NCEF Resource List: College and University Energy Management
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Information on powering, heating, cooling, lighting, and maintaining college and university facilities that results in energy efficiencies and conservation, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

References to Books and Other Media

Points to Ponder: Submetering for LEED v3 in Schools and Universities
(E-Mon, Nov 2011)
As an inexpensively installed data acquisition "front end," submeters are ideal for helping educational institutions obtain LEED certification points in Energy & Atmosphere (EA) and other categories. When integrated with the facility's building management system, submeters can identify savings opportunities that can help fund additional energy conservation measures or electrical upgrades. This white paper explores the various uses and benefits of submetering in the school facility environment. [Author's abstract]

Thermal Comparison between Ceiling Diffusers and Fabric Ductwork Diffusers for Green Buildings. Adobe PDF
Fontanini, Anthony; Olsen, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
(Iowa State University, Ames , Jul 2011)
Compares the performance of conventional ductwork with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. The article focuses on the transient behavior of an on/off control system, as well as the steady state behavior of the two ductwork systems. Transient, fully three dimensional validated computational (CFD) simulations are performed to determine flow patterns and thermal evolution in rooms containing either conventional or fabric ductwork. The results conclusively show that fabric ducting systems are superior to the conventional systems in terms of efficiency. Observations from the data show that fabric ducting systems heat the room faster, more uniformly, and more efficiently. The increase in performance demonstrates the potential benefits of moving away from conventional systems to fabric systems for the construction of green buildings: particularly in conjunction with adaptive control systems. 41p.

Sensitivity Analysis: Comparing the Impact of Design, Operation, and Tenant Behavior on Building Energy Performance Adobe PDF
Heller, Jonathan; Heater, Morgan; Ecotope, Mark Frankel
(New Buildings Institute, Jul 2011)
This study compares the magnitude of energy impact that various design features, operations and tenant behaviors have on total building energy use. Study finds that although the market generally assigns responsibility for building energy performance to the design team, operational and tenant practices have a very significant impact on building energy use. Summarizes the extent to which operations and occupant behavior impact a building's energy use compared to design characteristics, such as aspects the building envelope, HVAC systems and lighting system features. It examines how buildings use energy and what aspects of building energy performance need more attention in design, operation and policy strategies. The findings of this study can help the building community begin to align their priorities with those building features and operational characteristics that have the most impact on building energy use. 81p

High Performance Public Buildings: Impact on Energy Use is Mixed. Adobe PDF
Fleming, Mark; Dean, David
(State of Washington, Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee, Olympia , Jun 23, 2011)
Reports that legislation mandating high performance construction in Washington's public buildings has added between 1 and 3 percent in reported construction costs. The impact of these standards on energy use is mixed, with some buildings meeting expectations while others do not. However, many show some improvement in energy performance over time. The impact on student performance and worker productivity is not clear. Many projects are newly completed with limited operating experience and incomplete data. 46p.
Report NO: 11-7

Building R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP's Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. To perform this analysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated 190 technology R&D projects funded directly by the Emerging Technologies subprogram or via the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs. This effort identified 11 commercially available products, 41 emerging technologies, and 68 potential technologies that are still being researched but are more than three years away from commercialization. The report documents the methodology and results of PNNL?s technology tracking effort, including various analytical cross-sections and descriptions of the commercially available and emerging technologies that resulted from support of the Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. 122p.

Green Building Studio. Web-Based Energy Analysis Software.
(Autodesk Green Building Studio, Jan 2011)
GBS is a web-based service that enables building design teams to integrate whole-building energy analysis into the early stages of the design process. Architects and engineers use their existing building information modeling (BIM) systems to communicate the project's building geometry to the GBS website, which conducts an energy analysis of the building design. The GBS web service was developed by Green Building Studio, Inc. and funded through grants from the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, and other organizations.

Energy Efficiency Interventions in UK Higher Education Institutions.
Altan, H.
(Energy Policy, 2011)
This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008 Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the Impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. [Author's abstract]

References to Journal Articles

Achieving Energy Efficiency across Campus
Rich Siedzik
Educause; Jun 12, 2012
Connecting the IT and facilities departments at the outset of a project that will affect energy use on campus establishes the foundation for successfully achieving energy efficiency. This collaboration between the units that contribute to and affect a college campus's energy use and efficiency was a direct factor in the energy and cost reductions realized at Bryant University. Selecting the right vendors and consultants is another major success factor, because the equipment implemented today will directly affect future performance.

Thinking Green Mindset Changes That Make a Difference
University Business; Jun 2012
Shares ideas that have resulted in changes in the way campuses think about food, water, energy consumption, and solar energy. Sections include: 1) water woes: eliminating wasteful habits; 2) dining hall dilemma: changing the way campuses think about food; 3) solar farms sprouting up on campuses; 4) energy dashboards promote responsible usage; and 5) sustainable solutions.

Working With the Wind
Cortese, Anthony
College Planning and Management; , p66-67 ; Jun 2012
Colleges and universities are discovering the many benefits of wind turbines.

How to Achieve a Tight Building Envelope
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; , p44-48 ; Jun 2012
A tight building envelope provides energy efficiency and other benefits. Shows how to achieve a tight building envelope, along with what's trending in the industry.

Biomass Heating--Should You Consider It for Your Campus Adobe PDF
Abbe Bjorklund, Chip Lederer, Rich Ney
Facilities Manager; May-Jun 2012
Reviews compelling reasons for considering and challenges to be addressed for using biomass (typically wood chips) as an alternative fuel source for heating campuses.

Below the Surface
Fickes, Michael
College Planning and Management; , p40-44 ; Apr 2012
Ball State University's geothermal heating and cooling system will save $2M per year and produce a host of environmental benefits.

Wireless Energy Savings
Vanderpool, Cory
College Planning and Management; , p62-64 ; Apr 2012
Harvesting ambient power can save energy on campus. Discusses an energy-farvesting system that includes HVAC control, lighting, and plug load.

Energy Management: Key Success Elements
Woodroof, Eric
Buildings; Mar 2012
This article describes key success elements for an energy management program, many of which originate from other industries. Elements include: Treat Energy as a Business Issue… that has a Plan; Have a Bottom Line Perspective; Consider the Relatively Low Risk of Energy Management Programs/Projects; and Apply Full Dollarization and Professional Management.

Bard College Shines Adobe PDF
Klier, Gerhard
Facilities Manager; Feb 2012
Discusses new solar thermal panels for hot water at two residential halls at Bard College in New York, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value
Cluver, John H. and Randall, Brad
Planning for Higher Education; v40 n2 , p13-23 ; Jan-Feb 2012
Energy modeling and life-cycle costing can help indentify simple steps to make a historic building more energy efficient, addressing both preservation and sustainability concerns.

Solar Success at Colorado State
Wilmsen, Emily Narvaes
College Planning and Management; , p102 ; Jan 2012
Colorado State University's major renewable campus project includes large solar installations.

If You Can't Stand the Heat.
Przyborowski, Danielle
College Planning and Management; , p21-25 ; Dec 2011
Food service facilities are demanding energy users. This describes how appliances and HVAC in kitchens and dining halls can be energy efficient, with attention to systems and performance. Includes a case study of Braiden Dining Center renovation at Colorado State University.

Long-Term Education Planning
Horkey, Don; Laue, Julianne
American School and University; Nov 2011
Sustainable master planning can produce long-range benefits for education institutions. Discusses tools and strategies such as benchmarking, energy audit, commissioning, and post-commisioning. Includes case studies of Red Wing High Public School District and College of Saint Benedict in Minnesota.

Campus Energy Hogs Turn Green Plans Black and Blue Adobe PDF
Robinson, Tom
Today's Campus; , 10p ; Nov 2011
While everyone likes to boast about new lean, green LEED-certified classroom buildings, the real energy hogs on campus are the existing buildings, the laboratories and the athletics department. Describes how to slim down their energy consumption.

Solar Growth Documented on Higher-Education Campuses
American School and University; , 1p ; Oct 07, 2011
Describes the Campus Solar Photovoltaic Installations database compiled by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education(AASHE). Solar power capacity on higher-education campuses has grown 450 percent over the last three years. It attributes the increase solar installations to a 40 percent drop in the installed cost of solar over the last four years and new financing mechanisms.

Energy Commitments for Green Schools. A Study for Carbon Neutrality: the Impact of Decisions, Design and Energy.
de Angel, Yanel
American School and University; Oct 2011
Transforming decisionmaking processes regarding energy efficiency can affect the design of an education building. Discusses factors affecting the carbon dioxide (CO2) footprint of a building, and describes several steps and considerations required during the design, construction and life cycle of a building to achieve carbon neutrality. Provides a case study of a residence hall at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island.

A Zero Utility Bill Building.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v105 n9 , p22-24 ; Sep 2011
The Sustainable Living Center (SLC) in Fairfield, Iowa was commissioned by the Maharishi University of Management. The facility is a forward-looking project that draws from an “East Meets West” approach to sustainability, and is the first to integrate four separate building challenges: LEED Platinum, the Living Building Challenge, Building Biology, and Maharishi Vedic Architecture. The 6,900-square-foot building is off-grid for electricity, water, and sewer.

Retro-commissioning in a Campus Energy Efficiency Program.
Powell, Christopher
Facilities Manager; , p62-63 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Retro-commissioning is a systemic approach for conducting forensic evaluations of buildings and its systems. This details how to get started, and discusses costs and savings estimates.

A Model School Facility for Energy
Spangler, Seth and Crutchfield, Dave
American School and University; Sep 2011
Building energy modeling predicts a facility's energy use and it can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. This describes energy modeling that can be carried out during the design, pre-construction and post-construction phases.

Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools.
Angerame, Timothy
American School and University; v83 n10 , p28-31 ; Jun 2011
Introduces comprehensive monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx), a process to ensure that all building systems are "in tune." Its three components are: permanent energy information systems and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level, retro-commissioning based on the data this generates, and ongoing commissioning that ensures efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. Particular attention is given to the importance to a well-maintained chiller.

Triple (Power) Play: Smart Grid, Metering, and Facilities.
Mamer, Kelly
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p8,9 ; Jun 2011
Discusses options for effective energy management via sophisticated metering that enables facilities to increase or shed load according to demand on the electrical grid. Storage options and locally generated power are also addressed.

Colleges, Universities, and Renewable Energy: A Perfect Match.
Mann, Michael J.; Reinstein, Todd R.
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses the benefits associated with the development of on-site, “green” energy systems—solar photovoltaic systems, wind power systems, and cogeneration facilities, including reduced energy costs, enhanced service reliability, and a smaller carbon footprint.

Five Areas Not to Overlook in Reducing Energy Costs
Sievertsen, Rick
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses five areas of energy savings: develop a database to store and retrieve energy information; coordinate management of energy data, supply, and demand responsibilities; optimize timing for purchasing energy supply; manage basis pricing; realize that energy savings available in both regulated and deregulated markets.

The Benefits of Sustainability.
Stevens, Tod; Mackey, Chris
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses how sustainable design can impact operational costs, support and improve student learning, and even promote change in students’ behavior. Describes sustainable measures designed by the SHW Group at Western Michigan University and Grand Valley State University.

The Solar College: Generating Savings with Green Technologies.
Campus Technology; May 12, 2011
Describes how Santa Barbara City College has shaved $650,000 off of its energy expenses with a few strategic moves, including solar panels that double as cover for parking and Web-based software for micromanaging lighting and mechanical energy use.

Building a Business Case for Going Green.
Harris, Bill; Maldeis, Neil
Facilities Manager; v27 n3 , p23-25 ; May-Jun 2011
Considers the explosive growth in community colleges and the need for expanded facilities. The author buildes a case for high performance buildings: identify mission-critical factors, quantify economic impact, conduct a critical building systems audit, gather and analyze energy and operating costs, calculate average maintenance costs, and evaluate operational benefits.

The Best Tool in an FM's Arsenal.
Penny, Janelle
Buildings; v105 n5 , p44,46,48 ; May 2011
Discusses real-time measurement of utilities in buildings, advising on carefully planned metering in order to answer pertinent facilities questions, establishing a baseline, and tracking the data. Tightening building operations and addressing occupant needs are also addressed.

Clean and Green at UNT.
Price, Buddy
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p67,68 ; May 2011
Profiles the on-campus wind turbine system that will be used to power the University of North Texas's new stadium, as well as a number of other campus buildings.

Streamlining Your Emissions Inventory Updates.
Stokes, John
Facilities Manager; v27 n3 , p27-29 ; May-Jun 2011
Measures success of participants in American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) and attention to an Inventory Management Plan (IMP), a highly effective tool addressing an elevated need for efficiency and continuity of knowledge from one year to the next.

The Big Green Savings Machine.
McCrea, Bridget
Campus Technology; Apr 21, 2011
Describes how a community college in Kansas is slashing its energy bills with a $2.7 million infrastructure overhaul. Utilizing energy performance contracting and a tax-exempt financing program, upfront costs for the overhaul have been practically nil, while savings are "growing exponentially" all over the campus.

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Completes First Phase of Efficiency Upgrades.
Bolkan, Joshua
Campus Technology; Apr 20, 2011
Describes the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee building upgrades that will save the school an estimated $620,000 in energy costs per year. The work is the first part of a $21.7 million energy conservation and infrastructure renewal program that school representatives said they expect to cut energy and operating expenses by $30.8 million over the next 20 years.

Going Solar in Green Schools.
Domine, Mark
American School and University; Apr 2011
Outlines the top considerations for education facilities looking to bring solar power to campus, including financing options and partnerships.

Greening the IT Department.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p28,30,32,34 ; Apr 2011
Discusses methods of saving electricity in the higher education department, citing the example of steps taken at the Lone Star College System and Loyola University of Chicago. Cooperation between the IT and facilities departments is emphasized.

Silent Energy Hogs: Reducing Plug-Load Energy Waste.
Perry, Heidi
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p70-72 ; Apr 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked energy consumption of plugged-in appliances in schools. Personal computers, vending machines, and copiers consume energy whether in use or not, and can configured to shut down when the school is unoccupied.

Eastern Mennonite U Dashboard Educates Residents on Energy Use.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; Mar 30, 2011
Describes how Eastern Mennonite University, a small liberal arts Christian college in Virginia, is making an energy usage dashboard available to the campus residents and visitors for its newest residence hall, a LEED-certifiable dorm.

U Maryland Cuts Energy Usage with Mass Lighting Replacement.
Schaffhauser, Dian
Campus Technology; Mar 28, 2011
Describes the University of Maryland in College Park recently overhauled lighting that's expected to save 1.4 million kilowatt hours per year. The institution replaced 12,000 light bulbs with 6,600 more energy-efficient fluorescent bulbs, which the the university reported will amount to about $153,000 in energy savings each year.

New Technologies for Energy Improvements: Two Case Studies. Adobe PDF
Christensen, John
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Describes a large photovoltaic array at Albuquerque Academy and central plant replacement at Pima Community College. The project descriptions are accompanied by energy-saving statistics, lessons learned, and advice to facilities managers undertaking projects of this magnitude.

Geothermal Grows Up. Adobe PDF
Johnson, William; Kraemer, Steven; Ormand, Paul
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p36-40 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Reviews the past and future of the geothermal industry, with emphasis on how higher education institutions are benefitting from these systems. Unfortunate examples of early systems that were not properly designed are accompanied by success stories of later systems that have performed adequately, even when the budget prohibited building a system of ideal size. Recent important advances include reducing the necessary well field size and hybrid geothermal/conventional systems.

Sunlighting the Way: University Solar Fields on the Rise.
Kamal, Sameaa
School Construction News; v17 n2 , p12,13 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Describes significant photovoltaic installations at Colorado State University and the University of Arizona. Bidding, contracting, and funding issues are discussed, as are the benefits and the agreements concluded with the investors and utility companies.

Finding a Balance.
Przyborowski, Danielle
College Planning and Management; v14 n3 , p47-50 ; Mar 2011
Addresses current trends in the invisible components of building systems: foam duct insulation, greener energy systems, and water resource conservation. The article highlights Pennsylvania State University steps to establish an Energy Innovation Hub to be located at Philadelphia Navy Yard Clean Energy campus.

The Importance of Submetering Campus Buildings. Adobe PDF
Rerick, Lona
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p50,51 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Advises that individually metered campus buildings will show reductions in energy use. A variety of sub-metering options are described, advice on how to prudently collect and use the data is offered, and converting the results into a campus will to react is discussed. Six references are included.

Higher Education Facilities: The SmartGrid Earns a Doctorate in Economics. Adobe PDF
Tysseling, John; Zibelman, Audrey; Freifeld, Allen
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p18-23 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Desribes the use of microgrid "dashboards" to manage higher education facility data and to obtain maximum energy and mechanical efficiency. Four case studies of how specific institutions have implemented and benefited from the technology are described.

Tech Gets Physical.
Ravage, Barbara
Campus Technology; v24 n6 , p22-24,26 ; Feb 2011
Discusses technological innovations that enhance campus energy management, facilities maintenance, and otherwise enable physical plant and energy management on college campuses.

Ten Common Problems in Energy Audits.
Shapiro, Ian
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n2 , p26-28,31,32 ; Feb 2011
Presents a "Top Ten" list of causes of poor energy audits. Bad energy audits result in lower-than-expected, or no energy savings. They are a wasted investment. The analyses within the "Top Ten" list is followed by guidelines for setting standards and implementing best practices.  

The Next Step.
Milshtein, Amy
College Planning and Management; v14 n1 , p14-20 ; Jan 2011
Discusses seven trends in higher education. These are: bringing multimedia into the classroom, expansion of campus store offerings, new tax reporting requirements for universities operating overseas campuses, energy-efficient IT departments, enhanced security, and "bridging" as a construction project delivery method.

Retrofitting Labs to Reduce Energy Consumption.
Reindorf, Lisa; Goldman, Mitchell
Laboratory Design; v15 n1 , p1,2,4-6 ; Jan-Feb 2011
Notes that laboratories and other science facilities are among the most energy-consuming of building types because they are large consumers of heating and cooling energy, due to the need for once-through air supply. Specific topics are balancing safety and energy use, reducing the airflow rate, implementing heat recovery systems, commissioning, providing a high standard of safe indoor air, low noise, energy savings, and cost and payback.

ENERGY STAR and Green Guildings: Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems; LEED, Green Globes and CHPS. Adobe PDF
Utebay, Kudret
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p18-20 ; 2011
Discusses the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR program, which delivers tools and resource to curb facilities energy use. Details of the program, as well as those of LEED, Green Globes, and CHPS are also addressed.



Due to lack of funding, the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities is currently available only as an archived site. As of September 1, 2012 no new content will be added or updates made. We regret the need to take such steps, but should funding become available, we look forward to reinvigorating NCEF and providing this valuable resource to the educational facilities community.

If you have questions or are an organization or company wishing to support the continued operation of this industry recognized resource please contact Institute President Henry Green (, 202-289-7800).