standards. Includes 13 references. 32p.

Parent Participation, School Accountability & Rural Education: The Impact of KERA on Kentucky School Facilities Policy.
(Rural School and Community Trust, Arlington, VA , 2003)
Discusses forms of parent involvement and democratic empowerment partially restored in the state of Kentucky, and now engendered as a result of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act (KERA). The creation of citizens facilities planning committees and a process for school facilities review restores at least one new democratic process in the battle over local school control and helps preserve smaller and historic schools. The pre- and post-KERA environment is detailed, with case studies and advice about persisting difficulties included. Includes 17 references. 16p.

Schools Sharing Buildings: A Toolkit. Principles and Practices from the Chicago Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(Chicago Public Schools, IL , 2003)
Much like office buildings that house several companies, a school building can house several autonomous schools, each with their own administration, faculty and budgets. This toolkit describes examples of schools sharing buildings in Chicago, and gives practical advice for how to do this successfully. Recommendations include: establish a commitment to shared equitable space; build and maintain stong working relationships; support school identity and autonomy with visual cues; plan for the future with a memorandum of understanding; develop a conflict resolution process; capitalize on the benefits of building sharing. 23p.

Building Healthy, High Performance Schools: A Review of Selected State and Local Initiatives.
Bernstein, Tobie; Lamb, Zachary
(Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC , 2003)
This report illustrates the policies, programs, and practices that have been adopted by selected states and school districts in order to incorporate a high performance approach in school planning, design, and construction. The report describes in detail the high performance school building initiatives of the states of California, Massachusetts and New Jersey, along with the districts of Los Angeles, Wake County, North Carolina, Elk River Area,Minnesota, and Edmonds, Washington. Various strategies for establishing regulatory requirements, building community support, developing partnerships and evaluating the results are discussed. 117p.

Guide for Planning School Construction Projects in Minnesota.
Division of Assistance Management
(Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul, MN , Jan 2003)
This guide summarizes changes in laws and regulations for educational facility funding options and construction project proposals; highlights some of the latest ideas in planning and designing school sites, space design, and related issues; and examines essential considerations when designing middle level and community use/partnership spaces in schools. Minnesota state regional and local agency procedural requirements for school construction project review are included. Related issues and considerations involving the development of partnerships with community groups, public agencies, and private users; urban and rural schools; school security; indoor air quality; lighting and electrical systems; and charter and private schools conclude the guide. 160p.

Impact of Technology on School Facility Design. [North Carolina]
(School Planning, North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Jul 2002)
This publication offers aid for North Carolina schools in planning new and renovated facilities to accommodate technology. It is a supplement to the North Carolina Public School Facilities Guidelines and should be used in conjunction with the STS-1000 Telecommunications Wiring Guidelines and the North Carolina School Technology Plan and other materials listed in "References for Further Reading" at the end of the publication. The emphasis of the STS-1000 is on network infrastructure, and the emphasis of the North Carolina Instructional Technology Plan is on the use of technology in schools and the specific equipment to support those uses. The material presented in this publication has a different emphasis--that of building needs to accommodate this technology equipment. The publication addresses: space, electrical, and cooling requirements for personal computers; computer and keyboarding labs; media centers; special use, computer aided design and drawing (CADD), graphics, and vocational labs; distance learning and information highway labs; administration areas; other uses of technology in schools; network wiring systems; head-end and file server rooms; and distributed wiring closets. 32p.

Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools. Adobe PDF
(Pennsylvania Dept. of Health, Harrisburg , May 2002)
Offers practical guidance to prevent IAQ problems in schools and resolve or alleviate such problems when they do arise. It describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources and includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems; additional guidelines on specific indoor contaminants; recommendations on IAQ management approaches; recommendations on seeking professional assistance; and selected resources and references. 17p.

Submittal Requirements for Review of Planning, Bidding and Construction Documents for Georgia Public Schools.
(Georgia State Dept. of Education,Facilities Services Unit, Atlanta. , May 2002)
This document presents the Georgia Department of Education's submittal requirements for documents addressing the planning and construction of educational facilities. Requirements cover such areas as project funding sources, copies and format, site plan, floor plans, elevations and sections, construction delivery method, and heating, air conditioning, and ventilation requirements. 13p.

Chicago Public Schools: State of the Buildings. The Capital Improvement Program. Adobe PDF
(Chicago Public Schools, IL , Apr 2002)
This describes the recent accomplishments that have been made by Chicago Public Schools's Capital Improvement Program (CIP). This reviews CIP funding history, discusses overcrowding, the e-rate technology program, science laboratories, ADA upgrades, health centers, early childhood and pre-K classroom renovations, playlots and exterior enhancements, and operations and maintenance improvements. 25p.

A Review of the Ohio School Facility Commission's Educational Facility Design Guidelines, Policies and Procedures. Adobe PDF
(Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , Feb 2002)
This document reviews the Ohio School Facilities Guidelines after three years of implementation. The Commission engaged CEFPI to conduct the evaluation and answer three questions: 1) Are Ohio's School Facility Guidelines adequate? 2) Are the Guidelines being translated into quality educational facilities? 3) How do the Guidelines compare with other states? Researchers evaluated the policies and regulations found in the manual and interviewed district staff and related parties who had experience with the manual. They found that the Guidelines did meet the needs of the educational environment as currently understood, that the Guidelines were helping to produce "good" schools, and that the Guidelines were more comprehensive, although less flexible, than similar documents produced by other states. This disadvantage was offset by the availability of greater state funding to the districts. 58p.

Maryland Public School Standards for Telecommunications Distribution Systems: Infrastructure Design for Voice, Video, and Data Communications.
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore, MD , Feb 2002)
Examines the quality assurance codes and standards for telecommunications systems installed in Maryland's public schools; address specific issues concerning the design of school buildings relating to integrating the telecommunications infrastructure; describes minimum requirements for cabling types, topologies, distribution, and installation; outlines additional requirements, recommendations, and planning considerations for dedicated broadband video distribution systems; and discusses the building of electrical systems that are designed to accommodate telecommunications. The final section presents a glossary of terms used in document. 115p.
TO ORDER: State of Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 2nd Floor, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0100

School Design Process. Seattle School District.
(Seattle School District No. 1, Seattle, WA , Feb 2002)
The goals of these design guidelines are: 1) create a framework for overall district standards for facility design, 2) create a tool for achieving more progressive designs, and 3) create a more specific framework for developing educational specifications. The manual provides a self-evaluation matrix for school administrators and teachers to use to help develop a transformation plan. Once a plan is in place, a 4-step activity design process is prescribed for a school design team that includes teachers, program representatives, support staff, PTA representatives, students, community members and design professionals. Seven guiding design principles are provided: learner-centered, personalizing environment, program adaptibility, community connection, aesthetics, safety, and collaboration. 43p.

Title 7. Education Chapter 6. School Facilities Board Rules. [Arizona] Adobe PDF
(Arizona State School Facilities Board, Phoenix , Feb 01, 2002)
Presents rules and policies governing and detailing facility design, construction, and funding for Arizona public schools. The document’s six articles cover definitions, regulations on minimum school facility guidelines, square footage calculations, the process for deficiency corrections, new school and land funding, and allocation and use of contingency funds. Specific areas of a school facility discussed include the school site; classroom; libraries and media centers; cafeterias, auditoriums and multipurpose rooms; spaces for science, arts, vocational and physical education; parent work space; and administrative space. The report also places some emphasis on fixtures and equipment, technology integration, communications, and materials and finishes. 48p.
TO ORDER: Arizona School Facilities Board, 1700 W. Washington St. Suite 602, Phoenix, Arizona; Tel: 602-542-6501

Characterization of Guidance Documents for Creating High Performance Schools.
Bosch, Sheila
(Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Architecture, Atlanta , Feb 2002)
Evaluates nine guidance documents that may be used by schools to create high performance facilities: The Poudre School District (CO), Sustainable Design Guidelines; the Collaborative for High Performance Schools, Best Practices Manual, Volumes I, II and III; Innovative Design, Sustainable Schools; Partnership for Resource Efficient Schools (Seattle), Recommended Best Practices Manual; Triangle J. Council of Governments, High Performance Guidelines: Triangle Region Public Facilities; U.S. Green Building Council, LEED Green Building Rating System; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Guidelines for Creating High Performance Green Buildings; City of New York, High Performance Building Guidelines; and, Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide. Each of the nine guidance documents were evaluated according to their goals, organizational structure, target audience, building life cycle phases addressed, and physical environmental conditions addressed. 55p.

Indiana State Board of Education School Facility Guidelines. Adobe PDF
(Indiana State Board of Education , Jan 10, 2002)
Presents the definitions, general principles, and guidelines for designing and building educationally effective and economically efficient school facilities in Indiana. Two of the topics explored are 1) things that are needed for conducting feasibility and impact studies for school facilities; and 2) guidelines for conventional school facilities, support/auxiliary areas, pre-school and kindergarten facilities, elementary through high school facilities, non-vocational and vocational instructional areas, relocatable classrooms, and facility resource inventory. 15p.

AB1402: Design-Build Projects Guidelines. 2002 Edition. [California] Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento , 2002)
Assembly Bill (AB) 1402 authorized California's school districts to enter into design-build contracts for projects with design and construction costs exceeding $10 million. These guidelines are intended to accomplish the following purposes: (1) inform school districts of the design-build process under AB 1402; (2) help school districts to determine whether the design-build process is right for their project; and (3) help school districts comply with the statutory requirements of AB 1402 while avoiding potential problems that may occur during the project. The guidelines' sections address the request for proposal and prequalifcation of design-build entities, the selection of design-build entities, and implementation of the design-build contract. 45p.

Ohio's Education Matters: 2001-2002 Poll.
(Knowledgeworks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH , 2002)
This survey of Ohio adults was intended to gauge attitudes on a range of educational issues. Key findings included: (1) public schools get a grade of C+; (2) Ohioans underestimate the extent of the challenge facing urban school districts; (3) they favor testing in math and reading every year in grades 3-8; (4) Ohioans believe in more school-community cooperation; (5) they overestimate the cost of a public college or university by about $6,000 per year; (6) respondents recognize the importance of literacy in early childhood; (7) more than half think school funding has stayed the same or decreased, although it has increased; and (8) only about half knew the state supreme court was deciding a case that could find Ohio's system of school funding to be unconstitutional. Detailed findings are presented in the areas of the state of schools, schools as centers of community, college access and higher education, early childhood education, funding education in Ohio, and DeRolph versus the State of Ohio.

Science Facilities Standards K-12 (Texas Version)
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2002)
This provides Texas educators with state guidelines for the planning, construction, and maintenance of indoor science facilities and outdoor learning areas for Texas schools. It includes examples of floor plans for classrooms, laboratories, and storage rooms. Chapters include: 1) Laws, Rules, and Regulations; 2) Safety Equipment; 3) Furniture, Fixtures, and Accessories; 4) Room Design Standards; and 5) Outdoor Learning Environments. 232p.
TO ORDER: The University of Texas at Austin
http://utdirect.utexas.edu/txshop/item_details.

Texas Safety Standards: Kindergarten through Grade 12.
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2002)
This guide provides kindergarten through grade 12 Texas science educators with rules, regulations, and safety procedures for classroom, laboratory, and field investigations. The manual is a reference for science teachers and administrators interested in providing a safe learning environment for their students. Guidelines are detailed in chapters addressing: (1) laws, rules, and regulations; (2) laboratory investigations and activities; (3) field investigations and activities; (4) facilities; (5) safety equipment and supplies; (6) chemical safety; (7) health concerns; and (8) safety training. (Appendices offer laws, rules, and regulations; professional organization position statements; agencies and associations; safety forms; checklists and guides; hazardous chemicals lists; safety symbols; and materials and safety equipment.) 189p
Report NO: ESR-9712001

TO ORDER: Charles A. Dana Center, 2901 N IH-35, Ste 2.200, Austin, TX,78722, UT Mail Code: A2650; Tel: 512-471-6190, Fax: 512-232-1855
http://utdirect.utexas.edu/txshop/list

Facilities Guidelines for Fine Arts Programs. [Maryland]
(Maryland State Department of Education, Facilities Branch, Baltimore , Jun 2001)
This manual of facility guidelines examines the planning process and design features and considerations for public school fine arts programs in Maryland. Planning concepts and trends are highlighted followed by planning guidelines for dance, music, theater, visual arts, general education, and performance spaces. General design considerations discussed include facility accessibility, acoustics, climate control and energy conservation, indoor air quality, community use of the school, security and safety, and telecommunications systems. Appendices contain the requirements for fine arts instruction programs, Maryland arts organizations, and the Maryland State Department of Education standards for telecommunication distribution systems. 75p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098
http://marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions

Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 2001)
This report addresses the decision-making process for replacing or modernizing District of Columbia public schools. The three-section document discusses old and historic schools and their future; the schools’ historical and architectural value; cost of replacement and modernization; design; materials; and the environmental impact of school replacement. The first section explores issues related to the modernization or replacement of old and historic schools and factors that should be considered in the District. The second section presents a history of the school system. The third section provides detailed school-by-school surveys of the historical and architectural details of public schools built in the District before 1945, including address, school size, site size, the architect involved, architectural style, design date, dates of construction, past alterations, and additions. 158p.
TO ORDER: Twenty-First Century School Fund, 2814 Adams Mill Road NW, Washington, DC 20009; Tel: 202-745-3745.

A Primer on the Public School State Approval Process. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of General Services, Sacramento , Mar 2001)
Summarizes the role of five California state entities in approving and funding school construction, as well as a potential 40 additional programs that may become involved under certain conditions. The Primer is designed to guide districts through all the steps that they must take, in a logical, understandable, and time-saving fashion. 33p.

Planning Delaware's School Needs: Issues of Location, Design, and Infrastructure. Adobe PDF
Moody, Stephanie; Edgell, David
(Delaware Policy Forum, University of Delaware, Newark , Mar 2001)
This report presents discussion from the 2000 Delaware Policy Forum held October 12, 2000, in Wyoming, Delaware. The goals of the forum were: (1) to provide an overview of the current process used to plan for the siting of Delaware's schools; (2) to discuss steps and priorities for anticipating needs, selecting school sites, and determining how community infrastructure, including transportation, impacts the school siting process; and (3) to discuss new and comparative options for enhancing the process of placing Delaware's schools in appropriate sites. 29p.

Building Our Future: The Ohio School Facilities Commission Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2001)
Assesses the funding, management oversight, and technical assistance provided by the Ohio School Facilities Commission (OSFC) to meet Ohio school district's construction and renovation needs for fiscal year 2001. Following a brief history of the OSFC, the report describes and examines progress in the following OSFC programs: Classroom Facilities Assistance; Exceptional Needs; Expedited Local Partnership; Accelerated Urban Initiative; Extreme Environmental Contamination; Short-Term Loan; Emergency Assistance; and Energy Conservation. Project milestones are listed, and the Ohio School Design Manual is described. The report concludes with information about OSFC investments in website and network technology, and comparative financial data on each of its programs and Ohio capital appropriations for school facilities. 23p.

Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 2001)
Presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. Includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends; the facility planning process; and design concepts for multipurpose laboratories, science laboratories, child development, teacher and student work areas, and spaces for food/nutrition. General design considerations cover facility accessibility, safety, finishes, climate control, lighting, outdoor educational resources, telecommunications distribution systems, and utilities. A summary of minimum space requirements concludes the guide. 42p.

Manual for Public School Facilities Fire Prevention and Fire Inspections. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Department,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY , Jan 2001)
This manual instructs school administrators and inspectors on how to complete the fire inspection report for educational facilities in New York State. The manual examines fire safety regulations, code requirements, and fire safety standards enforcement. The manual includes an outline of the fire inspection process. It provides directions for completing fire inspection reports. It discusses procedures for appealing disputes, and it comments on financial considerations. 53p.

New Jersey State Department of Education, Administrative Code, Chapter 26: Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Department of Education, Trenton , 2001)
Lists the states rules for educational facilities. Seventeen subchapters detail requirements for long-range facilities plans, capital project review, management of capital projects, educational adequacy assessment, planning and construction standards, land acquisition, school closing, land disposal, temporary facilities, capital reserve accounts, lease and lease- purchase agreements, county vocational district rehabilitation, maintenance and operation, retroactive funding, witholding of support for non-compliance, documents, qualifications of a certified educational facilities manager, and the appeals process. 121p.

Ohio School Design Manual.
(Office of Public School Construction, Columbus, OH. (Revised 7/1/99, 7/1/00, and 7/1/01) , 2001)
This manual presents guidance to facility designers, school administrators, staff, and students for the development of school facilities being constructed under Ohio's Classroom Facilities Assistance Program. It provides critical analysis of individual spaces and material/system components necessary for the construction of elementary and secondary schools and combination facilities. Following site selection and design criteria, the manual details the construction, design criteria, and standards for each school level's spaces from administrative spaces, through various classrooms and specialized educational spaces, to food services and custodial areas. Construction specifications for all potential building materials are provided as are insulation specifications for thermal and moisture protection, specifications for doors and windows, finishes used, and equipment and furnishings. The manual also includes a CD-ROM version. 1376p.
TO ORDER: Ohio School Facilities Commission, 88 E. Broad, Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215; Tel: 614-466-6290; Email: program.info@osfc.state.oh.us

Ohio's Education Matters: 2000-2001 Poll.
(Knowledgeworks Foundation, Cincinnati, OH , 2001)
This telephone survey of Ohio adults was intended to gauge attitudes on a range of educational issues. Main findings were: (1) education is important, but its true value is not fully understood; (2) Ohioans appreciate the benefits of early childhood education and preparation for school; (3) individualized attention in the formative years is important; (4) the public perceives an educational crisis in Ohio; (5) some populations at risk may go unnoticed; and (6) Ohioans overestimate the number of adults who have completed a college degree. Detailed findings are presented in the areas of the value of education, special populations, early childhood education, the formative years, school facilities, higher education and access to college, and demographics. 38p.

Planning and Construction Manual [California].
(California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento, CA, 2001)
This revised manual is a resource document for looking at facilities from the planning stage through construction and occupancy. It includes sections on advanced planning, school facilities funding, design process, and construction. The manual is updated on a yearly basis to address the changes to various components. 480p.
TO ORDER: California Association of School Business Officials Bookstore, 700 N. 10th Street, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95811; Tel: 916-447-3783, Fax: 916-447-3794
http://www.casbo.org/storelistitem.cfm?itemnumber=82

Sample Policies on School Construction.
(National Education Policy Network of the National School Boards Association, 2001)
Compilation of school construction policies from several states, covering such areas as educational specifications, school size, and the configuration of schools.

Effects of State Policies on Facilities Planning and Construction in Rural Districts. ERIC Digest Adobe PDF
Lawrence, Barbara Kent
(ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV. , 2001)
State policies greatly affect the decisions rural districts make about building or renovating school facilities. State, federal, and local mechanisms for funding school facilities are briefly described. Some states require a specific percentage of growth or decline in student population or a minimum number of students as a prerequisite for funding. Such policies ignore the many diseconomies of large-scale facilities and often force consolidation of small rural schools. In many small rural districts, population loss erodes the tax base, and taxpayers are reluctant to pass bonds to build schools. Population growth can increase property tax income but may also compel the community to incur more debt to house new students. Policies that require substantial acreage for school facilities may force districts to select sites away from population centers, creating large schools dependent on buses and automobiles. Even if the land is donated, bringing infrastructure to the site can be expensive. Few states fund maintenance, so districts often defer needed work, resulting in costly repairs or loss of buildings. In several states, districts are ineligible for renovation funding if estimated costs exceed a specified portion of new construction costs. However, estimates may exclude the value of the existing buildings, land, infrastructure, and intangible assets such as status as a community hub. Some states require an approved facility design, but adapting a site to a plan instead of creating a plan for a site may incur excessive costs. Community participation in the planning of a school helps assure support and long-term investment in the facility. 4p.

Arizona State School Facilities Board Minimum School Space Requirements. Adobe PDF
(Arizona State School Facilities Board, Phoenix. , Sep 11, 2000)
This document presents methods for determining minimum school space requirements for Arizona public school classrooms; libraries and media centers; cafeterias; auditoriums and other multiuse space; science, art, vocational education, and physical education space; and non-educational areas. The space requirements are based on the following documents adopted in 1999 by Arizona's School Facilities Board: the Building Adequacy Guidelines; the Further Delineation and Explanation of the Building Adequacy Guidelines; and Exhibit A (Equipment List). 11p.

Technology Planning Guide for Minnesota School Districts, Schools and Public Libraries. Adobe PDF
(Minnesota Dept. of Children, Families and Learning, Roseville , Sep 2000)
This guide assists Minnesota school districts and libraries in technology planning by providing information for meeting the requirements for federal assistance through the Universal Service Fund E-rate program and gaining approval from the Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning. Fourteen technology plan criteria needing to be addressed for approval by the CFL are detailed. Final comments address the submission of technology plans to the CFL, and provide a checklist for technology planning and a list of suggested web resources that cover each of the guideline criteria. 60p.

New Hampshire Public Schools Facilities Adequacy and Condition Study Report. Adobe PDF
(H. L. Turner Group, Inc., Concord, NH; State of New Hampshire Department of Education, Concord , Aug 23, 2000)
This report presents New Hampshire survey data, methodology, and the survey instrument used to measure a school's physical quality and educational effectiveness. The survey instrument collects data in the following categories: school site; building; building systems; building maintenance; building safety and security; space adequacy; and building environment for learning. Questions addressed in each category are included. Survey results from 391 New Hampshire schools are included along with a sample survey. 49p.

Rules for School Construction Projects. [Maine] Adobe PDF
(Maine Dept. of Education, School Support Systems Team. , Apr 04, 2000)
This document defines the conditions under which the State of Maine will subsidize school building construction projects. The document identifies several stages of approval that must be secured, including site approval, concept approval, local voter approval, and funding approval. A flow chart identifies how the project will proceed and the various organizations that will have primary importance during each stage. There are descriptions of these organizations and their specific responsibilities. The report also specifies general submission guidelines and deadlines, and it details the rating system to be used in evaluating each school construction process under a major capital improvement program. The document also contains the educational specifications and space allocations information required from each local unit by the state's department of education. Other sections discuss site size regulations; the required school site approval documentation; financial record keeping requirements; regulations regarding school construction project bonding; surplus project fund handling and contingency usage approval; and definitions of moveable equipment. 20p.

Frugal Construction Standards. [Florida] Adobe PDF
(SMART Schools Clearinghouse, Tallahassee, FL , Jan 25, 2000)
This booklet provides best practice recommendations for building functional and frugal schools in Florida. Seventeen best practice construction recommendations are addressed, including recommendations for sitework, concrete, masonry, metals, wood and plastics, thermal and moisture protection, doors and windows, finishes, equipment, furnishings, mechanical and electrical, and technology systems. Application procedures are also provided for design professionals to have their design evaluated and designated as a "SMART School Design." A final document is included that lists guidelines for partially determining a school's inclusion as a "SMART School Design." 41p.

Building Our Future: The Ohio School Facilities Commission FY 2000 Annual Report.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 2000)
This report assesses the Ohio School Facilities Commission's (OSFC) funding, management oversight, and technical assistance to Ohio school districts' construction and renovation needs for fiscal year 2000. The report describes OSFC's School Design Manual, and updates progress in the Classroom Facilities Assistance Program, the Exceptional Needs Program, the "Big 8" Accelerated Urban Initiative, Disability Access, and Short-Term Loan Programs. Also discussed is how the OSFC provides assistance in resolving school construction disputes through its partnering program. The report concludes with information about OSFC website technology and comparative financial data on each of its programs and Ohio capital appropriations for school facilities. 15p.

Designing and Constructing Public Facilities; Legal Requirements, Recommended Practices, Sources of Assistance. [Massachusetts] Adobe PDF
(Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Office of the Inspector General, Boston, MA, 2000)
Manual describing the requirements and procedures governing municipal construction projects in Massachusetts, including school building construction. 192p.

Florida Inventory of School Houses 2000. Adobe PDF
(Florida Department of Education, Department of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee , 2000)
This document presents Florida's educational facility inventory process and guidelines school districts can use for reporting their facilities information. It includes access information to the Office of Educational Facilities Information System program which contains facility information reported by districts for all public schools, and explanations of the inventory update fields for on-line transmissions. Appendices provide examples of plot and floor plans, building types, and corridor loading. Also included are design codes for various school stations for K-12 educational facilities; site size minimum acreage requirements; viewing Florida Inventory of School Houses (FISH) information, update transactions, and on the Internet; and FISH forms. 98p.

Guide to School Renovation and Construction: What You Need to Know To Protect Child and Adult Environmental Health. [New York]
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide presents cautionary tips for protecting children's health during school renovation and construction projects, the New York state laws regarding school renovation and construction, and the steps the law requires to eliminate dangerous conditions for children during these projects. Included is a checklist of uniform safety standards during school renovations and construction and several examples illustrating the negative outcomes when districts renovated or constructed their schools without regard to the effects on children's and adult's health. Selected resources for additional information are provided. [Free registration required.] 6p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.; Tel: 518-462-0632
http://www.healthyschools.org/clearinghouse.html

School Building Construction and Inspection Resource Manual. [Utah] Adobe PDF
(Utah State Office of Education, School Finanace and Statistics, Facilities & Safety. Salt Lake City , 2000)
This manual contains current legal requirements and information on school building construction and inspection in the state of Utah. Major topics include facilities long-range planning; the role and responsibilities of the School District Building Official; school site issues such as size and location, impact, and acquisition and development; as well as coordination with the local municipality and county. Also provided are plan development issues such as educational specifications; life-cycle costing; the structural, energy, Fire Marshal and State Office of Education plan review; the construction bidding process; the construction inspection process; and maintenance and operation of buildings after construction.

Texas Safety Standards for K-12. A Guide to Rules, Regulations, and Safety Procedures for Classroom, Laboratory, and Field Investigations.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas at Austin; Texas Education Agency, 2000)
The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for developing a safety program both at the campus and district levels. Chapters include: 1) Laws, Rules, Regulations; 2) Laboratory Investigations and Activities; 3) Field Investigations and Activities; 4) Facilities; 5) Safety Equipment and Supplies; 6) Chemical Safety; and 7) Safety Training. 190p.

The 2000 Florida Statutes. Chapter 235 Educational Facilities.
(State of Florida, 2000)
Detailed Florida legislation covering such areas as: prototype designs, use of buildings and grounds, construction of facilities, standards for relocatables, annual capital outlay budget, site planning and selection, cooperative funding and development, school size requirements, toxic substances, SMART schools, and more.

Environmental Action Guide for New York State Schools. Help for Parents and Others in the Absence of Standards Just for Children.
Barnett, Claire, Ed.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, New York , 2000)
This guide addresses existing New York laws and available resources to ensure that every child and school employee has an environmentally safe and healthy school. Topics discussed involve indoor air quality; toxic and hazardous chemicals; pests and pesticides; mold, mildew, fungus, bacteria; asbestos; lead; radon; exhaust fumes from idling vehicles; renovation and construction pollution; structurally sound buildings; heat; classroom size and environment; fire hazards; usable and sanitary restrooms; safe playgrounds; and emergency management. Appendices present resource information by topic area, a form for information from the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids Information and Referral Clearinghouse, examples of toxic and hazardous products used in New York schools, information on right-to-know laws concerning school environments, laws concerning access to public school-related meetings, rights to participating in health and safety committees, guidelines for school facility report cards, sample complaint letters to agencies about unsafe schools, a list of New York State Board of Regents/legislators, and New York State Environmental Conservation Regional Office locations and occupational health resources. (Contains 62 references.) 79p.
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc.,773 Madison Avenue, Albany, NY 12208. Tel: 518-462-0632.
http://www.healthyschools.org

Science Safety Standards: A Guide to Laws, Rules, Regulations, and Safety Procedures for Classroom, Laboratory, and Field Investigations.
Collins, James W.
(Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, Austin , 2000)
This guide provides kindergarten through grade 12 science educators with rules, regulations, and safety procedures for classroom, laboratory, and field investigations. The manual is a reference for science teachers and administrators interested in providing a safe learning environment for their students. Guidelines are detailed in chapters addressing: (1) laboratory investigations and activities; (2) field investigations and activities; (3) facilities; (4) safety equipment and supplies; (5) chemical safety; (6) health concerns; and (7) safety training. (Appendices offer laws, rules, and regulations; professional organization position statements; agencies and associations; safety forms; checklists and guides; hazardous chemicals lists; safety symbols; and materials and safety equipment.) 204p.
Report NO: ESR-9712001

TO ORDER: Charles A. Dana Center, 2901 N IH-35, Ste 2.200, Austin, TX,78722, UT Mail Code: A2650; Tel: 512-471-6190, Fax: 512-232-1855
http://utdirect.utexas.edu/txshop/list

The Newark Public Schools Five-Year Facilities Management Plan. Summary Report. Adobe PDF
(The Hillier Group Architects; Newark Public Schools, Newark, NJ , Dec 15, 1999)
This report summarizes the Newark Public Schools Facilities Management Plan that describes the process by which the district assesses projected enrollments and program space needs to support the Core Curriculum Content standards; determines space deficiencies; and analyzes corrective options. The document presents district and plan overviews as well as data collected from the five School Leadership Teams (SLT) that examined school space issues within different geographical regions in the district. Each SLT report includes a summary of existing conditions, physical space analyses and deficiencies, facility operations costs, and deficiency and correction budgets for each school on an item-by-item basis. 190p.

Regulations of the [New York] Commissioner of Education, Part 155, (8 NYCRR 155), Educational Facilities, Amended September 17, 1999, Effective October 7, 1999
(New York Department of Education, Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY, Oct 1999)
Covers New York State Facilities Requirements for the following: 155.1 (revised ) Educational facilities 155.2 (revised ) Construction and remodeling of school district facilities 155.3 (new 10/99) Comprehensive public school safety program 155.4 (new 10/99) Uniform Code of Public School Building Inspections, Safety Rating and Monitoring 155.5 (new 10/99) Uniform Safety Standards for School Construction and Maintenance Projects 155.6 (new 10/99) School facility report cards. 155.7 (old 155. 3) Health and safety in existing educational facilities 155.8 (old 155.4) Fire and building safety inspections 155.9 (old 155.5) Environmental quality review 155.10 (old 155.6) School swimming pools 155.11 (old 155.7) Acquisition of existing buildings 155.12 (old 155.8) Leasing approval and building aid for leased school buildings and facilities by school districts 155.13 (old 155.9) Apportionment for asbestos projects 155.14 (old 155.10) Leasing of unneeded board of cooperative educational services facilities 155.15 (old 155.11) Leases and contracts for the use of property by boards of cooperative educational services 155.16 (old 155.12) School asbestos hazard grant program 155.17 (old 155.13) School emergency management plans 155.18 (old 155.14) Aid for asbestos inspections 155.19 (old 155.15) Extraordinary school capital needs program 155.20 (old 155.16) Energy performance contracts 155.21 (old 155.17) Mobil Instructional Unit contracts awarded through a request for proposals
TO ORDER: West Group, Saint Paul, MN 55164-0779, Toll free: 800-328-9352.

Montgomery County Public Schools Policies: Section F: Facilities Development. [Maryland]
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD , Jul 06, 1999)
The Montgomery County Public Schools (Maryland) has published its procedures, criteria, and standards that apply to educational facilities development. The policies it contains are part of a planning process that recognizes the interrelationship of its facilities planning policy with other policies such as those on educational programs and capital modernization/renovation projects. The planning process is designed to promote public understanding of planning for county schools and to encourage community members, local governments agencies, and municipalities to identify and communicate their priorities and concerns to the Superintendent and Board of Education. Policy guidelines are presented for facilities planning and construction; naming new facilities; facilities renovation; site acquisition; and facilities development plans. 39p.

State Requirements for Educational Facilities, 1999. [Florida]
(Florida Department of Education, Educational Facilities, Tallahassee, FL , Jul 1999)
This updated, two-volume document provides guidance for those involved in the educational facilities procurement process, and includes recent legislative changes affecting the state of Florida's building code. The first volume is organized by the sequence of steps required in the facilities procurement process and presents state requirements for property acquisition/disposal, finance, lease and lease-purchase, historic buildings, program development, professional services, inspection services, and design and inspection standards. The second volume contains Florida's Uniform Building Code. 209p.

State Requirements for Educational Facilities. Vol II - Building Code. [Florida]
(Educational Facilities, Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee, FL, Jul 1999)
Indicates that Florida public educational facilities shall comply with the state minimum building code and life safety code, then details additional requirements found in standards concerning public schools, structural design, site requirements, wood, roofing, doors and windows, mechanical, plumbing, electrical, assembly occupancies, storage, child care, clinics, open plan schools, public shelters, time-out rooms, and new relocatable buildings. 32p
TO ORDER: Building Codes and Standards; Tel: 850-487-1824
https://www.floridabuilding.org

Chicago Public Schools Five Year Capital Improvement Program Fiscal Years 2000 - 2004
(City of Chicago; Chicago School Reform Board of Trustees; Chicago Public Schools, Jun 1999)
This document outlines the current assessment and needs of the Chicago Public School's district's buildings as well as proposed plans to meet those needs. Includes an executive summary, capital program, funding sources, capital budget, details of elementary and high schools projects, and summaries of new construction, renovations, and educational enhancements.

Educational Specifications for the Proposed Pre-K-Grade 2 Elementary School [Connecticut]. Adobe PDF
(East Haddam Board of Education, East Haddam, CT , May 24, 1999)
This document describes one Connecticut school district's project to build a facility that is designed for small children and supports an educational program focusing on early learning success for all children. Describes the school district's goals, the project's rationale, the long-range plan to prepare students for the 21st century, the learning activities and program needs for each grade level, and the various facility design requirements that will support the student's educational and social needs. 16p.

Building, Expanding and Renovating Public Schools in Massachusetts. A Brief Owner's Guide to the Process.
Finney, David
(Boston Society of Architects, Educational Facilities Committee , May 1999)
This paper describes general educational facility improvement planning principles and how factors peculiar to Massachusetts affect the planning process, including a description of the roles of the owner, architect, and other building professionals. Chapters examine the first steps in school planning, the role of the architect in preliminary planning, the school building assistance program, time requirements of the design process, Massachusetts law and how it affects design and construction, the successful completion of school construction, and the owner's representation and project management. 17p.

North Dakota's School Construction Approval Process and School Construction Loan Approval Process Reference Guide. Adobe PDF
(Department of Public Instruction; 600 E. Boulevard Ave, Dept. 201; Bismarck, ND 58505-0440 , Mar 1999)
The North Dakota Department of Public Instruction has published a guide that includes all documents related to the subjects of school construction approval for schools under, and over, $150,000; construction loans, including application forms which can be reproduced; and the timelines for both processes. School facility plan forms are provided to guide school districts in the development of sophisticated, conclusive, and supportive documentation for proposed school facility projects. Also included are North Dakota Statutes related to the Joint Powers Agreement, School Construction Approval, State School Construction Fund and Loans, Selling Evidence of Indebtedness, and the Competitive Bidding Process. 50p.

Wake County Public School System Design Guidelines [North Carolina]. Adobe PDF
(Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC , Mar 1999)
The Wake County Public School System has published its guidelines for planning and design of functional, cost effective, and durable educational facilities that are attractive and enhance the students' educational experience. It presents basic planning requirement and design criteria for the entire construction process including codes and standards; site development; construction materials; thermal and moisture protection; doors and windows; finishes; equipment and furnishings; plumbing; electrical and mechanical systems; and specialities areas such as toilet facilities, lockers, fire extinguishers and cabinets, and operable partitions. Attachments cover detailed installation and construction specifications for such items as wiring, landscaping, fencing, stage equipment, cable installation, and laminate casework. 201p.

[Illinois] School Construction Capital Development Board - School Construction Law.
(State of Illinois Capital Development Board, Springfield, IL, 1999)
The School Construction Law (Public Act 90-548) was passed by the Illinois General Assembly in December 1997, largely to address the shortage of classroom space due to population growth or aging buildings. To fund the program, the General Assembly approved the sale of $1.1 billion in school construction bonds over the next five years. Includes School Construction Law Project Standards, and Unit Cost Guidelines.

A Study of School Facilities and Recommendations for the Abbott Districts. [New Jersey] Adobe PDF
(New Jersey Department of Education, Trenton , 1999)
The New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE) presents a study of facilities' needs for the Abbott School District's 28 educational facilities and provides recommendations concerning how the state should address those needs, including appropriate and alternative funding. Study assessment data show the estimated cost for existing facility rehabilitation would be over $1.8 billion, of which half the amount would be for facility expansion and architectural and structural refurbishing. The study also lists recommended facility specifications deemed necessary to assure students can achieve the Core Curriculum Content Standards. Other state's educational facility construction and funding practices are highlighted as promising approaches for New Jersey to consider. Final comments address the state's plan for Abbott District facilities improvement, including the administrative actions of the NJDOE, and the issues related to the development of a state financing plan which is outside of the special areas of expertise of the department. 13p.

Long-Range Facilities Master Plan 1999-2013 for San Diego City Schools. Adobe PDF
(San Diego City Schools, CA , 1999)
This document describes the steps taken by the San Diego City Schools District to determine existing and future needs, to establish guidelines and standards for the future, and to develop an implementation plan to provide the district's students with the best facilities possible in order to optimize the learning environment. This report includes an executive summary, a description of the process, and chapters on school programs, support services, existing facilities, demographics, and an implementation plan. Incorporates new standards on such items as code compliance, upgrades, technology, adequate classroom and support areas for current populations, site improvements for parking and playfields. Policies for such factors as school size, single-session kindergarten, replacement of older and permanent portable classrooms, neighborhood schools, site size, and multi-track year round education were used to evaluate the adequacy of existing facilities and forecast the need for new schools.

Ohio School Facilities Commission 1998 Annual Report: Building Our Future.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus, OH , 1999)
This manual seeks to ensure uniform, energy efficient, cost effective, easily maintainable, and technologically advanced educational facilities for Ohio’s public schools. The manual provides a critical analysis of individual spaces and components necessary for elementary and secondary schools and combination facilities. The manual presents choices contained within specific guidelines of the State’s Classroom Assistance Programs. It stipulates the cost per square foot for three grade configurations in nine regions in the State as well as the square footage allowed per child according to grade level. Each of the following programs are detailed: Building Assistance/Classroom Facilities Assistance Program; Emergency School Building Repair Program; Big Eight Renovations and Repairs; Energy Conservation; and Disability Access Program. Also includes information on summarized program appropriations. 21p.
TO ORDER: Ohio School Facilities Commission, 88 East Broad St., Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215; Tel: 614-466-6290
http://www.osfc.state.oh.us

Ohio School Facilities Commission 1999 Annual Report.
(Ohio School Facilities Commission, Columbus , 1999)
This report assesses the funding, management oversight, and technical assistance provided by the Ohio School Facilities Commission (OSFC) to meet the construction and renovation needs of Ohio school districts for fiscal year 1999. Also included are the OSFC's technology and website improvements to disseminate information about, and administer, school construction projects. Comparative school district cost data are included for the Classroom Facilities Assistance Project passed in 1997 and 1998, the 1990 Building Assistance Project, and the Exceptional Facilities Needs Pilot Projects. The report concludes with a financial summary of Ohio capital appropriations for school facilities by fiscal year and program. 13p.
TO ORDER: Ohio School Facilities Commission, 88 East Broad St., Suite 1400, Columbus, OH 43215; Tel: 614-466-6290
http://osfc.ohio.gov/

Public School Construction Program. Administrative Procedures Guide. State of Maryland. Revised
(Maryland State Interagency Committee on School Construction, Baltimore, MD , 1999)
The State of Maryland has published this guide that provides State and local personnel, architects, and governmental officials with the method of operation and administration of the State's Public School Construction Program. The material is arranged in sequential order and follows a project from inception through design, construction, and occupancy. An introductory section provides a brief outline of the general procedures and responsibilities for a school capital improvement project. Section 1 examines the programming phase where an educational facilities master plan is developed, and capital improvement program is established, architects are selected, and sites are approved. Section 2 describes the planning steps, individuals involved, the educational specifications document, and the schematic review process. Section 3 describes design and construction reviews, bidding, and change orders. Section 4 explains the procedure for systemic renovations to prolong facility life. Section 5 describes the process and procedure for reporting or requesting approval facility use changes. Section 6 covers use, maintenance, and movement of State- owned relocatable classroom buildings. Final sections detail the appeals process; maintenance plan development, including funding, reporting, and compliance. 233p
TO ORDER: Public School Construction Program, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0610

The ABC's of Building a School.
(Oklahoma State Dept of Education, Financial Services Division, Oklahoma City, OK , 1999)
This booklet is designed for administrators who are being encouraged to build a new, or remodel an old, school facility. It describes the planning process from perceived need to the hiring of an architect; the duties of the architect, bondsman, and contractor; school bonds and finances; disability access requirements; force account; economical maintenance; the chronological order of construction; an overview of building systems and materials; applicable state laws; construction costs; and sample construction forms. Also included are Oklahoma State Fire Marshall fire resistive considerations and safety. Appendices contain a checklist for designing maintenance-free buildings; samples of the forms used in building construction projects such as contracts, bonds, and affidavits; and examples of energy conservation measures. 84p.
TO ORDER: Oklahoma State Department of Education, 2500 North Lincoln Boulevard,Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105-4599; Tel: 405-521-3812

Conserving and Enhancing the Natural Environment. A Guide for Planning, Design, Construction, and Maintenance on New & Existing School Sites. [Maryland]
Bice, Barbara; And Others
(Maryland State Department of Education, Baltimore , 1999)
Natural environments on school sites provide considerable multi-disciplinary educational opportunities, many of which are "hands-on" experiences that stimulate learning. This document presents guidelines on conserving and enhancing the natural environment on school sites. It provides guidance for developing the site requirements in education specifications and designs for new building construction and major renovation and/or addition projects for existing schools. Appendices address funding sources available to Maryland educators to support school site habitat projects; and Maryland organizations that can offer assistance such as the forestry service, soil conservation district offices; and a list of data about Maryland native plants. (Contains 55 references.) 80p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098
http://marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions

Handbook on Planning School Facilities. [West Virginia] Adobe PDF
Clutter, Wayne; Elswick, Bill
(West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston, WV , 1999)
The state of West Virginia requires all its counties to develop a 10-year Comprehensive Educational Facilities Plan (CEFP), update it annually, and rewrite every 10th year. This guide addresses the development of a 10-year CEFP plan, its components and governing regulations. Chapters examine the CEFP process and requirements in the following areas: educational facilities planning; site design; common facilities necessary for school operation; facilities for primary education, and junior high and high school education; instructional areas for exceptional students; vocational educational facilities; general support facilities; facility safety; surface and other facilities such as those involving engineering and custodial services; and environmental controls. The guide's final section addresses statutes, procedures, and tasks relative to preparing and submitting the CEFP for approval, including on-site inspections by state officials and current standards for existing facilities. 250p.

New Design Features in Virginia's Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Gillespie, Monica McTeague; Epps, Beverly; Griesdorn, Jacqueline; Butin, Dan
(Thomas Jefferson Center for Educational Design, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottsville, VA , 1999)
A study of new design features for public schools was conducted in Virginia in 1999 to determine what specific design features were being implemented in Virginia's schools. This report summarizes the major trends in facility design that were discovered in the following areas: safety and security features; classroom space; technology areas; administrative spaces; communal space; school grounds; teachers' facilities; community use of school facilities; energy use and sustainable design; organization of instruction; and special programs. While numerous innovative design features are being implemented in schools across Virginia, the data reveal that older schools built prior to 1990 have fewer of them. Older schools lack some of the benefits of flexible space and extra space for learning, have limited use of landscapes and community access to school assets, and lack central air conditioning. 23p.

Life Cycle Cost Analysis Handbook. First Edition.
Mearig, Tim; Coffee, Nathan; Morgan, Michael
(State of Alaska, Department of Education and Early Development, Alaska School Facilities, Juneau, AK , 1999)
The guidelines incorporated in this handbook have been developed to assist Alaskan school districts, their consultants, and communities in evaluating the life cycle cost of school construction decisions. Life cycle cost is defined as the total discounted dollar cost of owning, operating, maintaining, and disposing of a building or a building system over a period of time. 30p.

Texas Sustainable School Design Guideline. Adobe PDF
Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Padia, Harshad D.; Malin, Nadav
(Produced by Innovative Design, Inc., Padia Consulting, Inc., and E Build, Inc. Funded by the State Energy Conservation Office of the Texas General Services Commission. , 1999)
This guide offers a detailed listing of the key practices and technologies that can help create a sustainable school. The document includes hundreds of cost-effective recommendations that can improve the energy performance and environmental quality of school designs. Each design and construction phase is addressed, from site selection through commissioning. Each phase is further divided into some or all of the following fourteen areas that apply to each phase: general considerations; site planning and landscape design; daylighting; energy efficient building shells; solar systems; energy efficient lighting and electrical systems; energy efficient mechanical and ventilation systems; environmentally sensitive building products and systems; indoor air quality; water conservation; recycling systems and waste management; transportation; commissioning and maintenance; and ecological education. 109p.

School Construction Technical Assistance Manual. [Delaware] Adobe PDF
Vacirca, Nicholas
(Delaware Dept. of Education, Dover , Jan 1999)
This manual is a reference guide for those involved in school planning, maintenance, repair, and construction funded through the Capital Improvement Program for Delaware public schools. It is an updated version of the previous edition adopted by the state board in May 1991 and presents regulations adopted by the state board. Following each regulation is technical assistance to support it. The manual's main sections address general information, planning, school construction formulas, referenda, sites, plan preparation, bidding and awarding of contracts, minor capital improvement regulations, accounting procedures, emergency procedures, standards, suggested constuction materials, satellite school agreements, custodial allocations, and planning sites for school bus safety. (Appendices offer several related forms and checklists.) 163p.
Report NO: 945-01/90/10/17


Capital Improvement Project Workshops. [Alaska] Adobe PDF
(Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau/Anchorage, AK , May 1998)
The Alaska Department of Education has developed a workshop addressing the application process for capital improvement funding from the state, e.g., who should apply, applicant eligibility and evaluation criteria, the types of funding available, and project specifics to be included in application submissions. The evaluation and scoring process of applications is explained followed by the lessons that have been learned from past application reviews that will help make the process more complete and fair. Attachments include the application form for funding (Capital Grant or State Aid for Debt Retirement) and instructions for its completion. Appendices provide a breakdown of the phases of capital improvement projects and give explanations behind the application process that include the categories of the grants available, project cost estimates, definitions of maintenance, the current law regarding waiver of participating share/in-kind contributions, and descriptive categories of the types of spaces to be added or improved.

Facilities Guidelines for Library Media Programs. [Maryland]
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore, MD , 1998)
These guidelines are designated to help Maryland school system personnel and architects develop educational specifications and designs for new building construction or major renovation projects that include a library media center. The task force, which developed the standards, began this effort by gathering information on the State's school library media programs, by studying the role of these programs in implementing school improvement strategies, by visiting exemplary programs, and by reviewing state and national standards for school library media programs with national and local experts. As a result, it was recommended that schools provide every student access to a functional, well-equipped information center that supports the goals outlined in the State's school improvement program. The guide provides an overview of school library media programs and looks at the school facilities planning process. Special attention is devoted to library media center spaces and design considerations for school library media centers. 59p
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098
http://marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions

School Facility Recommendations for Class Size Reduction. [California]
Evans, Ann M.
(California State Department of Education, Sacramento, CA , May 1998)
The California Department of Education encourages its school districts to make every effort to reduce classroom size and maintain the physical size of 960 square feet for elementary schools and 1,350 square feet for kindergartens. This report examines the Code of Regulations relative to classroom size in elementary, kindergarten, and special education classrooms. It also addresses class reduction and its affects support facilities such as toilets, ventilation, lighting, and fire exits. Concluding comments examine law pertaining to classroom size for self-contained classrooms and the site size issues involved as classroom size necessitates ever larger school sites. 4p.

Guidelines and Standards for the Technology Infrastructure of 21st Century Educational Facilities. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept.,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany, NY , Apr 1998)
New York State Regents directed that new guidelines and "standards" be developed for technology infrastructures in educational facilities in order to assist administrators and educators in planning technology integration during retrofits, renovations, or new construction of educational facilities. This document provides the first draft of these guidelines that respond primarily to the needs of rehabilitation and modernization projects, but also can be used for new construction. The guidelines are broken down into nine areas as follows: Environmental/Life Safety; Planning for Electrical Power; Lighting; Space Planning and Pathways; Structured Cable Plants; Libraries; Security; Wireless Systems; and Distance Learning Capabilities. Appendices presents information regarding asbestos regulations and resource addresses. 34p.

Early Childhood Education Facilities Planner Adobe PDF
(Public Schools of North Carolina, State Board of Education, Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Feb 1998)
This report describes early childhood education programs and facilities and presents planning guidelines to assist design professionals to plan facilities that meet the evolving needs of public schools in North Carolina. It addresses issues concerning both the indoor and outdoor environments of early childhood educational facilities, provides sample floor plans that supplement and clarify those issues addressed, and presents several photographs depicting early childhood facilities in several North Carolina schools that illustrate descriptions discussed in the report. Appendices provide a checklist on outside play areas to make them safe; and descriptions of sample learning centers that include art, toy blocks, computers, dramatic play/housekeeping, family area/library corner/listening area, woodworking, and manipulatives and table toys. Additional resources are listed. 31p.

D.C. Public School 1997 Repair Program and Facilities Master Plan. Hearing before the Subcommittee on the District of Columbia of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC , 1998)
A Congressional hearing dealt with issues related to the repair program and facilities master plan of the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS). The transcribed comments and prepared statements are supplemented by letters, statements, and other documents submitted for the record. 173p.
Report NO: Serial No.105-123

TO ORDER: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402.

Construction Management Guidelines for Capital Outlay Program Projects. [Georgia] Adobe PDF
(Georgia State Dept. Of Education, Facilities Service Unit, Atlanta. , 1998)
The Georgia State Department of Education recognizes two separate methods for utilizing construction management services by local school systems when state capital outlay funds are involved. This report details those two methods. First describes the Construction Management-Agency approach, which allows a CM-Agency manager to enter into a professional services contract similar to an architectural or engineering contract with the local board of education (LBOE). The CM-Agency performs no work with its own employees, receives no additional fees or profit margins from the project other than the fees or expenses provided for in the contract, and maintains a position in the project independent from the designer and the contractors. Explains the Construction Management-At Risk approach, which involves a construction services contract with the LBOE in which the CM-At Risk manager contracts the various components of the project the way that a general contractor would. The CM-At Risk manager does not usually perform any portion of the work except for those items specified under the general conditions of the contract such as cleanup, layout, and security. 7p.

Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education. [New York] Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept.,Office of Facilities Planning, Albany , 1998)
The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5- year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction and remodeling of school district facilities, and building compliance regulations to conform with the public school safety program. Also addressed are statutes involving school construction safety and security, construction noise abatement, proper ventilation requirements, asbestos abatement, and educational facility report cards. 14p.

Elementary Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards [Colorado] Adobe PDF
(Jefferson County School District, Facilities Planning and Design Department, Golden, CO , 1998)
Provides comprehensive guidance to planners, designers, and various consultants on the planning and design of new schools, additions, and renovations for Jefferson County School District in Colorado. Describes the facility requirements to accommodate the instructional program, activities, and support functions. Details specifications for core areas such as administration, cafeteria, computer labs, kitchens, and libraries; and support areas and facilities, including building and wiring standards, corridors, custodial, and plumbing facilities. An appendix provides specifications, plans, and standards for various building features and equipment. 55p.

High School Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards. [Colorado] Adobe PDF
(Jefferson County School District, Facilities Planning and Design Department, Golden, CO , 1998)
Provides benchmarks for those who would advise planners, designers, and associated consultants on the planning and designing of high school facilities for Jefferson County in Colorado. Describes the learning spaces and the spaces required to support and manage learning activities. Defines the function and necessary spatial relationships of each space. Areas covered include the core spaces for administration and counseling, cafeterias, auditoriums, physical education, general classrooms, science labs, special labs, music and art classrooms, and classrooms for special education. Also details site development standards; building space allocations and wiring standards; mechanical, electrical, and communication rooms; special systems; acoustic criteria; and furniture and equipment. 91p.

Manual of Planning Standards for School Buildings [New York]. Adobe PDF
(New York State Education Dept., Albany, NY, 1998)
These planning standards help school districts, architects, and engineers resolve their school building problems while considering educational and planning efficiency, conservation of natural resources, and initial and long-range economy within the context of the most recent state and federal laws. Also addresses structural and safety planning; materials; environmental considerations; site conditions and utilities; mechanical and electrical planning; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; plumbing and gas facilities; electrical work; existing buildings; procedures for design and construction; and operations and maintenance considerations. 205p

Middle School Educational Specifications: Facilities Planning Standards. [Colorado] Adobe PDF
(Jefferson County School District, Facilities Planning and Design Department, Golden, CO , 1998)
Provides model standards for the planning and designing of new and existing schools for Jefferson County, Colorado. Describes the facility requirements necessary to accommodate the schools' instructional program, activities, and support functions. Details specifications for core and instructional areas such as administration/counseling, auditeria and performance platforms, library information centers, physical education complexes, and supporting building systems and areas, which include building and wiring standards, corridors, custodial facilities, and plumbing facilities. 55p.

Planning for Education: Space Guidelines for Planning Educational Facilities. [Oklahoma] Adobe PDF
(Oklahoma State Dept of Education,Common School Capital Improvement Needs Assessment Committee, Oklahoma City, OK , 1998)
The Oklahoma Department of Education has published this booklet providing guidelines for school planners and designers on the State requirements for space allocation in its K-12 public schools. Recommendations are included for various specialized facilities to assure that proper spaces can be provided beyond the typical classroom space. Guidelines are arranged under the categories of instructional, auxiliary, and service and structure spaces. Also included are guidelines for site development and planning and a table of working heights and toilet fixture guidelines for educational occupancies. 31p.

Educational Specifications for Renovations and New Construction for the Madison Public Schools [Connecticut]. Adobe PDF
(Madison Public Schools, Office of the Superintendent, Madison, CT , Jun 1997)
This educational specification is intended to allow those who advise designers and planners of schools to thoroughly describe the school district's educational activities and their implications for necessary facilities and learning spaces to the design professionals charged with the specific duties of renovating existing school facilities and/or constructing new ones. The document includes an overview of the school facility study, enrollment projections and design capacity, school organization, educational programming, instructional program facility requirements, support facilities, internal traffic and coordination, systems, environment, community uses, and site development. 94p.

District of Columbia Goals 2000: Rebuilding Public School Facilities to 21st Century Standards. Interim Report Goals 2000 Panel. Revised May 7, 1997. Adobe PDF
Filardo, Mary
(District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC; 21st Century School Fund, Washington, DC , May 07, 1997)
The Goals 2000 is a national effort to improve education in American schools so students can compete with other students throughout the world. This report is the District of Columbia's translation of the national initiative reflecting its efforts to improve student education that addresses the Goals 2000 objectives. It incorporates input from the working groups and ideas from the local community and from current research on educational reform and facility design. The report's focus and organization is on the seven goals outlined in DC Goals 2000; the interface between educational programs and school facilities. It discusses each goal and the recommendations pertinent to how facility related standards or improvements can support the reaching of the goal. Goals examined include the following issues: academic standards and career preparation, staff excellence, school governance and decision-making autonomy, school safety, managements and funding mechanisms for public education, school renovation standards, and family and community involvement. 21p.

Facility Standards for Technology in New Jersey Schools Adobe PDF
Milone, Lawrence V.
(New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton , May 1997)
This document provides guidelines to assist local districts and county coordinating councils in developing their distance learning plans. The first section addresses the educational specifications in the classroom design that reflect a technology- rich learning environment. The design and review processes and the organization of the educational specifications are discussed. The second section presents guidelines for modernizing learning environments with educational technology. The final section details the new areas of school activity created when a technology infrastructure is adopted, including the use of instructional television, media centers, TV production facilities, and distance learning. Appendices provide an sample of an educational specifications form, a glossary of communications technology terms, a clarification of electronic communication systems terms, specifications on wiring and classroom diagrams, and a study supplement program and recommendations. 71p.

Early Implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative. [California] Adobe PDF
Illig, David C.
(California Research Bureau, Sacramento , Apr 1997)
A survey of school districts was conducted to determine the initial progress and problems associated with the 1997 Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. Data reveal that most school districts had enough space for smaller classes for at least two grade levels; and small school districts were much less likely to report space constraints. Several policy issues are examined that could impede CSR's future progress, including the ability of smaller classes to actually improve student performance, fading interest from parents and teachers, CSR funding eroding available funding for other programs, space constraints preventing equal implementation within school districts, and teacher supply increasing rapidly enough to prevent bottlenecks. 25p.
Report NO: CRB-97-008


Selected Laws Relating to the Construction and Repair of Public School Facilities in North Carolina. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Feb 1997)
Schools in North Carolina are governed by numerous laws pertaining to construction and repair. Financial concerns constitute the bulk of these statutes, covering areas such as bids (financial outlay, advertisement, rejecting bids, and withdrawing bids); sources of state funds; the selling or buying of school property; bonds required; capital outlay funds; general loan information such as loan sources, loan terms, securing and paying loans the issuance of bonds, and the computer loan revolving fund; special appropriations; grants; and budgetary parameters. Other statutes dealing with school construction include architectural and engineering services such as specific guidelines on conflict of interest and compliance; basic education programs; classroom sizes; the duties of local boards, of superintendents, of principals, and of teachers; inspections; energy savings contracts; lease properties; long-range plans for school facility needs; the North Carolina Historical Commission; public building contracts; facilities guidelines; repair of damage to school property; replacement of buildings; fire safety and prevention; and vocational programs affiliated with schools. 67p.

Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Educational Program [California]. Adobe PDF
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, CA , 1997)
This guide by the California Department of Education formalizes regulations governing standards for new school design and construction. It is intended to help school districts develop specifications based on the architectural principle that form follows function. The guide discusses the meaning of educational specifications and their development, delineates the role of these specifications in facility planning and the effects of a restructured curriculum on those specifications, and suggests a format for an educational specifications document. An annotated outline of an educational specifications document is also presented, and it provides a more detailed picture of the complete format and the items to be included. Appendices contain short articles providing background information in such areas as the organization of a new school master plan; selection of an architect and site; public relations; school disaster preparedness planning; and facility activation, orientation, and postoccupancy evaluation. 120p

Facilities Requirements for Charter Schools in Florida.
(Florida Department of Education, Educational Facilities, Tallahasee, 1997)
States facilities requirements in legislative language. Provides guidelines to meet the legislative direction, presented in a question-and-answer format. 5p.

Florida Educational Facilities. 1997. Adobe PDF
(Florida State Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Facilities, Tallahassee. , 1997)
This document contains information, photographs, and floor plans of many of Florida's new elementary through high school facilities occupied in 1997. Each entry lists the facility's type, building size, student capacity, and general structural information. Also provided is information on the facility's total construction cost; the architects and construction company used; special features of the facility; site development; and the interior components, including roofing, walls, floor finishes, electrical, heating and air conditioning, and plumbing. 87p.

Guidelines for School Equipment Purchases. Adobe PDF
(State of Alaska Dept. of Education, Juneau , 1997)
Assists Alaska school districts with purchasing equipment in compliance with state school construction statutes and the regulations which implement them. The guidelines provides direction in three major areas: identifying the needed equipment according to educational specifications, equipment budgets, and accounting for the equipment. 7p.

Update on Lead in School Drinking Water. Adobe PDF
(Massachusetts Department of Education, Boston, MA, 1997)
This memo explains changes in state and federal drinking water regulations for lead and copper, summarizes the data that has been collected by the state's Department of Environmental Protection in its lead in school study, provides guidance on actions that should be taken by Massachusetts school officials to reduce student exposure to lead through drinking water.

Construction Procurement Handbook for Texas School Districts and Institutions of Higher Education. Adobe PDF
Ford, Jeffrey, et al
(Associated General Contractors, Texas Building Branch , 1997)
Texas legislation allows public school districts to use a variety of contracting methods to obtain the "best value" for their construction projects. This resource document provides some of the basic framework regarding laws governing the award of construction contracts by school districts and institutions of higher education. Also provided are Contracting Method Summary Sheets that summarize the various authorized contracting methods. Specific topics for both public schools and higher education institutions address competitive bidding for construction services, competitive sealed proposals for construction services, construction manager-agent contracts, construction manager-at-risk contracts, design-build contracts, and job order contracts for facilities repair. 50p.

Site Selection Criteria and Evaluation Handbook. [Alaska]
Mearig, Tim; Crittenden, Edwin; Morgan, Michael
(Alaska Dept. of Education and Early Development, Juneau, AK , 1997)
This handbook establishes a set of basic site selection elements and offers suggested evaluation criteria for rating each element's desirability and cost effectiveness. The selection elements are grouped into three major categories: social and land use factors; construction cost factors; operations and maintenance cost factors. The handbook describes the basic evaluation procedures including the ranking system for each site selection criteria. It concludes with advice on writing a site evaluation report. Appendices contain a site evaluation matrix form with the three categories and each criteria element arranged for ranking and rank totalling, and a sample site graphic analysis. 24p.

The Form of Reform: School Facility Design Implications for California Educational Reform. Adobe PDF
Ong, Faye, Ed.
(California Dept. of Education, School Facilities Planning Division, Sacramento, CA , 1997)
The California Department of Education convened a task force to determine how the learning environment can be shaped to support statewide educational reforms designed to make California schools places of community pride that also help students excel. This two-part report outlines design implications common to all grade levels, as well as those specific to certain grade levels, and identifies design implication concepts derived from each of the task force's reform reports. Also included are descriptions of several award-winning schools whose master planning has embraced educational reform in their design. 130p.

Building Schools for the Next Century: An Affordable Strategy for Repairing and Modernizing New York City's School Facilities. Adobe PDF
Delaney, Richard J.; Brecher, Charles
(Citizens Budget Commission, New York, NY , Jun 1996)
Due to a lack of funding, New York City's public school buildings fall significantly short of providing adequate classroom space and technology support. Some policy changes that could promote more intensive use of school buildings and thus provide a comprehensive and affordable solution to this problem are described. It is suggested that instruction be extended throughout the year so that the extended school hours would allow two shifts of children to be instructed in the same building over the course of a single day without overcrowding the facility or reducing the amount of instruction each child receives. Using each school more intensively also would reduce the number of buildings the school system needs. This would allow the School Board to target its limited resources to create a network of facilities that would support better learning. It is recognized that instituting such changes would place demands on school administrators, families, and social service institutions, but such demands are not insurmountable. 60p.

School Food and Nutrition Service Design Manual.
(Maryland State Department of Education, Baltimore, MD , 1996)
This manual suggests strategies for identifying components for creating and developing a successful food service and nutrition facility. It focuses on the process involved in creating such facilities, and provides an overview of the planning phase, design and construction, and educational specifications. Five prototypical kitchen and serving area plans and equipment schedules are introduced, including high school food courts, as well as models for elementary and middle schools. Equipment is an important component of any design program, and advice on equipment selection, receiving equipment, storage equipment, preparation equipment, mobile equipment, serving line equipment, sanitation equipment, and ventilation equipment are provided. General design considerations, along with site design and regulatory considerations for school food, are detailed. Area guidelines for determining space requirements for the five prototypical food service program designs are also featured. 105p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098
http://marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions

Guidelines of Best Practices for School Building Projects. [Kentucky] Adobe PDF
(Kentucky Dept. of Education, Division of Facilities Management, Frankfort , May 1995)
This guide addresses the most common considerations when building school facilities in Kentucky. Included are the regulations for the Capital Construction Process, the Kentucky Department of Education's Project Review Process, and a suggested document filing system. Additionally, it features common questions and their answers regarding the Kentucky Facility Programming and Construction Criteria Planning Guide. Appendices provide a variety of school design and construction information accumulated from school construction projects, a plan review checklist for school building projects, and forms for developing requests for proposals and project account summary sheets. 48p.

Facility Programming and Construction Criteria.
(Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Div. of Facilities Management, Frankfort. , Mar 02, 1995)
This facility construction planning guide presents the minimum instructional space standards for Kentucky's public school system. It provides definitions of terms found in the regulations; presents space requirements for every type of instructional space within a public school, including circulation areas, storage, and mechanical/electrical areas; details general construction requirements; and lists minimum standards for emergency classrooms and temporary instructional units. Also included are site planning regulations involving the efficient use of school property, vehicular and pedestrian circulation, and student safety. 58p.

Efficient and Adequate Standards for Building Specifications for the Construction of Schools. [Illinois] Adobe PDF
(Illinois State Board of Education, School Construction and Facility Services, Springfield, IL , 1995)
This is the maintenance code for school facilities constructed in Illinois between July 1, 1965 and March 24, 1995. Chapters cover General Requirements; Use of Model Codes and Standards; Construction Requirements; Special Occupancies; Protection Requirements; Heating, Ventilating, and Incinerators; Electrical Systems; and Plumbing. 151p.

The Kentucky School Facilities Planning Manual. 702 KAR 1:001. Revised. Adobe PDF
(Kentucky State Board for Elementary and Secondary Education, Frankfort , Dec 1994)
This manual guides school districts in the development and adoption of written plans describing their construction needs and use of school facilities. The guide examines the selection, operation, and responsibilities of the local planning committee (LPC) and the types of research data to be collected. It covers the development of a facility plan needs statement and displays the maximum project budget numbers for a typical school along with square footage requirements for various school enrollment sizes for K-12 schools. 29p.

School Design Handbook [Texas]. Adobe PDF
(Dallas Independent School District, TX , Apr 12, 1994)
The Dallas Independent School District provides this handbook presenting administrative, planning, design, and technical guidelines for those involved in the design and construction process of new school facilities, and expansions or renovations of existing schools. It focuses on the design specifications and administrative guidelines for the construction of a new elementary school. Included is a listing of technical master specifications sections developed by the school district to convey specific detailed recommendations for several construction elements. All of the requirements included can be categorized as one of the following types: (1) general considerations that guide the architect in setting the overall design concepts of the school; (2) space requirements that describe the number of spaces and their size requirements (minimum width, height, and length); and detailed information about each individual space. 240p.

Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.
(Illinois Department of Public Health, Div. of Environmental Health, Springfield, IL , 1994)
The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools, identifies ways to reduce dependence on pesticides in school buildings, and discusses alternative methods for pest management. It offers a step-by-step methodology for establishing an IPM program in schools that includes educating and training of staff, inspecting and monitoring for potential problems, setting action threshold levels for pest control conditions requiring remedial action, applying IPM strategies to control pests, and evaluating results. It is noted that these guidelines are not for lawn and turf pests. Appendices provide examples of a school pest management policy statement and pest management specification.

Science Facilities Design Guidelines.
(Maryland State Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, Baltimore. , 1994)
These guidelines, presented in five chapters, propose a framework to support the planning, designing, constructing, and renovating of school science facilities. Some program issues to be considered in the articulation of a science program include environmental concerns, interdisciplinary approaches, space flexibility, and electronic communications. The translation of this educational concept into the three-dimensional space is accomplished by a planning committee in phases that include planning, designing, constructing, and occupying the space. Appropriate science facilities need to be designed around experiences that reflect relevancy within the community. Resources to this end may include: regional and global; career and technology education facilities; commercial, research, and industrial facilities; natural and institutional resources; and electronic resources. The organizational requirements based on the type of school (elementary, middle, or secondary) and its educational philosophy are presented. Once the science education framework within a school has been articulated, the design development and materials specifications for programming space should be considered. At the elementary school level, the majority of science education takes place in the general classroom. At the secondary level, most science education takes place in the laboratory. Other dedicated spaces used for science education at this level are the lecture area, the preparation area, the storage area, the student project area, the seminar room, the greenhouse, and the science studio. Detailed guidelines for laying out these program spaces and overlaying the supporting systems are presented. The design considerations are made from an architectural standpoint as well as within a technical framework. 66p.
TO ORDER: Maryland Department of Education, School Facilities Branch, 200 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201; Tel: 410-767-0098
http://marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions

Elementary Education Specifications Format, Montgomery County Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Vance, Paul
(Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD , Dec 1993)
The Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) system has created a procedure for guiding the architectural design and construction of elementary school buildings that includes a document staff representatives can use when reviewing drawings and specifications for the facility. The document is divided into three sections: the first lists the type of spaces and square footage required; the second describes the general design, location, and specific requirements for each type of instructional space in accordance with MCPS standards; and the third identifies the unique program needs of the school's students and staff where the planning advisory committee has recommended modifications or additions to the basic program requirements. 43p.

New Schools for New York: Plans and Precedents for Small Schools.
(Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY , 1992)
This study illustrates with specific designs how the city might meet two critical educational objectives in its first program of new school construction in many years. The study designs show how New York might build schools small enough to meet criteria for effective learning environments and how these small schools might be closely integrated with their communities. Following an introduction by Rosalie Genevro, two essays discuss the aims and implementation of this study: "Advocacy and Architecture" by Jeanne Silver Frankl and "The New Small Schools for New York Design Study" by Rosalie Genevro. The six neighborhood architectural and educational programs developed through the study are then profiled and amply illustrated. A final essay, "Building and Learning," by Anne E. Riselbach, expands the analysis of the development of school design in New York City. Drawings and texts are the result of exploration by 50 teams of architects, credited with their drawings. Contains 138 references 200p.

Rules and Regulations: Minimum Schoolhouse Construction Standards. [Arkansas] Adobe PDF
(Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock , 1992)
The Arkansas Department of Education has published the regulatory guidelines governing the minimum schoolhouse construction standards as well as rules for new construction applications, school site selection, and approval procedures. Appendices (comprising 95 percent of the publication) document the following: educational space guidelines; planning for modern education; school construction laws; suggested measures for maintenance and housekeeping; and recommendations on restroom and plumbing fixtures and on school lighting. Concluding sections provide an example of a bid notice and the state agencies required by law for approving new school construction or addition plans. 118p.

Site Selection and Acquisition: The Process and the Pitfalls [California].
(California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento, CA, 1992)
This manual covers most of the common steps and considerations in site selection and acquisition in California as well as some of the measures to be taken to avoid potential problems. It considers master planning and policy requirements, specific site selection procedures and specific site acquisition procedures, steps to adopt CEOA guidelines, relocation, site selection factors, pre-acquisition site assessment, potential contamination, and condemnation. 62p.
TO ORDER: California Association of School Business Officials Bookstore, 700 N. 10th Street, Suite 100, Sacramento, CA 95811; Tel: 916-447-3783, Fax: 916-447-3794
http://www.casbo.org

State Guidelines for Educational Specifications and School Facility Adequacy. Adobe PDF
Turnquist, Antoinette E.
(University of Nebraska, Lincoln , 1991)
This study's purpose was to determine if the required use of state-adopted education specifications guidelines when constructing or modernizing urban high school facilities had resulted in more adequate housing for programs than in states without such guidelines. A 1991 survey of high school classroom teachers was conducted in six states: three states had guidelines and three did not. Findings indicate that high school facilities are more adequate for instruction programs when constructed according to state- adopted guidelines for the development of educational facilities. The existence of state guidelines was found to have no significant affect on perceptions of external aesthetic appearance of the facility, although the perceptions of facility adequacy relating to internal environmental features were higher among the teachers in states with guidelines. 108p.

Recommendation of Standards for Educational Space for Public School Facilities. [Texas] Adobe PDF
Seals, Jack Reece, Jr.
(Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. , May 1991)
This study provides space standards for selected academic areas in order to guide Texas officials in their funding allocations during school construction. The data indicate an absence of statistical differences between practitioners' perceptions of space adequacy regardless of school district wealth. Analysis further suggests that enrollment is not a major factor in the concept of educational space adequacy. Based on the findings, a recommendation of standards to guide the construction of educational facilities is provided. 313p.

Facilities Planning Guide for Successful Secondary Schools. [Maryland] Adobe PDF
(Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance, Annapolis, MD , 1991)
Guidelines designed to help Maryland facilities planners, educators, and community members make informed choices about the types of facilities they will provide for secondary education services are presented in this document. The guide first describes the characteristics of at-risk students and presents an overview of dropout prevention programs. Specific facilities recommendations are presented for promoting academic achievement, open access, personal development, and career exploration/development. Other factors of school effectiveness to consider are school size and recognition of different learning styles. The rest of the document provides a planning process outline, 14 design and planning references, a checklist of recommendations, square footage requirements, and a model student house and high school designs. 51p.

State Requirements Survey for School Construction K-12.
(American Institute of Architects Press, Washington, DC , 1987)
Presents the results of a survey of state requirements for school construction. The document offers state-by-state information on funding, planning requirements, site and building sizes, pupil/teacher rations, and building design and construction requirements. 126p.

California School Buildings 1960-1965.
Gibson, Charles D.; Eatough, Clair L.
(California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. , 1966)
This publication is intended to help California school officials and planners create school buildings that provide environments needed for the operation of an outstanding program of public education. It encourages them to visit the schools presented and similar ones in order to become informed about new planning concepts and trends in school housing. Many of these concepts and trends are illustrated in the publication. For example, big block schools with internal corridors and windowless classrooms are becoming a rarity, with most schools returning to the campus plan concept, using landscaped courts and natural materials to create informal environments. The school site is being used more efficiently, and school buildings are becoming more compact than in the past. The cluster plan has almost universally replaced the finger plan concept for elementary schools, encouraging cooperation between teachers by allowing them to share multiuse areas, resource centers, and teacher preparation areas, all adjacent to their classrooms. Better acoustical control and lighting is evident, and technology is enabling these comfort factors to be coordinated with flexible interiors. Recently constructed school buildings demonstrate that there can be no retreat to the rigid space planning of the past. The three most dramatic modern trends are spaces divided by movable cabinets rather than walls, almost total acceptance of carpets, and air conditioning. 151p.

References to Journal Articles

How the System of Codes and Standards Work.
Folsom, Kenneth
Facilities Manager; v26 n5 , p49,50 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Offers eight questions with answers to help a new facilities managers understand the codes and standards that apply. These questions cover responsibilities, resources, compliance, maintenance, and customer service.

Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?
School Business Affairs; v76 n5 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2010
Reviews state mandates on preschool education, with special attention to the 31 states that have facility requirements. Ten references are included.

States Starting to Require Architects and Contractors to Design and Construct Public Buildings to Achieve LEED Silver Certification.
Stephens, Angela
Design Cost Data; v53 n6 , p32 ; Nov-Dec 2009
Discusses how eighteen states have adopted laws and regulations mandating that the construction of public buildings achieve LEED Silver Certification. Although the majority of States do not yet require that public buildings be designed and constructed to achieve a LEED Silver Certification, many of these States encourage their agencies to use green building practices or use LEED as a guideline.

How Codes become Law.
Davis, Richard
Facilities Manager; v25 n5 , p44,45 ; Sep 2009
Explains how building codes are written, how governing bodies incorporate them into law, where the boundaries of authority lie, and how to address perceived overreach of legislation.

L.A.'s Learning Curve.
Dickinson, Elizabeth
The Architect; v97 n4 , p70-75 ; Apr 2008
Profiles the Los Angeles Unified School District's multi-billion dollar capital improvement program, highlighting early failures, the hiring of large number of architects, the innovative and community-oriented designs, and a few of the most notable facilities, designed by renowned architects.

Ohio Braces for Green Schools.
Brown, Franklin
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p24,25 ; 2008
Describes how Ohio is incorporating LEED standards into its official Ohio School Design Manual, with particular attention to meeting daylighting and construction cost challenges.

The Collaborative for High Performance Schools.
Eley,Charles
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p34,35 ; 2008
Describes the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), its 6-volume CHPS Manual, and the Manual's adaptation and adoption by eight states.

Another First for California: State Adopts a Green Building Code.
Lilienthal, Lisa
Green Technology Magazine; 2008
Lists the background and sources used by the California State and Consumer Services Agency in preparing to adopt the state's green building codes, the first enacted by a state.

Roadmap to Zero Net for California Schools.
Palmese, Racquel
Green Technology Magazine; 2008
Records a conversation with David Thorman, California State Architect, about his 2007 announcement that all news schools would be "Zero Net" or "Grid Neutral" by 2010, saving $1 billion per year with a reduction of 2.2 million tons of CO2. 

Communities Need More Flexibility in School Design.
Primer; v2 n9 ; Nov 2007
Sets forth 36 recommendation of an Ohio working group, emphasizing empowering local districts with flexibility in school planning, funding, and design. Beginning with the assessment process, the recommendations encourage local options geared toward educational outcomes rather than statewide formulas, increased accommodation for building renovation, flexibility throughout the design process, and general relief from the prescriptive state mandates.

Time to Address State Laws, Codes, Regulations.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p58 ; Aug 2007
Reviews instances where state codes prohibited desirable innovations in new school buildings, and encourages activism to change outdated practices.

New Guidelines.
Greer, Diane
New York Construction; Apr 2007
Reviews New York City s Green Schools Guide (http://source.nycsca.org/pdf/nycgsg-031507.pdf), citing its requirements and narrating the history of its development.

Facilities Guidelines: What's the Point?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n7 , p45,46 ; Jul 2006
Discusses state school facility guidelines, using the history of the first six states that implemented them. The origins, typical contents, and goals of these guidelines are described.

Redevelopment Planning after Hurricane Katrina: Challenges Facing Education and School Facility Design.
Hill, Franklin
School Business Affairs; v 71 n11 , p22-25 ; Dec 2005
Outlines recovery goals and strategies for areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, emphasizing a multiregional plan that includes coordinated multicounty oversight of construction, creation of joint-use facilities and cross-curricular K-12 schools with flexible design for future conversion, modular buildings, continual communication with the public, re-usable design prototypes and systems construction, design improvements for stronger storm resistance, and use of available commercial facilities for educational purposes.

School Facilities: The State Department's Influence. Adobe PDF
Holt, Carleton; Smith, Roland; Capps, Matthew
AASA Journal of Scholarship and Practice; v1 n3 , p6-10 ; Oct 2004
Focuses on the importance of consulting with the state department of education regarding construction regulations and alternative levels of funding. To determine the involvement of this agency, a survey with state department facilities directors was conducted in six mid-south states, and the results summarized in this article. These results demonstrate the differing levels of state involvement in local school bond or millage levies.

Sustainability in Public Facilities: Analysis of Guidance Documents.
Bosch, Sheila
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities; v17 n1 , p9-18 ; Feb 2003
Presents a critical analysis of nine guidance documents intended to educate facility decision makers on sustainability. The analysis revealed that these documents, with some exceptions, do not address all of their intended audiences equally, with most information focusing on designers and owners and comparatively less information targeted to others such as facilities managers.

The Case for State-Wide School Facilities Guidelines.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p6-9 ; 2003
Advocates for statewide school facility guidelines that are comprehensive and flexible. Statewide guidelines facilitate the sharing of knowledge, enlarge the pool of capable designers, and accelerate the design process. Guidelines should be created by planners, designers, builders and educators, and subject to ongoing revision and updating.
TO ORDER: Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI), 9180 E. Desert Cove, Suite 104, Scottsdale, AZ 85260; Tel: 480-391-0840
http://www.cefpi.org

Resource Allocation Through Space Guidelines in Alaska.
Mearig, Tim
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p16-19 ; 2003
Describes the history and implementation of Alaska's allowable space guidelines, used by the state to allocate school construction funds. Space per pupil formulas are used rather than dollars per pupil because construction costs vary so widely in Alaska's diverse climatological and geographical situations.

The Road to Equity.
Rushin, Thomas D.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n1 , p13-15 ; 2003
Describes the lengthy litigation that preceeded Arizona's Students FIRST (Fair and Immediate Resources for Students Today) legislation. To ensure proper funding of school facilities in tax-poor areas, the legislation transferred resonsibility for school construction from local to state jurisdiction and required the state's School Facilities Board to create minimum adequacy quidelines for school buildings.

Renovation vs. Replacement: Beyond Arbitrary Rules in the 21st Century.
Yeater, Royce A.
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p18-21 ; 2003
Urges reconsideration of percentage rules that too frequently dictate replacement over renovation of schools. The history of these rules and the evolution of new attitudes are described.


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Notice

Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (hgreen@nibs.org, 202-289-7800).