COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Information on powering, heating, cooling, lighting, and maintaining college and university facilities that results in energy efficiencies and conservation, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.
References to Books and Other Media
Points to Ponder: Submetering for LEED v3 in Schools and Universities
(E-Mon, Nov 2011)
As an inexpensively installed data acquisition "front end," submeters are ideal for helping educational institutions obtain LEED certification points in Energy & Atmosphere (EA) and other categories. When integrated with the facility's building management system, submeters can identify savings opportunities that can help fund additional energy conservation measures or electrical upgrades. This white paper explores the various uses and benefits of submetering in the school facility environment. [Author's abstract]
Thermal Comparison between Ceiling Diffusers and Fabric Ductwork Diffusers for Green Buildings.
Fontanini, Anthony; Olsen, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
(Iowa State University, Ames , Jul 2011)
Compares the performance of conventional ductwork with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. The article focuses on the transient behavior of an on/off control system, as well as the steady state behavior of the two ductwork systems. Transient, fully three dimensional validated computational (CFD) simulations are performed to determine flow patterns and thermal evolution in rooms containing either conventional or fabric ductwork. The results conclusively show that fabric ducting systems are superior to the conventional systems in terms of efficiency. Observations from the data show that fabric ducting systems heat the room faster, more uniformly, and more efficiently. The increase in performance demonstrates the potential benefits of moving away from conventional systems to fabric systems for the construction of green buildings: particularly in conjunction with adaptive control systems. 41p.
Sensitivity Analysis: Comparing the Impact of Design, Operation, and Tenant Behavior on Building Energy Performance
Heller, Jonathan; Heater, Morgan; Ecotope, Mark Frankel
(New Buildings Institute, Jul 2011)
This study compares the magnitude of energy impact that various design features, operations and tenant behaviors have on total building energy use. Study finds that although the market generally assigns responsibility for building energy performance to the design team, operational and tenant practices have a very significant impact on building energy use. Summarizes the extent to which operations and occupant behavior impact a building's energy use compared to design characteristics, such as aspects the building envelope, HVAC systems and lighting system features. It examines how buildings use energy and what aspects of building energy performance need more attention in design, operation and policy strategies. The findings of this study can help the building community begin to align their priorities with those building features and operational characteristics that have the most impact on building energy use. 81p
High Performance Public Buildings: Impact on Energy Use is Mixed.
Fleming, Mark; Dean, David
(State of Washington, Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee, Olympia , Jun 23, 2011)
Reports that legislation mandating high performance construction in Washington's public buildings has added between 1 and 3 percent in reported construction costs. The impact of these standards on energy use is mixed, with some buildings meeting expectations while others do not. However, many show some improvement in energy performance over time. The impact on student performance and worker productivity is not clear. Many projects are newly completed with limited operating experience and incomplete data. 46p.Report NO: 11-7
Building R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP's Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. To perform this analysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated 190 technology R&D projects funded directly by the Emerging Technologies subprogram or via the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs. This effort identified 11 commercially available products, 41 emerging technologies, and 68 potential technologies that are still being researched but are more than three years away from commercialization. The report documents the methodology and results of PNNL?s technology tracking effort, including various analytical cross-sections and descriptions of the commercially available and emerging technologies that resulted from support of the Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. 122p.
Green Building Studio. Web-Based Energy Analysis Software.
(Autodesk Green Building Studio, Jan 2011)
GBS is a web-based service that enables building design teams to integrate whole-building energy analysis into the early stages of the design process. Architects and engineers use their existing building information modeling (BIM) systems to communicate the project's building geometry to the GBS website, which conducts an energy analysis of the building design. The GBS web service was developed by Green Building Studio, Inc. and funded through grants from the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, and other organizations.
Energy Efficiency Interventions in UK Higher Education Institutions.
(Energy Policy, 2011)
This paper provides an insight into energy efficiency interventions studies, focusing on issues arising in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular Based on a review of the context for energy efficiency and carbon reduction programmes in the UK and the trends in higher education sector, existing external and internal policies and initiatives and their relevant issues are extensively discussed To explore the efficacy of some internal intervention strategies, such as technical, non-technical and management interventions, a survey was conducted among UK higher education institutions between February and April 2008 Consultation responses show that there are a relatively high percentage of institutions (83%) that have embarked on both technical and non-technical initiatives, which is a demonstration to the joined-up approach in such area Major barriers for intervention studies are also identified, including lack of methodology, non-clarity of energy demand and consumption issues, difficulty in establishing assessment boundaries, problems with regards to indices and their effectiveness and so on Besides establishing clear targets for carbon reductions within the sector, it is concluded that it is important to develop systems for effectively measuring and evaluating the Impact of different policies, regulations and schemes in the future as the first step to explore. [Author's abstract]
2010 Energy Efficient IT Report.
(CDW-G, Vernon Hills, IL , 2010)
Presents documents from the third annual Energy-Efficient IT report by CDW-G finding that three-fourths of IT professionals are working to increase energy efficiency in their organizations. The biggest barriers cited by K-12 IT professionals to becoming more energy efficient were budget constraints and an inability to isolate and measure the energy used in IT operations. While finances hurt those efforts, cost savings and environmental impact are also the reasons 756 respondents from across business, government, higher education, and K-12 education are driven to become more energy efficient, the survey found. Of those that are actively managing their energy efficiency, 56 percent have reduced their IT energy costs by at least 1 percent, up from 39 percent in 2008. Energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important factor in purchasing decisions, 39 percent of respondents said, up from 26 percent of respondents in 2009. Almost 80 percent of IT professionals said they either have or are developing a data center consolidation strategy, such as employing virtualization, consolidating servers, or moving applications into the cloud, in part to cut down on energy costs. 26p.
Bagley Nature Area Classroom Pavilion.
(McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2010)
Presents a tour of a humble LEED-Platinum classroom, at the University of Minnesota in Duluth, that has the ambitious goals of net-zero energy and Passive House certification. The Passive House standard's founder Dr. Wolfgang Feist and members of the design team explain reliance on passive strategies more than technological ones. The building demonstrates leadership in energy efficiency, renewable energy, wastewater treatment, stormwater management, passive heating, natural ventilation, water efficiency, local and renewable materials, and a healthy indoor environment.
Carbon-Neutral Campus Architecture Webinar: Climate-Specific Design and Innovation.
(American Institute of Architects , Nov 19, 2009)
This webcast focused on three projects designed to create high-performance environments that are also exemplars of pedagogical and aesthetic excellence. Examples of carbon neutral buildings from three different climate zones are highlighted, with detailed discussions of the passive and active strategies of these buildings, and how they respond to their specific climatic conditions. The program moderator is Nicolai Ouroussoff, architecture critic for The New York Times, and panelists include an architect and client from each project.TO ORDER: http://www.aia.org/practicing/groups/kc/AIAB082334
Master Planning for Sustainability.
(National Wildlife Federation, Reston, VA , Sep 29, 2009)
Discusses inclusion of sustainability issues in higher education master planning, along with the physical plant and academic programming. The growing concern among students for campus environmental impact and examples of institutions that have addressed theirs are featured. 5p.
EVs with PVs: Analysis of Electric Vehicle Integration at Stanford University Using Solar PV Panels.
Bethany Corcoran, D. Paul Golden, Kevin Larson, & Stephen Schneider
(Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, Lexington, KY , Jun 2009)
Proposes a 25-year (2010-2035) scenario for the development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure from solar electric power that Stanford University can implement on campus. Covering existing parking lots with solar photovoltaic (PV) panel-powered EV charging spots can provide a source of essentially carbon-free electricity to charge EV batteries during the day, while avoiding the aesthetic issue of covering Stanford's red tile roofs with PV panels. This also provides an added benefit of shade for the vehicles and increased grid reliability. By maintaining the current amount of commuter and resident vehicles, assuming a logical growth in EV penetration from current drivers switching from gasoline vehicles to EVs, and adding PV panels each year to match this growth in EV capacity, it is estimated that Stanford can avoid 362,488 metric tons of CO2 emissions and save 1,225,871 MWh of energy over the 25 year time period. 32p.
Climate Planning Guide for Campuses: A How To Guide.
(Associaition for the Advancement of Sustinatability in Higher Education, Lexington, KY , 2009)
Advises higher education institutions on creating a coordinated plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It offers school officials guidance on how to begin a climate action plan, who should be involved, how to measure greenhouse gas emissions on campus, and which energy-reduction efforts are most effective. The basic steps outlined in the guide for reducing greenhouse gas emissions include energy conservation and efficiency, appropriate heating and power plant fuel choices, on-site renewable energy technologies, maximized space utilization to minimize or avoid new construction, "green" building design and construction, site selection, density and community connectivity, alternative transportation, public transportation access, optimized energy performance, and carbon offsets. 68p.
Financing Sustainability on Campus.
This guide describes a wide variety of financial tools and programs and goes through the process—from identifying and analyzing the economics of proposed projects to execution—with examples from numerous individual campuses. 125p.TO ORDER: http://www.nacubo.org/Products/Publications/Sustainability/Financing_Sustainability_on_Campus.html
Cool Campus: A How-To Guide for College and University Climate Action Planning.
(Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, Lexington, KY , 2009)
Advises higher education institutions on developing and implementing a climate action plan (CAP). The document details steps for creating an institutional structure for the CAP; prioritizing education, research, and public education; determining carbon footprint and emissions trajectory; greenhouse gas mitigation strategies; project evaluation and ranking; setting greenhouse gas emission targets and measuring progress; and financing, structuring, and implementing the CAP. 118p.
Savings Persist with Monitoring-Based Commissioning.
(E-Source, Boulder, CO , Sep 2008)
Describes how Monitoring-Based Commissioning, a program approach that combines permanent building energy system monitoring with standard retrocommissioning practices, can provide substantial, persistent energy savings. Permanent monitoring systems can identify previously unrecognizable and unquantifiable savings opportunities, such as equipment cycling, excessive simultaneous heating and cooling, or the unintended nighttime operation of HVAC and lighting equipment that would not be apparent from monthly utility readings. A pilot program conducted at 25 California university campuses demonstrated that MBCx has the ability to reduce peak-period and total annual electricity use, trend and benchmark building-performance data continuously, catch problems with control systems that are normally hard to detect, andi dentify cost-effective retrofit opportunities. 2p.Report NO: CEC-TB-39
E2IT, the Energy Efficient IT Report: What Works and What Doesn't in IT Energy Reduction.
(CDW-G, Vernon Hills, IL , Aug 2008)
Evaluates responses by 778 IT professionals in U.S. organizations to a survey on the importance organizations are placing on IT energy use and costs, the measures organizations are taking to reduce energy use, the reasons some organizations are seeing better results than others, and what IT professionals need in order to improve energy efficiency in IT operations. Each question is presented with sample responses and a precis for the reader to consider as a consensus. Snapshots also summarize responses by specific constituencies. 33p.
Campus Sustainability Report.
(Indiana University, Bloomington , Jan 07, 2008)
Summarizes the efforts of the Indiana University Task Force on Campus Sustainability to develop a comprehensive program in sustainability for the IU Bloomington campus. The report addresses energy use, land use, recycling, transportation, and the built environment. 122p.
Higher Education in a Warming World: The Business Case for Climate Leadership on Campus.
(National Wildlife Federation, Reston, VA , 2008)
Reports on measures taken by various U.S. higher education institutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report highlights the business, educational, and ethical arguments for reducing emissions on campus, illustrated with best-practice examples from over 1000 schools. The report covers the science of global warming, the opportunities and challenges confronting higher education, and steps required to create a campus climate action plan. Energy efficiency, renewable energy, co-generation, green buildings, transportation alternatives, habitat improvement, and behavior change are addressed . A section on financing shows how schools have funded their climate initiatives through performance contracting, utility and government incentives, student self-assessed fees, revolving loan funds and other strategies. 64p.
Food and Fuel: Biogas Potential at Broward Dining Hall.
(Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, Lexington, KY , 2008)
Presents results of a study to determine biogas production and implementation potential at the University of Florida's Broward Dining Hall. Food waste quantity and current disposal methods were determined. The waste was analyzed for volatile and total solid contents and potential biogas yield. The dining hall produces an average of 262 kg of food waste daily. Food was digested in a daily-fed, daily-mixed anaerobic digester at a loading rate of 2 g VS/ L and a 30 day hydraulic retention time. The food waste produced an average of 0.5188 L biogas/g VS/day or a total average biogas potential for the dining hall of 39.8 m3/day. This gas would supplement the natural gas needs of the dining hall. 26p.
New Energy for Campuses: Energy-Saving Policies for Colleges and Universities.
(The Apollo Alliance and Energy Action , 2006)
Outlines six basic reforms that higher education institutions should enact in order to save energy. These are: 1) Upgrade to energy-efficient appliances and building systems. 2) Build high performance new buildings. 3) Buy or generate electricity from renewable resources. 4) Expand transportation alternatives to reduce fuel consumption. 5) Buy products that use less energy, last longer, and are better for the environment. 6) Create a culture of conservation on campus. Includes 69 references. 20p.
The Business Case for Renewable Energy: A Guide for Colleges and Universities.
Putman, Andrea; Philips, Michael
(APPA, Alexandria, VA , 2006)
Examines how colleges and universities are saving money and even making money with renewable energy, which includes solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydropower. They can either build a renewable energy project on or near campus, or they can buy renewable electricity generated by others through a local utility or other supplier. It provides guidance on how to consider the various technologies, ownership options, relationships with utilities, and financial strategies. 153p.TO ORDER: http://www.appa.org/
Largest California State University Campus Saves Millions with Energy Management.
(Itron, Spokane, WA , 2005)
Describes significant energy savings realized through a real-time data collection system that interfaced with the existing building automation system and a new distributed electric metering scheme. By this means, the institution was able to accurately monitor, verify, analyze, and benchmark its energy and procurement operations, as well as meet state-mandated energy consumption restrictions. 3p.
Energy Performance Evaluation of an Educational Facility: The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
Pless, S.D.; Torcellini, P.A.
Documents the post-occupancy energy performance analysis of Oberlin Colleges Adam Joseph Lewis Center, an academic building designed to be an energy producer, rather than an energy consumer. Among the buildings features are passive solar design, natural ventilation, enhanced thermal envelope, and geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling. The building also has a roof- integrated photovoltaic (PV) system to allow solar electricity to provide energy to the building. This study evaluated the performance of the building and some of its subsystems over three years in order to improve the initial performance and document lessons learned to improve future low-energy buildings. During the three years of observation, the several problem areas in energy use were corrected. Operational changes and equipment upgrades were made during the second year. The third year was colder than normal, yet by that time the building's energy used dropped 37% from the first year's. 140p.Report NO: NREL/TP-550-33180
LEED Energy Performance Modeling and Evaluation of the S.T. Dana Building Renovations.
(University of Michigan, Ann Arbor , Dec 2003)
Evaluates energy use and the energy efficiency performance of the renovations to the The University of Michigan's 100-year-old S. T. Dana Building for the purposes of obtaining LEED certification. The study demonstrated that energy savings in the renovated Dana Building are primarily from use of radiant cooling panels. There was a 12% savings in total regulated energy consumption (heating, cooling, fans and pumps, service hot water and interior lighting) and a 20% cost savings renovations led to an annual savings of 279,000 kWh of electricity and 586 Mbtu of chilled water. This in turn saved $22,861 and $11,474 for electricity and chilled water, respectively, at the current utility rates. The steam usage increased slightly and cost an extra $1,739. A comparison between the total energy demand in Fiscal Year 2002-03 and the simulated Base and Proposed Models of the Dana Building is also made. 99p.
The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings.
(Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC. , Jun 2003)
Rebuild America is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy that focuses on energy-savings solutions as community solutions. This guide focuses on colleges and universities. Each chapter spells out options and provides guidance for implementing projects that can save substantial energy and money. Information is taken from successful projects implemented nationwide. Each section ends with case studies that provide examples of how the nation's colleges and universities are realizing energy savings. Four sections focus on: (1) "Project Financing" (e.g., financing options and common financial misconceptions); (2) "Clean Fuel Fleets" (e.g., biodiesel and ethanol); (3) "Combined Heat and Power" (e.g., system components and system integration and sizing options); and (4) "Emissions Markets" (e.g., air pollution and climate change programs and opportunities for colleges and universities to participate in air pollution markets). 55p.
The Metering Guide for Managers.
Qayoumi, Mohammed H.
(APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA , 1999)
Provides a guide to management of utilities metering in educational facilities, especially colleges and universities. Chapter 1 gives an overview of why utility measurement, specifically the metering of energy consumption, is important in facilities management. Chapter 2 defines the basic units of measurement for both electric and nonelectric energy, defines the common multipliers that describe the magnitude of a measurement, and discusses basic utility rate structures and their impact on energy costs. Chapter 3 considers the fundamental elements and components of utility metering how alternative current is measured,common types of analog metering, present-day digital technology, and performance metering. Chapter 4 describes metering products that are currently available, such as nonintrusive appliance-load monitoring systems, electric metering networks, and main electric meters. Chapter 5 discusses management aspects of the role of metering in a deregulated environment, including strategies to reduce electric energy costs, energy management plans, and meter specifications and installation. 93p.TO ORDER: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St.,Alexandria, VA 22314-2818
Greening the Ivory Tower.
(The MIT PRess, Cambridge, MA , 1998)
Relates actions taken by various higher education institutions that reduce the environmental impact of decisions and activities. Based on the experiences of Tufts CLEAN! program, each action is simple enough that any university community can expect to be able to accomplish it. The book begins with an overview of university functions, principles of environmental protection and change, and data gathering. It then proceeds to address activities in the areas of buildings and grounds, purchasing, dining services, academic and office activities, laboratories, and student activities. Includes 117 references. 337p.TO ORDER: 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493; Tel: 401-658-4226, Toll-free: 800-405-1619
Green Investment, Green Return: How Practical Conservation Projects Save Millions on America's Campuses.
Eagan, David; Keniry, Julian
(National Wildlife Federation, Reston, VA , 1998)
Highlights 23 cost-saving conservation initiatives at 15 public and private postsecondary institutions across the United States. Savings per project ranged from little more than $1,000 to $9 million, and the total savings across the 23 projects were $16.8 million, which represents an average of $728,500 per campus. The projects address issues of transportation, energy and water conservation, materials re-use and redistribution, composting, recycling, and management of hazardous chemicals. 77p.
Thermal Storage. A Successful Winning Option.
(Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS , 1996)
Johnson County Community College (Overland Park, Kansas) developed a team to analyze options and develop alternatives to its growing power needs and reducing operational costs. This paper illustrates the process the team developed to create a cool thermal energy storage (TES) system in the following areas: decision process; design process; economic analysis; installation and construction; operation and maintenance; and system evaluation. Major operational benefits and projected long-term operating cost savings estimates are discussed along with results of the 2-year long-term operational analysis. 25p.
References to Journal Articles
Achieving Energy Efficiency across Campus
Educause; Jun 12, 2012
Connecting the IT and facilities departments at the outset of a project that will affect energy use on campus establishes the foundation for successfully achieving energy efficiency. This collaboration between the units that contribute to and affect a college campus's energy use and efficiency was a direct factor in the energy and cost reductions realized at Bryant University. Selecting the right vendors and consultants is another major success factor, because the equipment implemented today will directly affect future performance.
Thinking Green Mindset Changes That Make a Difference
University Business; Jun 2012
Shares ideas that have resulted in changes in the way campuses think about food, water, energy consumption, and solar energy. Sections include: 1) water woes: eliminating wasteful habits; 2) dining hall dilemma: changing the way campuses think about food; 3) solar farms sprouting up on campuses; 4) energy dashboards promote responsible usage; and 5) sustainable solutions.
Working With the Wind
College Planning and Management; , p66-67 ; Jun 2012
Colleges and universities are discovering the many benefits of wind turbines.
How to Achieve a Tight Building Envelope
College Planning and Management; , p44-48 ; Jun 2012
A tight building envelope provides energy efficiency and other benefits. Shows how to achieve a tight building envelope, along with what's trending in the industry.
Biomass Heating--Should You Consider It for Your Campus
Abbe Bjorklund, Chip Lederer, Rich Ney
Facilities Manager; May-Jun 2012
Reviews compelling reasons for considering and challenges to be addressed for using biomass (typically wood chips) as an alternative fuel source for heating campuses.
Below the Surface
College Planning and Management; , p40-44 ; Apr 2012
Ball State University's geothermal heating and cooling system will save $2M per year and produce a host of environmental benefits.
Wireless Energy Savings
College Planning and Management; , p62-64 ; Apr 2012
Harvesting ambient power can save energy on campus. Discusses an energy-farvesting system that includes HVAC control, lighting, and plug load.
Energy Management: Key Success Elements
Buildings; Mar 2012
This article describes key success elements for an energy management program, many of which originate from other industries. Elements include: Treat Energy as a Business Issue… that has a Plan; Have a Bottom Line Perspective; Consider the Relatively Low Risk of Energy Management Programs/Projects; and Apply Full Dollarization and Professional Management.
Bard College Shines
Facilities Manager; Feb 2012
Discusses new solar thermal panels for hot water at two residential halls at Bard College in New York, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value
Cluver, John H. and Randall, Brad
Planning for Higher Education; v40 n2 , p13-23 ; Jan-Feb 2012
Energy modeling and life-cycle costing can help indentify simple steps to make a historic building more energy efficient, addressing both preservation and sustainability concerns.TO ORDER: http://www.scup.org
Solar Success at Colorado State
Wilmsen, Emily Narvaes
College Planning and Management; , p102 ; Jan 2012
Colorado State University's major renewable campus project includes large solar installations.
If You Can't Stand the Heat.
College Planning and Management; , p21-25 ; Dec 2011
Food service facilities are demanding energy users. This describes how appliances and HVAC in kitchens and dining halls can be energy efficient, with attention to systems and performance. Includes a case study of Braiden Dining Center renovation at Colorado State University.
Long-Term Education Planning
Horkey, Don; Laue, Julianne
American School and University; Nov 2011
Sustainable master planning can produce long-range benefits for education institutions. Discusses tools and strategies such as benchmarking, energy audit, commissioning, and post-commisioning. Includes case studies of Red Wing High Public School District and College of Saint Benedict in Minnesota.
Campus Energy Hogs Turn Green Plans Black and Blue
Today's Campus; , 10p ; Nov 2011
While everyone likes to boast about new lean, green LEED-certified classroom buildings, the real energy hogs on campus are the existing buildings, the laboratories and the athletics department. Describes how to slim down their energy consumption.
Solar Growth Documented on Higher-Education Campuses
American School and University; , 1p ; Oct 07, 2011
Describes the Campus Solar Photovoltaic Installations database compiled by the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education(AASHE). Solar power capacity on higher-education campuses has grown 450 percent over the last three years. It attributes the increase solar installations to a 40 percent drop in the installed cost of solar over the last four years and new financing mechanisms.
Energy Commitments for Green Schools. A Study for Carbon Neutrality: the Impact of Decisions, Design and Energy.
de Angel, Yanel
American School and University; Oct 2011
Transforming decisionmaking processes regarding energy efficiency can affect the design of an education building. Discusses factors affecting the carbon dioxide (CO2) footprint of a building, and describes several steps and considerations required during the design, construction and life cycle of a building to achieve carbon neutrality. Provides a case study of a residence hall at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island.
A Zero Utility Bill Building.
Buildings; v105 n9 , p22-24 ; Sep 2011
The Sustainable Living Center (SLC) in Fairfield, Iowa was commissioned by the Maharishi University of Management. The facility is a forward-looking project that draws from an “East Meets West” approach to sustainability, and is the first to integrate four separate building challenges: LEED Platinum, the Living Building Challenge, Building Biology, and Maharishi Vedic Architecture. The 6,900-square-foot building is off-grid for electricity, water, and sewer.
Retro-commissioning in a Campus Energy Efficiency Program.
Facilities Manager; , p62-63 ; Sep-Oct 2011
Retro-commissioning is a systemic approach for conducting forensic evaluations of buildings and its systems. This details how to get started, and discusses costs and savings estimates.
A Model School Facility for Energy
Spangler, Seth and Crutchfield, Dave
American School and University; Sep 2011
Building energy modeling predicts a facility's energy use and it can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. This describes energy modeling that can be carried out during the design, pre-construction and post-construction phases.
Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools.
American School and University; v83 n10 , p28-31 ; Jun 2011
Introduces comprehensive monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx), a process to ensure that all building systems are "in tune." Its three components are: permanent energy information systems and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level, retro-commissioning based on the data this generates, and ongoing commissioning that ensures efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. Particular attention is given to the importance to a well-maintained chiller.
Triple (Power) Play: Smart Grid, Metering, and Facilities.
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p8,9 ; Jun 2011
Discusses options for effective energy management via sophisticated metering that enables facilities to increase or shed load according to demand on the electrical grid. Storage options and locally generated power are also addressed.
Colleges, Universities, and Renewable Energy: A Perfect Match.
Mann, Michael J.; Reinstein, Todd R.
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses the benefits associated with the development of on-site, “green” energy systems—solar photovoltaic systems, wind power systems, and cogeneration facilities, including reduced energy costs, enhanced service reliability, and a smaller carbon footprint.
Five Areas Not to Overlook in Reducing Energy Costs
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses five areas of energy savings: develop a database to store and retrieve energy information; coordinate management of energy data, supply, and demand responsibilities; optimize timing for purchasing energy supply; manage basis pricing; realize that energy savings available in both regulated and deregulated markets.
The Benefits of Sustainability.
Stevens, Tod; Mackey, Chris
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses how sustainable design can impact operational costs, support and improve student learning, and even promote change in students’ behavior. Describes sustainable measures designed by the SHW Group at Western Michigan University and Grand Valley State University.
The Solar College: Generating Savings with Green Technologies.
Campus Technology; May 12, 2011
Describes how Santa Barbara City College has shaved $650,000 off of its energy expenses with a few strategic moves, including solar panels that double as cover for parking and Web-based software for micromanaging lighting and mechanical energy use.
Building a Business Case for Going Green.
Harris, Bill; Maldeis, Neil
Facilities Manager; v27 n3 , p23-25 ; May-Jun 2011
Considers the explosive growth in community colleges and the need for expanded facilities. The author buildes a case for high performance buildings: identify mission-critical factors, quantify economic impact, conduct a critical building systems audit, gather and analyze energy and operating costs, calculate average maintenance costs, and evaluate operational benefits.
The Best Tool in an FM's Arsenal.
Buildings; v105 n5 , p44,46,48 ; May 2011
Discusses real-time measurement of utilities in buildings, advising on carefully planned metering in order to answer pertinent facilities questions, establishing a baseline, and tracking the data. Tightening building operations and addressing occupant needs are also addressed.
Clean and Green at UNT.
College Planning and Management; v14 n5 , p67,68 ; May 2011
Profiles the on-campus wind turbine system that will be used to power the University of North Texas's new stadium, as well as a number of other campus buildings.
Streamlining Your Emissions Inventory Updates.
Facilities Manager; v27 n3 , p27-29 ; May-Jun 2011
Measures success of participants in American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) and attention to an Inventory Management Plan (IMP), a highly effective tool addressing an elevated need for efficiency and continuity of knowledge from one year to the next.
The Big Green Savings Machine.
Campus Technology; Apr 21, 2011
Describes how a community college in Kansas is slashing its energy bills with a $2.7 million infrastructure overhaul. Utilizing energy performance contracting and a tax-exempt financing program, upfront costs for the overhaul have been practically nil, while savings are "growing exponentially" all over the campus.
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Completes First Phase of Efficiency Upgrades.
Campus Technology; Apr 20, 2011
Describes the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee building upgrades that will save the school an estimated $620,000 in energy costs per year. The work is the first part of a $21.7 million energy conservation and infrastructure renewal program that school representatives said they expect to cut energy and operating expenses by $30.8 million over the next 20 years.
Going Solar in Green Schools.
American School and University; Apr 2011
Outlines the top considerations for education facilities looking to bring solar power to campus, including financing options and partnerships.
Greening the IT Department.
College Planning and Management; v14 n4 , p28,30,32,34 ; Apr 2011
Discusses methods of saving electricity in the higher education department, citing the example of steps taken at the Lone Star College System and Loyola University of Chicago. Cooperation between the IT and facilities departments is emphasized.
Silent Energy Hogs: Reducing Plug-Load Energy Waste.
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p70-72 ; Apr 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked energy consumption of plugged-in appliances in schools. Personal computers, vending machines, and copiers consume energy whether in use or not, and can configured to shut down when the school is unoccupied.
Eastern Mennonite U Dashboard Educates Residents on Energy Use.
Campus Technology; Mar 30, 2011
Describes how Eastern Mennonite University, a small liberal arts Christian college in Virginia, is making an energy usage dashboard available to the campus residents and visitors for its newest residence hall, a LEED-certifiable dorm.
U Maryland Cuts Energy Usage with Mass Lighting Replacement.
Campus Technology; Mar 28, 2011
Describes the University of Maryland in College Park recently overhauled lighting that's expected to save 1.4 million kilowatt hours per year. The institution replaced 12,000 light bulbs with 6,600 more energy-efficient fluorescent bulbs, which the the university reported will amount to about $153,000 in energy savings each year.
New Technologies for Energy Improvements: Two Case Studies.
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Describes a large photovoltaic array at Albuquerque Academy and central plant replacement at Pima Community College. The project descriptions are accompanied by energy-saving statistics, lessons learned, and advice to facilities managers undertaking projects of this magnitude.
Geothermal Grows Up.
Johnson, William; Kraemer, Steven; Ormand, Paul
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p36-40 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Reviews the past and future of the geothermal industry, with emphasis on how higher education institutions are benefitting from these systems. Unfortunate examples of early systems that were not properly designed are accompanied by success stories of later systems that have performed adequately, even when the budget prohibited building a system of ideal size. Recent important advances include reducing the necessary well field size and hybrid geothermal/conventional systems.
Sunlighting the Way: University Solar Fields on the Rise.
School Construction News; v17 n2 , p12,13 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Describes significant photovoltaic installations at Colorado State University and the University of Arizona. Bidding, contracting, and funding issues are discussed, as are the benefits and the agreements concluded with the investors and utility companies.
Finding a Balance.
College Planning and Management; v14 n3 , p47-50 ; Mar 2011
Addresses current trends in the invisible components of building systems: foam duct insulation, greener energy systems, and water resource conservation. The article highlights Pennsylvania State University steps to establish an Energy Innovation Hub to be located at Philadelphia Navy Yard Clean Energy campus.
The Importance of Submetering Campus Buildings.
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p50,51 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Advises that individually metered campus buildings will show reductions in energy use. A variety of sub-metering options are described, advice on how to prudently collect and use the data is offered, and converting the results into a campus will to react is discussed. Six references are included.
Higher Education Facilities: The SmartGrid Earns a Doctorate in Economics.
Tysseling, John; Zibelman, Audrey; Freifeld, Allen
Facilities Manager; v27 n2 , p18-23 ; Mar-Apr 2011
Desribes the use of microgrid "dashboards" to manage higher education facility data and to obtain maximum energy and mechanical efficiency. Four case studies of how specific institutions have implemented and benefited from the technology are described.
Tech Gets Physical.
Campus Technology; v24 n6 , p22-24,26 ; Feb 2011
Discusses technological innovations that enhance campus energy management, facilities maintenance, and otherwise enable physical plant and energy management on college campuses.
Ten Common Problems in Energy Audits.
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n2 , p26-28,31,32 ; Feb 2011
Presents a "Top Ten" list of causes of poor energy audits. Bad energy audits result in lower-than-expected, or no energy savings. They are a wasted investment. The analyses within the "Top Ten" list is followed by guidelines for setting standards and implementing best practices.
The Next Step.
College Planning and Management; v14 n1 , p14-20 ; Jan 2011
Discusses seven trends in higher education. These are: bringing multimedia into the classroom, expansion of campus store offerings, new tax reporting requirements for universities operating overseas campuses, energy-efficient IT departments, enhanced security, and "bridging" as a construction project delivery method.
Retrofitting Labs to Reduce Energy Consumption.
Reindorf, Lisa; Goldman, Mitchell
Laboratory Design; v15 n1 , p1,2,4-6 ; Jan-Feb 2011
Notes that laboratories and other science facilities are among the most energy-consuming of building types because they are large consumers of heating and cooling energy, due to the need for once-through air supply. Specific topics are balancing safety and energy use, reducing the airflow rate, implementing heat recovery systems, commissioning, providing a high standard of safe indoor air, low noise, energy savings, and cost and payback.
ENERGY STAR and Green Guildings: Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems; LEED, Green Globes and CHPS.
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p18-20 ; 2011
Discusses the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR program, which delivers tools and resource to curb facilities energy use. Details of the program, as well as those of LEED, Green Globes, and CHPS are also addressed.
Considerations When Upgrading Renovating Window Systems.
Facilities Manager; v26 n6 , p40-42,44,46 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Advises on window selection for campus buildings, emphasizing energy efficiency, building orientation, appropriate window style, and glass selection. Acoustics, daylighting, thermal comfort, and aesthetics are also addressed.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v13 n11 , p29,31-33 ; Nov 2010
Profiles the unique lighting of the University of California San Diego Sustainable Research Center. Photovoltaic panels on the roof supply the DC-DC lighting system, augmented by daylight and electricity from the campus grid after dark. Photoluminescent exit signs use no electricity at all.
Heat + Power = Savings.
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n11 , p20,21 ; Nov 2010
Uses Fairfield University’s experience with combined heat and power generation to illustrate the savings and reliability of power generated on campus. Design details of Fairfield’s system are described, as are the particular challenges of commissioning such a system in conjunction with the local utility.
Facility Monitoring Requirements for Optimal Energy Efficiency.
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p10,12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the inadequacy of demand control ventilation (DCV) in maintaining optimal indoor environmental quality. The advantages of intelligent controls with the ability to sense a variety of indoor environmental issues are detailed.
American School and University; v83 n3 , p224-226,228 ; Nov 2010
Describes economic incentives and federal benefits of implementing the use of renewable energy sources. Examples of programs at six universities are briefly described. Also described are strategies for implementing renewable energy sources on campuses, as well as financing and ownership options.
Expectations for a Greener Tomorrow.
Buildings; v104 n10 , p50,51 ; Oct 2010
Profiles the North American Wind Research and Training Center at Mesalands Community College. The facility features a large, commercial-grade wind turbine that supplies electricity to the entire campus.
Green Is as Good as Gold.
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p22,24,26-28 ; Oct 2010
Discusses strategies for "greening" a higher education institution, emphasizing upgrading controls on existing buildings that adjust utilities according to occupancy, designing for sustainability, commissioning new buildings, an conducting energy audits.
The "Elements" of a Healthy Campus.
College Planning and Management; v13 n10 , p33,34,36,38 ; Oct 2010
Describes conservation efforts at three higher education institutions: intensive composting at Bastyr University, a wind turbine a Macalester College, and water reclamation at Sonoma State University.
Intelligent Illumination. [Project Profile: Parking Structure Retrofits.]
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p11,12 ; Sep 2010
Profiles an extensive energy-saving project at the University of California-Davis. The project concentrated on upgrading parking and roadway lighting to bi-level induction and LED fixtures.
Sweating the Details.
Building Operating Management; v57 n9 , p31,32,34,36,38,40 ; Sep 2010
Profiles winning buildings in the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Star National Building Competition. The facility that led the competition in energy use reduction was the University of North Carolina's Morrison Residence Hall. Also featured is the Van Holten Primary School in Bridgewater, New Jersey.
ASHRAE Journal; v52 n5 , p20-22,24 ; May 2010
Addresses challenges and solutions for LEED-Silver (New Construction) certification for air conditioning a dormitory that regularly must content with 100-degree F temperatures. Architects and engineers must consider building design, energy efficiency, IAQ and thermal comfort, innovation, operation and maintenance, and cost effectiveness, all within university evolving targets. Follow-up includes instructing students on window use.
Analyzing the Alternatives.
Campus Technology; v23 n8 , p30,32,34,36,37 ; Apr 2010
Describes progress toward photovoltaic energy at three universities. Photovoltaic panels as well as energy conservation measures are described, as are connections to the respective IT departments for monitoring of energy generation.
BAS Upgrade: Template for Savings. [Project Profile: Building Automation Retrofit]
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p18,19 ; Apr 2010
Profiles the upgrade of a University of New Mexico building with a building automation system (BAS). The annual utility use of the building dropped by 20 percent and more of the HVAC maintenance can now be done remotely.
Environmental Design and Construction; v13 n2 , p20 ; Feb 2010
Profiles the installation of a photovoltaic system on a Providence College roof. The specifications and aesthetics of the system are discussed, as is the building addition on which it was installed.
The Human Dimension of Energy Conservation and Sustainability: A Case Study of the University of Michigan's Energy Conservation Program.
Marans, Robert W.; Edelstein, Jack Y.
International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education; v11 n1 , p6-18 ; Jan 2010
Examines the behaviors, attitudes, and levels of understanding among faculty, staff, and students in efforts to design programs aimed at reducing energy use in University of Michigan (UM) buildings. Among the findings, UM staff are most concerned about conserving energy in UM buildings while students are the least concerned. A significant proportion of survey respondents are not aware of past university efforts to conserve energy; among those who are aware, many felt that university efforts are inadequate.TO ORDER: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
Design Firms Can Claim Federal Tax Incentives for Energy-Efficient Buildings.
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p17,18 ; 2010
Advises on how architects and engineers may claim federal tax incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Choosing the Best Insulation.
College Planning and Management; v12 n12 , p21,22 ; Dec 2009
Advises on selection of building insulation, taking into consideration whether it is new or a renovation, its design, other building systems, and geographic location. R-value, environmental consideration, and price are also discussed.
LEDs, easy as ABC.
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n9 ; Sep 2009
Outlines steps for replacement of campus lighting with LED fixtures. Beginning with identifying locations where improved lighting is needed, the steps include surveying and then selecting products, joining the LED University program, and evaluation of the initial installations.
Higher-Ed Energy Conservation Tips.
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n9 ; Sep 2009
Advocates integrated networked building management systems, carbon dioxide monitoring, automatic lighting controls, natural landscaping, photovoltaics, and commissioning of buildings to improve higher education energy conservation.
Earth, Wind, and Fire.
Gold, Donna; Ferlazzo, Mike
College Planning and Management; v12 n7 , p22,-24,26-28 ; Jul 2009
Profiles three colleges’ respective use of wind power, composting, solar energy, geothermal systems, and intense water conservation.
The Enforcement of ASHRAE Standard 90.1.
Facilities Manager; v25 n3 , p14-16 ; May 2009
Discusses the evolution of energy efficiency standard for buildings, as it found its way into building codes and affected building envelopes, windows, lighting, and HVAC systems. The article laments that lack of enforcement of this standard in higher education educational facilities, predicts improvement, as federal funding will be linked to meeting or exceeding the standard.
Rutgers University Relies on the Sun.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p78-80 ; Apr 2009
Profiles a solar energy facility at Rutgers University's Livingston Campus. The $10-million investment is expected to net a profit of $6.6 million in 15 years, through sale of surplus electricity. Other sustainability efforts at the school include stormwater retention, reduction of surface parking, lighting replacement, and increased recycling.
Sustainable Facilities: Strategies for Today's Economy.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p28,30,32,34,36 ; Apr 2009
Advises on engaging in and funding sustainability initiatives on higher education campuses. Programs that are eligible for federal support are described, with an emphasis on those that conserve energy or generate energy from alternative and renewable sources. Examples of sustainable building initiatives are also included, along with a review of LEED certification of higher education buildings.
Air Out, Energy Efficiency In.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p72-76 ; Apr 2009
Explains how Youngstown State University improved chiller efficiency with coalescing separators that remove up to 99.6 of air from the water flow.
Taming the Beast: Making Data Centers More Energy Efficient.
College Planning and Management; v12 n4 , p68-71 ; Apr 2009
Advises on creating more energy-efficient data centers. Arranging equipment to maximize shelf use and reduce mixing of waste heat with cooled air, reuse of waste heat, combining underutilized servers, and recycling of equipment are addressed.
LED's: DOE Programs Add Credibility to a Developing Technology.
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p50-54 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Explores light-emitting diode (LED) technology, maintainability, and its potential for durability and efficiency. Early opinions have been mixed, as some LED products do not perform as promised. Also, with the rapid evolution of this technology, building owners are cautious about installing technology that will soon be obsolete. While LED fixtures are typically longer-lasting and consume less energy, they are still relatively expensive to buy.
Innovative Strategies are Critical in University Settings.
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p10-13 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Discusses district energy and cogeneration programs that save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The program at Boston's Emerson College is detailed as an example.
Carbon Emissions Trading and Combined Heat and Power Strategies: Unintended Consequences.
Tysseling, John; Vosevich, Mary; Boersma, Benjamin; Zumwalt, Jeffrey
Facilities Manager; v25 n2 , p38-43 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Discusses the potential economic consequences of cap-and-trade programs in a combined heat and power (CHP) environment. The University of New Mexico facilities operations program serves as an example of how significant start-up costs can be and how onsite emissions can increase under these schemes. Purchase of carbon offset credits may be required as a result. Includes three references.
Big Costs, Little Cash for Energy Efficiency.
The Chronicle of Higher Education; v55 n22 , pA1,A14-A16 ; Feb 06, 2009
Discusses Utica College's quest to save energy, along with their inability to fund the improvements needed to make it happen. Highlights of an energy audit and potential performance contract are included, but the performance contract was not executed due to the economic downturn and lower energy prices. A successful partnership with a local hospital to create an electrical generation plant is also described.
How to Cut Energy Use and Get Paid for It.
Buildings; v103 n2 , p36-38 ; Feb 2009
Suggests demand-response systems in which educational institutions can participate to lower energy costs. In these programs, the institution receives rebates or discounts for curtailing energy use during peak demand. Descriptions of what a demand-response contract may contain, and responsibilities of the institution and the energy provider are discussed. An example from the University of Mississippi is included.
An Education in Sustainability.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n12 , p6,7 ; Dec 2008
Discusses Stanford University's evolution from a campus-wide energy saving retrofit program, to customized efforts concentrated on the institutions 12 most energy-intensive buildings. These include laboratories, a museum, and a mixed-use building that constitute 33 percent of campus electricity use. Approaches to particular ventilation and environmental requirements are described.
Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential.
Facilities Manager; v24 n6 , p14-18 ; Nov-Dec 2008
Reviews the state-of-the-practice and the kinds of engineering and programmatic expertise that are required to properly scale geothermal applications up to the institutional level and provide optimized benefits. Some pitfalls of poorly-designed systems are described, and approaches to avoid these are presented.
College Planning and Management; v11 n10 , p38,40,42 ; Oct 2008
Describes endeavors at the University of Florida, Oberlin, and Duke University to increase recycling and save energy through dorm-to-dorm competitions that sometimes offer cash incentives.
ASHRAE 90.1 Helps University Bioprocessing Lab Achieve LEED Credit EA-1.
Serruto, Thomas; Thompson, Dean
Laboratory Design; v13 n10 , p9,10,12 ; Oct 2008
Discusses design measures used to meet LEED standards by incorporating changes to ASHRAE 90.1, the energy conservation code addressing energy use in laboratories, in the University of Illinois Integrated Bioprocessing Research Laboratory (IBRL). The use of building information modeling (BIM) for energy use simulation is also addressed.
A Science Building that Goes Easy on Energy.
Mason, Craig; Johnson, Lisa
Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce; Aug 28, 2008
Profiles the Marve Nelson Science Learning Center at Washington's Green River Community College. The building features stacked labs that minimize the footprint and maximizes sharing of systems.
College Planning and Management; v11 n8 , p28,30,32 ; Aug 2008
Advises on specifying energy-efficient windows and glass-paneled doors. Definitions and descriptions of window and door parts are included.
Converge and Conquer.
Campus Technology; v21 n11 , p44-46,48,50 ; Jul 2008
Discusses the current state of automated facilities control, citing a variety of software and hardware applications and illustrated with examples of strategies from five higher education institutions.
Sustainability and Energy Management.
University Business; v11 n6 , p71-77 ; Jun 2008
Profiles the efforts of several higher education higher education institutions to achieve LEED certification and carbon neutrality. Electric vehicle sharing, energy tracking, water conservation, and photovoltaics are considered.
Naturally Cool Enclosure.
Building Design and Construction; v49 n8 , p51,52,54,56,58 ; Jun 2008
Profiles Loyola University Chicago's glass-clad digital library, which preserved expansive views of adjacent lake Michigan with a relatively transparent structure. The challenge of heating and cooling such a building was met with a sophisticated combination of passive climate control, natural ventilation, and mechanical heating and cooling.
Why You May Not Get the Savings You Expect from Your Electricity Saving Project.
Facilities Manager; v24 n3 , p52-55 ; May-Jun 2008
Advises on how to accurately calculate potential energy savings when replacing building systems. Formulas for calculating in times of rising electrical rates, or for rates that vary are included.
Greening Middlebury College.
Brown, Robert; Viccica, Paul
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p80-85 ; Apr 2008
Reviews highlights of sustainable building and campus management practices at this institution, focusing on the features of a new library addition and a power plant that will run on wood chips.
Call to Action.
Craig, Charles; Kennedy, Bob
American School and University; v80 n8 , p46-49 ; Apr 2008
Reviews ten steps of a campus energy master plan, taking the user through auditing and benchmarking of existing conditions, retro-commisioning, determining upgrades and renovations, evaluation and procurement of renewable or alternative energy sources, and evaluation and communication of the results.
It's Not Easy Being Green.
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p38,40,42 ; Apr 2008
Describes ways to "recommission" existing higher education buildings for energy and water savings.
From Waste to Energy.
College Planning and Management; v11 n4 , p76-79 ; Apr 2008
Discusses opportunities for generating energy for campuses using materials previously considered waste. These included wood chips, plant parts, chicken litter, and sewage sludge. Processes for biomass gassification are described, as a pros and cons of these endeavors in an academic setting.
Athletic Business; v32 n4 , p38-4,42,44,46,48 ; Apr 2008
Reviews strategies that higher education institutions are using to lower energy consumption and improve the environment in their recreation centers. These include solar hot water, "green" cleaning, recycling, and reduction in the use of disposable products.
Controlling Rising Energy Costs.
College Planning and Management; v10 n12 , p30,32,33-35 ; Dec 2007
Describes two colleges' experiences with energy audits, the energy performance contract that followed them, changes made to facilities, how the audits were funded, and how payback was realized. An additional case study from Eastern Mennonite University is included in the print version.
Geothermal Installation Wins Praise from SUNY Brockport.
School Construction News; v10 n7 , p23,24 ; Nov-Dec 2007
Profiles the individual geothermal HVAC units that serve a new townhouse-style residential facility at the State University of New York at Brockport. Highlights of the system's design, along with other energy saving features of the residences are discussed.
Energy Shared is a Dollar Earned.
Campus Facility Maintenance; v4 n3 , p30-32 ; Fall 2007
Reviews demand response programs that enable institutions to sell back to the grid some of their non-essential energy during peak demand, with an example of how it is implemented at University of Massachusetts campuses.
Campus Technology; v20 n11 , p31,32,34,36,38 ; Jul 2007
Reviews technologies that campuses are employing to save energy. These include software that reconciles HVAC system automation with class rosters to determine room occupancies, utility billing error detection, automated computer shutdowns, controls on student printing, heat recovery systems, and improved electricity generation.
An Energy Performance Contracting Success Story.
College Planning and Management; v10 n6 , p80-82 ; Jun 2007
Reviews the features and savings of a performance contract executed between the University of Colorado and an energy service company. $5.5 million of upgrades has yielded annual savings in excess of $600,000. Warranties and student education connected to the contract are also covered.
Anatomy of a Performance Contract: Saves College Big Energy Bucks.
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n3 , p10,12,13 ; May 2007
Details the performance contract at Eastern Illinois University to illustrate how these agreements save energy and water through HVAC, lighting, and plumbing improvements.
Sustainable Strategies on Campus.
Geller, Joseph; Corning, Robert
College Planning and Management; v10 n4 , pG28,G30 ; Apr 2007
Reviews practical and economical campus sustainability strategies in the areas of stormwater control, landscaping, site lighting, recycling, water conversation, and reduction of car use.
Small Campus Reaps Results through Energy Management.
Facilities Manager; v23 n1 , p42-45 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Describes energy-saving features of the energy management program at Goshen College. Building improvements, appliance monitoring, and HVAC controls have reduced the consumption of natural gas and electricity by 23 and 10 percent respectively, even though 42,000 square feet of new space was added to the campus.
Strategic Energy Planning: A Step Zero Approach.
Webb, Mark; Sugg, Joe
Facilities Manager; v23 n1 , p32-35 ; Jan-Feb 2007
Presents the case for an energy saving approach where step "zero" consists of developing a strategic energy plan before development and implementation of capital projects. Ten questions that help analyze the financial, legislative, and environmental factors of an energy program are included. Advice on presenting the business case and a case study from Santa Clara University are also included.
Harnessing the Sun.
College Planning and Management; v10 n1 , p76,77 ; Jan 2007
Discusses the installation of photovoltaic systems on roofs of school buildings, considering the type, slope and orientation of the roofs; materials required, and citing an example from the University of Buffalo Norton Hall where the university’s calculations show that the system will produce enough power for about six percent of the building’s annual electric power consumption.
101 Smart Revenue Generators.
University Business; v9 n12 , p47-56 ; Dec 2006
Describes a variety of revenue opportunities for higher education, including creative acquisition and management of real estate, commercial uses for campus facilities, partnerships with professional athletic teams, and energy saving concepts.
Green Goes Underground.
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p59-61 ; Nov 2006
Profiles the University of Ontario Institute of Technology's geothermal system, which is the largest in Canada and the second largest in North America. The extremely deep wells were bored by oil well drillers. In spite of the significant installation cost, the huge system is expected to pay for itself in four years of energy savings.
The Air Down There.
College Planning and Management; v9 n7 , p29,30,32,33 ; Jul 2006
Defines displacement ventilation (DV) and describes its benefits to air quality, energy savings, noise control, and comfort. Also included is a comparison of DV to under-floor air distribution (UFAD), examples of schools that use DV, and architectural considerations for DV installation.
Higher Education Sustainability Stars.
University Business; v9 n6 , pG6,G7 ; Jun 2006
Summarizes ten higher education institution programs to conserve energy and develop environmentally friendly facility and purchasing policies.
Green Alternatives to Black Oil.
University Business; v9 n6 , pG2-G4 ; Jun 2006
Highlights Cornell University's use of naturally cold lake water for cooling buildings, James Madison Universityis experimentation with biodiesel production from used kitchen cooking oil, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville's use of landfill gasses.
The Future of Saving Energy.
Milshtein, Amy; Johnston, Eric
College Planning and Management; v9 n6 , p32,34,36,38,40,41 ; Jun 2006
Discusses soaring energy costs and how institutions are coping. Automation of buildings to adjust energy use to occupancy is described, as are alternative sources for heating and cooling. Preparation for power outages is also covered.
Urban Land; v9 n6 , pG10-G14 ; Jun 2006
Describes competitive, student-led energy saving programs on eleven higher education campuses.
Chilled Water System for University Campus.
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p12-14,16,20 ; May 2006
Details the financial, energy, and engineering considerations behind a chilled water system at Missouri State University that replaced most of the individual systems serving campus buildings. The prime contractor's compensation was linked to energy performance, which necessitated careful study of the cost benefits of the system. Ultimately, not all buildings were included in the system, as they were too remote or had relatively efficient systems already in place. Includes seven references.
Energy Efficiency for Tropical Campus
Lek, Siang; Min, Zaw
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p48-50,52,53 ; May 2006
Describes energy efficiency achieved at a Singapore university through energy-efficient lighting and air-conditioning, an integrated building management system, and extensive use of natural ventilation and daylighting.
A Naturally Cooled Atrium for a Temperate Climate.
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , pG20,G22 ; Apr 2006
Describes the sophisticated glazing system and natural ventilation of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institutes Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies. These enable the building to have an atrium that requires neither heating or cooling.
Taking the Green Path to Sustainability.
College Planning and Management; v9 n4 , pG24,G26,G28,G29 ; Apr 2006
Encourages a shift from a consuming to a conserving view of natural resources, and lists eighty steps toward a sustainable campus environment. These steps are organized under the categories of waste reduction and recycling, purchasing and administrative services, energy conservation and purchasing, water use, hazardous materials, transportation, food service, grounds and land use, new construction, campus planning and design, investment policies, and teaching and research.
Expending Energy-Conservation Goes a Long Way.
Campus Facility Maintenance; v3 n4 , p20-22 ; Winter 2006
Describes campus energy-saving strategies, emphasizing temperature control and campaigns to turn off lights and computers when not in use.
Discovering Unseen and Overlooked Energy Inefficiencies.
Facilities Manager; v21 n6 , p26-29,32,33 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Reviews the history of large increases in fuel prices and proposes energy management as a response. Energy management is defined, its importance explained, and the elements of an energy management plan are enumerated. Online tools for energy management are described and five frequently overlooked energy efficiencies are detailed. Includes six references.
New Utilities Replace Nagging Futilities.
School Construction News; v8 n7 , p34 ; Nov-Dec 2005
Decribes the features of an attractive new higher education central utilities plant and system that replaced an aged, inadequate, and unreliable one at an historic higher education campus.
Maine's First State Facility Receives LEED Certification.
College Planning and Management; v8 n10 , p42 ; Oct 2005
Describes this academic building at the University of Southern Maine that achieved LEED certification through the use of low-VOC materials, locally harvested and sustainably grown lumber, wind energy, and water-saving fixtures.
How to Clip Soaring Energy Costs.
College Planning and Management; v8 n10 , p16,18,19 ; Oct 2005
Describes energy energy savings realized by two colleges through an energy audit and a new cogeneration plant.
DOE's Rebuild America Program Transitions Dramatically.
Facilities Manager; v21 n4 , p56-58 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Discusses details of the reorganization of this program, transferring it from the Department of Energy to the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative, which is a consortium with which the DOE participates.
Making the Business Case for Sustainability: It's Not Just about Getting Points!
Hodges, Christopher; Elvey, William
Facilities Manager; v21 n4 , p50-53 ; Jul-Aug 2005
Advocates a greater input from the facility manager in choosing sustainable design, reviews the LEED system, cites energy management as the key component of sustainability, and suggests ways to institute an effective energy management program.
Efficient Cooling for California Campus.
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p69,70,72,74 ; May 2005
Describes how three separate wet-bulb conditions are used by three evaporative cooling air-handling units and a chiller with an evaporatively cooled condenser to reduce electrical costs for air conditioning of a California junior college health sciences building. Includes four references.
Energy-Efficient Laboratory Design.
Lemire, Nicholas; Carneux, Roland
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p58-60,62-64 ; May 2005
Evaluates energy-efficient laboratories at Montreal's Concordia University Science Complex. The goal was to design a building with energy consumption at least 25% lower than that which would comply with the Model National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings. That goal was exceeded, as the complex is 50% more efficient. The innovative and sensitive occupancy sensing, flow tracking, exhaust, and heat recovery features are described, as is the system's flexibility, accessibility, and easy maintenance.
That I May Serve.
Buildings; v99 n4 , p46-48 ; Apr 2005
Describes Virginia Tech's establishment of a unified energy management program, the personnel who staff it, and the changes in campus infrastructure that the program will institute in order to conserve energy.
The Energy Crunch
University Business; Aug 2004
Rising energy prices are spurring university and college administrators to take steps to cut costs, ensure adequate power, and implement energy-saving initiatives in an increasingly technological-dependent campus environment. Campuses can recoup hundreds of thousands of dollars, if not more, by implementing a comprehensive energy management plan. In order to realize such savings, however, both energy production and consumption must be addressed.
Case Study: New Cogeneration Facility Taps Unused Landfill Gas for a Community College.
College Planning and Management; v7 n7 , p30,32 ; Jul 2004
Describes a cogeneration facility at Hudson Valley Community College in Troy, New York. The system utilizes methane gas from a closed landfill and generates enough electricity to supply all the college's need.
Texas A&M-sized Savings
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2004
The building commissioning program at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas saves millions in energy costs and improves occupant comfort.
Saving Energy in Labs.
ASHRAE Journal; , p35-40 ; Feb 2004
Describes the design of an HVAC system at Haverford College that recovers significant amounts of heat from laboratory hood exhaust. Higher equipment costs were more than offset by savings realized in reduced ductwork, plant size, and energy usage.
Secure, Reliable, Utilities: More than Meets the Eye.
Litton, Tony R.
Facilities Manager; v20 n1 , p35-37 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Describes increasing hazards that can upset the balance within the energy supply system and thus the facility manager's ability to provide utility services. An energy resources management plan that includes fuel flexibility, sustainable design and construction, and alternative energy sources is recommended.
Understanding the U.S. Power Grid: Steps toward a Stronger Electrical Power. Network.
Facilities Manager; v20 n1 , p38-42 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Explains the makeup of the North American power network, how electricity is generated and transmitted, and how decreasing investment and increasing demand puts the system at risk. New technologies and organizations that may help are described.
A New Model for Utility Operations at the University of Arkansas.
Turley, L. Scott
Facilities Manager; v20 n1 , p43-47 ; Jan-Feb 2004
Advocates an entrepreneurial approach to campus energy management. The first element is to create a utility infrastructure master plan that mirrors the campus master plan. Second, accounting processes should clearly show where utility dollars are going and the return of specific utility investments. Utility dollars are separated from general facilities budgets, and capital improvement costs are distributed to the various structures through appropriate rate scheduling.
Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.
Planning for Higher Education; v31 n3 , p150-158 ; Apr-May 2003
Campus energy consumption causes the largest environmental impacts. College and university planners, architects, and facilities managers are uniquely positioned to play a critical role promoting campus environmental responsibility by addressing the need for campus energy sustainability. Both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. On the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting to clean, renewable, non-carbon-based energy resources and technologies. Developing campus energy policies, coping with the computer explosion, avoiding the pitfalls of electric deregulation, buying green power, and implementing green building design are all parts of the solution. (author's abstract)
NASEO and Educational Associations Working with Members To Improve Energy Efficiency.
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p39-40 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Describes efforts by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA), and the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) to share information and explore joint opportunities for improving energy efficiency in higher education facilities.
Energy: An Overview.
Qayoumi, Mohammad H.
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p32-34 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Reviews transformations in the field of energy over the last 30 years, including the 1970s energy crisis and the legislative response, the abandonment of nuclear energy, growing dependence on natural gas, growing dependence on electricity rather than oil, and superconducting technologies.
Motivations for Energy Management.
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p35-38 ; Jan-Feb 2003
Identifies campus motives for implementing energy management programs, describes an energy program to support them, and offers suggestions for improved project implementation.
An Insider's Guide To Saving Money on Lighting.
College Planning and Management; v5 n12 , p24-26 ; Dec 2002
Discusses tips from the Energize America Educational Institute on cost reductions and improved operations in lighting for colleges and universities.
Battling Utility Costs.
College Planning and Management; v5 n10 , p20-22 ; Oct 2002
Presents an interview with the utilities manager of Eastern Illinois University outlining key components of the school's energy-saving strategy, including its performance contracting.
Accommodating Change: A Case Study in Planning a Sustainable New Business School Building.
PEB Exchange; n47 , p12-17 ; Oct 2002
Provides a case study of the planning and design of a new building for the Open University Business School. Goals included an energy-efficient building that would break the paradigm of traditional university working methods.
Campus Buildings that Teach Lessons.
College Planning and Management; v5 n3 , p14-18 ; Mar 2002
Describes how Brown University has begun looking at building design and performance as a shadow curriculum that supports or argues with the principles being taught in a building's classroom. Discusses the energy-efficient design and construction of W. Duncan MacMillan Hall, a building serving the geology, chemistry, and environmental sciences programs.
Energy Conservation through Upgrades in Ice Arenas.
Walter, Richard L.
Facilities Manager; v18 n2 , p27-28 ; Mar-Apr 2002
Details mechanical upgrades and technological improvements to two ice arenas at the University of Delaware which saved the school over 1.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity a year.
A New Curriculum: Energy Outsourcing Brings Cost and Energy Benefits.
Dickerman, Robert N.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p76-78 ; Jan 2002
Considers the value of colleges and universities upgrading their energy infrastructure and using outsourcing energy management functions to save money and gain greater control of energy operations without substantial investments in staff and resources.
Seeing the Light.
College Planning and Management; v5 n1 , p84-85 ; Jan 2002
Argues that using aluminum-clad wood windows can help contain school maintenance and energy costs. Reviews benefits derived from wood windows relative to their diversity, adaptability, and structural strength.
A Green Building on Campus.
ASHRAE Journal; v44 n1 , p41-44 ; Jan 2002
Describes how techniques such as occupant control, careful sizing of the HVAC equipment, and using a direct digital control (DDC) system have helped the James L. and Evelena S. Oakes Hall at Vermont Law School to be environmentally friendly and save energy.
How Cool Is Your Roof?
College Planning and Management; v4 n12 , p20-22 ; Dec 2001
Explains a concept called cool roof that is used to reduce electricity costs for air conditioning, and also reduce the price of air conditioning units. Discusses the light reflecting capabilities of metal roofing as well as coatings that can stop leaks.
How To Curb the Appetite for Energy in University Laboratories.
Zsirai, Ted; Wright, Michaella
College Planning and Management; v4 n7 , p42,44-45 ; Jul 2001
Discusses ways to cut rising energy costs within university laboratories by using heat recovery systems and variable-volume exhaust hood systems. Explores the implementation of broad-based, sustainable laboratory classroom design concepts.
Green School Lab.
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n5 , p44,46,48,50 ; May 2001
Provides detailed information on energy issues at Mesa Community College (MCC) Physical Sciences Building, with state-of-the-art labs, support spaces and classroom for chemistry, engineering, geology, physics, physical science, and astronomy, with spaces for student study areas, tutoring resources, faculty offices, and conference spaces.
Opening Up New Possibilities.
American School and University; v73 n6 , p20-22,24 ; Feb 2001
Discusses technology's impact on educational facilities and operations. Examines technology's influence on a school's ability to streamline its business operations and manage its facilities more efficiently. Describes how Baylor University in Waco, Texas, used technology to reduce its energy expenditures.
You're Wasting Electricity!
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p50-51 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Provides a list of websites that promote office/desktop energy savings opportunities, and offers viewpoints on the cost of fluorescent lighting, i.e., whether it is more effective to leave a fluorescent light on or turn it off throughout the day.
Energy Management: Money in the Bank.
Have, Pete van der
Facilities Manager; v17 n1 , p23-25 ; Jan-Feb 2001
Discusses how the University of Utah developed a new chiller plant that could handle the existing and future loads of energy requirements while being totally financed via the implementation of energy saving retrofits, but not benefitting from the operations savings generated by their implementation.
College Planning and Management; v3 n7 , p43-44 ; Jul 2000
Explores roofing options that can help control energy costs through use of highly reflective roofing materials. Additionally discussed is the "Urban Heat Island" phenomenon created when several super-heated buildings are clustered in a small area.
Do You Need an Energy Master Plan?
College Planning and Management; v3 n7 , p39-40 ; Jul 2000
Discusses the benefits of having a comprehensive energy plan to contain costs and better serve future student populations and presents a case study on energy master planning. Included are the planning team's efforts in determining payback potentials from changes in facility operations.
Revolving Doors Spin Off Benefits.
College Planning and Management; v3 n2 , p30,32-33 ; Feb 2000
Discusses how revolving doors can serve as security tools and help control energy costs for college buildings. Reduction of tailgater entries and passback techniques to help unauthorized people enter buildings are addressed. Concluding comments highlight revolving door features that assist emergency exiting and energy cost savings potentials.
Energy Submetering: The Key to Cost-Effective Conservation.
Turner, W. D.; McBride, John R.
Facilities Manager; v15 n6 , p45-51 ; Nov-Dec 1999
Examines the monitoring results from two large-scale metering and energy information projects: Texas LoanSTAR Program; and the Texas A & M Campus Project. Data suggest implementing an energy metering system is cost effective, particularly if the system can be coupled with skilled engineering applications such as energy cost allocation and building re-commissioning.
Utilities Metering and Measurement.
Qayoumi, Mohammad H.
Facilities Manager; v 15 n2 , p30-31, 34-36 ; Mar-Apr 1999
Discusses the steps educational facilities can use to bring energy costs under control through submetering. Tips are provided for establishing a submetering process, and the importance it has for school management decision making is explained.
Electric Deregulation: Don't Get the Cart before the Horse.
Schaeffer, Statton C.
Facilities Manager; v 15 n2 , p39-41 ; Mar-Apr 1999
Examines the development of a campus energy monitoring system and three energy strategies to help control energy costs in a deregulated environment. Strategies discussed involve purchasing off-campus electric energy, modifying power plant technology, and considering third-party ownership of the power plant.
Utility Management in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.
Schubbe, Thomas L.
Facilities Manager; v 15 n2 , p15-21 ; Mar-Apr 1999
Provides an overview of the factors that must be examined and the issues needing to be addressed when assessing an institution's utility systems. It describes the management, planning, financing, and political dynamics surrounding the ownership of an institution's energy facilities.
A Graduate Course in Energy Conservation.
College Planning and Management; v2 n1 , p49-50 ; Jan 1999
Examines the University of Michigan's (Ann Arbor) success with a 6-year energy conservation program (The Energy Star Program) offered by the EPA. The program's components are described as are the areas of savings the university has achieved.
Agron, Joe, Ed.
American School and University; v71 n1 , p46h-46i ; Sep 1998
Describes Saint Joseph University's (Philadelphia) construction and renovation project that created state-of-the-art facilities while preserving the historical appearance. It focuses on the renovation of Mandeville Hall, a residence facility, describing the special challenges that had to be overcome as well as the unique features that help the building conserve energy.
Cornell U. Pursues a $60-Million Plan To Cool Its Campus with Cayuga's Water.
Chronicle of Higher Education; v44 n46 , pA28-A29 ; Jul 24, 1998
Cornell University (New York) plans to use the icy waters of nearby Cayuga Lake to air-condition the campus, but recognizes they can do so only with the community's cooperation. Critics fear the move will change the lake's ecological balance. The university's decision and a subsequent public relations campaign is viewed by some as arrogant.
Energy Management and the Infrastructure System.
Blackburn, James M.
Facilities Manager; v14 n4 , p50-54 ; Jul-Aug 1998
Describes a state-of-the-art energy management program at Wake Forest University (North Carolina) designed to include all on-campus property, and explores the various aspects of cost/benefit analysis in its development. A campus profile, electrical and thermal energy analyses, and a summary table of utility budget data are included.
Automate Your Physical Plant Using the Building Block Approach.
College Planning and Management; v1 n4 , p37,40-41 ; Jul 1998
Illustrates how Mount Saint Vincent University (Halifax), by upgrading the control and monitoring of one building or section of the school at a time, could produce savings in energy and operating costs and improve the environment. It explains a gradual, "building block" approach to facility automation that provides flexibility without a heavy up front investment.
Assessment and Utilities Savings at UT Houston.
Yeoman, Brian K.; Palani, Manivannan M.; McKee, John C.
Facilities Manager; v14 n3 , p17-20,22 ; May-Jun 1998
Describes how one institution took advantage of an innovative internship program to conduct an assessment of its utilities operations. Describes how the program worked, the implementation of a "hot and cold deck optimization" approach, the savings that resulted from implementation, and the ongoing benefits of facilities assessment.
Getting the Most from Your On-Line Energy Management System.
College Planning & Management; v1 n1 , p63-65 ; Jan 1998
Describes the online energy management control system at San Diego State University, California. Tips for the smooth operation of systems already installed or those under consideration are presented. Following these tips can save campuses time, money, and energy.