NCEF Resource List: School Energy Management
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SCHOOL ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Information on powering, heating, cooling, lighting, and maintaining school facilities that results in energy efficiencies and conservation, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.


References to Books and Other Media

Oklahoma Green Schools 2012 Energy Assessment--Summary of Results Adobe PDF
(Brendle Group, May 2012)
Summary report outlines the results of energy assessments of 20 green schools and associated analysis. Data presented includes the following: utility use and cost totals for each school; utility use indices and benchmarks; efficiency opportunities identified, including savings projections and estimated capital costs; and total quantifiable savings identified through this project. Cumulatively the assessment team identified 1,755,900 kWh of electric savings per year and 1,441 Mcf of gas savings per year. Total annual estimated savings were $147,600 per year, and with a total estimated capital cost of $1,073,400 and $90,620 in estimated utility incentives, a combined simple payback of 7 years. There is a summary of additional opportunities schools can consider to further enhance their overall energy efficiency. This report concludes with a discussion of next steps for the schools and the Oklahoma Green Schools Program as a whole.

Senate Bill 1149 Energy Surcharge: Unrealized Savings on Energy and School Utility Costs Adobe PDF
(Oregon Department of Energy, May 01, 2012)
Passed by the Oregon Legislature in 1999, Senate Bill 1149 created a 3% surcharge on electricity bills to fund energy conservation programs, renewable energy resources, low- income weatherization, and energy conservation in schools. This audit determines whether Oregon school districts have utilized energy surcharge funds to implement measures with the highest paybacks. Analysis of 6,859 energy efficiency measures from 2002-2010 found that school districts did not consistently implement the most cost-effective measures or realize the greatest energy savings. Had districts implemented the top-ranked measures instead, they could potentially have achieved almost $40 million more in anticipated district utility bill savings and gained an additional 70% energy reduction over the collective lives of the measures compared to the estimated results of those measures that were actually implemented. 19p

EPA: Healthy School Environments Assessment Tool, Version 2[HealthySEAT]
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012)
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's second version of a free software tool that helps school districts evaluate and manage their school facilities for key environmental, safety, and health issues. HealthySEAT is designed to be customized and used by district-level staff to conduct voluntary self-assessments of their school facilities and to track and manage information on environmental conditions school by school. EPA has also included critical elements of all of its regulatory and voluntary programs for schools, as well as web links to more detailed information. Enhancements for Version 2 include user-defined custom checklists, custom notification letters, additional and updated reports and forms, new navigation improvements, e-mail functionality, changes in terminology, and additional documentation.

How to Go Green: Creating a Conservation Culture in a Public High School through Education, Modeling, and Communication Adobe PDF
Schelly, Chelsea; Cross, Jennifer E.; Franzen, William; Hall, Pete; Reeve, Stu
(Journal of Environmental Education, v43 n3 , Jan 2012)
This case study examines how energy conservation efforts in one public high school contributed to both sustainability education and the adoption of sustainable behavior within educational and organizational practice. Individual role models, school facilities, school governance and school culture together support both conservation and environmental education, specifically through the application of principles from behavior theory, including modeling commitments, values, expectations, and behaviors. In addition, role models with the traits of charismatic leaders can be especially instrumental. In this school, communication is the thread connecting the multiple aspects of modeling, helping to create the synergistic relationship between conservation efforts and environmental education. This study demonstrates that conservation efforts, when modeled successfully in a public school setting, can simultaneously and synergistically meet the goals of conservation and sustainability education.[Authors' abstract] 41p

Building Energy- Efficient Schools in New Orleans Adobe PDF
(U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Dec 2011)
This case study presents the lessons learned from incorporating energy efficiency in the rebuilding and renovating of New Orleans K-12 schools after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The experiences of four new schools—Langston Hughes Elementary School, Andrew H. Wilson Elementary School (which was 50% new construction and 50% major renovation), L.B. Landry High School, and Lake Area High School—and one major renovation, Joseph A. Craig Elementary School—are described to help other school districts and design teams with their in-progress and future school building projects in hot-humid climates. 23p

Points to Ponder: Submetering for LEED v3 in Schools and Universities
(E-Mon, Nov 2011)
As an inexpensively installed data acquisition "front end," submeters are ideal for helping educational institutions obtain LEED certification points in Energy & Atmosphere (EA) and other categories. When integrated with the facility's building management system, submeters can identify savings opportunities that can help fund additional energy conservation measures or electrical upgrades. This white paper explores the various uses and benefits of submetering in the school facility environment. [Author's abstract]

LBJ NetZero Middle School
Sole, John
(Guerilla Educators, Nov 2011)
On November, 11-12, educational facilities planners from CEFPI had the opportunity to visit and participate in a NetZero Symposium at the Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, located in Irving, Texas. In this video, a tour of the school is given by Alejandro, a student there. The school is virtually paperless and produces more energy than it uses which is then sold back to the local utility company.

50% Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings
(ASHRAE, the American Institute of Architects, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, and the U.S. Green Building Council, with support from the Department of Energy, Oct 2011)
Guide provides a sensible approach to easily achieve advanced levels of energy savings in K-12 school buildings without having to resort to detailed calculations or analysis. Covers administrative and office, classrooms, hallways, restrooms, gymnasiums, assembly, libraries, food preparation and dining areas. Case studies and technical examples throughout the guide illustrate the recommendations and demonstrate the technologies in real-world applications. Includes recommendations for practical products and off-the-shelf technology needed for achieving a 50% energy savings compared to buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The energy savings target of 50% is the first step in the process toward achieving a net-zero energy building, which is defined as a building that, on an annual basis, draws from outside resources equal or less energy than it provides using on-site renewable energy sources.

Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.
(U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Oct 2011)
Details best practices for financing and installing photovoltaic (PV) systems on school buildings. The report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. Some highlights of the report include: an introduction to financing PV installations on schools; a look at the direct-ownership option, which takes advantage of financing mechanisms such as general funds, bonds, construction funds, and grants; and a review of the third-party finance model, including power purchase agreements and energy services performance contracts. In addition to comparing a range of financing options for PV installations, the report provides real-world examples of financing solar installations on K-12 schools and other public facilities. These examples may be used by school districts around the country to help them navigate the process of financing PV installations. 38p

Thermal Comparison between Ceiling Diffusers and Fabric Ductwork Diffusers for Green Buildings. Adobe PDF
Fontanini, Anthony; Olsen, Michael; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
(Iowa State University, Ames , Jul 2011)
Compares the performance of conventional ductwork with recent advancements in fabric-based ductwork. The article focuses on the transient behavior of an on/off control system, as well as the steady state behavior of the two ductwork systems. Transient, fully three dimensional validated computational (CFD) simulations are performed to determine flow patterns and thermal evolution in rooms containing either conventional or fabric ductwork. The results conclusively show that fabric ducting systems are superior to the conventional systems in terms of efficiency. Observations from the data show that fabric ducting systems heat the room faster, more uniformly, and more efficiently. The increase in performance demonstrates the potential benefits of moving away from conventional systems to fabric systems for the construction of green buildings: particularly in conjunction with adaptive control systems. 41p.

Sensitivity Analysis: Comparing the Impact of Design, Operation, and Tenant Behavior on Building Energy Performance Adobe PDF
Heller, Jonathan; Heater, Morgan; Ecotope, Mark Frankel
(New Buildings Institute, Jul 2011)
This study compares the magnitude of energy impact that various design features, operations and tenant behaviors have on total building energy use. Study finds that although the market generally assigns responsibility for building energy performance to the design team, operational and tenant practices have a very significant impact on building energy use. Summarizes the extent to which operations and occupant behavior impact a building's energy use compared to design characteristics, such as aspects the building envelope, HVAC systems and lighting system features. It examines how buildings use energy and what aspects of building energy performance need more attention in design, operation and policy strategies. The findings of this study can help the building community begin to align their priorities with those building features and operational characteristics that have the most impact on building energy use. 81p

High Performance Public Buildings: Impact on Energy Use is Mixed. Adobe PDF
Fleming, Mark; Dean, David
(State of Washington, Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee, Olympia , Jun 23, 2011)
Reports that legislation mandating high performance construction in Washington's public buildings has added between 1 and 3 percent in reported construction costs. The impact of these standards on energy use is mixed, with some buildings meeting expectations while others do not. However, many show some improvement in energy performance over time. The impact on student performance and worker productivity is not clear. Many projects are newly completed with limited operating experience and incomplete data. 46p.
Report NO: 11-7


Energy Use in Day Care Centers and Schools. [Finland]
Airaksinen, Miimu
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jun 2011)
This study analyses different schools and day care centers and their energy as well as primary energy use. The buildings are located in southern Finland. Each building has had different objectives with respect to energy efficiency in the design phase. Our objective was to find out how those decisions made in the design and construction phase have influenced the overall energy performance of the building compared to existing building stock of similar building type. The results show that the studied buildings had lower thermal energy consumption compared to existing building stock. Thus the special attention in the design phase allowed achieving the desired goal. However, for the electricity consumption such a correlation could not be found. One of the reasons could be also different service level of buildings (more equipment). Also other quality values could not be compared since such data were not available from the existing building stock. As many earlier studies have indicated users have a high influence on the energy consumption. In the future, when feed-back from the users are obtained it will be interesting to analyze the results and compare what kind of influence that user behavior will have on the overall energy consumption of the studied buildings. [Author's abstract] 12p.

Building R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , May 2011)
Identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP's Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. To perform this analysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigated 190 technology R&D projects funded directly by the Emerging Technologies subprogram or via the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs. This effort identified 11 commercially available products, 41 emerging technologies, and 68 potential technologies that are still being researched but are more than three years away from commercialization. The report documents the methodology and results of PNNL?s technology tracking effort, including various analytical cross-sections and descriptions of the commercially available and emerging technologies that resulted from support of the Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009. 122p.

Reducing Energy Consumption and Creating a Conservation Culture in Organizations: A Case Study of One Public School District.
Schelly, Chelsea; Cross, Jennifer; Franzen, William; Hall, Pete; Reeve, Stu
(Environment and Behavior, May 2011)
Compares two public high schools from the same school district, one that has achieved moderate energy savings and another that has reduced its electricity use by 50% over several years. Examining the individual and organizational components of both schools’ efforts, the authors find that the greater success at one school is the result of integrated efforts at all levels within the organization, from district administrators to individual students. Success is based on structural changes, individual behavioral change, and, most important, the weaving of both into a cohesive organizational culture emphasizing conservation. p316-343
TO ORDER: http://eab.sagepub.com/content/43/3/316.short

Reducing Trenton's Carbon Foot Print Old-School Style.
(TrentonPatch, Apr 08, 2011)
Richard C. Hedke Elementary School in Trenton, New Jersey, was built in 1955, but the recent updates provided by a bond issue have made it one of the most energy-efficient schools in the district.

Lighting Retrofit and Relighting: A Guide to Energy Efficient Lighting.
Benya, James R.; Leban, Donna J.
(Wiley, Apr 2011)
Discusses the recent advances in lighting equipment and retrofittable controls, for both interior and outdoor use. Explains how to do a lighting audit to identify and evaluate logical retrofit choices. Includes case studies of retrofits, illustrating improvements in the quality and efficacy of new lighting. Demonstrates how cost savings realized over time can not only pay for new equipment but produce a return on the investment. 312p.

Energy Consumption in Conventional, Energy-retrofitted and Green LEED Toronto Schools.
Issa, Mohamed; Attalla, Mohamed; Rankin, Jeff; Christian, A. John
(Construction Management and Economics, Apr 2011)
Green buildings have been marketed as the economical, energy-efficient alternative to conventional buildings. This is despite little existing empirical evidence to prove their energy efficiency, especially in Canada. To overcome this limitation, the electricity and gas consumption quantities and costs of a sample of 10 conventional, 20 energy-retrofitted and three green Toronto schools following the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Rating (LEED) System for New Construction were analysed in this study. The analysis conducted over eight years for conventional and energy-retrofitted schools, and since their inception for green schools, showed surprisingly that energy-retrofitted and green schools spent 37% more on electricity than conventional schools. Nevertheless, green schools spent 56% and 41% less on gas than conventional and energy-retrofitted schools respectively. Their total energy costs were also 28% lower than conventional and energy-retrofitted schools. Nevertheless, these savings do not always justify their construction cost premiums. The study showed that more research was needed to overcome the scarcity of data on green buildings in Canada. There was a need to focus on analysing more green buildings, of various types, and over longer study periods in order to better understand why some green buildings do not live up to expectations. {Authors' abstract] p383-395
TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/rcme/2011/00000029/00000004/art00007

Best Practices Checklist for Energy Conservation. Adobe PDF
(Delaware Department of Education, 2011)
Checklist poses energy conservation-related questions about lighting, policy, maintenance, energy controls, and staff. 7p.

Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools. A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , 2011)
Discusses benefits of energy efficiency in K-12 schools; planning and design approaches; key participants; strategies for effective program implementation; investment and financing opportunities; Federal, state, and other program resources; case studies; additional examples; and references. 60p

Green Building Studio. Web-Based Energy Analysis Software.
(Autodesk Green Building Studio, Jan 2011)
GBS is a web-based service that enables building design teams to integrate whole-building energy analysis into the early stages of the design process. Architects and engineers use their existing building information modeling (BIM) systems to communicate the project's building geometry to the GBS website, which conducts an energy analysis of the building design. The GBS web service was developed by Green Building Studio, Inc. and funded through grants from the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, and other organizations.

Swimming Pool Heating.
(U.S. Department of Energy, 2011)
Information provided by the U.S. Department of Energy on heating and energy saving technologies that can reduce swimming pool operation costs by as much as 50%, including installing a high efficiency or solar pool heater; using a pool cover; managing the water temperature; and installing a smaller, energy-efficient pump and/or operating it less.

Optimize Energy Use [Whole Building Design Guide]
WBDG Sustainable Committee
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Washington, DC, 2011)
This section from the Whole Building Design Guide recommends that during the facility design and development process, projects should have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to: 1. Reduce heating, cooling and lighting loads through climate-responsive design and conservation practices; 2. Employ renewable energy sources such as daylighting, passive solar heating, photovoltaics, and geothermal; 3. Specify efficient HVAC and lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements; 4. Optimize building performance and system control strategies such as the use of occupancy sensors and air quality alarms; and 5. Monitor project performance through a policy of commissioning, metering and annual reporting. Detailed information is provided for each recommendation.

School Energy and Environment Survey 2010; Data & Analysis.
(Honeywell and Education Week Research, Nov 18, 2010)
The results of an online survey of 800 district administrators or school board members reveal that almost 90 percent of school leaders see a direct link between the quality and performance of school facilities, and student achievement. However, districts face several obstacles when it comes to keeping their buildings up to date and well maintained. 68 percent of school districts have either delayed or eliminated building improvements in response to the economic downturn. The survey finds that a quarter of these respondents have seen their district’s energy costs rise at least 25 percent in the past three years, compared to 17 percent of those polled in 2009. As a consequence of rising utility bills, almost 75 percent of the districts have cut spending in key areas such as maintenance, capital investment and staffing. 23p.

A Textbook Example: Why American Schools Must Go Green.
(RenewableEnergyWorld.com , Sep 08, 2010)
Profiles a public/private partnership, assisted by grants, that enabled a Connecticut school to install a photovoltaic array on its roof at no cost to the district, while allowing immediate access to cheaper electricity that will save $25,000 in the first year alone. 2p.

Bridging the Gap Between Predicted and Actual Energy Performance in Schools. Adobe PDF
Damanuelel, Christine; Twedell, Tamsin; Davies, Michael
(World Renewable Energy Congress XI, 25-30 September 2010, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Sep 2010)
There is currently a significant gap between design stage estimates and actual energy performance of buildings, mainly due to a lack of understanding of the factors affecting energy use. The current work focuses on investigating which factors have the greatest influence on energy performance in schools and how the performance of the building in use differs from design assumptions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to rank the importance of various factors affecting energy use. In addition, visits to 15 schools across the UK were carried out. The aim of these visits was to collect data on a number of factors relating to building energy use, as well as to determine the likely variability of these factors. Preliminary results show that operational issues and occupant behaviour have a major influence on energy performance of schools, and therefore play a significant role in the discrepancy between design estimates and actual energy use. Hence an effective handover and user-education are essential to optimise energy performance. [Authors' abstract] 6p.

Northeast-CHPS Operations and Maintenance Guide. Adobe PDF
(Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA , Apr 2010)
Advises on a wide range of topics from energy and water efficiency in a school, to incorporating renewable energy systems, as well as technologies for improved school indoor environmental quality. Additionally, there are detailed guidelines for implementing environmentally friendly policies and practices for existing buildings, such as anti-idling policies, recycling programs, using green cleaning agents, and developing training for building operators. 90p.

Collaborative for High Performance Schools Operations Report Card.
(Collaborative for High Performance Schools, San Francisco, CA, 2010)
Provides a tool to benchmark the current performance of existing schools, provide a report card of results and make suggestions for improvement. Assessments take place in five categories: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, visual comfort, indoor air quality, and acoustics. The ORC is an interactive online tool. While designed for district-wide deployment over multiple school sites, it is also usable by single public schools, charter schools, and private schools.
TO ORDER: http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/44

Education Case Studies.
(Lennox, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2010)
Provides case studies for ten schools that variously improved indoor air quality, saved energy, and improved thermal comfort with Lennox equipment.

High Performance Building Initiatives In Maryland Public Schools: Energy Conservation, Alternative Energy Sources, And High Performance Building Practices. Adobe PDF
(Public School Construction Program, Baltimore, MD , Jan 2010)
Reviews Maryland's progress in creating high performance schools, citing state legislative and administrative efforts, as well as county-by-county initiatives in design, construction, behavior modification, preventive maintenance, alternative energy, and conservation. Appendices listing all Maryland LEED certified schools and those with geothermal systems are included. 59p.

Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria, Version 3.0 Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Labs for the 21st Century, Washington , 2010)
Provides a rating system for use with laboratory building projects to assess environmental performance. It builds on the LEED Green Building Rating System that was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council. As with the LEED system for commercial and institutional facilities, this publication proposes a point system that quantifies sustainable building features and practices, with the goal of obtaining silver, gold, and or platinum ratings. 25p.

Students Leading the Way 2009-2010: Energy Saving Success Stories from California. Adobe PDF
(Alliance to Save Energy, Green Schools Program, Washington, D.C. , 2010)
Students and teachers from California Green Schools describe their strategies to reduce energy waste and bring the energy efficiency message into the community. 54 schools across all three participating school districts reduced energy use by an average of 15.5%, more than any other year of the program.

The Paid-from-Savings Guide to Green Existing Buildings: Executive Summary.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2010)
Provides basic information to help building owners understand the paid-from-savings approach and decide if it is a viable option for "greening" their existing buildings. This approach is a financing strategy that leverages the savings generated from building system upgrades to pay for a comprehensive greening project within a defined pay-back period. The variety of financing methods available are described, and case studies that include a school are included. 20p.

Sustainable School Architecture: Design for Primary and Secondary Schools.
Gelfan, Lisa; Freed, Eric
(John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ , 2010)
Offers guidance on the planning, architecture, and design of schools that are healthy, stimulating, and will conserve energy and resources. The book emphasizes how eco-friendly practices for school construction can create an environment that students will emulate and carry into the world. Also included are a focus on the links between best sustainable practices and the specific needs of educational institutions, 19 international case studies of contemporary sustainable schools, information on the California Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, resources for incremental modernization and operation strategies as well as comprehensive transformation, tips on running an integrated, and contributions by experts on approaches to the sites, systems, maintenance, and operation of sustainable schools. 335p.
TO ORDER: http://www.wiley-vch.de/publish/en/books/ISBN978-0-470-44543-3

Guide to Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC , Sep 2009)
Guides a district or school-wide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The Guide provides organizational and technical information for integrating energy and high-performance facility management into existing operation and maintenance practices. The Guide helps school district management, facility managers, business officials, and administrators identify energy savings, develop an energy management plan, and address technical considerations. Accompanying the Guide are Action Plan Templates that provide a snapshot of customizable checklists used for planning and implementing energy-focused operations and maintenance. The Action Plans, which are organized by building system component, are tools for senior facilities managers and custodial staff to schedule preventative maintenance and training. 64p.

2009 Energy Efficient IT Report: The Power of Prioritization. Adobe PDF
(CDW-G, Vernon Hills, IL , Aug 31, 2009)
Surveys 752 IT professionals in U.S. organizations to study marketplace attitudes toward energy efficient IT, barriers to its adoption and what differentiates successful implementations. Detailed results indicate that more organizations are taking steps to improve IT energy efficiency in both desktop computing and in the data center; energy reduction efforts are yielding significant results; and best results are achieved when organizations ask, assign, and provide incentives for IT to provide energy efficiency. 37p.

Planning for Energy Efficiency. Adobe PDF
(Coalition for Adequate School Housing, Sacramento, CA , May 2009)
Advises on reducing energy consumption in schools. Chapters address energy efficiency in new construction, modernization, and operations and maintenance; establishing a baseline by benchmarking; setting goals and developing a formal energy master plan; energy-saving tips for all aspects of school operations; funding options; a sample board resolution; and a list of 32 additional resources. 36p.

Jackson LEED School Tour.
(Channel 22 Local, Jackson Hole, WY, Apr 2009)
Illustrates the challenge of LEED-certified construction in the face of extreme cold. Davy Jackson Elementary School, Jackson, Wyoming, is a K-2 school that aims to conserve heat loss. While upgraded insulation costs more at first, it achieves buy-back value in 13 years. The school makes use of time and motion sensors for classroom lighting in addition to sensors that detect zoned need for light when classroom is occupied. School makes use of local suppliers.

Energy Guidelines For K-12 Public Schools. Adobe PDF
(North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh , Mar 2009)
Advises on a variety of building features that impact energy consumption. The publication opens with a discussion of life cycle costing, building modeling, and performance verification. Subsequent sections cover building orientation, architectural design, building materials, plumbing, HVAC systems, building controls, and lighting and power systems.. The publication describes varieties of systems available under each category, advises on their costs, and illustrates the energy impact of each. 27p.

Fossil Ridge High School, Fort Collins, Colorado. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC , Mar 2009)
Explains how this high-performance school was constructed at no extra design or construction cost, the strategies and products used, and the energy savings realized in the completed project. 4p.

Best Practices Manual and Assessment Tool: Relocatable Classrooms for High Performance Schools, 2009 edition. Adobe PDF
(Collaborative for High Peformance Schools, San Francisco, CA , 2009)
Advises school designers and builders on how to adjust their high-performance strategies to account for the differences found in a typical relocatable classroom. Issues involved with site preparation and locating the relocatable on the site are also addressed. The high-performance characteristics detailed for relocatable classrooms include enhanced daylighting, energy-efficient lighting, energy-efficient, low- noise HVAC systems, an efficient building envelope and interior material with low emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Additional chapters detail the CHPS Relocatable Program, which gives manufacturers the option of building relocatables according to bid specifications included in the manual, or to achieve a minimum number of points based on the CHPS relocatable criteria scorecard, also included in the manual. 154p.

Energy Efficiency Study of Connecticut Schools. Adobe PDF
(Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic , 2009)
Analyzes the energy bills for 356 of Connecticut's 1,026 public schools, revealing that they are among the least energy-efficient schools in the country, rating 26 on a scale of 100. A large percentage of the state's schools were built when energy was cheap and efficiency was not a priority, and analysis of specific school construction shortcomings by era is included. Specific guidelines and recommendations to communities and the state legislature are proposed, and 13 references are included. 20p.

EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC , 2009)
Describes quick and inexpensive strategies for energy savings in schools, including updating light bulbs and HVAC systems, installing room occupancy sensors, turning down hot water heaters or replacing them with tankless models, investing in high-efficiency equipment, and installing automatic shut-down devices. A number of longer-term capital investments including alternative energy sources are also outlined. 4p.

Green Building Initiative: K-12 and Higher Education.
(Green Building Initiative , 2009)
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 has provided unprecedented levels of federal funding for education and a unique opportunity for schools and school districts to make investments that will produce long-term sustainability impacts. Schools built or remodeled with a recognized green building rating system like Green Globes, can save money on utility bills and improve indoor air quality - not to mention lessen the building's environmental footprint.

Green Existing Schools Implementation Workbook.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Assists with the evaluation and improvement of current school operations and maintenance practices and policies. The workbook is organized by LEED for Existing Buildings: O&M prerequisites and credits, though not all prerequisites and credits in the rating system are addressed by the workbook. The guidance and tools contained in the workbook correspond to prerequisites and credits that lend themselves to a campus- or district-wide application. The workbook includes sample policies, programs, plans, and surveys, along with data collection forms, worksheets, and tables. 108p.

Green Existing Schools: Project Management Guide.
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2009)
Helps schools and school districts "green" their existing facilities and achieve LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. The guide outlines the process for navigating LEED certification for existing schools and provides details on how to conduct organizational assessments,educate and train staff, initiate the certification process, and manage a campus- or district-wide plan. It is designed to be used in concert with additional resources contained in the Green Existing Schools Toolkit (www.usgbc.org/k12toolkit). 85p.

A Better Way to Rate Green Buildings. Adobe PDF
Gifford, Henry
(American Institute of Architects Connecticut, New Haven , 2009)
Describes flawed procedures in how the energy use of LEED-certified is reported and that while LEED-certified buildings typically appear at first to be designed for energy efficiency, the typically do not deliver expected savings. Flawed design and installation of solar panels are critiqued as well. Buildings earning LEED ratings based on design, but not built or operated correctly are addressed, and the difficulty of getting building owners to divulge actually energy use after occupancy is cited. The author recommends rating buildings in the second full year after they are occupied rather than on design and predicted. Includes 49 references. 12p.

Greening Our Built World: Costs, Benefits, and Strategies.
Kats, Greg
(Island Press, Washington, DC , 2009)
Reports the results of a large-scale study based on extensive financial and technical analyses of more than 150 green buildings in the United States and ten other countries. Using modeling techniques, the study analyzes the costs and financial benefits of building green on both large and small scales, and addresses the role of the built environment in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The author reports that green buildings cost roughly 2 per cent more to build than conventional buildings - far less than previously assumed - and provide a wide range of financial, health, and social benefits. In addition, green buildings reduce energy use by an average of 33 per cent. The book also evaluates the cost-effectiveness of "green community development." 280p.

Guide to Financing EnergySmart Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Addresses common barriers associated with new construction, major renovations, and retrofit projects in high performance schools. The guide summarizes existing methods of financing and looks ahead to innovative, replicable approaches. It supports making a business case for high performance design backed by economic analysis that looks at the costs and benefits of new construction and retrofits over the project's lifetime. It also describes nonenergy benefits that tie energy efficiency and economic feasibility back to the critical mission ensuring a healthy learning environment for students. 36p.

The Efficient Windows Collaborative Tools for Schools. Adobe PDF
(Efficient Windows Collaborative, Washington, DC , Oct 2008)
Advises schools on window design parameters, performance factors, and efficient window options. Daylighting, shading, insulation value, air leakage, coatings, framing, skylights, and natural ventilation are addressed. 17p.

Variable Speed Comes to the (Kitchen) 'Hood. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento , Sep 2008)
Profiles technology that reduces kitchen hood ventilation rates during slow periods, making it possible for institutions to significantly reduce the amount of wasted energy. Lower fan speeds also means less noise. The concept calls for control of kitchen ventilation-fan speed based on the amount of heat, smoke, and steam released by cooking. 2p.
Report NO: CEC-TB-42


School Modernization: George Miller & Ben Chandler. [Video]
Jun 04, 2008
Rep. George Miller, Chairman of the Education and Labor Committee, and Rep. Ben Chandler, sponsor of the 21st Century Green High-Performing Public School Facilities Act, speak to the need to modernize public school facilities on the House floor on June 4, 2008. The bill they support was for funding to help schools renovate for increased energy efficiency.

Cookbook for Energy Conservation Measures. Adobe PDF
(California Department of General Services, Office of Public School Construction, Sacramento , May 2008)
Provides general energy efficiency techniques and procedures that can be reasonably implemented in schools and have an immediate effect on energy savings and costs, as well as design and construction considerations that include HVAC and duct system efficiency, daylighting, occupancy sensors, insulation, triple glazing, and alternative energy sources. 25p.

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms.
Apte, Michael, et al
(Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , Apr 04, 2008)
An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. [Authors' abstract]

Environment Report: Making Real Change Happen Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , Apr 2008)
Reports accomplishments by Toronto schools in achieving goals for environmentally responsible school facilties operations. The report begins with an outline of the Toronto District School Board's strategy for improving its environmental performance, followed by four sections that focus on priority areas: energy conservation, waste minimization, school ground greening, and ecological literacy. The report describes how the TDSB reduced its consumption of electricity by 8.34% and natural gas by 7.42%1, how school staff and students diverted 42% of their waste from landfill, and how ten outdoor education schools serve 3,500 teachers and provide more than 90,000 students every year with experiences in the natural world. 36p.

Integrated Classroom Lighting Systems: Light's Great, Less Billing. Adobe PDF
(California Energy Commission, Publicc Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento , Apr 2008)
Describes energy-efficient, flexible lighting for today's classroom needs. The integrated classroom lighting system (ICLS) consists of a combination of direct and indirect light, assisted by 96 percent reflective material in the fixtures, and easy-to-use controls. 2p.

Energy Performance of LEED for New Construction Buildings. Adobe PDF
Turner, Cathy; Frankel, Mark
(New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA , Mar 04, 2008)
Analyzes measured energy performance for 121 LEED New Construction (NC) buildings, providing a critical information link between intention and outcome for LEED projects. The results show that projects certified by the USGBC LEED program average substantial energy performance improvement over non-LEED building stock. Buildings varied widely in energy consumption compared to their modeling, with some performing much better, and some much worse. Problems with high-load building types such as laboratories are cited, and improvements to the LEED program are suggested. 46p.

Heating with Biomass: A Feasibility Study of Wisconsin Schools Heated with Wood. Adobe PDF
(Focus on Energy, Madison, WI , Feb 2008)
Based on data collection from four schools in Wisconsin that currently heat with biomass, and recent fuel use and pricing, this study found that 200-300 schools in Wisconsin now heating with natural gas may find biomass heating economical at current fuel prices. These systems will often cash flow positive in the first year of installation. Case study results from the four schools are included. 38p.

30% Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers; Atlanta, GA , 2008)
Assists design teams in constructing energy-smart schools using off-the-shelf technology that can cut energy use 30 percent or more annually. It provides recommendations for various climate zones and implementation advice via a series of case studies. Also included are suggestions for achieving LEED energy credits and supplemental strategies for achieving advanced energy savings beyond 30 percent. Design suggestions from the guide include: 1) Daylight the classrooms and gym so that lights can be off most of the day, but design it carefully so that additional cooling needs are not required. 2) Design lighting that uses the most current energy-efficient lamps, ballasts, and integrated controls. 3) Control the HVAC system based on actual occupancy of each space at a given time. 4) Design a well-insulated envelope, including good wall and roof insulation and low-e windows. 5) Use high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment. 174p.

A Student Perspective on Greening Schools: Analysis of an Austin, Texas High School as a Model for Rethinking in Green. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2008)
Presents a student's perspective on the necessity of "green" remodeling of existing schools. Austin's 1974 Lyndon Banes Johnson High School is described as an example where initial sustainability measures have been taken, but significant additional opportunities that would require little investment are possible. These include changing computer settings to reduce phantom load, reducing vending machine electricity use, and switching to water-efficient bathroom fixtures. Includes 65 references. 19p.

AASA Fuel and Energy Snapshot Survey. Adobe PDF
(American ASsociation of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , 2008)
Presents the responses to an eight-question fuel and energy survey that asked school superintendents about the effect of rising fuel and energy costs on their school districts. Ninety-nine percent of respondents reported these rising costs are having an impact on their school systems. Further, they reported that conserving energy, cutting back on student field trips and consolidating bus routes are among the top steps districts are taking to minimize the impact of rising fuel and energy costs. Meanwhile, few states are stepping forward to assist school systems struggling to meet escalating these rising costs. 16p.

Financing an EnergySmart School. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Describes ten creative financing methods that can be used to create an energy-smart school, and includes three case studies. 4p.

NSBA Endorses EnergySmart Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Outlines the case for support of energy-efficient school facilities, which in turn yields more money for educational programs. 2p.

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC , Jan 2008)
Advises on simple energy saving strategies for schools. These include limiting equipment operation during unoccupied times, low-cost repairs by in-house staff, preventive maintenance, energy tracking, and performance contracts. 2p.

Wisconsin Green & Healthy Schools Program Assessment.
(Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison , 2008)
These assessment forms are designed to help schools identify what types of healthy, safe, and environmentally sound activities are already in place and where the school can improve its efforts. The Wisconsin program requires that the energy, waste, and recycling, and water sections be done along with any two of the remaining sections that cover chemicals, community involvement, facilities and grounds, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, mercury, and transportation.

Ashland High School.
(Ashland High School, Ashland, MA, Oct 22, 2007)
Profiles this high performance Massachusetts school, illustrating the photovoltaic array, heat recovery system, outdoor classrooms, recycling, composting, and daylighting.

Improving Energy Performance of School Buildings While Ensuring Indoor Air Quality Ventilation.
Beckera, ,Rachel ; Goldbergera, Itamar; Paciuk, Monica
(Building and Environment, Volume 42, Issue 9, Sep 2007)
The paper deals with the energy performance, energy classification and rating and the global environmental quality of school buildings. A new energy classification technique based on intelligent clustering methodologies is proposed. Energy rating of school buildings provides specific information on their energy consumption and efficiency relative to the other buildings of similar nature and permits a better planning of interventions to improve its energy performance. The overall work reported in the paper, is carried out in three phases. During the first phase energy consumption data have been collected through energy surveys performed in 320 schools in Greece. In the second phase an innovative energy rating scheme based on fuzzy clustering techniques has been developed, while in the third phase, 10 schools have been selected and detailed measurements of their energy efficiency and performance as well as of the global environmental quality have been performed using a specific experimental protocol. The proposed energy rating method has been applied while the main environmental and energy problems have been identified. The potential for energy and environmental improvements has been assessed. p3261-3276

Generation G.
(Kontent Real Films, Aug 2007)
Draws on narration by students at “platinum level” LEEDS-certified Sidwell Friends School, Washington, DC, to show action steps to implement school’s philosophy of environmental stewardship. In addition to the best practices used in new construction, the retro-fit of existing buildings resulted in use of 60% less energy.

Saving Energy: How Three School Districts Improved Efficiency.
Helmke-Long, Laura
(Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ , May 01, 2007)
Profiles three school districts named as Energy Star Partners of the Year for their outstanding achievements in improving the energy efficiency of their facilities. Also included is a brief description of the Energy Star program and basic suggestions for easy-to-implement energy-saving measures. 4p.

LEED for Schools for New Construction and Major Renovations.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , Apr 2007)
Based on the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for new construction, the LEED for Schools Rating System considers the unique nature of the design and construction of K-12 schools, addressing issues such as classroom acoustics, master planning, mold prevention, and environmental site assessment. By addressing the uniqueness of school spaces and children's health issues, LEED for Schools provides a tool for schools that wish to build green, with measurable results. LEED for Schools is a third-party standard for high performance schools that are healthy for students, comfortable for teachers, and cost-effective. It provides parents, teachers and the community a "report card" for their school buildings, by verifying that schools are built healthy, efficient, and comfortable. 77p.

Leavitt Area High School: Independent Evaluation of Wood Chip Heating System. Adobe PDF
Doughty, Richard
(Maine Dept. of Education, Augusta , Mar 07, 2007)
Reviews the energy and financial performance of a wood chip boiler installed in a Maine high school in 1999. Even though more labor-intensive to operate, the assessment of the system was favorable in that it shifted the school's dependency from fossil fuels to readily-available wood chips, thus lowering fuel costs and offering a boost to the state's struggling wood products industry. Charts illustrate fuel consumption and savings, a suggested maintenance schedule, ancillary electric cost projections, a summary of economics, and life cycle cost analyses. 22p.

Revolving Loan Fund for Certain Energy Efficient Projects [State of Utah]
(Utah State Legislature, Mar 2007)
This is the text of a Utah bill to create a revolving loan fund for use by school districts to improve energy efficiency in school district buildings. 1p.

Core Performance Guide.
(New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA, 2007)
Advises on how to deliver best-in-class energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in high-performance buildings. The book brings together over 30 criteria defining high performance in building envelope, lighting, HVAC, power systems and controls. It provides quantitative and descriptive specifications for exceeding state and national minimum standards such as ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2001. 127
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Ecoschools Certification Guide and Planner 2007-08. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , 2007)
Provides guidance that a team of students, teachers, and staff can use to complete the Toronto District's application to be certified as an EcoSchool. The steps assessed cover energy conservation, waste minimization, environmental curriculum enhancement practices within the school, and community involvement. Points are earned for a variety of sustainable practices, and then the checklist is submitted with documentation to earn EcoSchool certification 32p.

LEED for Schools Registered Project Checklist.
(United States Green Building Council, Washington, DC , 2007)
Provides a checklist for estimating potential Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)certification, listing the attributes of site selection and design, water efficiency, energy use, effect on atmosphere, building materials, indoor air quality, and innovation in design that are considered under the LEED system. The number of required points in each category are shown, with an opportunity to indicate whether or not features within that category are in place, and then add up the points. 2p.

Understanding the Needs of Arkansas School Districts Relative to Building Use and Control, Utility Tracking, Personnel, and Facility Planning.
Keazer, Jay; Nutter, Darin
(Texas A&M University, College Station , 2007)
Reports on a study of Arkansas school districts' utilities use that documents community use, and utility use and tracking practices. Concerns over rising costs, differences between large and small districts, and the need for utility tracking personnel are particularly noted. 5p.

50 Green Strategies that Cost Less. Adobe PDF
Nicklas, Mike
(Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC , 2007)
Compilation of a list of 50 sustainable design strategies for school projects that are cost-effective, including overall concepts, community, site design, daylighting and windows, building shell, electrical systems, mechanical systems, recycling and environmentally-sound materials. 6p.

Gorham Middle School: Evaluation of Geothermal and HVAC System. Adobe PDF
Doughty, Richard
(Maine Dept. of Education, Augusta , Nov 21, 2006)
Evaluates a geothermal HVAC system at a Maine middle school. Details on the system s performance compared to other schools is provided, as are initial cost comparisons and a life cycle analysis. The report concludes that the system significantly outperforms typical existing schools, and marginally outperforms other high performance schools. 14p.

Green Buildings and the Bottom Line.
(Reed Business Information, Oak Brook, IL , Nov 2006)
Examines financial considerations of "green" building across many building types, with one chapter each devoted to the practice in higher and K-12 education. Current attention to and financial advantages of green building in education are considered, as are obstacles and ways to overcome them. 62p.

Energy Management: A Necessity Not a Luxury in the 21st Century. Final Step: Development of Your Energy Management Plan.
Schoff, Lorenz
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , Jun 06, 2006)
Adresses key elements that must be developed before an energy anagement plan can be developed and implemented. Numerous unseen or overlooked inefficiencies that can account for a significant waste of energy are identified. The development, goals, implementation, checklists, and training involved in an energy management plan are outlined. 4p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools, Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Provides guidance concerning the use and implementation of displacement ventilation (DV) for K-12 schools. It serves architects, engineers, and educators seeking to understand why DV is beneficial, addresses the implications of installing DV in schools, and details a design procedure for DV systems in school applications. It contains recommendations from a range of sources, including PIER research, ASHRAE Guidelines and Standards, and practical experience gained in the design, installation, and performance monitoring of DV systems in two California schools. Topics covered include general design requirements for classrooms, air supply characteristics, diffuser specifications, architectural design issues, load calculations, system sizing, HVAC design options, and estimating energy savings. Case studies from six installations are included, as are 42 references, a glossary, and numerous figures and tables. 123p.

Energy Efficiency Study of Connecticut Schools: an Opportunity to Improve Our Educational Infrastructure. Adobe PDF
(Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic , Jun 2006)
Analyzes the energy bills for 119 of Connecticut's 1,026 public schools, revealing that they are among the least energy-efficient schools in the country, rating 26 on a scale of 100. A large percentage of the state's schools were built when energy was cheap and efficiency was not a priority, and analysis of specific school construction shortcomings by era is included. Specific guidelines and recommendations to communities and the state legislature are proposed, and eight references included. 19p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Draft / Final Research Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Covers HVAC design considerations for displacement ventilation systems, drawn from completed research of the project, a computational flow dynamics analysis, and the results of the first demonstration classroom. The report addresses diffuser selection and layout, load calculations and system sizing and energy modeling options. The report also describes HVAC system requirements for displacement ventilation and control options. For the design phase, this report covers design requirements for TDV, load calculation procedures, energy modeling, and equipment selection. For the construction phase, the report documents show typical diffuser locations, ductwork layout, control details, and installation requirements. 23p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools: Final Classroom Documentation Report. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the performance monitoring results of a displacement ventilation demonstration project at Kinoshita Elementary in San Juan Capistrano, California. The report also documents the processes of design, financing and construction of the demonstration classrooms. The unit is designed to supply a steady 65-degree supply temperature, with variable air volume to maintain comfort in the space. This report assesses the performance of the unit in meeting specifications, and a comparison of comfort, indoor air quality, and energy use with a control classroom that is served by a conventional 4-ton packaged rooftop unit. 36p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools:Combined Document for Product Engineering Efforts Report, Research Summary Report, and Production Readiness Plan. Adobe PDF
Arent, John
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Documents the development of a unit that can tightly control supply air temperature in a classroom thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) cooling system, in response to varying load and outdoor conditions. Also described are the steps that the manufacturer has taken towards making it a production unit. The report provides an evaluation of the unit with all available data, and identifies the steps required to make this a production unit. 20p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance Of California K-12 Schools, Project 2 Final Report: Thermal Displacement Ventilation. Adobe PDF
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 2006)
Serves as the final project report for Project 2, Thermal Displacement Ventilation (DV) in Schools, under California's PIER IEQ-K12 Program. Key outcomes included the following: 1)Two demonstration DV systems were installed, commissioned, and monitored in two classrooms; one in southern and one in northern California. 2)Results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed that significant energy savings are possible. 3)Other results of the DV demonstration classrooms showed improved IAQ and acoustics with acceptable humidity levels. 4)Teacher feedback was positive for the DV demonstration classrooms. 5)The demonstration classrooms confirmed that DV provides good thermal comfort for classrooms with normal ceiling heights (9 feet). 6)A supply of 1,100 cfm of 65-degree air is sufficient for most classrooms in California climates. 7)The use of a tuned VAV control strategy will optimize energy savings. 8)DV can be achieved today using a variety of HVAC system designs. 9)DV provides many compelling benefits including energy savings. 43p.

Cost-benefit analysis of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Roofing System for a School Located in Blacksburg, Virginia. Adobe PDF
Cholakkal, Leena
(Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg , May 2006)
Analyzes how solar radiation, temperature, solar altitude, and solar azimuth affect the power produced by a new thin film photovoltaic panel. Through the application of multiple linear regression, the model developed is then used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the building integrated photovoltaic roofing system when connected to the utility grid when compared to a conventional roofing system. The analysis is applied to a school building located in Blacksburg, Virginia. Using the current utility rates and the energy consumption data, the payback period of the system is evaluated for full roof, half roof and quarter roof coverage. 93p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: Applications Guide for Off-the-Shelf Equipment for Displacement Ventilation Use.
Blatt, Morton
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , May 2006)
Provides background information on the potential energy use, indoor air quality and acoustic benefits of displaced ventilation as well as field experience with DV in schools and commercial buildings. The applications that could benefit from use of displacement ventilation are described including facility requirements, acoustic requirements, climate-related factors, and indoor air quality. Displacement ventilation system requirements for K-12 schools are defined, including diffuser requirements, HVAC requirements, and optional HVAC system features. Mechanical system options are described including central (chiller-based) plants, packaged direct expansion (DX) variable air volume systems and packaged single zone direct expansion units. Alternative control strategies are discussed and diffuser options are presented. Includes nine references. 15p.

UK School Carbon Footprint Scoping Study. Adobe PDF
(Sustainable Development Commission, London, UK , Mar 2006)
Reviews the current state of carbon emissions from British schools, their sources, and trends that will both increase and decrease carbon emissions in the near future. A variety of practices are proposed that will reduce school carbon emissions based on building design, waste, travel to school, procurement, and food preparation. 76p.

Energy Benchmarking: Does Your School Get a Passing Grade? Adobe PDF
(Public Interest Energy Research Program, Sacramento, CA , 2006)
Discusses the virtues of the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) system for benchmarking school energy use. The steps in the process include gathering and tabulating usage data for all fuels; determining energy use per area, student, and hour; ranking the schools; and developing an action plan. 2p.

Energy Conservation and Indoor Air Quality: Lessons from the Past Have Relevance for the Future. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Presents an historical look at energy use and indoor air quality, from prehistoric times to the present. The introduction of air conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is described, and the manner in which HVAC technology transformed building in the 20th century is noted. The largely negative impact of these various technologies, as introduced, on indoor air quality is addressed, and 22 references are included. 12p.

Energy Conservation and Indoor Air Quality: Partnering to Protect Public Health. Adobe PDF
(Air Quality Sciences, Inc., Marietta, GA , 2006)
Briefly reviews the history of indoor air quality and energy conservation during the past 40 years, and how indoor air contaminants can affect human health. Issues addressed include the OAPEC oil embargos, energy conservation, tight buildings, poor IAQ, mold, volatile offgassing compounds (VOCs), climate change, "green" building, and complimentary goals of indoor air quality and energy conservation. 21 references are included. 12p.

Energy Conservation Guide. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , 2006)
Assists schools with energy conservation in order to participate in the Toronto District School Board's EcoSchools program. The Board's energy conservation standards, a five-step process for EcoSchool review and improvement, and the program's energy conservation toolkit are included. 24p.

Energy Conservation Report. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , 2006)
Shares the highlights of energy conservation work completed by Toronto District School Board staff and others during the 2004/05 school year. The document reportst that number of certified EcoSchools rose from 13 in 2003/04 to 53 in 2004/05, that "Smart" meters at 31 pilot schools are capturing and reporting on the hourly consumption of natural gas and electricity, and that monthly energy reports are now available on-line for all schools. 20p.

Energy in Schools:Energy Education and Projects for Reducing Energy Demand in Schools. Adobe PDF
(Wisions, Wuppertal, Germany , 2006)
Describes five international projects that promote energy savings in schools, including the replacement of a school's three gas boilers with one wood boiler, the construction of a biogas plant to provide cooking fuel for a school cafeteria, and the renovation of schools for energy efficiency financed with anticipated energy savings. 16p.

Financing Energy-Efficient Projects.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , 2006)
Briefly describes tax-exempt lease/purchase agreements as a means to finance improvements in school facility energy consumption. 1p.

School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software. (SAVES)
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2006)
SAVES is a free software package that architects, engineers, school officials, and others can use to determine what type of ventilation equipment provides the best advantages for their unique applications. SAVES incorporates two software tools for the school design community: 1) the ERV Financial Assessment Software Tool (also referred to as ‘EFAST’) assesses the financial characteristics of energy recovery ventilation systems for school applications; and 2) the Indoor Humidity Assessment Tool (also referred to as ‘IHAT’) helps school designers assess the moisture control characteristics of ERV systems, along with other building design decisions that can impact indoor moisture levels and indoor air quality.

Solar Secure Schools: Stategies and Guidelines. Adobe PDF
Graun, G. W.; Varadi, P.F.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO , Jan 2006)
Explores possibilities for schools to have more stable energy costs because they derive a portion of their electricity from solar panels. Large numbers of solar power systems are already being deployed at U.S. schools. Solar secure schools are not only technically feasible but also economically justified when grid electricity prices are high and volatile or schools are shut down by grid power outages more than once every 10 years. Solar power prices and grid electricity prices are trending strongly in opposite directions, so solar secure schools soon will be an attractive cost control and public safety strategy in most states. This document presents a simple step-by-step process that school officials can use to assess energy security options. 30p.
Report NO: NREL/SR-520-38435


Handbook of Financing Energy Projects
Thumann, Albert
(Fairmont Press, 2006)
As the trend for obtaining funds for energy projects moves away from utility rebate programs toward other types of financing alternatives, there is a growing need for guidance as to what options are now available, how to assess project payback in advance, how to anticipate and avoid potential risks and/or hidden costs, and how to assure that the project is an economic success. Providing this guidance, this book details innovative methods for financing energy projects. It covers energy service performance contracting, rate of return analysis, and measurement and verification of energy savings. It provides tips to help readers work with lenders and case histories detailing financing success stories. 432p.

Report on the 2005 Annual Performance of Monitored High Performance Mobile Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Cleveland, Tommy
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , Dec 2005)
Presents numerous graphs comparing the energy use for a conventional versus a high- performance modular classroom. The total energy consumption of the high-performance unit was 30% less than that of the conventional unit. Figures for HVAC, lighting, hot water, and plug load use are broken out as well. Graphs are presented for each month of the year, with special attention to the extreme-temperature months of February and July. Ventilation and carbon dioxide levels are also covered. 18p.

Case Study: Commissioning--Commissioning Skeptic Now Believes. Adobe PDF
(Oregon Dept. of Energy, Salem , Nov 2005)
Relates a situation where the Hillsboro School District (Oregon) spent considerable effort to rectify problems with uncommissioned school buildings. Then, when later using renovation grant money that compelled commissioning, the District had a different and positive experience with their buildings. 4p.

National Review of Green Schools: Costs, Benefits, and Implications for Massachusetts. Adobe PDF
Kats, Greg; Perlman, Jeff; Jamadagni, Sachin
(Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, Westborough , Nov 2005)
Documents the financial costs and benefits of "green" schools compared to conventional schools, with specific reference to Massachusetts. This review of 20 schools nationwide demonstrates that "green" schools cost 1.5 to 2.5% more to build, but provide financial benefits that are 10 to 20 times as large. Individual sections discuss energy savings, emission reduction, water and wastewater impacts, construction and demolition waste, and health and learning benefits. 72p.

Another Challenge for School Districts: Keeping Kids Warm This Winter. Adobe PDF
(New York State Association of School Business Officials, Albany , Oct 2005)
Presents results of a survey of New York school business officials that assessed how recent increases in heating fuel prices will affect school operations budgets and how districts are planning for any anticipated budget shortfall. The principal findings of the survey are: 1) 82% of school districts expect a 2005-2006 operations budget shortfall. 2) The average 2005-2006 operations budget shortfall is estimated at $135,646. 3) Based on estimated energy prices, the cumulative impact on New York State s schools in 2005-2006 is estimated to be nearly $96,000,000. 4) School districts are prepared to implement a variety initiatives to close the anticipated budget gap, with the vast majority implementing new conservation efforts or strictly enforcing existing ones. This and other measures that avoid a negative impact on the educational program are described, including reducing non-school and after-school use of facilities, cooperative energy purchasing, and using alternative energy sources. 7p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.5c Final Outline Specification and Schematic Design Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Summarizes a general HVAC load calculation for a hypothetical single-level classroom building in coastal Southern California, and an identical building in Sacramento, including accommodations for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV). Subsequent sections of the report provide a schematic description of three design options for applying TDV in the hypothetical classroom building. For each of the three options, a summary of the system design, major components, HVAC sequences of operation, and estimated capital costs are indicated. For each design option, an effort has been made to address the relative advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each TDV design option, and to highlight differences from conventional HVAC design approaches. A general schematic of the system layout, room layout and room section are included for each system design. 18p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.8b Final Equipment List and Performance Specification.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jul 29, 2005)
Documents the requirements for new products designed specifically for thermal displacement ventilation (TDV), with the objective of identifying new products for TDV that are not currently available. The identification of new products springs from the TDV design charrette, system design options study, and market barriers study performed in this California research project. 12p.

School Ground Greening Guide. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario, Canada , Apr 2005)
Guides in selection, funding, purchase, placement, and planting of trees to create school ground shade for health and energy conservation. Presented in curriculum format, the guide explains the scientific justification for adding trees to the environment, then organizes the process into the following steps: 1) Establish a team, 2) Conduct a review, 3) Develop an action plan, 4) Implement the action plan, and 4) Monitor and evaluate progress. The included "toolkit" offers extensive forms and guidelines for plant and materials selections, as well as questionnaires to help guide the process. 100p.

Financing Options for Schools [Oregon]
(Oregon Department of Energy , 2005)
Oregon school districts constructing energy efficient facilities and/or making energy improvements to existing buildings have several financing options available through the Oregon Department of Energy. This describes the Energy Loan Program, SB1149 Public Purpose Funds, Performance Contracting, and the Business Energy Tax Credit Program.

The Pennsylvania Green Building Operations and Maintenance Manual.
(Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Dept. of General Services, Harrisburg , 2005)
Provides guidance for environmentally preferable maintenance and operation practices in buildings, including landscaping, snow removal and de-icing, cleaning practices and product selection, and maintenance of building systems, including parking garages 101p.

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Environmental and Economic Benefits for Public Schools. Adobe PDF
Joblin, Nathan
(Adapted from masters thesis, University of San Francisco, 2005 , 2005)
Describes how the energy savings from geothermal heat pumps can typically pay for the system in ten years through reduced energy and maintenance costs. Indoor air quality benefits are also described. The study also finds that U.S. schools spend $6 billion a year on energy and that $1.5 billion to $2.4 billion could be saved if U.S. schools converted to geothermal. Includes 15 references. 5p.

North Carolina Performance Enhanced Relocatable Classroom Project: An Evaluation of Design Changes to a Typical Relocatable Classroom. Adobe PDF
Raper, Garrett
(North Carolina State University, Raleigh , 2005)
In this study, the energy consumption of two relocatable classrooms located on the southern portion of the campus of Chapel Hill High School in Chapel Hill, NC is investigated. One classroom, the control, was specified and purchased by the Chapel Hill-Carrboro City School System. The other is a performance enhanced classroom designed by the Florida Solar Energy Center and purchased by the North Carolina Solar Center. Both classrooms are 24' by 40' modular structures, completely underpinned, and located adjacent to one another for a side by side comparison. The energy consumption and indoor conditions of each classroom are monitored by a data-logging system that also records outdoor conditions via a weather station. The performance enhanced classroom is equipped with a 3 ton, SEER 12 heat pump controlled by a Bard CS2000 unit, six skylights, increased insulation and envelope sealing, a demand control ventilation system with an energy recovery wheel, and a day lighting system controlled by occupancy sensors. The control classroom is equipped with a wall-mounted 10 kW electric furnace/air conditioning system. A programmable thermostat was also installed in the control classroom after two months of data was collected. A building model is prepared using the Energy-10 software package to estimate the impact the various design changes have on the energy consumption of each classroom. [Author's abstract] 54p.

Easy Access to Energy Improvement Funds in the Public Sector. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Nov 2004)
Outlines bonds, tax-exempt lease, and performance contract mechanisms to finance energy improvements in public buildings. 2p.

Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy. Adobe PDF
Apte, Michael; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred; Sullivan; Douglas
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Scientific & Techincal Information, Washington , Oct 14, 2004)
The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many clasrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously and remotely, while other IEQ measurements will be performed seasonally. The study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors. 16p.
Report NO: LBNL-56527


Marion County Public Schools Operates Successful Energy Management Program.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA , Oct 2004)
Describes the success of this school district's energy management program, run by an energy manger who monitors energy bills, trains and motivates maintenance, custodial, and administrative personnel. 3p.

School Ground Greening Guide: Designing for Shade and Energy Conservation. Adobe PDF
(Toronto District School Board, Ontario , Aug 2004)
Guides in selection, funding, purchase, placement, and planting of trees to create shade for health and energy conservation. Presented in curriculum format, the guide explains the scientific justification for adding trees to the environment, then organizes the process into the following steps: 1)Establish an EcoTeam, 2)Conduct an EcoReview, 3)Develop an action plan, 4)Implement the action plan, and 4)Monitor and evaluate progress. 84p.

School Operations and Maintenance: Best Practices for Controlling Energy Costs. Adobe PDF
(Prepared by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Rebuild America EnergySmart Schools Program, Washington, DC; Princeton Energy Resources International, Rockville, MD; HPowell Energy Associates, Westford, MA; Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2004)
Provides detailed practical guidance on how K-12 school districts can plan and implement enhancements to their current operations and maintenance programs that can successfully maintain their facilities while also reducing energy costs up to 20 percent. Most of the strategies detailed entail limited capital costs and produce rapid paybacks. In addition to technical information, the guide provides organizational information on barriers, challenges, the steps necessary to develop this type of program. Reviews successful strategies from a wide variety of American school districts and includes case studies. 114p.

Using DOE 2.1E to Evaluate Green Building Construction Opportunities and Ventilation Design for Lotus School. Adobe PDF
Chimak, Michael; Walker, Christine
(International Building Performance Simulation Association, College Station, Texas , Aug 2004)
Using an elementary school as an example, this paper demonstrates how building simulation can be used as late in the process as the early construction phase of a building project, though usually with increasing cost of building modifications. Using building utility budget as an indicator, the options presented through use of building simulation tools can justify the change to the design or construction, by showing a reduction in the expected operational costs over the lifetime of the building. 163-168p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D-2.2d Final CFD Analysis and Documentation Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Jun 16, 2004)
Presents conclusions from computational flow dynamics analysis of various classrooms in this California research into displacement ventilation in schools: 1) Sufficient cooling and thermal comfort can be provided through two displacement diffusers, providing 65- degree supply air. 2)A 9-foot ceiling is sufficient for thermal displacement ventilation. Benefits of stratification are seen with high (12-foot) ceilings; as a result, less air is required to maintain the same room setpoint, for the same design cooling loads. 3)Marginal comfort is maintained at locations close to the diffusers. The temperatures at floor level are cool (67-68 degrees). Seated students should be situated at a distance of at least 4 feet from the corner diffusers, to stay comfortable. 4) Lighting loads contribute less heat to the occupied zone than occupant or equipment loads. 5) Displacement ventilation shows improvements in ventilation effectiveness, as evidenced by lower CO2 levels and a lower mean age of air in the occupied zone. 66p.

Energy and Water Conservation: Techniques to Reduce Waste and Improve the Budgetary Bottom Line. Adobe PDF
Peterson, David
(The Council of Educational Facility Planners International, Scottsdale, AZ , May 2004)
Presents simple ways to lower energy and water costs for existing school facilities that do not involve renovation or retrofitting. An inspection of bills and meters may reveal overcharges, duplicate billings, and inefficient payment processing. Adjustments to HVAC, light usage, and grounds watering can often be made without any negative impact on the facility or user comfort. Often, ignorance of systems settings create excess usage that is easily remedied by educating the staff. 4p.
Report NO: Issuetrak 17


Case Study: Resource Conservation Management--Crook County Schools Debunk Energy Myth.
Mar 2004)
Describes how a small school district reduced its energy costs by 15% in one year without spending any extra money. This was achieved by auditing energy use and discovering HVAC programming errors that caused unoccupied space to be heated. Thermostat settings, lighting, and use of computers and appliances were also addressed. 4p.

Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools:D2.1b-TDV Research Coordination Final Report.
Arent, John; Eley, Charles
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Feb 03, 2004)
Presents a report on the coordination of research for this study of thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) in California schools. The existing literature was reviewed to determine important design factors on TDV performance. The ceiling height, the location of the heat sources, and the convection heat flow at the wall impact the temperature stratification. Design guidelines were formed from results of computational flow dynamics (CFD) analysis and experimental data. These guidelines consist of predictions of floor temperature, the temperature difference between head and foot level, and ventilation effectiveness. The CFD and experimental results can support the existing design guidelines, or serve as the basis for new guidelines. Includes 30 references. 12p.

Advanced HVAC Systems for Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools, Technology Transfer Plan (Revised).
Blatt, Morton
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Feb 2004)
This technology transfer plan provides a time-phased tabulation and description of documents to be published and distributed to disseminate the results and to increase the market penetration of the thermal displacement ventilation (TDV) and ultraviolet-c (UDV) technologies being studied in this The plan addresses market barriers that often impede the adoption of new technologies and analyzes the roles of influential market participants in the funding, specification, installation and operation of these technologies. Potential advantages and disadvantages TDV and UVC technologies are tabulated. Information dissemination channels are outlined for each set of market participants, including publications, periodicals, web sits and upcoming meetings. Technology transfer materials are described that can overcome market barriers for the influential market participants. Anticipated technology transfer deliverables are tabulated with the expected delivery date and channel to be used. 43p.
Report NO: CEC-500-03-003


A Client's Guide to Sustainable Schools: A Draft for Development. Adobe PDF
(The GAIA Group, Edinburgh, Scotland , 2004)
Describes principles of sustainable design and provides guidance for owners formulating a program for sustainable building, communicating the benefits of sustainability, working with design professionals, and ultimately taking ownership and maintaining the facility. Several European sustainable schools and sources for additional information are cited. 43p.

Case Study: Retro-Commissioning--Silver Falls School District Gets What It Paid for.
(Oregon Dept. of Energy, Salem , Jan 2004)
Describes a commissioning project for an underperforming new HVAC system. The process identified 72 discrepancies in the installation and operation of the system, made necessary repairs and replacements, and trained staff on the new system. 5p.

Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis.
(Washington State Dept. of General Administration, Olympia , 2004)
Provides guidance for performing energy life cycle cost analyses (ELCCA) in Washington State and promoting the selection of low life cycle cost alternatives. Chapters 1 and 2 define energy life cycle cost analysis and explain which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements. Chapters 3 through 7 provide the instructions and forms needed to prepare the ELCCA submittals. Chapter 8 is the ELCCA submittal evaluation that addresses the timing and completeness of each ELCCA submittal. Many components of this document are specific to Washington State building owners, but the auditing, reporting, and product selection procedures are generally applicable nationwide. 21p.

Guidelines for the Design of Energy Efficient Roof Systems.
(National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL, 2004)
These guidelines are intended to assist design professionals who want to specify energy-efficient roof systems, as well as those who need to meet the requirements of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-1999, "Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential."

Maine High Performance Schools Program. Adobe PDF
(Maine Public Utilities Commision, Efficiency Maine, Augusta , 2004)
Presents an overview of energy-efficient technologies that may be eligible for financial assistance from the Maine High Performance Schools Program. Artificial lighting, daylighting, mechanical systems, heating systems, and life cycle cost analysis are described. 24p.

Performance Contracting: Financing Better Schools Through Energy Cost Savings.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy , 2004)
Describes how performance contract management can provide added funds for K-12 school improvement projects, with sections on how performance contracting works, case studies, and recommended sources. Under performance contracts, energy service companies (ESCOs) contract with school districts to pay for improvements from savings in energy innovations. If guaranteed savings don't materialize for the customer to the extent projected, the ESCO pays the difference. Depending on negotiations, performance contracts allow for either the customer or the contractor to keep any "excess" savings during the contract term. After the end of the contract term, the customer keeps all savings. 6p.

Sustainability: Building Our Future: Scotland's School Estate.
(The Scottish Executive, Edinburgh , 2004)
Outlines princples and processes for achieving a sustainable school, covering issues that should be considered throughout the design and construction process. The individual elements of sustainable schools are enumerated, and the processes for securing them described. Extensive practical advice from two architects and a government official, along with case studies of nine schools that addressed sustainability are included. 55p.

The Cash Flow Opportunity (CFO) Calculator
(Energy Star Buildings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 2004)
This tool helps decision-makers answer three critical questions about energy efficiency investments: 1.How much new energy efficiency equipment can be purchased from the anticipated savings?; 2.Should this equipment purchase be financed now, or is it better to wait and use cash from a future budget?; and 3.Is money being lost by waiting for a lower interest rate?

The Energy Performance Benchmarking Tool.
(Energy Star Buildings, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2004)
This benchmarking tool allows school districts to compare their energy performance among their own schools and against schools nationwide. The free, on-line tool is password protected, and rates schools on a scale of 1 to 100. Schools that score a 75 or over and meet indoor environmental criteria earn the ENERGY STAR label- a metal plaque to display on top-performing buildings.

Preliminary Evaluation of Performance Enhanced Relocatable Classrooms in Three Climates. Adobe PDF
Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , 2004)
Summarizes comparative energy performance data from side-by-side installations of standard and energy-efficient portable classrooms in New York, North Carolina, and Florida. The monitoring showed that the heating and cooling needs dominated the energy requirements, with lighting accounting for only about 10-15% of total use. The long term energy savings of the energy-efficient models were 34% for New York, 46% for North Carolina, and 81% for Florida. The specifications of the units and nine references are included. 13p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-382-04


Improving Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Performance of California K-12 Schools: D2.2B Classroom Prototypes Developed Draft Report.
(Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO , Dec 05, 2003)
Discusses the full-scale mockup classrooms developed to determine the supply airflow and supply air temperature conditions necessary to meet classroom cooling loads and maintain thermal comfort in this California research. Specifications for prototypical classrooms were developed to be representative of cooling loads and operating conditions found in modern classrooms. These specifications were translated into building models, and energy simulations were run to determine boundary conditions for a range of cooling loads and conditions. 17p.

HPCBS Element 6, Project 2.1.2: Energy Savings Estimates and Cost Benefit Calculations for High Performance Relocatable Classrooms: Final Report. Adobe PDF
Rainer, Leo; Hoeschele, Marc
(U.S. Dept of Energy, Office of Science and Technical Information, Washington , Nov 24, 2003)
Reports results of monitoring to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms across California climates. A key objective was to validate simulations for comparison to initial performance projections. The validated model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance relocatable classroom operation in the 16 California climate zones. Includes 15 references. 38p.

School Energy Costs: A Matter of Leadership.
(Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City , Nov 2003)
Recommends organizing a district energy management team, conducting a district-wide energy needs assessment, and then drafting an energy action plan to control school energy costs. Goals described are energy-efficient design for new construction, setting up a program for energy accounting and tracking, evaluating energy efficiency upgrades and creative funding, performing regular maintenance, hiring or designating a district energy manager, and involving staff, teachers, and students. 34p.

The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings. Adobe PDF
Kats, Greg
(California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento , Oct 2003)
Presents a detailed analysis of costs and financial benefits of environmentally sensitive building design and occupancy practices. The study concludes that an upfront investment of about two percent of construction costs typically yields life cycle savings of over ten times the initial investment. Topics covered include reduced energy and water use, less waste, lower operations and maintenance costs, and increased occupant health and productivity. (Includes 20 annotated references.) 120p.

Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Star Program, Washington , Sep 2003)
Describes how to protect and enhance school indoor air quality while improving energy efficiency. Common threats to indoor air quality are described, as is the energy cost of outdoor ventilation, energy recovery ventilation, and energy efficiency measures where adjustments may be necessary. 5p.

Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Livermore, CA , Aug 12, 2003)
Assists facility owners, architects, engineers, designers, facility managers, and utility demand-side management specialists in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide focuses on laboratory energy design issues with a systems design approach that views the entire building as the essential system. This means the larger, macro energy-efficiency considerations during architectural programming come before the smaller, micro component selection such as an energy-efficient fan.

Effects of Energy Needs and Expenditures on U.S. Public Schools. Statistical Analysis Report. Adobe PDF
Smith, Timothy; Porch, Rebecca; Farris, Elizabeth; Fowler, William
(U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C. , May 2003)
This report provides national estimates on energy needs and expenditures of U.S. public school districts. The survey provides estimates of Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 energy expenditures, FY 2001 energy budgets and expenditures, and FY 2002 energy budgets; methods used to cover energy budget shortfalls in FY 2001; and possible reasons for those shortfalls. The survey also explored the cost-saving measures that school districts took in FY 2000, FY 2001, and FY 2002. Finally, the survey examined the extent to which the chief financial officer of the school district (or other district respondent) perceived the school district succeeded in reducing energy usage and cost per unit. The nationally representative sample of approximately 1,000 regular school districts was selected from the 1999–2000 Common Core of Data Local Education Agency Universe file. 87p.
Report NO: NCES-2003-018


Energy-Efficient Schools Policies and Opportunities Adobe PDF
Rewey, Christie; Brown, Matthew
(National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO , Apr 2003)
Presents a range of options for increasing energy efficiency in schools, gathered from a survey of 227 school business officials. These options include stronger consideration of long-term building cost over initial cost, energy-efficiency requirements for retrofits of older schools, energy managers in school districts, special billing categories for schools, mandatory energy codes or design guidelines, stronger building energy codes, state energy incentive programs, and performance contracting. The most vital elements of successful state incentive programs are also detailed, and the complete survey document is included. 49p.

Best Practices Report: A Sampling of Best Practices and Resources of School Facility Construction. Adobe PDF
(California Office of Public School Construction, Sacramento , Mar 2003)
Reviews useful documents from the California Office of Public School Construction and several "feature projects" that illustrate recent school facility planning ideas and design solutions approved by the Division of the State Architect and the California Department of Education. Examples of prototype school plans, developer-built schools, and design-built schools are highlighted. 59p.

Case Study: North Santiam School District.
Hardy, Catherine
(Oregon Office of Energy, Salem, Feb 2003)
Oregon's North Santiam School District stretched $350,000 into $1.2 million to upgrade antiquated school buildings by implementing energy-saving lighting, heating, and control projects, thereby qualifying for Oregon's SB1149 public purpose funds, and by using a tax credit pass-through option, made possible with a partnership with Nike, an Oregon-based shoe, apparel, and sports equipment manafacturer. 5p.

Energy Smart Choices and Financial Considerations for Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, D.C. , 2003)
There is more information packed into this two-page sheet than in many full-length studies. Includes salient facts that can help decision makers formulate an argument for implementing energy-saving projects in schools, such as "The 118,000 public and private K-12 schools in the nation are spending about $6 billion annually on energy costs--25 percent to 30 percent more than they need to." Provides snapshots of four schools around the country with successful lighting, retrofitting, air quality, and integrated design projects. Includes briefly stated statistics and facts about saving energy in schools. 2p.

Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings.
(American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 2003)
This describes how to reliably measure energy savings due to building energy management projects. A standardized set of energy and demand savings calculation procedures, the guidelines provide information on minimum acceptable levels of performance in determiniing energy and demand savings in commercial transactions.
Report NO: Guideline 14-2002

TO ORDER: ASHRAE, Tel: 800-527-4723
http://www.ashrae.org

National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , 2002)
This guide was developed specifically for architects and engineers who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, and for the project managers who work with the design teams. The design strategies presented here are organized into 10 chapters covering important design disciplines and goals: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource-efficient building products. An additional chapter addresses commissioning and maintenance practices. Each chapter contains a list of related resources. 457p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1610


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cold and humid climates, for which Minneapolis-St.Paul, Minnesota, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1542


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Dry Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept.of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cool and dry climates, for which Denver, Colorado, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1543


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for cool and humid climates, for which Boston, Massachusetts, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 85p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1539


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections scrutinize the following key interrelated components of high performance school design: site design; daylighting and windows; energy-efficient building shell; lighting and electrical systems; mechanical and ventilation systems; renewable energy systems; water conservation; recycling systems and waste management; transportation; and resource-efficient building products. The Phoenix, Arizona, climate was used as the model for these recommendations. Resources for additional information conclude the document. 89p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1291


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transporation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for hot and humid climates, for which Orlando, Florida, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1541


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Humid Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document along with case studies. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for temperate and humid climates, for which Atlanta, Georgia, served as a model city. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. 85p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1540


Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates. Adobe PDF
(U.S.Dept. of Energy, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO. , Jun 2002)
The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools. The document presents recommended design elements in 10 sections, each representing a key interrelated component of high performance school design: (1) site design; (2) daylighting and windows; (3) energy-efficient building shell; (4) lighting and electrical systems; (5) mechanical and ventilation systems; (6) renewable energy systems; (7) water conservation; (8) recycling systems and waste management; (9) transportation; and (10) resource efficient building products. To effectively integrate energy-saving strategies, these options must be evaluated together from a whole-building perspective early in the design process. A "high performance checklist" for designers is located at the end of the document. The checklist is a quick reference for key architectural and engineering considerations. Case studies can also be found at the end of the document. These guidelines contain recommendations generally appropriate for temperate and mixed climates, for which various cities in Washington and California served as a models. Other guidelines have been developed for the other climate zones. (Contains a list of numerous Web resources.) 83p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1544


Get Smart About Energy. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC , Feb 2002)
This publication discusses the high costs of energy in schools, the benefits of smart energy use, options for smarter energy use, energy's impact on student performance, how schools can participate in the EnergySmart Schools campaign operated by Rebuild America, and successful initiatives at other schools. Also included are a list of resources and factsheets on myths about energy in schools, the Rebuild America campaign, and energy initiatives at Seattle public schools. 16p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1524


How Parents and Teachers Are Helping To Create Better Environments for Learning. Energy-Smart Building Choices. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Feb 2002)
This brochure shows parents and teachers how smart energy choices reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. The brochure reveals how schools have turned energy improvements into powerful teaching tools by incorporating energy features into the curriculum. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation. 7p.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102002-1521


Classroom Lighting Knowhow. Adobe PDF
(Northern Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Inc.; Design Lights Consortium , 2002)
This guide provides some advice on how to use photocell dimming in schools to save lighting energy without creating distraction to students. It also provides guidance on what types of luminaries to use, and how best to orient and group them in order to maximize energy savings. Estimated energy savings are given for a variety of luminaire and control options. Includes general classroom layouts, computer classroom layouts, corridor layouts, and lighting fixture specifications. 8p.

Energy-Efficient Education: Cutting Utility Costs in Schools.
(Texas Legislative Budget Board, Austin , 2002)
Details ten methods for saving energy in schools. The suggestions are accompanied by ideas for involving students, teachers, administrators, and outside professionals. Examples of how some Texas districts have saved money and lists of additional resources are included for each of the ten items. 35p.

Innovative Financing Solutions: Finding Money for Your Energy Efficiency Projects. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Energy Star Program, Jan 2002)
This describes how performance contracts and tax-exempt lease-purchase agreements may offer practical solution when no money is available for energy efficiency projects. It provides clear financial reasoning and cost modeling, as well as some case studies. 11p.

Lighting Control Best Practice Guide: Schools.
(Watt Stopper, Inc., Santa Clara, CA. , 2002)
This publication offers design, specification, and installation guidance for lighting control appropriate for K-12 educational facilities. It features applications that illustrate the best control practices for a variety of spaces, facilitating lighting control design and application. Each best practice meets the provisions of relevant energy codes, reduces lighting operation costs, saves energy, and considers the needs of the primary space occupants, teachers and students. Each best practice includes a description of application, a list of control needs, a product solution, design considerations, a lighting plan sketch, installation notes, wiring and installation diagrams, and an equipment schedule. 58p.

Myths about Energy in Schools. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, Rebuild America's EnergySmart Schools, Washington, DC , 2002)
Examines some myths and misconceptions about energy in schools and provides facts that can help school districts make smarter energy choices. The myths discussed are: (1) energy isn't a major budget item for schools; (2) schools can't save much by being energy smart; (3) energy efficiency is unrelated to student performance; (4) energy improvements in existing buildings require major upfront investments; (5) new schools are energy efficient; (6) constructing an energy efficient school costs more; (7) designing energy efficient buildings takes more time; (8) tracking energy use isn't necessary; (9) local communities won't support energy improvements; and (10) help is hard to find. 6p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-102002-1525


Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency in the Design of Building Services Systems for School Classrooms. Adobe PDF
Tam, K.L.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)
Introduces Hong Kong's proposed Indoor Air Quality Management Programme, its achievements, and proposed target objectives. The design approaches taken to tackle the issues both from maintaining good air quality and energy efficient usage in school classrooms are outlined. (Includes two references.) 5p.

Energy Management Handbook. Fourth Edition.
Turner, Wayne C.
(Marcel Dekker, 2002)
This is a comprehensive handbook covering every component of effective energy management, including boiler and steam system optimization, lighting and electrical systems, HVAC system performance, waste heat recovery, cogeneration, thermal energy storage, energy management control systems, energy systems maintenance, building envelope, industrial insulation, indoor air quality, energy economic analysis, energy procurement decision making, energy security and reliability, and overall energy management program organization. The new fourth edition adds new chapters covering all aspects of utility deregulation and energy project financing. An important new section addresses the pluses and minuses of in-house vs. outsourcing of energy services. Detailed illustrations, tables, graphs and many other helpful working aids are provided throughout. 761p.

Intelligent Skins.
Wigginton, Michale; Harris, Jude
(Butterworth Architectural Press, 2002)
This introduces a new approach to Intelligent Buildings. The prime objective is to control internal environments through a responsive building fabric rather than by energy conserving building services systems. The authors examine the potential for integral intelligence within the fabric of the building and explore the evolution of information technology and smart materials which have allowed a whole new category of design principles to be created. Includes international case studies. 184 p.

Sustainability Theory and Educational Facilities.
Woodson, Carol Mitchell
(Dissertation, University of Florida, 2002)
The focus of this comparative case study was to test, discern, and document whether the theory of the construct of sustainability, specifically in the area of renewable energy systems, could be utilized in educational facilities as measured by cost effectiveness and efficacy. This study examined two Texas schools that approached supplying their energy needs in the two different ways: one using traditional methods and one incorporating the use of renewable energy. Data were collected to establish a life-cycle cost model for assessing the cost-benefit of sustainable renewable energy systems in place in educational facilities. Efficacy of the systems was established from the perceptions of the participant users of the facilities by use of an oral survey. It was the purpose of this study to test the theory for appropriate utilization of sustainable renewable energy systems in educational facilities in anticipation of providing the needed documentation to support a policy change in the design and construction of educational facilities. [Author's abstract]
TO ORDER: UMI Dissertation Express
http://disexpress.umi.com/dxweb

Lighting for Schools. Adobe PDF
Benya, James R.
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Dec 2001)
This publication highlights some of the benefits of proper daylighting design in educational facilities, discusses energy efficient electric lighting choices schools can make that are long lasting and require little maintenance, and offers six steps for designing lighting systems that use half the energy of earlier conventional designs. Several light sources and systems are listed along with their mean lumens per watt, luminary usage, and types of school spaces where they would be used.(Contains three references). 6p.

Preliminary Evaluation of Energy-Efficiency Improvements to Modular Classrooms.
Parker, Danny; Fairey, Philip
(Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL; Grant from the National Association of State Energy Officers and the U.S. Deparment of Energy. , Sep 2001)
The ojective of this investigation was to evaluate innovations that would enable modular classroom builders to improve the energy performance of their classrooms, including improved insulation, better windows, daylighting, cross-ventilation, heat recovery, and radiant barriers for cooling dominated climates. The preliminary results discuss the classroom simulation model; preliminary research; building geometry; energy baseline for various climates; comparison of simulation model to measured data; issues associated with ventilation and infiltration; analyzed measures, and results. 12p.

How School Administrators and Board Members Are Improving Learning and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices Series. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2001)
This brochure shows how school administrators and board members can make smart energy choices to reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102001-1430


How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices Series.
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , Aug 2001)
This brochure shows how school facility administrators and business officials can make smart energy choices to reduce school operating costs and create better learning environments. It provides guidelines on ten key elements to consider for designing a high performance school: site design, daylighting and windows, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, environmentally sensitive building products and systems, water conservation, recycling and waste management, and transportation. 7p.
Report NO: DOE-GO-102001-1431.


Smart Schools Save Energy: Promoting Energy Efficiency in New York State Schools. Adobe PDF
Clinton, Hillary Rodham
(United State Senate, Office of Hillary Clinton, Washington, DC, May 2001)
Discusses things that every school can do to save energy and money, and shows how New York schools have proven how these measures work. Includes a list of contacts. 8

Northwest Portable Classroom Project: Final Report.
(Washington State University Extension Program, Olympia , Mar 31, 2001)
Presents findings and recommendations regarding energy efficiency in portable classrooms. The research used newly built and retrofitted energy-efficient portable classrooms, along with an existing control. The findings describe typical points of air leakage and heat loss, inadequate or incorrectly timed controls, and poorly designed fenestration and ventilation. The costs for retrofitting older portables was deemed reasonable and considerably less than the cost of a new classroom. Practical recommendations for retrofitting existing and specifying in new portables are included. 25p.

2001 Savings by Design Energy Efficiency Integration Awards
(Savings by Design, the American Institute of Architects California Council, Sacramento, CA, 2001)
This honors design teams and their clients who worked together to make significant progress toward achieving award-winning design while pursuing high-performance building goals. Award winners include the Isla Vista Elementary School located in Galeta.

Benchmarking Guide for School Facility Managers.
(Natural Resources Canada, Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottowa , 2001)
Helps school facility managers calculate their schools energy performance and compare it with benchmarks in their own region and across Canada. Templates for calculation are provided, along with graphs and charts representing energy consumption, performance, and costs. 24p.

Bright Schools Program: Energy-Efficient Schools for a Brighter Future.
(California Energy Commission , 2001)
Describes the California Energy Commission program to help California's schools become more energy efficient. This program provides such services as identifying cost-effective energy-efficient systems and providing design and implementation assistance. Includes a downloadable nine-page brochure.

Green Schools Energy Project. Adobe PDF
(Youth for Environmental Sanity, Soquel, CA , 2001)
This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Each of the 11 steps is fleshed out in detail; steps include forming a working group, holding a meeting, doing necessary investigation, approaching the school board, and choosing a company to do the work for no money down and payments from the guaranteed savings. The document also includes a fact sheet on acid rain, global warming, and air pollution. 28p.

High Performance Sustainable School Design: Roy Lee Walker Elementary, McKinney, Texas. Adobe PDF
(SHW Group Inc., Dallas, TX , 2001)
This document describes the sustainable features of the Roy Lee Walker Elementary School (Texas), a prototype "Eco Education" school that blends the physical environment with the student learning process while protecting the site. The document also presents the process of integrating sustainability criteria in all phases of the school's life cycle. The sustainable design features highlighted include the use of wind and solar energy to reduce climate control costs, a rainwater harvesting design to reduce water costs, a natural daylighting design that reduces the need for flourescent light during the day, and classroom corridor technology that utilizes thousands of square feet of hallway space for learning activities. A floor plan and project timeline are included along with a paper that documents the school's sustainable features, which was presented on May 16, 2000, at the Twelfth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates. 27p.

How to Guide: Maximize Energy Savings in School Buildings. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Department of Energy, State Energy Program, Washington, DC , Jan 2001)
This guide focuses on implementing cost-effective energy saving measures in school buildings and emphasizes the key role of collaboration at the State and local levels. Describes for students, teachers, and community members the economic, environmental, and health benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Presents the steps necessary to work with a local school district as a way to implement a program at the community level. 6p.

Managing Energy in Your Educational Facility.
(Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC , 2001)
This booklet explains how to develop and implement a plan to manage energy in educational facilities. It can be used to identify energy savings opportunities and implement a plan to reduce energy costs. It discusses the following steps for creating an effective energy-use plan: (1) get started and organize for success; (2) look at energy use and costs; (3) perform an energy audit; (4) identify energy savings opportunities (in lighting, HVAC, building envelope, and hot water); (5) consider an energy management system; (6) evaluate costs and payback; and (7) implement measures and monitor performance. It also discusses capitalizing on the opportunities created by deregulation, and seeking outside assistance. The booklet includes a glossary. 62p.
TO ORDER: Edison Electric Institute, 701 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20004-2696. Tel: 202-508-5000
http://www.eei.org/

The Energy Star Buildings Upgrade Manual.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jan 2001)
A guide to use in planning and implementing profitable energy-efficiency upgrades in building facilities. The manual can be used as a comprehensive framework for an energy strategy, focusing on the Energy Star Buildings' five stage approach -- a strategy that can help building owners apply proven technologies to save money and energy while preventing pollution.

High Performance School Buildings. Adobe PDF
Evans, Deane
(Sustainable Buildings Industry Council, Washington, DC with support from the California Energy Commission, National Concrete Masonry Association, Pacific Gas and Electric, Southern California Edison Company, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Education/National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. , Nov 2000)
This guide provides information on how to create schools that provide better learning environments for students and teachers, cost less to operate, and help protect the environment. The guide is organized into three core sections. The first provides an overview and two interrelated discussions on what is a high performance school building and why are such schools valuable. The second section provides issue-specific questions that decision-makers can ask their design team as a means of driving the project toward the highest achievable levels of performance. The final section contains 16, 2- page "briefs" that describe each of the key components which, when integrated as elements of "whole building" design, result in a high performance building. Each brief describes what the building block is, why it's important to students and teachers, as well as to the school's bottom line; how it can be incorporated into the school's design; how it influences other building components and systems; and where more detailed information can be found. 80p.

Issue on Gas Cooling in Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
(American Gas Cooling Center, Washington, DC , Sep-Oct 2000)
Several articles are presented covering the development and use of gas/electric cooling solutions for public schools and colleges. Articles address financing issues; indoor air quality (IAQ)problems and solutions; and the analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Three examples of how schools solved their cooling problems are included, as are technology advances in gas cooling, and legislative issues. Concluding articles provide resources for school IAQ, discuss gas cooling as a solution to power crises, and presents a progress report on the University of Maryland's research of an advanced air conditioning system designed to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 45 percent and achieve 30 percent higher energy efficiency. 22p.

Energy Efficiency and Indoor Environmental Quality in Schools Adobe PDF
(Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Washington, DC. , Aug 2000)
This paper describes how to protect and enhance indoor environmental quality without sacrificing energy performance, lists the common pollutants and their sources, and explores how energy efficiency projects affect indoor environmental quality. Also highlighted are study figures showing the energy costs of outdoor air ventilation and an explanation of energy recovery ventialation technology that can help lessen these costs. An annotated list of areas where adjustments in energy-efficiency measures may be needed is provided. Two resources for additional information are provided. 5p.

Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design. Adobe PDF
(U.S. Dept. of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Labs for the 21st Century, Washington, DC , Aug 2000)
Describes energy-efficient strategies for designing and equipping laboratories. Basic issues of laboratory energy consumption are discussed, along with key opportunities to improve energy performance during each phase of the design and acquisition process. Standard and advanced technologies and practices are included. 12p.

Designing Smarter Schools. [Videotape].
(Information Television Network, Boca Raton, FL , Apr 2000)
This videotape highlights the degree of school-building deterioration in America and the problems this causes for teaching and learning. It also describes the Energy Smart School campaign and details the factors needed in building an Energy Smart School. The video suggests that to build schools that last and to recoup some of the building expense, schools should be designed to be more energy efficient. Energy efficient strategies are detailed under the following energy saving categories: building envelope features; renewable energy sources; and indoor air quality. Several schools are highlighted for their energy savings features: a California school successfully addressed its Urban Heat Island problem; an elementary school in New Hampshire improved its poor indoor air quality; a Massachusetts school improved its lighting to not only be cost effective but also better meet students' learning needs. The video also examines how innovative design techniques helped a renovated school become a community center.

In Focus: Clean Air, Efficient Energy Use.
(American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA , Apr 2000)
The American Association of School Administrators joined forces with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy to help school districts ensure that students and staff are able to work and learn in safe, comfortable environments. This occasional paper discusses how indoor air quality affects the learning process, and how schools that adopt smart energy policies in their buildings, buses and classrooms not only save money but also reap other benefits. 16p.

Energy Management Plan. [Tasmania] Adobe PDF
(Tasmania Dept. of Education, Facilities Services Section, Hobart (Australia) , 2000)
This report presents an overview of the energy management plan for Tasmanian schools. The policy and objectives of the plan, designed to minimize the costs of all forms of energy usage within these facilities, are provided. Appendices contain an extract from the Asset Management Plan for Real Property Assets, a template for writing the Project Definition Statement for Energy Management, a list of potential upgrade sites, and a draft of an energy audit discussion document. 25p.

Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
(Florida Solar Energy Center, Building Design Assistance Center , 2000)
This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic design; design development; and systems design. Designers are advised to aim for the lowest consumption building that is economically possible and to target the major energy users, i.e. lighting and air conditioning, to achieve that goal. Reductions in annual energy use, energy cost, and cooling capacity are provided for comparing relative performance of ECMs. Simple payback of ECMs appears in a chart in each section s overview; life cycle cost savings appear in the conclusions section. An appendix describes the energy simulation program used in the manual to predict energy savings. Case studies are included. (Contains 45 references). 188p.

Retrofitting in Educational Buildings - Energy Concept Adviser for Technical Retrofit Mesaures,
Erhorn, Hans
(International Energy Agency, Energy Conservation in Buildings & Community Systems Programme(ECBCS), Paris, France, 2000)
Describes an ongoing program to develop an energy concept adviser for economical retrofit measures useful during the planning and realization phase. The adviser will be applicable during the entire retrofitting phase to ensure that both the calculated energy savings and the economical success will be achieved after retrofitting.

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools. Adobe PDF
Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel
(Innovative Design, Inc., Raleigh, NC., 2000)
These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents; bidding and negotiations; construction administration; and commissioning. Each of these areas is further divided into some or all of the following fourteen areas that apply to each phase: general considerations; site planning and landscape design; daylighting; energy-efficient building shell; solar systems; energy-efficient lighting and electrical systems; energy-efficient mechanical and ventilation systems; environmentally sensitive building products and systems; indoor air quality; water conservation; recycling systems and waste management; transportation; commissioning and maintenance; and eco-education. 157p.

Passive Solar Schools International Expertise in Support of the First Sustainable Elementary School of The Netherlands. Adobe PDF
Van Weenen, Hans, ed.
(Sokkerwei School, Castricum, The Netherlands , 2000)
Presents the results of an international workshop convened to create a sustainable elementary school in the Netherlands. Complete presentations are included that detail existing passive solar school design and technology from the countries of the participants, followed by a preliminary design for the Dutch school. Includes 28 references and a contact list of the participants. 64p.

Case Study in Sustainable Design: Shivers Junior/Senior High School. Aberdeen School District in Mississippi. Adobe PDF
Zimmerman, David, AIA
(Mississippi State University, Educational Design Institute , 2000)
Design information, floor plan, photos, and energy use data are presented for a combined 45,000 square foot junior/senior high school in Mississippi's Aberdeen School District, built in 1956 and retrofitted over time to improve its usability. Exterior and interior photos show classrooms, the cafeteria, and gymnasium. Data are presented on the school's current energy use and every area where improvements are required. Lighting retrofit information and cost/savings data on a geothermal heat pump retrofit conclude the document. 49p.

Energy Smart Schools: Opportunities to Save Money, Save Energy and Improve Student Performance. Adobe PDF
(Environmental and Energy Study Institute, Washington, DC, Dec 1999)
An expert panel at a Congressional briefing chaired by Rep. Mark Udall discusses the benefits of energy smart schools and prospects for their further development. This describes the "whole building" approach to school construction. 4p.

Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Improvements to Portable Classrooms in Florida.
Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Anello, Michael T.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Nov 1999)
Findings are presented from a 2-year experiment exploring ways to reduce energy costs and improve the learning environment in Florida's 25,000 portable classrooms. Improvements were made in two highly instrumented portable classrooms in the following areas: installation of a T8 lighting system with electronic ballasts; a high efficiency heat pump with enthalpy recovery ventilation (ERV); a metal white reflective roof system; and an occupancy based control system for lighting and air conditioning. Findings reveal the lighting system and occupancy control reduced lighting energy use by an average of 53 percent from one year to the next. The ERV provided five times the ventilation air found in the initial configuration, while still controlling indoor humidity to an acceptable level; this significantly cut internal CO2 levels with a potential beneficial impact on indoor air quality. Total reduction in space conditioning energy needs was 39 percent or about 6.9 kWh/day. The project demonstrates the feasibility of altering new portable classrooms in Florida so that they use 40 percent less electricity. Energy savings greater than 30 percent were demonstrated for existing portable classrooms through automated controls and simple changes to the lighting system. 19p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-1133-99

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Mainstreaming the Sustainably Designed School.
Weintraub, Deborah; Pierce, Tony
(Technical paper presented at the Maintaining Green, Sustainable Design for Buildings & Communities Conference, American Institute of Architects, Committee on the Environment , Oct 16, 1999)
This paper documents a school building energy efficiency and sustainability project involving the Newport Mesa Unified School District in California. The paper first examines the project design objectives and then discusses each of the project elements, including the site design, daylighting issues and models, and systems for natural ventilation and thermal comfort. Also discussed is the use of DOE-2 energy modeling, which was performed in the design development stage in order to develop consensus on a finalized design. The report also lists data on various characteristics of the school building, such as the architectural features; HVAC system; building operation and internal loading; energy use; annual utility costs; and a list of average school day temperatures, which compares the impact of light and dark roofs on indoor temperatures. 27p.

Schools Going Solar. A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2. Adobe PDF
Gibson, Bob, Ed.; Bokow, Jacquie, Ed.; Hitchcock, Susan Tyler
(Utility Photo Voltaic Group, Washington, DC , Oct 1999)
This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of organizations and programs that can provide information and assistance for solar school projects. 48p.

Fifteen O&M Best Practices for Energy-Efficient Buildings. Adobe PDF
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., OR, Sep 1999)
An overview of 15 O&M best practices that building owners and managers can employ to make their buildings more energy-efficient. These best practices are divided into four major categories: management, teamwork, resources, and energy-efficient O&M. 42p.

Operation and Maintenance Assessments: A Best Practice for Energy-Efficient Building Operations. Adobe PDF
(Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. OR, Sep 1999)
This describes what an O&M assessment is, who should perform it, the benefits of an assessment, what it costs, and the process for performing an assessment. Includes a glossary of terms and sample site-assessment forms, a request for proposal checklist, sample procedures and plan, and a sample master log of findings. 54p

Fiscal Accountability of the Department of Education: Tracking Responsibility for Utility Costs. A Report to the Governor and the Legislature of the State of Hawaii.
Higa, Marion M.
(Hawaii State Office of the Auditor, Honolulu. , Apr 1999)
Responsibility for expenditures by schools in Hawaii for such utilities as electricity, telephone, gas, water, and sewer is shifting from the Department of Education to schools. In shifting responsibility for processing telephone and electricity payments to local schools while retaining management functions, the department failed to develop clear objectives, ensure schools possess adequate resources, or maintain accurate expenditure records by location. Departmental responsibility for gas, water, and sewer costs failed to produce such management benefits as accountability, flexibility, and conservation. Control of funds by the department penalized schools saving energy funds, failed to ensure school accountability or promote clear conservation efforts and incentives, and left schools short-staffed. Poor formatting and cost miscoding made departmental expenditure reports incomplete and inaccurate, undermining budget requests to the legislature. Utility allocations were inadequate because workload increases were unfunded and project costs underestimated, though the department now appears to be improving projected electricity cost calculations.
Report NO: R-99-16


Energy Efficient Florida Educational Facilities: Phase VI. Progress Report: Phase I and II. Adobe PDF
Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL , Feb 1999)
This study examines differences in energy uses in two adjacent portable classrooms to determine if these types of facilities can be made more energy efficient through retrofitting. Retrofitting included an efficient lighting system, new air conditioners, and reflective white metal roofs. Data show the white metal roofing reduced roof, decking, and attic temperatures significantly. The newer air conditioning system (Bard 2.5 ton HVAC unit) had a much higher ventilation rate than the old air conditioning unit and achieved energy savings of approximately 45 percent. The T8 lamp-electronic ballast system that replaced the old T12 system resulted in energy savings of 20 percent with an average increase in brightness of 4 percent. (Contains 7 references.) 5p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-1063-99


Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools. Adobe PDF
(3D/International, Inc., Houston, TX , 1999)
Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Contracting strategies for school districts that choose not to use Energy Savings Companies (companies providing design, construction, and financing with a guaranteed construction cost and energy savings component) are also examined.
TO ORDER: 3D/International, Inc., 1900 West Loop South, Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027; Tel: 713-871-7000

No Light at Night: Night Time Black Outs and Vandalism.
(California Energy Extension Service , 1999)
While saving energy, Battle Ground School District in Clark County has reduced vandalism to almost zero with a policy to darken campus after 10:30 p.m. Spokane School District and Riverside School District have been experiencing similar results for over six years. The article documents decreased vandalism and energy savings when school grounds are darkened after nighttime use, citing case studies in California, Texas, and Washington state.

Reducing Operating Costs and Improving the Student Learning Environment. Energy Efficient Capital Upgrades in K-12 Schools
Lefevre, Jessica S., Ed.
(National Association of Energy Service Companies, Washington, DC , 1999)
A paper provides case studies of energy efficiency retrofits already in place at K-12 schools nationwide that demonstrate the capital upgrades and cost savings available to schools through performance-based energy efficiency contracting with an Energy Service Company. An introductory section contains information on the mounting costs of deferred maintenance and repairs in the nation's schools and on the critical link between the quality of education and the quality of the learning environment. 62p.
TO ORDER: NAESCO; 1615 M St., NW, Suite 800; Washington, DC 20036; Tel: 202-822-0954
http://www.naesco.org/bookstore/default.aspx

Geothermal Heat Pumps Score High Marks in Schools.
Office of Geothermal Technologies
(U.S. Dept. of Energy,National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO , 1998)
Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are showing their value in providing lower operating and maintenance costs, energy efficiency, and superior classroom comfort. This document describes what GHPs are and the benefits a school can garner after installing a GHP system. Three case studies are provided that illustrate these benefits. Finally, the Department of Energy's involvement in fostering the development of a fast- growing, self-sustaining, national GHP industry infrastructure is discussed. Organizational sources for additional information are listed. 4p.
Report NO: DOE/GO-10098-650

TO ORDER: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401-3393; tel:(303)275-3000
http://www.nrel.gov/

Guide to Energy Performance Contracting.
(State of Hawaii, Energy, Resources, and Technology Division, Honolulu,HI , Jul 1998)
Describes the process for energy performance contracting,including getting started, requesting proposals, selecting a contractor, preparing a contract, measuring energy savings, and monitoring and managing a performance contract. Includes worksheets, sample contract, references. 243p.

Rebuild America: A Summary Report of K-12 School Projects. Adobe PDF
D & R International
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. , Jul 1998)
The U.S. Department of Energy's Rebuild America is a voluntary partnership program that helps communities make profitable investments in existing school buildings through energy efficient technologies. This report provides a summary of 19 partnerships in 13 states performing school building improvements totalling 1,231 buildings in 94 school districts. Summaries cover the following states: Alaska; Arizona; Arkansas; California; Colorado; Connecticut; District of Columbia; Hawaii; Idaho; Iowa; Kansas; Missouri; and New Jersey. 14p.

School District Energy Conservation Activities (Follow-Up Review)
Barber, Jerry
(New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany , Jun 1998)
This document was written in response to an earlier audit report, 96-J-2, entitled "School District Energy Conservation Activities." This follow-up report provides the background behind the initial recommendations and evaluates the status of the nine recommendations to the Department. Finds that six of the recommendations were implemented, one was partially implemented, and two had not yet been implemented.
Report NO: 98-F-5


Guide to Energy Performance Contracting. Adobe PDF
(The South Carolina Energy Office, Jun 1998)
Energy Performance Contracting is a financing method which allows an institution to improve its buildings using the money saved through reduced utility expenditures to pay for more efficient equipment, controls, and maintenance. This guide was developed so school districts and governments may better understand the methodology, as well as the potential costs and benefits. The guide includes common features of Energy Performance Contracting; describes a simple, preliminary feasibility evaluation, and advice on getting a project started; describes in detail the Energy Service Company (ESCO) selection process; provides a description of the actual performance contract; addresses in detail the measuring of energy savings and gives advice on project monitoring and management to insure a successful project. 131p.

Energy Efficient Florida Educational Facilities. Improvements to a Portable Classroom in a Volusia County School Adobe PDF
Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.
(Building Design Assistance Center, Florida Solar Energy Center , Jun 1998)
The Florida Department of Education is monitoring the energy use of two adjacent portable classrooms to compare their energy efficiency in a hot and humid climate and determine if they can be made more energy efficient either by retrofit or when the portables were constructed. This report provides the background of this research and describes the portable classroom's lighting, roofing, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; and discusses results and conclusions. 8p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-1008-98


Financing Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Adobe PDF
Zelinski, Richard W.; Gatlin, Douglas R.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy, Rebuild America, Washington, D.C. , 1998)
This document, written for organizations considering investments in energy-efficient projects, provides descriptions, definitions, and advice for implementing successful financial strategies. It describes the energy-efficiency financing options available, including energy savings performance contracts and state and utility incentives for financing energy-efficiency improvements. 75p.

Purchasing Energy. Managing School Facilities Guide 5. Adobe PDF
Isbell, Paul
(Department for Education and Employment,Architects and Building Branch, London, England. , 1998)
This booklet examines the purchasing choices which will be available with the introduction of full competition for all electricity and gas supplies in the United Kingdom, giving schools the chance to make significant savings on energy costs. The guide offers detailed purchasing information on such topics as tariff structures, contract energy management, the types of contract energy management available, and transportation charges. The central role of energy management is stressed, and the accounting procedures and tools required to maximize savings are described. 56p.

School District Energy Manual.
New Jersey Association of School Business Officials Facilities Committee
(New Jersey Association of School Business Officials, International , 1998)
The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school districts planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. This manual consists of 15 parts. Part I describes SDEP; Parts II through XIV contain information that address different aspects of School District Energy Conservation: conservation guidelines; role of administration; data collection for energy conservation; energy management systems; operations and maintenance for energy conservation; HVAC controls; custodians and energy conservation; preventive maintenance; role of the teacher; transportation energy conservation; public utilities; building life cycle cost; in-house incentives program; and available resources. 131p.
TO ORDER: New Jersey Association of School Business Officials, 231 Crosswicks Rd., Suite 10, Bordentown, NJ 08505; Tel: 609-298-5800

Dark Campus Programs Reduce Vandalism and Save Money.
(International Dark-Sky Association, Tucson, AZ, Dec 1997)
Article cites successful examples from Oregon, California, and Texas, of reductions in vandalism and increased energy savings when schools keep outdoor lights out at night after hours. So called 'Dark Campus' policies include hours for blackout, usually 11:00pm to 6:00am, notices to staff and students and local law enforcement that building is off-limits during those hours, signage, and blocked or reduced access to grounds at night. 2p.
Report NO: Information Sheet 54


Energy Efficiency for Florida Educational Facilities: The 1996 Energy Survey of Florida Schools, Final Report.
Callahan, Michael P.; And Others
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center , 1997)
Florida completed a survey of energy use and related physical and operational characteristics of the state's public schools. This report presents results from 1,298 surveys received (680 providing matching utility data) revealing that total energy costs for the Florida school system totaled $205 million in 1995. Other data show that floor area and number of students influenced energy use, schools with light colored roofs used 7 percent less annual energy, classrooms with windows used 18 percent less energy than those without windows, schools using predominantly packaged cooling equipment rather than central chillers used 24 percent less energy, facilities with ceiling fans in classrooms substantially reduced energy needs and higher cooling set point temperatures, and schools with operable windows which could be opened for ventilation showed 12 percent lower energy use. 34p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-951-97

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1670 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.
Watkiss, Jeffrey D.
(National School Boards Association, Council of School Attorneys, Alexandria, VA , Jul 1997)
An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power contracts by taking advantage of competition in the electric industry. Some of the concerns that school districts may have about competition, which differ from the needs of large industrial users of electricity, are examined. The progress of deregulation in the states, the likelihood of federal legislation requiring states to open their electric markets, what competition means for schools, and concerns when entering into a management agreement with a power marketer are all discussed. Within the next 5 to 7 years, customer choice should be available in almost every state. School districts will need to forge alliances with other districts, prepare RFPs, and look into making arrangements with power marketing companies. 7p.

An Approach for Measuring Reductions in Operations, Maintenance, and Energy Costs: Baseline Measures of Construction Industry Practices for the National Construction Goals. Adobe PDF
Chapman, Robert E.; Rennison, Roderick
(National Institute of Standards and Technology, Office of Applied Economics, Gaithersburg, MD , 1997)
The Construction and Building Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NCTC) has established seven National Construction Goals. This document provides a detailed set of baseline measures for the NCTC goal regarding reductions in operations, maintenance, and energy costs. Following the introduction, chapter 2 introduces the National Construction Goals, describes how a well-defined set of metrics is used to develop the baseline measures and measures of progress, and outlines the project approach. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the construction industry. Chapter 4 presents two data schemes from which key metrics are derived and used to develop the baseline measures. Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 examine the baseline measures relating to the residential, commercial/institutional, industrial, and public works sectors respectively. Each sector is examined as to size, changes, and key characteristics. The key operations, maintenance, and energy cost baseline measures for each sector are summarized at the end of each chapter. 335p.
Report NO: NISTIR-6185


Retrofitting for Energy Conservation
Clark, William H.
(McGraw Hill Text, 1997)
This manual provides the latest energy conservation techniques and codes for remodeling and retrofitting commercial and residential buildings. Covering four main areas of retrofitting-electrical, HVAC, architectural and controls-the author guides readers through building plans from design to execution, explaining proven techniques used by successful contractors, and including important details on energy-efficient materials. 400p.

Energy Savings Performance Contract Case Studies. Adobe PDF
Lefevre, Jessica S.
(U.S. Dept. of Energy Washington, D.C. , 1997)
Building owners and managers can use performance-contracting Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to partially or fully fund building renovations that include energy efficiency upgrades. This report provides building owners and managers with an introduction to the energy efficiency and building upgrade services provided by ESCOs. It uses 20 case studies to describe the types of services that ESCO provides, how ESCO performance contracts work, and reasons that building owners and managers choose to use ESCOs to acquire increased energy efficiency and building upgrades. 52p.

FLASTAR: Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Energy Resources.
Sherwin, John R.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Oct 1996)
Results of a Florida Public Building Loan Concept pilot program to determine its effectiveness for helping to upgrade building energy systems. The pilot program, termed FLASTAR (Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Resources), involved the comprehensive metering of an elementary school to demonstrate energy savings potential after retrofitting the facility with new chillers and sensor controls for classroom and office lighting. 50p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-916-96

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Design and Evaluation of Energy Efficient Modular Classroom Structures. Adobe PDF
Brown, G. Z.; et al
(American Solar Energy Society, Asheville, NC , Apr 1996)
This paper describes a study that would enable modular builders to improve the energy performance of their classrooms without increasing their first cost. The Modern Building Systems' classroom building conforms to the stringent Oregon and Washington energy codes, and, at $18 per square foot, it is at the low end of the cost range for modular classrooms. The study investigated daylighting, cross-ventilation, solar preheat of ventilation air, and thermal storage as ways to reduce energy use. 7p.

School District Energy Conservation Activities Adobe PDF
(New York State Office of the Comptroller, Division of Management Audit, Albany , 1996)
To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance to the school districts in this area. However, school districts have the opportunity to achieve significant savings by pursuing additional energy conservation improvements, and it is recommended that the Department of Education and the school districts work together to develop a comprehensive and coordinated approach toward conserving energy. This objective becomes more important in light of the Department's goal of ensuring that resources are used in ways that achieve maximum cost-effectiveness at the State, regional, and local levels. Currently, school districts do not take an organized structural approach toward identifying energy conservation needs, although some school districts have attempted to improve energy conservation by entering into energy performance contracts. Some school districts would like the Department to establish a process for sharing energy conserving experiences and approaches among school districts, especially because resources are limited. 63p.
Report NO: 96-J-2


Measured Field Performance and Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors: Three Case Studies.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , 1996)
This study determines the performance levels, energy savings, and occupant acceptance of occupancy sensors that were installed in a Florida small office building and two elementary schools. Performance data was collected in 15-minute intervals. Aggregate time-of-day lighting load profiles were compared before and after the installation and throughout the commissioning period when the sensors were tuned for optimum performance. Data reveal a 10 percent savings in energy usage in one of the two schools where sensors were installed in classrooms, the cafeteria, and administrative offices. Improper sensor installation, set-up, and faulty user operation inhibited energy performance in the other school. Also, sensor malfunctions adversely effected the energy savings in the office building; following their corrections, energy savings improvements were noted. All three case studies suggest that occupancy sensors can provide savings in a variety of building types. However, it is noted that savings will greatly vary due to occupancy patterns, and previous method of control and lighting load. It was determined that savings and user acceptance for areas selected for control by occupancy sensors are influenced by proper sensor selection, location, and controls commissioning. 15p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-309-96

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program. 1995 Edition
Fuller, S. K.; Petersen, S. R.
(National Institute of Standards and Technology, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, Gaithersburg, MD , 1996)
Guide to understanding the life-cycle cost methodology and criteria established by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for the economic evaluation of energy and water conservation projects and renewable energy projects on all federal buildings. 210p.

Energy Performance of Daylit Schools in North Carolina. Adobe PDF
Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary
(North Carolina Solar Center, Raleigh, NC , 1996)
This study analyzes the energy performance and cost of daylit schools designed by Innovative Design in Johnston County, North Carolina. The analysis compares the first-year energy performances of the Clayton and Selma middle schools and the K-5 Four Oaks school with similar but non-daylit schools in the county. The two daylit middle schools were completed in the spring of 1993 and the comparison year was July of 1993 through June of 1994. The Four Oaks School was completed in August of 1990 and the first year of collected data was 1991-92.

Demonstration of Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in Florida Commercial Buildings: Our Savior's School.
Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.; Sonne, Jeffrey K.; Barkaszi, Stephen, Jr.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , 1996)
A 2-year Florida study attempted to quantify air conditioning cost savings when buildings have a white reflective roof. A 10,000 square foot elementary school with a gray modified bitumen roof over plywood decking that had a solar reflectance of 23 percent was monitored for an entire year. After one year of temperature monitoring, the roof was covered with an acrylic white elastomeric coating that achieved a solar reflectance of 68 percent. Classrooms were also insulated with R-19 fiberglass batts. Data show that classroom air temperatures were significantly lower during the second year of the study compared to the first. Additionally, chiller electric power use was reduced by an average of 10 percent, totaling 13,000 kWh in annual savings. School staff also note interior comfort conditions were noticeably improved by the white roofing system. 19p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-904-96

TO ORDER: Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922-5703. Tel: 407-638-1011
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/

Passive Cooling of Buildings
Santamouris, M.; Asimakopoulos, D.
(James & James Science Publishers Ltd , 1996)
With greater awareness of the need to reduce energy consumption comes a growth of interest in passive cooling, particularly as an alternative to air-conditioning. Drawing extensively on information and results compiled under the SAVE European Research Programme, this book describes the fundamentals of passive cooling together with the principles and formulae necessary for its successful implementation. This publication will be of interest to building designers, building engineers including mechanical and electrical engineers, building scientists, especially those involved with building physics, and indoor air specialists. 484p.

Energy Efficiency Technology Demonstration Project for Florida Educational Facilities: Occupancy Sensors.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; McIlvaine, Janet E. R.; Sherwin, John R.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Dec 1995)
This report describe a Florida study replacing conventional light switches with passive infrared or ultrasonic sensing systems to control classroom lighting in an elementary school to determine the performance of such controls in saving energy. A before-and-after monitoring protocol was used for 33 classrooms and 7 offices in which electrical demand data were collected. Data comparing pre- and post-retrofit periods show sensors achieved an average of 10 percent savings with greater reductions to total energy due to reduced load on the air conditioning system. It is noted that the school already had considerable energy efficient use of lighting as well as having a T8 system, so the benefits are considered to be the minimum a facility can expect to achieve through sensor use. Including costs of installation and commissioning, the payback of the occupancy sensor retrofit was 5 years with a 21 percent simple rate of return from the investment. 25p.
Report NO: FSEC-CR-867-95


Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.
Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.
(University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa , Jun 19, 1995)
A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due to dimming. Lower than expected dimming system performance was observed prior to effective commissioning. Difficulties encountered are discussed, as are recommendations for performance improvements. 9p.
Report NO: FSEC-PF-283-95


Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)). Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC , 1995)
A paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a newer, high efficiency oil-fired boiler; and using natural gas, propane, or electric heating. A description of the affected environment is provided followed by a discussion of the environmental effects of the proposed action. Environmental areas examined include air and water quality, waste management, land use, visual and recreational resources, socioeconomics, noise, safety and health, and transportation. An appendix provides various maps, letters from South Dakota environmental agencies, and data on air emissions from the school's present and proposed boilers. 13p.

Passive Solar Schools: A Design Guide.
Architects and Building Division
(Department for Education, London, England , 1994)
Solar energy is gaining increasing interest in the United Kingdom due to it being a renewable, non-polluting source for heating and lighting schools. This book describes the principles and practice of passive solar design in new and refurbished schools, offers advice on how to approach passive solar design, and provides some design recommendations. Chapters introduce the main passive solar features and how they are incorporated into designs, provide economic and energy appraisal data, and include case studies of 17 schools selected out of 40 investigated for design excellence. 99p.
Report NO: DFE-BB-79

TO ORDER: The Stationery Office Publications Centre, PO Box 29 Norwich NR3 1GN, UK
http://www.tso.co.uk

Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers. Adobe PDF
Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria
(National Food Service Management Institute, The University of Mississippi, University, MS , 1994)
Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document, designed as a reference manual on energy, provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans at two levels of school food service production and service: non-technical and low cost enhancements; and capital investment and systems changes. It provides food managers with help in tracking and organizing energy use from utility bills, estimating energy use, and making operational decisions that will lead to a cost effective operation. 68p.
TO ORDER: National Food Service Management Institute, The University of Mississippi, P.O. Drawer 188, University, MS 38677; Toll Free: 800-321-3054
http://www.nfsmi.org

Environmental Assessment and (FONSI) Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project. Adobe PDF
(Department of Energy, Washington, DC. , 1993)
An analysis is presented of the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. The report first covers the background and need for action, along with the alternative actions considered. This is followed by a description of the existing environment, including the air and water quality, ecological resources, floodplains and wetlands, land use, visual and recreational resources, and historic and archaeological resources. Next, the environmental effects of the proposed action on these areas are addressed, including noise, safety and health, and transportation. 41p.
Report NO: DOE/EA-0923


Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities Guide 3. Adobe PDF
(Department for Education and Employment, Architects and Building Branch. London, England , 1993)
This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low- cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional recommendations on maintenance solutions to preventing energy waste are highlighted as are advice on education and training, and energy conservation when subletting school facilities. A management action plan checklist is included. 23p.

Marketing Energy Patrol: Tips from Arizona Energy Pros. Adobe PDF
(Arizona State Dept. of Commerce Energy Office, Phoenix, AZ , 1992)
This pamphlet contains several ideas that have worked for others and may be helpful in starting a new Energy Patrol school program. The program has four main goals: (1) to teach energy conservation; (2) to reduce energy consumption; (3) to reduce the taxpayer's burden; and (4) to encourage site-based monitoring of energy use. The document contains sections on: (1) generating interest in energy consumption; (2) introducing the program; (3) providing incentives; (4) keeping motivation high; (5) getting school board approval; and (6) tracking results. 16p.

A Guide to Energy Efficient Refurbishment. Maintenance and Renewal in Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 73. Adobe PDF
Hampton, D.; And Others
(Department of Education and Science, Architects and Building Branch, London, England , 1991)
With little or relatively modest investment, schools being refurbished or undergoing maintenance can make disproportionately large gains in energy efficiency that can also result in large financial savings. This document offers guidance, depending on the type of building, method of construction, and physical condition of the facility, on the selection of appropriate measures that can improve a facility's energy efficiency. It provides technical descriptions of the most commonly used measures, followed by examples of a combination of measures as applied to older, heavily constructed buildings and more recently built schools. It describes proven energy efficiency measures undertaken during school refurbishment along with case studies that illustrate the effectiveness of these measures. The case studies include details on economic performance together with descriptions of other benefits not readily expressed in monetary terms, such as improved comfort.

Low-Tech Energy Conservation for Schools. Adobe PDF
Stein, Benjamin
(American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC , 1989)
This guide addresses methods of energy conservation in school buildings using simple design, construction, and equipment-control technology so that trained and creative people can take over functions normally done by machinery and automated controls. A general discussion first covers energy consumption problem areas in educational facilities, followed by interior space utilization needs and use of manual climate control. Various ways of reducing energy load are examined, including building and classroom orientation, proper insulation and ventilation in roofs, as well as interior spaces, and the type of heating system used. 17p.

Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. Adobe PDF
Lawrence, Jerry; Bates, Elliott; Stein, Ben; Kuhl, Garrett; Hill, Alva
(American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC. , 1983)
An energy task group of the American Institute of Architect's discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements examined cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape, on-site well with heat pump system, and waste water heat reclamation system. Additional considerations examine design temperature adjustments and natural ventilation such as use of wide band thermostats, lighting reduction, unoccupied space shutoff, and skylights. Final comments address central monitoring equipment, use of double doors on main entrances, the benefits of underground buildings, use of wind generation to facility power needs, low temperature room placement on the building's cold side to conserve heating needs, flow restrictors on water sources, greenhouse use, and use of extract-air windows. 23p.

How Schools Can Control the Increasing Cost of Energy.
Levy, Hans
(Consolidated/Drake Press, Philadelphia, PA , 1978)
Outlines the present use of energy in schools, what forms of energy will be available in the foreseeable future, how energy is presently wasted in educational facilities, and how energy can be conserved now and in the future. The school administrator can control the energy consumption in his schools and this consumption can be reduced by a large amount if the principle of time/space control of the heating and air conditioning system is understood. The major factor in energy consumption in any school building is the occupancy pattern of the building. To conserve energy in school facilities, survey structural points through which energy may be escaping, and install appropriate insulation; evaluate the efficiency of even recently installed central HVAC systems; and, above all, establish the occupancy pattern of the building in order to implement selective control. 67p.

Profiles of Significant Schools: Rich Township High School, Olympia Fields Campus, Rich Township, Illinois. Adobe PDF
Clinchy, Evans
(Educational Facilities Laboratories, New York, NY , May 1960)
Profiles a high school designed to accommodate the organization of teachers into teams working with student groups of varying sizes--this organization is housed in a compact building with the teaching teams centered in clusters of classrooms. The building is heated in winter and cooled in summer by a heat pump system. The description emphasizes why the school was designed as it was and how it was designed and built. Schematics and photographs are included along with an evaluation of the school in relation to the program for which it was planned. 30p.

References to Journal Articles

Stronger, Better, Greener. Kiowa County Schools: Greensburg, KS
Cassias, Charles S.
High Performance Buildings; , p18-29 ; Summer 2012
After a two-mile wide tornado plowed through Greensburg, Kan., in 2007, the town and school district committed to rebuilding a model green community, focusing on passive building systems and integrated design. The school also functions as a badly needed social hub for this reemerging town. Renewable electricity is provided by an on-site wind generator and off-site city wind farm. The building incorporates reclaimed cypress from another natural disaster, Hurricane Katrina. The school uses only 29.2 kBtu/ft2 per year, less than half the energy used by a school built to code.

Energy Savings Performance Contract Will Save District Thousands
School Construction News; Jun 01, 2012
Reports on Nevada’s fourth largest school district, Lyon County School District in Yerington, Nev., that has entered into an Energy Savings Performance Contract that is expected to save the district $345,000 annually for 15 years.

Getting Students Involved In Energy Efficiency Can Lead To Big Energy Cost Savings For School Districts
Ben Stanley and Dan LeBlanc
Building Operating Management; Jun 2012
Districts are getting creative and looking for energy savings through occupant engagement initiatives, and, at districts like Douglas County, finding that engaged students are also highly effective facilitators of energy savings.

Peak Performance for Healthy Schools
Chuck McKale and Scott Townsend
American School and University; Jun 2012
It is important for schools to understand and stay ahead of the curve when addressing energy codes. Discusses energy codes developed and updated by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the International Code Council (ICC) through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) as minimum guidelines for building envelope, HVAC, lighting and service water heating.

CEED Becomes First Public School to Use Passivhaus Technology in the U.S.
Sims, Torrey
School Construction News; Apr 2012
The Center of Energy Efficient Design in Rocky Mount, Va., is the first public school to use the energy-efficient Passivhaus technology, which has enabled it to use 68 percent less energy than conventional schools. CEED was designed as a demonstration school to show students and future developers Passivhaus’ impact on design when it comes to sustainability and cost-saving results.

A Battle Worth Fighting. Proven Ways to Combat Rising Energy Costs.
Borski, Mike
School Planning and Management; , p45-48 ; Apr 2012
Outlines how to control rising energy costs by looking at available data, taking proper actions to eliminate wasteful practices, update antiquated systems and become more efficient. Then monitor the results.

Make Your School Control Itself
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; Apr 2012
Describes how to control energy use by integrating the mechanical, lighting, and other building systems so that each system can be scheduled and the systems can work together and monitor performance.

Energy Advantages for Green Schools
Griffin, J. Tim
American School and University; Apr 2012
The scale of district energy systems provides opportunities to generate and deliver energy to school buildings in a more sustainable manner. Renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), and thermal energy storage—often are expensive to install and impractical to maintain within a proposed building’s site. Because of the scale of district energy, these challenges can be overcome when installing them within the district energy system itself.

Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools
Kelley, Brian and Fiedler, Lon
American School and University; Apr 01, 2012
Understanding the process of installing solar thermal systems can help schools determine whether it will meet needs now and into the future. Includes a solar checklist of Issues to consider when determining whether a campus is a viable candidate for a solar heating system:

Managing Energy
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; , p14 ; Mar 2012
Investing in energy management can save schools money in the long run. This outlines seven steps for establishing an energy management plan.

Energy Management: Key Success Elements
Woodroof, Eric
Buildings; Mar 2012
This article describes key success elements for an energy management program, many of which originate from other industries. Elements include: Treat Energy as a Business Issue… that has a Plan; Have a Bottom Line Perspective; Consider the Relatively Low Risk of Energy Management Programs/Projects; and Apply Full Dollarization and Professional Management.

Operational Versus Designed Performance of Low Carbon Schools in England: Bridging a Credibility Gap
Amrita Dasguptaa, Antonis Prodromoub & Dejan Mumovicc
HVAC&R Research; v18 n2 , p37-50 ; Feb 29, 2012
In the UK, schools alone are responsible for 15% of the energy consumption in public and commercial buildings. The recent studies showed that newly built schools are failing to meet even basic performance criteria related to both energy consumption and provision of indoor environmental quality (acoustics, indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and lighting). The main objectives of this article are three-fold: (a) to review the results of three major studies related to operational performance of newly built schools in England, (b) to identify major issues of importance for energy efficient provision of indoor environmental quality in school buildings based on results of a comprehensive survey of 286 UK building professionals, and (c) to estimate the influence of uncertainty of some design parameters on energy consumption using differential sensitivity analysis. The article concludes that our current ongoing efforts to deliver low carbon school buildings conducive to learning have had little success due to a poor understanding of how to design, engineer, and facilitate learning spaces for changing pedagogical practices to support a mass education system. Major identified issues refer to aspects of policy, design, and commisioning that affects building performance. [Authors' abstract]

Net-zero Energy Building Schools
Wim Zeiler, Gert Boxem
Renewable Energy; Feb 23, 2012
In the Netherlands with respect to sustainable educational building the main focus has been on energy saving. Recently some schools were built as rather environmental friendly schools with more attention to comfort and health aspects. The first NZEB designed school is analyzed and the results compared with other more traditional schools. With all the enthusiasm for NZEB buildings it is good to look into the pro and cons. In the past important necessary technological and organizational changes were frustrated and thus delayed as people only focused on the positive aspects and forgot about the possible negative aspects. This then resulted in disappointing pilot projects. Therefore the article will give a list of advantages and disadvantages and will come up with recommendations to gain more and lose less in the process of doing so. The way to approach the design task is to look for win–win situations, find those solutions which increases the advantages of NZEB while at the same time improve some of the NZEB disadvantages characteristics.[Authors' abstract]

Pre School. At the Watkinson School, a pre-engineered building blends environmental science with ethics.
Sokol, David
Green Source; Jan 2012
Description of the pre-engineered buildings produced by Project Frog for the Watkinson School in Hartford, Connecticut, a venue for secondary level lectures, seminars, and laboratory work dedicated to interdisciplinary science and global studies. The 3,500-square-foot facility is net zero energy.

Energy-Saving Techniques for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Elementary Schools
TaeHoon Hong, HyunJoong Kim, and TaeHyun Kwak
Journal of Management in Engineering; v28 n1 , 12p ; 2012
The South Korean government is working on reducing its greenhouse gas emission and, as part of its effort, it is currently promoting the Green-School Project. This project aims to create energy-saving schools by renovating deteriorated school buildings. In this study, CO2 emission reduction scenarios are sought by applying energy-saving techniques (ESTs) to educational facilities, and an optimal scenario is created by performing life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each scenario. To this end, the amounts of energy consumption and CO2 emission reduction in two schools were evaluated using DesignBuilder simulation, based on 15 scenarios with combinations of four ESTs. LCC analysis was also performed. In terms of energy efficiency, CO2 emission reduction, and LCC analysis, the results showed that the most effective scenario is replacing the existing lighting with light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. The results also showed that there is a difference in energy efficiency, CO2 emission reduction, and LCC analysis based on the type and size of the school building. If the results of this study are considered in policy-making efforts by the Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, CO2 emission in the maintenance phase for South Korean educational facilities is expected to be reduced, and an optimal maintenance process using a limited budget will also be feasible. [Authors' abstract]

Place-based Learning: Interactive Learning and Net-Zero Design
Holser, Alec and Becker, Michael
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n4 , p52-54 ; Dec 2011
Case study of the Music and Science Building for Oregon’s Hood River Middle School where Food and conservation science curriculum, net-zero design and student-based building performance monitoring have come together. It offers a tangible demonstration of how decentralized energy and water systems, aquaculture, biological energy systems, year-round food production and performance monitoring can be incorporated in K-12 design and woven into school curriculum.

Lighting Up Students with Technology and Progressive 21st Century Learning Strategies Adobe PDF
Ronda Frueauff, Tony Wall, Ron Essley and Michael Hall
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1 , p24-26 ; Dec 2011
Recommends that schooling become more flexible and therefore more engaging and interesting, use less prescriptive technology, and improve STEM education if we are to maintain our place of prominence in the global economy. Describes the planning for the Colonel Smith Middle School Complex in the Fort Huachuca School District, a net-zero energy STEM school.

Improving Performance. Energy Modeling for Facilities Reaps Significant Savings
Tillou, Mike
School Planning and Management; , p33-35 ; Dec 2011
Examines how school districts can reap benefits if they include energy modeling in their efforts for new and renovated buildings. As energy costs continue to rise, the ability to predict and correct building energy performance can lead to more efficient operations and significant cost savings. Provides case studies of Carrie Busey Elementary School in Illinois and Roosevelt Middle School.

All Systems Go For Net-Zero.
Sharpe, Stephen
Eco-Structure; Nov 21, 2011
Discusses Lady Bird Johnson Middle School in Irving, Texas, where extensive efforts were made to design and build the nation’s largest net-zero-energy public K–12 school.

Long-Term Education Planning
Horkey, Don; Laue, Julianne
American School and University; Nov 2011
Sustainable master planning can produce long-range benefits for education institutions. Discusses tools and strategies such as benchmarking, energy audit, commissioning, and post-commisioning. Includes case studies of Red Wing High Public School District and College of Saint Benedict in Minnesota.

A Model School Facility for Energy
Spangler, Seth and Crutchfield, Dave
American School and University; Sep 2011
Building energy modeling predicts a facility's energy use and it can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. This describes energy modeling that can be carried out during the design, pre-construction and post-construction phases.

A Model School Facility for Energy (with Related Video)
Spangler, Seth; Crutchfield, Dave
American School and University,Seth Spangler; , 2p. ; Sep 01, 2011
Explores energy modeling as a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for a school. Details different types of energy models that are developed at various stages of a project to provide data that can verify or disprove suggested energy-efficiency measures, including the design phase, pre-construction phase, and post construction.

Energy-Efficient Net-Zero Schools.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; v50 n8 , p18,20-22 ; Aug 2011
Reviews successful efforts on the part of several schools toward achieving net-zero energy use. Combinations of advanced systems and energy use reduction have yielded facilities that in some cases even produce more energy than they consume. The mandate and technique for determining return on investment is also discussed.

Best Practice Solutions for School Lighting
Sustainable Facility; Jul 28, 2011
WattStopper has published a free set of best practice solutions for classrooms to help specifiers and facility managers quickly identify and implement energy-saving lighting control solutions for these spaces. The new online tool offers users a range of design options to meet different energy-savings goals, and provides a wealth of detailed information from wiring diagrams to equipment schedules.

Guiding Light. [Lighting Retrofits at San Diego State University]
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n7 , p13,14 ; Jul 2011
Describes importance of students and physical plant staff working together to determine the best plan for lighting retrofits.

Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools.
Angerame, Timothy
American School and University; v83 n10 , p28-31 ; Jun 2011
Introduces comprehensive monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx), a process to ensure that all building systems are "in tune." Its three components are: permanent energy information systems and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level, retro-commissioning based on the data this generates, and ongoing commissioning that ensures efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. Particular attention is given to the importance to a well-maintained chiller.

Triple (Power) Play: Smart Grid, Metering, and Facilities.
Mamer, Kelly
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n6 , p8,9 ; Jun 2011
Discusses options for effective energy management via sophisticated metering that enables facilities to increase or shed load according to demand on the electrical grid. Storage options and locally generated power are also addressed.

Saving Money.
Moore, Deborah
School Planning and Management; v50 n6 ; Jun 2011
Introduces creative ways for schools to cut expenses. Despite new government money, schools are seeking ways to reduce costs. The articles suggests a four-day school week, as well as an innovative program that rewards students for identifying energy waste.

Five Areas Not to Overlook in Reducing Energy Costs
Sievertsen, Rick
University Business; Jun 2011
Discusses five areas of energy savings: develop a database to store and retrieve energy information; coordinate management of energy data, supply, and demand responsibilities; optimize timing for purchasing energy supply; manage basis pricing; realize that energy savings available in both regulated and deregulated markets.

Going Solar.
Domine, Mark
American School and University; v83 n8 , p34,36,38,39 ; May 2011
Describes cost savings to a school by using solar power. The article also addresses financing options and available rebates.

The Best Tool in an FM's Arsenal.
Penny, Janelle
Buildings; v105 n5 , p44,46,48 ; May 2011
Discusses real-time measurement of utilities in buildings, advising on carefully planned metering in order to answer pertinent facilities questions, establishing a baseline, and tracking the data. Tightening building operations and addressing occupant needs are also addressed.

Renewable-Energy Systems: Practical Considerations.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n5 , p23 ; May 2011
Advises institutions considering installation of renewable energy sources on how to work with local utilities and maintain systems.

Going Solar in Green Schools.
Domine, Mark
American School and University; Apr 2011
Outlines the top considerations for education facilities looking to bring solar power to campus, including financing options and partnerships.

When a Zero on the Report Card Is Good.
Hodgson, James
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p30,32-34 ; Apr 2011
Discusses the use of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in school construction. The modular insulation panels create super-insulated and extremely airtight building envelopes, enabling the specification of smaller HVAC equipment and extending its life.

Sedona School District Goes Solar.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p20-22,24,26,28 ; Apr 2011
Profiles several photovoltaic panel installations in this Arizona district, ranging from small rooftop arrays to a large 806 kilowatt array installed on the high school grounds. Energy savings, estimated payback, system lifespan, and arrangements with the local utility are discussed.

Drawing Down the Data Center: A New Model for Energy Efficiency.
Lafferty, Mark
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p36,38,40 ; Apr 2011
Advises on reducing energy use in data centers, detailing steps such as monitoring energy use, "spot" cooling of equipment, encouraging energy consciousness with end users, and replacing energy-inefficient equipment.

Silent Energy Hogs: Reducing Plug-Load Energy Waste.
Perry, Heidi
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p70-72 ; Apr 2011
Addresses the often-overlooked energy consumption of plugged-in appliances in schools. Personal computers, vending machines, and copiers consume energy whether in use or not, and can configured to shut down when the school is unoccupied.

No More "What Ifs."
Smith, Susan
School Planning and Management; v50 n4 , p58,60,62 ; Apr 2011
Explores many elements that contribute to a "net zero" school that uses no more energy than it produces. Geothermal systems, water harvesting, wind energy, and use of the school as a teaching tool are addressed.

Engineering a Sustainable School.
Beddow, Bruce
Consulting-Specifying Engineer; Mar 08, 2011
Details the design of a school HVAC upgrade that included a geo-solar system. Engineers designed a system that was architecturally integrated, offering students a unique learning tool. The article includes charts that illustrate energy use and the anticipated time for the recovery of the investment is discussed.

School Building Mechanical Engineering 101.
MacFerran, Ernest
School Planning and Management; v50 n3 , p33,34,36-40 ; Mar 2011
Advises on cost-savings methods that also achieve green goals in planning for consistent and dependable indoor air quality, and reduced construction, energy, and maintenance costs. Topics include cooling tower systems, evaluation of project bids, solar hot water, sewage treatment plants, school kitchens, and insulation of classroom ductwork. Case study of Hillsborough County School District, in Tampa.

At the Top of the Class.
Morton, Jennie
Buildings; v105 n2 , p30-32,34 ; Feb 2011
Outlines necessary steps for building net-zero energy schools, i.e., those that produce the same amount of energy as they consumes over a year's time. While each building must be planned individually, all focus on high-performance envelope, daylighting strategies, high-efficiency mechanical systems, and resourceful use of space.

Ten Common Problems in Energy Audits.
Shapiro, Ian
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n2 , p26-28,31,32 ; Feb 2011
Presents a "Top Ten" list of causes of poor energy audits. Bad energy audits result in lower-than-expected, or no energy savings. They are a wasted investment. The analyses within the "Top Ten" list is followed by guidelines for setting standards and implementing best practices.  

Looking Forward.
Brew, Scott; Dorn, Michael; Edelstein, Frederick; Ramsey, John; Schoff, Larry
School Planning and Management; v50 n1 , p13-16 ; Jan 2011
Various authors share their predictions on education issues. Educational politics, energy, sustainability, and safety are addressed.

Sub-Metering: Measuring, Managing, Saving.
Everhart, Doug; Lanham, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v19 n1 , p26 ; Jan 2011
Advises on sub-metering technology for closer monitoring of load profiling. Sub-meters monitor specific points in the system. Managers can use the collected data to understand energy-use patterns and trends, implement demand response and control to avoid costly ratchet and peak utility charges, profile an entire facility for demand-management and load-shedding measures, and locate true spare capacity within the electrical system.

Zero Energy Schools--Beyond Platinum. Adobe PDF
Hutton, Paul
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p42-46 ; Jan 2011
Examines the pursuit of net zero energy use in schools. Several definitions of "net zero" are offered, and typical terminology is defined. Net zero's relationship to LEED is discussed, as are seven basic strategies for achieving it. A list of exemplar schools, both rural and urban, large and small is included.

Five Successful Strategies for Greening Your School. Adobe PDF
Metzger, Anisa
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p20,22,23 ; 2011
Describes five strategies for creating a green school: 1) Start wherever you are. 2) Benchmark energy use with ENERGY STAR. 3) Change occupant behavior. 4) Use abundant signage. 5) Test with pilot programs.

School Cents...The Energy Behavior Management Guide. Adobe PDF
Pierce, Sue
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p32-34 ; 2011
Discusses energy saving through a shift in occupant behavior and culture. Areas in which administrators, staff, and students can serve as change agents; elements of an energy conservation policy; and types of data that should be collected to test the progress of energy savings programs are addressed.

Finding Funding: Making School Improvements Possible. Adobe PDF
Simpson, Jim
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p38-41 ; 2011
Discusses the use of performance contracts to fund school improvements. Case studies from Wyandotte (Michigan) and Buffalo illustrate how customized agreements and specific goals were crafted into successful renovations. Typical improvements are lighting and HVAC upgrades, peak demand management, behavioral modifications, and building envelope improvements.

Moving Sustainability Forward. Adobe PDF
Taylor, Bill
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n3 , p47-49 ; 2011
Advises on when to time school renovations, according to the enrollment and condition of the school and its systems. Also reviewed are strategies for achieving sustainability in schools that range from no cost to low cost to smart investment.

ENERGY STAR and Green Guildings: Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems; LEED, Green Globes and CHPS. Adobe PDF
Utebay, Kudret
Educational Facility Planner; v45 n1/2 , p18-20 ; 2011
Discusses the United States Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR program, which delivers tools and resource to curb facilities energy use. Details of the program, as well as those of LEED, Green Globes, and CHPS are also addressed.

Dashboards Help Turn Energy Data into Money-Saving Action.
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p14,16,18 ; Dec 2010
Discusses the features and advantages of real-time energy metering that communicates usage to the user and the utility companies. Available software features and advice on selecting a system are addressed.

Reincarnation of Rebates. [New Energy Efficiency Programs and Financing Mechanisms Available.]
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; v57 n12 , p37,38,40,42 ; Dec 2010
Discusses the recent surge in rebates for energy-saving building upgrades. Funds and tax-credits are made available by utilities and governments at all levels. Measurements and documentation to prove savings are addressed. Four recently developed rebate programs, as well as four novel financing strategies are also described.

Integrate Your Plans for Energy and Maintenance.
O'Donnell, Patrick
Buildings; v104 n12 , p40-44 ; Dec 2010
Advises on the collateral planning for energy conservation and HVAC maintenance. Routine HVAC maintenance procedures that can save energy are described and mandated.

Engaging Schools in the Science of Low-Energy Buildings.
Charnley, Fiona; Fleming, Paul; Dowsett, Tony; Fleming, Margaret; Cook, Malcolm, Mill, Greig
Public Understanding of Science; Nov 23, 2010
Explores the relationship between the previous UK government's initiative to rebuild and renew secondary schools, and the requirement for improved education for sustainable development in the UK. The documented research utilized a number of mechanisms to engage with pupils in Leicester city schools to increase their awareness, knowledge and understanding of the science and engineering associated with the design and operation of low-energy school buildings. Workshops, discussions with energy and sustainable development experts and visits to existing low-energy buildings were employed to develop an appreciation for the importance of energy efficiency and best design practice. The results demonstrate an increase in pupils' knowledge and understanding of low-energy school design and additionally a rise in those pupils who are interested in science and would consider it as a career option. [author's abstract]
TO ORDER: http://pus.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/11/16/0963662510385060.abstract?patientinform-links=yes&legid=sppus;0963662510385060v1

K-12 Energy-Lite Lighting.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n11 , p40,42-44 ; Nov 2010
Describes the Springfield (Missouri) School District s positive experience with upgrading their lighting for energy efficiency. With $332,000 of investment, $104,240 per year is saved, the returning the investment in about three years. Details of the use of T-8, T-5, and LED lighting are offered, citing the benefits and drawbacks of each.

Data Center Energy Stars.
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; , p45,46,48,50,52 ; Nov 2010
Discusses reducing energy use in data centers. Even though the collection of statistics on energy use is relatively recent, several cases are cited where institutions implemented facility upgrades that resulted in lower energy use.

ARRA Funds Empower Schools to Power Down.
Pascopella, Angela
District Administration; v46 n10 , p34-36,38,39 ; Nov 2010
Describes the use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds in several states to improve school facilities. Kentucky's hiring of 36 energy managers, solar energy projects in Idaho, a wood chip heating system in New Hampshire, and energy-efficient upgrades in Virginia schools are described.

Facility Monitoring Requirements for Optimal Energy Efficiency.
Sharp, Gordon
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n6 , p10,12,13 ; Nov-Dec 2010
Discusses the inadequacy of demand control ventilation (DCV) in maintaining optimal indoor environmental quality. The advantages of intelligent controls with the ability to sense a variety of indoor environmental issues are detailed.

Energy Smart Schools Teach Everyone Lessons.
Appel, Margo
Learning By Design; n19 , p14,15 ; Fall 2010
Discusses creative ways to finance high-performance school construction or energy-saving improvements. These include using the district's own funds to finance small projects and then using the savings for subsequent projects, bonds, lease and lease-purchase, energy performance contracts, state programs, utility company loans, and public benefit funds.

Lights Out: Lamp and Ballast Phaseouts.
Audin, Lindsay
Building Operating Management; v57 n10 , p62-64 ; Oct 2010
Notes that new minimum energy efficiency standards will halt the sale of a variety of common lamps and ballasts over the next few years. Items that are affected, exemptions, advice on navigating the changes, prioritizing replacement, and financial incentives to upgrade lighting are discussed.

Pooling Resources.
Brown, Nicholas
Athletic Business; v34 n10 , p45,46,48-50 ; Oct 2010
Profiles this Portland, Oregon, natatorium that uses heat captured from indoor air exhaust to preheat the pool water, as well as a photovoltaic array that provides 17 percent of the building's energy need.

Boilers: The Quest for Efficiency.
Hounsell, Dan
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p8,10 ; Oct 2010
Discusses energy-efficient condensing boilers. While these boilers can deliver considerably higher efficiency over conventional boilers, care must be taken to monitor return-water temperature and keep the boiler clean in order to obtain the desired savings.

Energy-Saving Strategies for New Research Facilities.
Mahler, Steve; Anderson, Shirine; Ames, Allan
Laboratory Design; v15 n10 , p1,4 ; Oct 2010
Discusses techniques for lowering thermal, electrical, lighting, and HVAC loads in laboratories, as well as addressing energy recovery devices and chilled water systems.

Demand Response.
Matt, Chris
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n10 , p12,13 ; Oct 2010
Presents an interview with two facility managers who advise on demand-response power programs, with emphasis on where a facility's power demand can be safely lightened, equipment that can draw variable amounts of power, and the amount of savings one can expect under the program.

Plugging into the Earth.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
School Planning and Management; v49 n10 , p20,22,24-31 ; Oct 2010
Discusses the widening use of geothermal HVAC systems in schools, addressing the savings realized by several schools that use them and the lack of widespread engineering knowledge for these systems.

How to Quantify Building Energy Performance.
Lewis, Angela
Facility Management Journal; v20 n5 , p74,76-78 ; Sep 2010
Discusses the use of sensors to determine building energy consumption. The differences between building control and energy information systems are explained. Advice on selecting system and equipment level metrics, data collection, and interpreting the data is included.

Energy-Saving Strategies for News Research Facilities.
Mahler, Steve; Anderson, Shirine; Ames, Allan
Laboratory Design; v15 n9 , p1-4 ; Sep 2010
Offers an overview of the typical sources of a laboratory's extra energy demands. Advice on creating energy-efficient new laboratories includes forming a client team to set energy saving goals, and their input is essential from the beginning of the project. Steps toward reducing demand, increasing efficiency, harvesting free energy, recycling waste energy, and adaptive reuse are detailed.

Sweating the Details.
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v57 n9 , p31,32,34,36,38,40 ; Sep 2010
Profiles winning buildings in the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Star National Building Competition. The facility that led the competition in energy use reduction was the University of North Carolina's Morrison Residence Hall. Also featured is the Van Holten Primary School in Bridgewater, New Jersey.

Roof Coatings: The Energy Connection.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n9 , p9,10 ; Sep 2010
Discusses roof rating programs designed to help building owners increase energy efficiency, energy-saving coatings that can be applied to existing roofs, and how to choose and apply the best coating for a roof.

The Smart Grid: Intelligent Technology for a Sustainable Future.
White, John
Facility Management Journal; v20 n5 , p64,66,67 ; Sep-Oct 2010
Describes variable frequency HVAC motors, more efficient transformers, increased electrical grid efficiency, and collaboration between building owners and energy providers that will result in significant reduction of electrical use.

Efficient HVAC Strategies: An Emerging Technology Primer.
Hock, Linsley
Laboratory Design; v15 n8 , p1,5,6,8 ; Aug 2010
Discusses the particular problems of laboratory HVAC systems, which typically condition a large amount of fresh air and only cycle it through the building once. Variable air volume (VAV) systems can coordinate exhaust rates with fume hoods to lower exhaust when hoods are not in use. Advances in fume hood technology are also discussed, as are room sensors that adjust HVAC operations based on air quality in the room.

Roofing Hot-Button: Photovoltaic Systems.
Mattison, Kent
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n8 , p16,17 ; Aug 2010
Discusses advantages of conversion to alternative, renewable energy sources. These include financial savings, environmental advantages, reliability, hedge against rate hikes, peak energy savings, public relations, and national security. The article also lists important questions regarding the physical feasibility and economics of installing the system.

Is the Heat On?
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v49 n8 , p42,44,46,48 ; Aug 2010
Advocates automated HVAC system controls in schools, where systems can be controlled from a central location. Energy savings of up to 18 percent are attainable, even before eliminating the necessity of traveling from school to school to adjust systems.

Energy-Harvesting Sensors Power Building Controls to New Levels of Sustainability.
Martin, Graham
American School and Hospital Facility; v33 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul-Aug 2010
Describes the function of self-powered wireless sensors in the control of building systems, noting their ability to be placed conveniently for building occupants and their benefits to lowering energy use.

Building EUI's. Adobe PDF
Peterson, Kent; Crowther, Hugh
High Performing Buildings; , p40-42,44,46,48 ; Summer 2010
Examines the numerator and denominator of the energy use intensity (EUI) formula, used to model building energy use. Defining gross area, location of where energy use is measured, and existing versus planned building are discussed. Charts and seven references are included.

Energy Solutions.
Sobieski, Jeff
American School and University; v8 n12 , p22-24 ; Jul 2010
Recommends networked and centralized control of school HVAC and lighting systems. Types of occupancy sensors, essentials of managing diverse interior systems, expedient and inexpensive installation, self-calibration, and easy access to real-time information is addressed.

Energy Upgrades: Take Money to Make Money.
Binkley, Aaron
Building Operating Management; v57 n6 , p59,60,62,63 ; Jun 2010
Identifies possibilities for cost-savings incentives for retrofits and other efficiency projects. In addition to measures that reduce electricity load, cash rebates, tax benefits, and creative financing options may be available.

Preserve and Conserve.
Gregerson, John
Buildings; v104 n6 , p76-78 ; Jun 2010
Discusses standards and procedures for HVAC system inspection and predictive maintenance that are designed to save energy. In-house versus outsourced work is also addressed.

Self Control Is Secret to Energy Savings.
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v57 n6 , p65,66,68,70,71 ; Jun 2010
Provides technical advice to make case that rigorous maintenance of existing facilities can be as effective as upgrading to new systems.

A Sustainable and Holistic Approach to Design and Construction.
Bobadilla, Leo
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p8-10 ; May 2010
Uses the North Carolina's Northern Guilford Middle School as an example of a high performance school that uses 43% less energy than a school of comparable size. Daylighting, solar hot water, post-occupancy evaluation, and rainwater collection are described.

Tracking Costs.
Erickson, Paul
American School and University; v82 n10 , p22-25 ; May 2010
Augments information on energy-saving construction and operations with information on measuring the cost-effectiveness.

The Top Ten Energy Wasters in K-12 Facilities (and What to Do about Them).
Leathers, Dave
School Business Affairs; v76 n4 , p32-34 ; May 2010
Presents the top ten sources of wasted energy and water in schools, along with suggestion for how to mitigate them. These involve HVAC systems, lighting, and plumbing.

Optimizing Laboratory Ventilation Rates: Challenges and Implementation.
Bell, Geoffrey
Laboratory Design; v15 n4 , p8,10 ; Apr 2010
Presents case studies of optimizing two laboratory ventilation systems, as determined by commissioning.

Seven Keys to Unlocking Energy Efficiency in Schools.
Fabris, Peter
Building Design and Construction; v51 n4 , p28-34,36,38 ; Apr 2010
Describes seven strategies for conserving energy in schools, addressing the building envelope, HVAC system, building automation, lighting and daylighting, and photovoltaics.

Are You an Energy Star?
Pitcher, Lauren
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p70,72,74 ; Apr 2010
Discusses the advantages to schools that use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Smart Schools program. Success stories from four of the 500 school districts that have implemented the program are described.

Sub-metering and Sustainability.
Rosenberger, David
Maintenance Solutions; v18 n4 , p10,11 ; Apr 2010
Discusses how sub-metering of energy use has evolved from a technique to measure a tenant's consumption to one used to measure even the energy use of a single piece of equipment. This technique can uncover ways to save electricity, predict the failure of a piece of equipment, and earn LEED credits.

A Bright Spot on a Lackluster Year: Green Trends Point to Rosier Outlook for Educational Facilities in 2010.
Spector, Marc
School Planning and Management; v49 n4 , p38,40,42 ; Apr 2010
Describes trends in "green" school construction, including display of energy consumption in the school, energy labeling, Building Information Modeling (BIM), campus-style schools uniting services and supplies, water conservation, carbon calculation, net-zero buildings, and sustainable building education.

Energy Demands.
Wilkinson, Ron
American School and University; v82 n9 , p22,24,25 ; Apr 2010
Advises on lowering energy costs by adjusting equipment to maximize performance at off-peak times, and minimize peak usage. Motion sensors for lighting, and retro-commissioning are also advocated.

Energy Equations. [Fresh Thinking for K-12 Schools: Energy Management]
Zimmerman, Greg
Building Operating Management; v57 n4 , p28-30,32,34 ; Apr 2010
Describes how school facility leaders in Charlotte, North Carolina, and Gilbert, Arizona, reduced energy consumption through collaborative efforts combining facilities staff and building occupants. Elimination of personal appliances from classrooms, moderating thermostat settings, and monitoring unoccupied classrooms produced significant results.

Save Energy Dollars with DOE Operations and Maintenance Guide.
Appel, Margo
School Business Affairs; v76 n2 , p27,28,30 ; Mar 2010
Advocates the use of the U.S. Department of Energy's Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools. Brief descriptions of the Guide's easy-to-follow suggestions, checklists, downloadable templates, and references are included.

From Simple to Sophisticated: Three Ways to Track Energy Use.
Cosaboon, David
Building Operating Management; v57 n3 , p8,10 ; Mar 2010
Advises on ways to reduce energy costs through tracking use. Analyzing utility bills, submetering and and building automation systems (BAS) are discussed.

Pushing the Envelope.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v49 n3 , p36-39 ; Mar 2010
Discusses advances in Building envelope technology and materials that improve the energy performance of schools. Insulating foam and moisture barriers are emphasized.

Photo Finish.
Hadian, Ali; Sedighi, Ben
American School and University; v82 n7 , p32-35 ; Mar 2010
Discusses the possibilities for photovoltaic systems on schools. Options for procuring a system, design on new and existing buildings, and choosing the right system is addressed.

An Analysis of Energy-efficient Light Fittings and Lighting Controls.
Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, K.L.; Wong, S.L.; and Lam, Tony
Applied Energy; v87 n 2 , p558-567 ; Feb 2010
This paper presents a study on the energy and lighting performances for energy-efficient fluorescent lamps associated with electronic ballasts and high frequency photoelectric dimming controls installed in a school building. Electricity expenditures and indoor illuminance levels for a workshop and a classroom employing high frequency dimming controls were analyzed. Simple prediction methods were used to illustrate the lighting savings. The findings provide the operational and performance information, which would be applicable to other spaces with similar building layouts and lighting schemes.

New Energy Landscape.
Zimmerman, Greg
Building Operating Management; v57 n2 , p16-20 ; Feb 2010
Discusses the advent of net-zero buildings that produce all the energy they need to operate. The key roles of energy efficiency and the facility manager, design strategies and products that contribute to energy independence, and supporting government programs are addressed.

Dashboard Displays
School Construction News; Jan 28, 2010
QA Graphics installed its Energy Efficiency Education Dashboard at Chemawa Indian School, the oldest continuously operating boarding school in the United States. Displayed on a 19-inch monitor located in the boiler room, as well as online through a graphical user interface, the dashboard shows water flow, electricity and gas use in real-time with daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly statistics, allowing students and staff to closely monitor consumption.

Go Green, Save Green with Energy Star. Adobe PDF
Hatcher, Caterina
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p28-30 ; 2010
Provides step-by-step information and available resources for evaluating and implementing the ENERGY STAR program. The modules of the program are described in the order in which they should be implemented.

Renovating the 1960's School to the 2010 School Model. Adobe PDF
Helgesen, Christian
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p9-12 ; Jan 2010
Describes the philosophy of school design in the 1960's. The author compares this to current philosophies as well as design mandates in new facilities, and describes possibilities for energy saving in renovation.

Wind Power: An Emerging Choice for Schools.
Hiserodt, Lisa
School Construction News; v16 n1 , p11,22 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the potential for wind energy at schools, particularly in the Midwest, turbine types and selection, and addressing local resistance to windmill installation.

Detailed Analysis of Electricity, Water, and Gas Consumption Quantities and Costs in Toronto's Public Schools.
Issa, M. H.; Attalla, M.; Rankin, J. H.; Christian, A. J.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering; v37 n1 , 25-36 ; Jan 2010
Analyzes the consumption quantities and costs of energy, water, and gas for a sample of 10 conventional and 20 energy-retrofitted public schools in Toronto over a 5 year study period to establish a benchmark for the consumption of energy in traditional versus more sustainable buildings. Through extensive statistical analysis of the data collected, the study demonstrates that electricity and gas consumption quantities and costs decrease more significantly in energy-retrofitted schools than in conventional schools. Whereas energy-retrofitted schools consume and spend on average as much money on energy as conventional schools, energy-retrofitted schools consume and spend more money on electricity and less money on gas than conventional schools. Energy-retrofitted schools also exhibit stronger and more significant positive relationships between the quantities of electricity, water, and gas consumed per user in those schools and the schools' total number of users than conventional schools.
TO ORDER: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nrc/cjce/2010/00000037/00000001/art00004

Imagine...Texas Boasts Net Zero School. Adobe PDF
Layne, Scott
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p5-8 ; 2010
Describes components of net zero construction of middle school in Texas. The author also documents specifically the financial benefits, which are dramatically better than they were even three years ago. Net zero construction, however, is possible only in new construction, not renovation.

Going Up?
Lewis, Michael; Lindquist, Kellie
Facility Management Journal; v20 n1 , p59-61,64,65 ; Jan-Feb 2010
Discusses the energy consumption of traction elevators, the advantages installing lower energy-use elevators, and the much lower energy consumption of hydraulic elevators, which are suitable for low-rise buildings.

Design Firms Can Claim Federal Tax Incentives for Energy-Efficient Buildings. Adobe PDF
Rader, Matthew
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n4 , p17,18 ; 2010
Advises on how architects and engineers may claim federal tax incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

Energy Sustainability: It's Easier (and Cheaper) than you Think. Adobe PDF
Smith, Molly; Peterson, David
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p31,32 ; 2010
Lists the immediate, inexpensive ways to implement ECMs(Energy Conservation Measures) that require more attention and strategy rather than investment.

Lean, Mean and Green.
Standfield, Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2/3 , p33-36 ; 2010
Lists detailed information for design strategies to consider in constructing an affordable Net Zero school.

Lean, Mean and Green: An Affordable Net Zero School. Adobe PDF
Stanfield, Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n2,3 ; 2010
Discusses the design of Richardsville Elementary in Kentucky, to be an affordable net zero facility. By reducing energy use to 19.31 kBtus annually, the net zero goal could be realized through the implementation of a solar array capable of producing enough energy to meet the school's operating demands. Coupled with the goal of a LEED certified facility, the building's components were identified and implemented to affordably attain a facility that demonstrates a sustainable site, net zero energy, water efficiency, materials and resources conservation, and an indoor/outdoor environment that promotes a healthy, progressive learning atmosphere while reducing life cycle maintenance costs and zeroing out electricity costs.

Using Technology for Building and Cost Control.
Javorski, Christian
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , pT8-T10 ; Dec 2009
Discusses energy saving strategies deployed in Arizona's Casa Grande Elementary School District. An energy management system (EMS), lighting retrofits, and HVAC modifications, and savings realized so far are described.

Natural Light, Energy Efficiency.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n12 , p23-25 ; Dec 2009
Discusses the balancing of daylighting and building exterior performance. Siting of the building, quality of windows and doors, and maintenance are emphasized.

Cooling with Less Air.
Weidner, Steve; Doerger, Jerome; Walsh, Michael
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n12 , p34-40 ; Dec 2009
Discusses underfloor air distribution and chilled beam systems for cooling that uses less energy and delivers superior occupant comfort. The function, design, and combination of these systems are detailed, illustrated by an example of a 376,000 square foot facility housing 2,200 people.

The Drive to Zero: Georg V. LeyVa Middle School on Target to Become First "Net-Zero Energy" Public School Facility in California. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v30 n11 , p10,11 ; Nov 2009
Profiles this San Jose school that is striving to maximize energy savings through photovoltaics, daylighting, high-efficiency lighting and HVAC systems, a cool roof, and extra insulation.

Operations and Maintenance: Keys to Energy Management.
Kirkland, Kelly
Buildings; v103 n11 , p50-52,54 ; Nov 2009
Explains how to improve a facility's energy efficiency through benchmarking and retro-commissioning, with emphasis on the U.S. Department of Energy's ENERGY STAR rating program. A number of easily executed energy saving suggestions are included.

Steps to Green: Good, Better, Best.
McGowan, Jack
Building Operating Management; v56 n11 , p39,40,42 ; Nov 2009
Describes incremental energy-efficiency steps that can put an existing building on the path toward LEED certification. A basic energy analysis and conservation program is described as the first step. The U.S. Department of Energys "Energy Star" label is second, and changes made to achieve this level are likely to yield significant payback. LEED certification is the final step, and convincing the owner to pursue the more expensive LEED certification upgrades is discussed.

VFD: Basic Tool for Energy Savings. [VFDs in HVAC Systems.]
Piper, James
Building Operating Management; v56 n11 , p31,32,34,36 ; Nov 2009
Describes the features and virtues of variable frequency drives (VFDs) in HVAC systems. These energy-saving drives have evolved to the point that they can be installed on most existing HVAC systems, thus matching the system capacity to the load, saving wear on motors, and even creating quieter systems.

Ten Tips to Cut Energy Costs.
Lorenz, Brandon
Building Operating Management; v56 n10 , p45-48 ; Oct 2009
Suggests saving energy by reducing night lighting, retrocommissioning the building, involving the occupants energy savings, turning off vending machine lights, zoning underneath raised flooring for heat control, improving kitchen processes, keeping shades drawn against direct sun, reducing refrigeration waste, and providing your own transformer.

Energy Data Collection and Savings Identification.
Millstein, Don
School Planning and Management; v48 n10 , p31,32,34 ; Oct 2009
Describes more accurate energy data collection for schools by submetering for lighting, HVAC, and electrical outlets. Combination of submeters with energy intelligence software can help detail and analyze energy use. Information gathered can be used to assess energy use at events, in leased spaces, and within departments, as well as to help identify equipment in need of maintenance.

Nintendo Generation Gives it a Green Thumbs Up. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v30 n9 , p8,9 ; Sep 2009
Profiles Vacaville, California's Fairmont Elementary School. The highly energy-efficient school exceeds government standards by 30 percent, featuring natural lighting, displacement ventilation, photovoltaic panels, and a wind turbine.

Riverbend Elementary School-a Model for Energy Self-Reliance.
Design Cost Data; v53 n5 , p23,24,26 ; Sep 2009
Details the design and installation this school's rooftop photovoltaic system that generates more than 45 percent of the campus' annual energy needs, along with daylighting and water conservation features.

Good Performers.
Bennett, Bob
American School and University; v82 n1 , p25--27 ; Sep 2009
Discusses performance-based contracting as a cost effective means to improve school facilities. The article describes typical building systems that can be upgraded in a performance-based contract, as well as how they are financed. How to determine eligible systems, how the process is executed, and what to expect as a result are also addressed.

Optimizing Building Energy Performance.
Callahan, Stacey
Doors and Hardware; v73 n9 , p10-12,14 ; Sep 2009
Advises on improving the energy efficiency of buildings through improved door assemblies. Thermal break door frames, insulated doors, gasketing, Kerf frames, properly sized and calibrated door closers, and revolving doors are described.

Web Exclusive: Laboratory Goes Through-the-Roof Green.
Matter, Tony
Profiles a new facility at Maine's Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, focusing on the design and insulation of more than eight inches of polyisocyanurate insulation in the roofing system that delivers extremely high R-values.

The Economic Benefits of Performance Contracting.
Taival, Dane
Facility Management Journal; v18 n5 , p78,80,81 ; Sep 2009
Explains how performance contracts pay for building improvements through subsequent energy savings, how to select and energy service company (ESCO) to execute the project, services that can be included in the contract, and evaluating the effectiveness of the upgrades.

Maintenance and Operations: Brilliant Ideas Needed.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n8 , p18-23 ; Aug 2009
Describes innovative school maintenance and operations practices that improve facility condition and save money. These include hiring retired staff to conduct inspections, working a four-day week when school is not in session, banning personal appliances from classrooms, remotely controllable HVAC, lighting, and irrigation systems, and staggering the shifts of maintenance workers.

Contracting for Carbon Reductions. [Clinton Climate Initiative.]
Lorenz, Brandon
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p35,36,38,39 ; Aug 2009
Discusses new documentation from Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) that will help standardize energy performance contracting. An example of an energy performance contract executed at the Empire State Building is included.

Energy Measurement: It's the Law. [Cities, States Begin Mandates For Energy Benchmarking.]
Millan, Naomi
Building Operating Management; v56 n8 , p25-28 ; Aug 2009
Reviews existing and proposed legislation mandating energy use reporting for non-residential buildings, with particular detail on laws enacted in California and Washington, D.C.

CO2 Monitoring Advances Air Quality and Energy Efficiency.
Schaffner, Chris
Buildings; v103 n8 , p44-46 ; Aug 2009
Discusses the benefits of carbon dioxide monitoring to indoor air quality, assessing occupancy for demand control ventilation, and earning LEED credits. Advice on installation, calibration, and monitoring of carbon dioxide sensors is included.

Building Envelope: Focus on Energy.
Seaverson, Eric
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n8 , p12 ; Aug 2009
Discusses use of infrared technology and visual inspection to identify air leaks, wet insulation, and thermal bridging, along with suggested elements of a maintenance checklist and current products to remedy unsatisfactory conditions.

Enhancing Lab Sustainability with Energy Audits and Master Planning.
Platsis, Zach
Laboratory Design; v14 n7 , p5-7 ; Jul 2009
Discusses elements of an energy audit and planning that can enhance sustainability. Equipment and systems improvements, inclusion of researchers in the assessment and upgrade process, and inclusion of all types of building professionals are addressed.
TO ORDER: http://www.rdmag.com/labdesignnews

LEED 2009: Impact on Operations and Maintenance.
Dowrey, Gordon
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n6 , p6,7 ; Jun 2009
Discusses how the LEED v3 rating system will affect building operations and maintenance. The three enhancements detailed are harmonizing prerequisites and credits for increased consistency, adjusting credit weightings based on their impact on human and environmental health concerns, and prioritizing select credit weightings to address regional environmental issues. Advice on assembling a LEED certification team is included.

Toughening up the Energy Code. [A Preview of ASHRAE 90.1-2010.]
Silverstien, Andrew
Building Operating Management; v56 n6 , p47,48,51-53 ; Jun 2009
Previews the elements of the next revision of this ASHRAE standard, which will improve minimum prescriptive energy efficiency targets by 30 percent over the 2004 edition. The standard covers a variety of HVAC details, as well as lighting and daylighting design.

Boost Efficiency and Reliability via Cogeneration.
Singh, Varun; Radermacher, Reinhard
Buildings; v103 n6 , p78-81 ; Jun 2009
Discusses combined heat and power (CHP) production as a way to recover and reuse energy that is a by-product of each process. Configurations of the cycle are described, as are a variety of engines and turbines that can be deployed. The benefits include 60-90 percent energy efficiency and ability to effectively address peak demand. Recommendations for determining feasibility and implementing cogeneration facilities are included.

Energy Opportunities up on the Roof. [Energy Efficient Roofing Metrics.]
Warweck, Karen
Building Operating Management; v56 n6 , p37,38,40 ; Jun 2009
Discusses reflectivity, emissivity, and thermal conductance in roofing materials, noting how these factors interact with climate to impact the energy use of a building.

Efficiency Goals.
Graham, Donald
American School and University; v81 n10 , p32-35 ; May 2009
Advises on energy-efficient lighting for schools, emphasizing daylighting, advanced lighting controls, dimming ballasts, and T-5 lamps.

Performance Contract Saves Energy and Money.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v48 n5 , p26,28,30,31 ; May 2009
Uses the Metro Nashville Public Schools' experience with an energy performance contract to illustrate savings realized in energy and water usage through updated fixtures and equipment. The energy auditing process, funding, and phasing of the improvements are discussed.

Using Time-of-Day Scheduling to Save Energy.
Murphy, John; Maldeis, Neil
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p42-44,46,48 ; May 2009
Discusses combinations of timers and occupancy sensors to accomplish HVAC reductions in times of low or no building occupancy. A school system that reduced energy consumption by 23 percent is cited as an example. Proper timing of setbacks, override strategies, and demand-controlled ventilation are discussed. Includes five references.

Lessons Learned in Portable Classrooms.
Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Parker, Danny
ASHRAE Journal; v51 n5 , p30-32,34-36,38-41 ; May 2009
Details the results of side-by-side studies of traditional and newer modular classroom units, with the latter being designed to use less energy, deliver improved indoor air quality, and have more daylighting. The study was conducted at elementary and high school sites in New York, Florida, and North Carolina. The study revealed minimal savings realized in lighting costs, but a 36, 46, and 81 percent savings in heating and cooling costs realized in New York, North Carolina, and Florida, respectively. Includes 13 references.

No Money for Upgrades? An Energy Performance Contract May Be the Answer. [Making ESCO's Pay.]
Zimmerman, Greg
Building Operating Management; v56 n5 , p16,18 ; May 2009
Discusses how to benefit from a performance contract with energy services company (ESCO). Selecting the right company, ensuring that savings are guaranteed, and picking the right projects are addressed.

A Clear View.
Giblin, Kathryn
American School and University; v81 n9 , p36-38 ; Apr 2009
Discusses advantages of window film to school energy savings, how glass transfers heat, and how to select the right type of film for the type of windows being considered.

Optimizing Openings: The Basics of Energy-Efficient Doorways.
Matheny, Sandra
The Construction Specifier; v62 n4 , p82-86 ; Apr 2009
Discusses optimization of the thermal performance of doors, including thermal break frames, insulated doors, gasketing, door closers, and revolving doors.

Let the Numbers Do the Talking. [ENERGY STAR Reduces Facility Energy Use by Improving Communication.]
Lorenz, Brandon
Building Operating Management; v53 n3 , p47,48,50,52,54 ; Mar 2009
Describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Star program and how it can be deployed to save energy in buildings. Examples of how school system have benefitted from the program are included.

Energy Efficiency: More Than a Simple Black and White Issue.
Matter, Tony
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p6-9 ; Mar-Apr 2009
Explains how dark-colored roof membranes may be more beneficial to energy savings than light-colored ones when used in cooler climates. While most environmental building rating schemes promote reflective roofing, the case of the West Virginia School Building Authority is offered to demonstrate how dark roofs may be preferable. Problems with condensation can also occur with light roofs installed in cold climates.

The Drive for Energy Efficiency.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n3 , p14 ; Mar 2009
Discusses the use of variable-frequency drives (VFD s) in HVAC systems to reduce energy use during off-peak demand. Early defects of VFD s that are now remedied are discussed, as are facility applications and additional benefits to reduced maintenance and longer motor life.

Filter Facts: Improving IAQ, Lowering Energy Costs.
Banse, J. Patrick
Maintenance Solutions; v17 n2 , p19 ; Feb 2009
Discusses characteristics and types of HVAC air filters, making recommendations on proper selection, maintenance, and replacement of filters.

Thinking Inside the Box.
Brill, Kenneth
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p66-68 ; Feb 2009
Advises on cutting data center energy use by replacing and then removing old servers, rather than just adding on to them, investing in energy-efficient hardware, and running multiple applications on one server.

Energy Goes to School.
Detering, Paul
Environmental Design and Construction; v12 n2 , p38,40 ; Feb 2009
Profiles the photovoltaic system at the Athenian School in Danville, California. The design and manner in which it was installed at no cost to the school are described.

Got an Energy Hog?
Hassen, Marcus
Building Operating Management; v56 n2 , p59,60,62,64 ; Feb 2009
Advises on improving the energy efficiency of data centers, including maintenance of underfloor pressure, proper implementation of cold and hot aisles, updating HVAC systems, strategic location of thermostats, consideration of energy efficiency in IT equipment decisions, and updating of inefficient lighting.

Lighting the Way.
Orth, Kevin
School Planning and Management; v48 n2 , p22,24,26,27 ; Feb 2009
Advocates for the use of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting in schools, with general lighting applications made possible by recent technological advances. The advantages of LED to energy consumption, lamp life, visibility of the light, color rendering, are discussed, and advice on replacing standard fixtures with LED is offered.

EnergySmart Schools Program Helps Districts Clear Financial Roadblocks. Adobe PDF
Appel, Margo
Educational Facility Planner; v44 n1 , p17-20 ; 2009
Discusses Guilford County Schools in North Carolina and other districts around the nation that are discovering that high-performance schools conserve energy, help the environment, improve student and teacher performance and save money. Provide guidance on financing a high performance school, outlining ways to finance new construction, retrofits, and renovation projects.

Documenting Performance: Does it Need to Be So Hard? Adobe PDF
Hinge, Adam; Winston, Donald
High Performing Buildings; , p18-23 ; Winter 2009
Discusses the difficulty of assessing energy performance of green buildings, particularly in cases when the pursuit of LEED certification generated high expectations, when the buildings are part of a multi-building campus, or when metering is divided between portions of a buildings. Includes four references.

Underfloor Air Distribution 101.
Teplitsky, Alex; Stoehr, Todd
Buildings; v103 n1 , p44,45 ; Jan 2009
Describes underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems, created under raised floors that also provide space for most other types of service distribution systems. Pressurized and zero-pressure floors are described, as are opportunities for energy savings and improved occupant comfort.

Energy Efficient Roofs.
Matter, Tony
School Planning and Management; v47 n12 , p40-43 ; Dec 2008
Questions the rush to light-colored, reflective roofs on schools, as most schools spend more on heating than cooling. Evidence of their ineffectiveness in northern locations, as well as a description of the type of insulation layering that should be included in school roofs is included.

Hawaii Schools See Green.
Jacobson, Linda
Education Week; v28 n10 , p21-23 ; Oct 2008
Discusses how Hawaii's schools are given rebates of money saved on their energy bills, are turning to renewable energy sources, and avoiding air conditioning.

GoinGreen.
Davis, Michelle
Education Week Digital Directions; Oct 2008
Briefly profiles sustainability efforts in schools, including recycling computers, centralized hibernation commands to computers, sophisticated HVAC systems that adjust to outdoor temperature and room occupancy, rainwater collection, and lighting that adjusts to ambient daylighting.

There's Much More to Saving Energy.
Larson, Peter
School Planning and Management; v47 n10 , p26,28,30,32 ; Oct 2008
Advises on incorporating energy-saving strategies in new school buildings before they are built. Resources for energy-saving information are cited, and the difference between passive and active strategies explained. Use of energy from renewable resources is also emphasized.

Generating Savings from Energy Use.
Livengood, Greg; Stavig, Mark
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n10 , p18,20 ; Oct 2008
Discusses energy savings that can be realized through energy audits of buildings. Components of a third-party audit are discussed, as are levels of auditing that reveal varying degrees of data. Follow-up steps and common mistakes with audits are also addressed.

Motors: Defining and Improving Energy.
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p14,15 ; Sep 2008
Defines what constitutes an energy-efficient motor, discusses what energy cost savings might be realized by using them, and advises on assessing motors for efficiency and replacement, as well as on how to prevent motor failure.

Lighting: Five Steps to Savings.
DiLouie, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n9 , p22,23 ; Sep 2008
Advises on specification and installation of appropriate occupancy sensors for lighting control. Choosing the right technology, selecting a coverage pattern, planning the layout, specifying the sensors, installing, and commissioning are addressed.

Rating Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Laboratories.
Mathew, Paul
Laboratory Design; v13 n8 , p9-12 ; Aug 2008
Provides guidance on how to use the Labs21 benchmarking tool in the pursuit of LEED Existing Buildings Operations and Maintenance (LEED-EB) certification. Three procedural options are detailed.

Closing the Seal on Buildings.
Seaverson, Eric
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n8 , p28,29 ; Aug 2008
Discusses typical sources of air leaks in buildings, problems that can be caused by the moisture it carries into exterior components, particular problems caused by leaking roofs, and design and replacement options that help seal a building's exterior.

Boiler Retrofits Help Increase Efficiency, Lower Energy Bills.
Willems, Dan
School Planning and Management; v47 n8 , p38,40,41 ; Aug 2008
Reviews the school boiler retrofitting process, including locating the inefficiency in the entire system, consideration of boiler control replacement, incorporation of heat recovery, environmentally friendly burners, and alternative funding strategies.

The Smart Approach.(Energy Smart Schools Save Money.)
Appel, Margo
American School Board Journal; v195 n7 , p34,35 ; Jul 2008
Reviews the benefits of building high performance schools, emphasizing justification of the up-front-costs through a life-cycle cost analysis. Enabling incentive programs and creative financing are also covered.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com

Getting the Most from Your Energy Dollar: The High-Performance School.
Crawley, Drury
School Business Affairs; v74 n7 , p31-33 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the lowering costs of building energy-efficient schools, which now can cost no more to build than traditional schools. The key is coordinated design, with all members of the design and construction team being focused on energy efficiency and systems being created that are compatible and right-sized to each other.

Lighting Controls: The Next Frontier in Energy Savings.
DiLouie, Craig
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n7 , p12,13 ; Jul 2008
Discusses components of energy saving lighting controls, including intelligent relay panels, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming ballasts, and personal control devices.

Lighting the Way to Energy Efficiency.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v47 n7 , p26,28 ; Jul 2008
Advises on reduction of school electricity costs through an audit of the lighting that identifies inefficient fixtures and bulbs, as well as unnecessary lighting in some places. An example from Wisconsin's Eau Claire Area School District illustrates the process.

Eight Energy Benchmarking Hurdles (and How to Get over Them).
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n7 , p56-61 ; Jul 2008
Discusses overcoming these obstacles to energy benchmarking: 1) Upper management does not understand it enough to support it. 2) The motivation for the benchmarking is unclear. 3) One does not know what to benchmark against. 4) One does not know what data is needed. 5) One does not know what features to look for in a benchmarking tool. 6) One does not know what to do with the data. 7) Numbers can be misleading. 8) One does not know exactly what energy uses to benchmark.

Energy: The Green Remedy for Today's School Districts.
Hallberg, Joseph
School Business Affairs; v74 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Reviews no- and low-cost strategies for saving energy in school systems. These emphasize programs to turn off unnecessary lighting and equipment, with the extra benefit that students learn the value of conservation in real dollars saved by the school system.

Powering Up with Power Purchasing Agreements.
Roper, Preston
School Business Affairs; v74 n7 , p34,36 ; Jul-Aug 2008
Discusses the use of power purchasing agreements for energy enhancements at schools. Under these agreements, and outside provider installs a source for alternative energy (wind or solar) on the campus, and then sells the resulting power to the school at a discount.

Green Schools: Electric Youth.
Demski, Jennifer
T.H.E. Journal; v35 n6 , p36,38 ; Jun 2008
This article describes Maryland's Montgomery County Public Schools initiative called the School Eco Response Team, through which each school in the district receives personalized guidelines for energy usage and is rewarded for achieving those goals each semester. The article also describes the Great Seneca Creek Elementary School, Maryland's first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)-certified elementary school. These initiatives demonstrate that what MCPS has done is involve its students in tasks that could have easily been assigned to building maintenance, but in so doing, the students have changed the whole culture of energy use throughout the district, providing them with lessons to last a lifetime.

Cutting Costs from the Inside Out.
Dessoff, Alan
District Administration; v44n7 , p36-40,42,43 ; Jun 2008
Highlights cost-effective solutions to school building energy use and maintenance problems, including roofing, flooring, carpeting, solar power, artificial turf, doors, and occupancy sensors.

Four Alternative to Traditional HVAC.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102, n6 , p110-114,116 ; Jun 2008
As cost-saving alternatives to traditional HVAC, this article describes chilled beam, geothermal, night-sky cooling, and thermal energy storage systems.

Sustainable Outdoor Lighting.
Preston, George
The Construction Specifier; v 61 n6 , p102-109 ; Jun 2008
Details elements of sustainable outdoor lighting, including efficient sources of light, energy-effective light application, and environmentally responsible suppliers. Types of bulbs, price comparisons, proper focus of the illumination, and items to check when evaluating a supplier are addressed.

Fast Payback.
Simon, David
American School and University; v80 n11 , p27-30 ; Jun 2008
Reviews easy-to-find energy savings from converting school lighting to fluorescents and then properly tuning them. Regulating motors with variable frequency drives or capacitators is also addressed.

How High Performance, Energy-Saving Glass and LEED Can Maximize the Potential of Green.
Lang, Bruce
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n3 , p10,12,13 ; May-Jun 2008
Reviews major points of the LEED system that contribute to coordinated building design, including prioritizing decisions and accepting trade-offs. Options for improved energy performance of glass are emphasized.

Going Green: Environmentally Friendly Schools Pay Off.
Lafee, Scott
California Schools Magazine; Apr 10, 2008
Describes California's Inderkum High School, its geothermal HVAC system, and the savings anticipated from the system. The rapid spread of high performance schools in California and the role of the Collaborative for High Performance Schools is also discussed.

Call to Action.
Craig, Charles; Kennedy, Bob
American School and University; v80 n8 , p46-49 ; Apr 2008
Reviews ten steps of a campus energy master plan, taking the user through auditing and benchmarking of existing conditions, retro-commisioning, determining upgrades and renovations, evaluation and procurement of renewable or alternative energy sources, and evaluation and communication of the results.

Energy Management: A Strategy for HVAC Savings.
Crow, Carl
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n4 , p10,12 ; Apr 2008
Describes retro-commissioning of buildings for energy efficiency. Typical elements for scrutiny include lighting controls, HVAC systems, and the building envelope.

Sunny Future.
Hall, Mike
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p88-90 ; Apr 2008
Discusses incentives for schools to incorporate solar and other forms of renewable energy into their facilities. These include energy savings, grants, and other forms of financial assistance. Two California case studies are included.

How Performance Contracting Helps Finance Energy Projects.
Hansen, Shirley
Buildings; v102 n4 , p72,74 ; Apr 2008
Reviews typical features and services available in performance contracts for energy savings, along with their advantages, benefits, and advice on selecting and working with an energy service company.

Energy Efficiency Pays.
Moore, Deb
School Planning and Management; v47 n4 , p10 ; Apr 2008
Outlines justifications for building an energy-efficient, high-performance school, including the rising cost of energy, healthier school environment, setting an example for the community, and teaching students about conservation.

Solar Shading=Energy Savings.
Collins, Heather
Facility Management Journal; v18 n2 , p58-61 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Reviews types and properties of woven metal solar shading for building exteriors, citing examples of savings realized in facilities where they were installed, and advising on how to select a product.

Into the Light. Adobe PDF
Crawford, Matthew
School Construction News; v11 n2 , p16 ; Mar-Apr 2008
Discusses the advantage of solar power for schools, where it will yield an educational benefit as well as lower energy costs. Types of solar panels and challenges to installing solar are also addressed.

Taking Initiative.
Hamann, Ann
American School and University; v80 n7 , p40,54,43 ; Mar 2008
Reviews energy conservation strategies that do not involve constructing new buildings. These include closer monitoring and control of HVAC use, supplies, and lighting replacement, as well as reduction of paper waste.

11 Surprising Ways that Your Building Wastes Energy.
Garris, Leah
Buildings; v102 n2 , p48-52 ; Feb 2008
Discusses energy consumption impact of appliances and electronics left on, dirty filters, dripping faucets, vending machine operation, night cleaning, dirty windows and skylights, uncoordinated equipment startup and sequencing, furnishings blocking vents, and incandescent exit signs.

Green and Sustainable Woven Metal Mesh Reduces Energy Consumption.
Collins, Heather
American School and Hospital Facility; v31 n1 , p6,8,9 ; Jan-Feb 2008
Reviews woven metal mesh applications for exteriors, to improve aesthetics and to reduce solar heat gain and light pollution. Examples of installations and advice on choosing a manufacture are included.

Sunpower for Schoolkids.
Evans, Deane
Architectural Record; , p107-110 ; Jan 2008
Discusses photovoltaic systems for schools, including how they work and are configured, how they may be incorporated or applied to the building, and their economic benefits.

Outlook 2008: What's ahead for Educational Facilities and Business in the New Year and Beyond.
Kennedy, Mike
School Planning and Management; v80 n5 , p14-16,18-26 ; Jan 2008
Predicts 2008 trends in school enrollment, construction, sustainability, maintenance, indoor air quality, security, technology, business and finance, and energy use.

Roadmap to Zero Net for California Schools.
Palmese, Racquel
Green Technology Magazine; 2008
Records a conversation with David Thorman, California State Architect, about his 2007 announcement that all news schools would be "Zero Net" or "Grid Neutral" by 2010, saving $1 billion per year with a reduction of 2.2 million tons of CO2. 

Demand Pumping Allows Optimum Control of Energy Use.
Pratapchandran, Sarat
Educational Facility Planner; v42 n4 , p22 ; 2008
Presents an interview that reviews the advantages of and obstacles to demand pumping and geothermal HVAC systems for schools, citing three Texas schools as examples.

Power Down: Saving Money with Automated Computer Power Management.
Thickins, Nick
School Business Affairs; v74 n1 , p30,31 ; Jan 2008
Cites the benefits of software that automatically shuts down school computers. With power to hardware under centralized control, system availability and security, as well as maintenance and serviceability are improved along with the energy savings.

Capturing Energy Loss.
Westerkamp, Thomas
Maintenance Solutions; v16 n1 , p24 ; Jan 2008
Reviews infrared thermal imaging to detect problems in electrical distribution and HVAC systems, mechanical equipment, and the building envelope.

Energy Audits.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n12 , p18-22 ; Dec 2007
Reviews energy saving strategies for school buildings, emphasizing regulation of HVAC use, lighting controls, and automated computer shutoff systems.

Weather Winter's Cold by Going Green.
Lally, Maureen
School Business Affairs; v73 n11 , p25,26 ; Dec 2007
Reviews LEED certification strategies that save energy and improve the school environment, details benefits of LEED certification for schools, and describes Energy Star and Green Globes as alternatives to LEED certification.

Geothermal: Engineer Says System Can Lower Costs.
Perry, Amy
School Construction News; v10 n7 , p22 ; Nov 2007
Presents and interview with Tom Perry, HVAC designer, that discusses the types of geothermal systems available, how much they can save schools on energy and maintenance costs, and some of the challenges facing schools when installing a new system.

Green Light on Energy Use.
Vogel, Carl
District Administration; v43 n11 , p28-30,32-34 ; Nov 2007
Reviews increasing interest in assessing the energy consumption of schools, the impact of creating "green" schools, recent programs that are creating and promoting green schools, and several examples of energy-saving features found in new and recently renovated schools.

Using Minimum Energy in Ireland's Schools. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; 2007/10 ; Oct 2007
Explains how Ireland has incorporated low energy design into primary and post-primary schools and gives an overview of projects that have helped inform this approach. Techniques include passive solar design, daylighting, natural ventilation, and air infiltration.

Greener Pastures.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v80 n1 , p40,42,43 ; Sep 2007
Briefly reviews energy saving and generating strategies,including daylighting, water conservation and recycling strategies, geothermal HVAC sytesm, and wind and solar energy.

Maximizing Your Energy Spending.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v46 n8 , p24,26,28 ; Aug 2007
Discusses energy purchasing options for school systems, alternative energy sources, building automation systems, sophisticated metering, and building recommissioning as ways to reduce energy costs.

Green Design Powers New Elementary School. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v28 n7 , p10 ; Jul 2007
Profiles California's Monterey Ridge Elementary School, which receives 50-60% of its electricity from a photovoltaic array on an adjacent hillside. The facility also features automated lighting, a cool roof, an automated energy management system and HVAC system, and a neighborhood location that minimizes commuting.

Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories, Part Two.
Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William
Laboratory Design; v12 n7 , p14-17 ; Jul 2007
Discusses the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations in laboratories. The problem arises when adjacent laboratories have widely differing equipment loads, but are served by a single air-handling unit with zone reheat coils for temperature control. The air being supplied to the high-intensity laboratory drives the supply air temperature down, but that air will subsequently be reheated for the low-intensity laboratories in order to maintain desired temperatures. This second part of a two-part article describes alternative HVAC systems that will address the problem.

Web-Enabled Lighting Control: Energy Savings, Convenience for Schools and Hospitals.
Jordan, Scott
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p18,20,21 ; Jul 2007
Reviews some state and national incentives for improving institutional lighting control, and describes a variety of automated lighting control options, including integration of lighting and other systems via the Internet.

Minimizing Reheat Energy Use in Laboratories, Part One.
Frenze, David; Mathew, Paul; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William
Laboratory Design; v12 n6 , p1,10,12-14 ; Jun 2007
Discusses the problem of simultaneous heating and cooling resulting from load variations in laboratories. The problem arises when adjacent laboratories have widely differing equipment loads, but are served by a single air-handling unit with zone reheat coils for temperature control. The air being supplied to the high-intensity laboratory drives the supply air temperature down, but that air will subsequently be reheated for the low-intensity laboratories in order to maintain desired temperatures.

Managing to Save.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v79 n11 , p38-40 ; Jun 2007
Laments the uninformed state of many educational institution administrators concerning energy efficiency, reviews some significant successes in school energy management, and issues a call to educational institutions to build and manage for better energy efficiency.

Integrated Classroom Lighting System: Light's Great, Less Billing.
School Planning and Management; v46 n4 , pG32,G34,G36 ; Apr 2007
Describes this system, which provides school facility designers and specifiers with lighting that cuts energy use in half while providing light when and where it is needed. The system consists of indirect/direct lighting, plug and play wiring, quiet time switches, highly reflective surfaces, and flexible, easy-to-use controls.

Conserving Watts by Watching. Adobe PDF
Baker, Kay
American School Board Journal; v194 n3 , p52,53 ; Mar 2007
Reviews energy-saving practices in Oregon's Salem-Keizer School District that involve the students and teachers through awareness of electricity production and consumption. The program also involved upgrading windows, lighting, insulation, and HVAC systems, with the combined behavior and building changes saving $550,000 per year in utility costs.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2007

Geoexchange HVAC System Sets a New Standard for Energy Efficiency.
School Planning and Management; v46 n2 , p36-39 ; Feb 2007
Profiles a geothermal HVAC system at an Ottoville, Ohio, K-12 school. The energy saved paid for the elaborate system in less than the projected four years.

Solar Roofs in San Diego.
Dolan, Thomas
School Planning and Management; v46 n1 , p19-21 ; Jan 2007
Describes an ongoing project to install photovoltaic systems on roofs of school and administrative buildings in the San Diego Unified School District. The roofs' design, construction, financing, partnerships, and savings are detailed. SDCS estimates the overall project will result in potential savings of more than $37 million in avoided costs during the next 20 years. It is anticipated that the project will have a capacity of 6.53 MW (milliwatts), producing 10,452MWH (milliwatt hours) of electricity annually. As of January 1, 2007, 3.57MW are operational.

Window Film: Reduces HVAC Cost, Enhances IAQ & Improves Appearance.
Watts, Marty
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n1 , p14,16,17 ; Jan 2007
Reviews benefits of window film, cautioning against very reflective products that block too much natural daylight and may actually drive up energy use through overuse of artificial lighting.

Improving Comfort, Enhancing Learning. Adobe PDF
Yocum, Forest
American School Board Journal; v193 n12 , p57,58 ; Dec 2006
Describes how the Southwest Licking (Ohio) School District entered into a performance contract that upgraded their buildings' envelopes, HVAC systems, and lighting. Funds saved on energy expenses were invested in solar energy and energy awareness programs.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2006

Small Steps, Big Energy Savings.
Shroades, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n11 , p11,12 ; Nov 2006
Reviews a case of simple school energy-savings steps that were based on the EPA Energy Star program and determined to save farm more energy than what they cost to implement.

A Brighter Future for LED's.
Yoders, Jeff
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p44-46,48,51 ; Nov 2006
Describes progres in LED (light-emitting diode) illumination. These fixtures consume far less energy and last longer, but are still relatively expensive to produce and produce mixed results in quality of illumination.

Making Photovoltaics Pay Their Way.
Yudleson, Jerry
Building Design and Construction; v47 n13 , p63,64,66 ; Nov 2006
Reviews the current favorable climate for photovoltaic systems, as installation costs have declined, energy costs and federal tax credits have risen, and many states, municipalities, and utility companies are also offering incentives.

The New School Design Imperative.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v45 10 , p20,21,23,24 ; Oct 2006
Describes the use of the energy modeling program DOE-2 used by the New Haven, Connecticut, schools to confront threatening energy costs caused by a major expansion of school square footage in the late 1990's. The savings realized and these funds were put aside for maintenance. By reducing KBTU use from its current average level of 110 to 80, incorporating the DOE-2 modeling program into the design process will have generated savings of 30 KBTUs or $1.8 million per year.

(On) Going Green.
Helmke-Long, Laura
School Planning and Management; v45 10 , p52,54,56-59 ; Oct 2006
Cites the success of Oregon's Gresham-Barlow School District in saving energy. Thorough energy audit data was input into a software program, HVAC systems were audited, facility improvements were made, and occupant behavior modified. Their achievement won recognition as an EPA Energy Star Leader in 2005.

VAV vs. Low-flow: What Saves More?
Neuman, Victor
Laboratory Design; v11 n10 , p1-5 ; Oct 2006
Briefly narrates the history of energy conservation for laboratory fume hoods, and then compares the energy savings of variable air volume (VAV) and the newer low-flow hoods. Both types save energy, and an ideal laboratory would contain both. The costs and advantages of three alternatives are described: a laboratory with only low-flow fume hoods, a laboratory with VAV hoods, and a laboratory with both types, which offers the most safety.

Reducing School Utility Costs with Technology: The South Carolina Energy Office Program.
Tucker, Erin
School Business Affairs; v72 n8 , p24,26 ; Sep 2006
Describes the progress that the SC SAVE$ program has made in helping South Carolina school districts track their energy usage and identify opportunities for savings. The web-based system establishes direct lines of communication and enables ease of use.

Looking Ahead: Energy Costs and School Buildings.
Vujovic, Vuk
School Construction News; v9 n6 , p38,39 ; Sep-Oct 2006
Cites statistics on the cost of energy to school districts, typical quantities of wasted energy, available energy sources, and the call to design for minimal energy use.

Future of Learning and Learning Centers.
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p51,52 ; Jun 2006
Describes the design and assembly of the photovoltaic wall at the Tiger Woods Learning Center, which will generate 3800 kilowatts of electricity per year. A brief description of the building's educational and extracurricular program is included.

Building and Refurbishing for Energy Savings.
Goral, Tim
University Business; v9 n6 , pG16-G18 ; Jun 2006
Details the four points of Milikin University's energy-saving plan, which has reduced energy consumption by 30%. The plan includes ensuring that existing buildings are working properly, making energy strategy key to new construction, engaging the community in the energy plan, and reinvesting the savings into visible capital improvements.

How to Improve Energy Efficiency Through Benchmarking.
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v45 n6 , p36-38 ; Jun 2006
Outlines the six steps of an energy benchmarking program created by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They are: 1) Gather data. 2) Tabulate energy consumption. 3) Establish energy intensity indicators. 4) Rank the schools. 5) Identify the poor-performing schools. 6) Create an action plan.

Risk Management in the Procurement of Energy.
Moltzan, Bruce
School Business Affairs; v72 n6 , p11-13 ; Jun 2006
Discusses "lowest price" and "price certainty" methods of energy procurement, citing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Whatever method is chosen, school district budgets must be configured accordingly and tolerance for risk accurately assessed. Once a method is chosen, a variety of products, approaches, and partnerships are available to facilitate energy procurement.

Solar School-Escondido Elementary. Adobe PDF
CASH Register; v27 n5 , p12 ; May 2006
Profiles this Palo Alto school that hosts a photovoltaic system providing 16 percent of the school s electricity needs. The funding partnership that paid for the system is also described.

Head of the Class for No GHG-School.
Harouni, Raif; Nichols, Laurier; Jean-Louis, Marie-Judith
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p22-24,26,27 ; May 2006
Profiles the building and HVAC design of Quebec's Ecole du Tournant, which emits no greenhouse gasses and uses 80% less energy than a typical school built according to the standard energy code. The composition of the roof, exterior walls, and windows, as well as the efficient lighting system are briefly described. The geothermal heat pump and makeup air unit using solar walls are covered in detail.

Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Energy Efficiency for Two Canadian Schools.
Minea, Vasile
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n5 , p28-30,32,34-36,38 ; May 2006
Details the design, construction, costs, and operation of ground-source heat pump systems at two Canadian schools. The construction of the system cost 26% less than a conventional HVAC system, and consumes 66.5% less energy. Includes four references.

"No Cost" School Renovation. Adobe PDF
Zorn, Robert
American School Board Journal; v193 n5 , p38,39 ; May 2006
Describes how an Ohio School district paid for $5.5 million in renovations through energy savings accomplished in an energy performance contract.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com/MainMenuCategory/Archive/2006

On Top of Energy Management.
Maintenance Solutions; v14 n4 ; Apr 2006
Describes the San Diego City School District's success with energy management, which has dramatically cut their costs. An energy monitoring and control system, photovoltaics, lighting retrofit, and replacement of appliances are among the steps that earned the system the distinction of having more Energy Star labeled buildings than any other school district program.

Harnessing Daylight for Energy Savings.
Kozlowski, David
Building Operating Management; v53 n4 ; Apr 2006
Explains how badly designed daylighting can actually raise energy costs and offers extensive advice on proper daylighting, including building orientation, window design, light and heat transmittance, ceiling height and reflectivity, clerestories, interior and exterior light shelves, and coordination of the system with artificial lighting.

Ventilation Heat Recovery for Laboratories.
VanGeet, Otto; Reilly, Sue
ASHRAE Journal; v48 n3 , p44-46,48-50,52,53 ; Mar 2006
Discusses energy recovery from laboratory air, which typically requires 100 percent outdoor air at high ventilation rates. Energy recovery can substantially reduce the cost of conditioning this air, which is often five times greater than in an office. Enthalpy wheels, heat pipes, runaround loops, and plate heat exchangers are covered, as are key building design, maintenance, and air quality issues.

On Film.
Watts, Marty
American School and University; v78 n6 , p34-36 ; Feb 2006
Describes selective solar films for windows that improves indoor air quality by reducing the amount of conditioned air needed and reducing offgassing from carpet and furniture. Films that admit natural light while blocking heat will support a daylit environment, thus reducing a subsequent need for increased artificial illumination.

Saving Energy in the Public Schools: San Diego Walks the Talk.
Crane, Barbara
Green Technology Magazine; 2006
Gives examples of how energy savings resulted in paying back bonds used to fund construction, as well as paying for additional investment in new technology. San Diego Unified School District, winner of EPA's 2007 Energy Star Partner of the Year award, has a long history of pursuing innovative steps in green construction.

Capital Need: Innovative Financing for New Green School Projects.
Langer, Kenneth
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p9-13 ; 2006
Describes how projected energy savings associated with new "green" schools can be guaranteed by an energy service company. The guarantee can be used to trigger commercial financing to cover the incremental capital costs associated with the design and construction of the school project. Also presented are various grant mecahnisms that can be used to buy down the incremental capital cost of new "green" school projects. Includes two references.

EPA's ENERGY STAR Helps School Buildings Perform Better.
Rovi, Julio
Educational Facility Planner; v 40 n 3/4 , p34-36 ; 2006
Describe the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR program, including its components and goals, along with its application to the design and operation of school buildings.

Guaranteed Savings.
Daniel, Wesley
American School and University; v77 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2005
Discusses performance contracting that pays for capital improvements with savings realized when the improvements lower energy consumption. A performance guarantee from the contractor ensures that if the expected savings are not achieved, the contractor compensates for the difference. The approaches to performance contracting described are: request for qualifications (RFQ), request for proposal (RFP), and negotiation. Procedures for determining energy savings expectations and monitoring the project are detailed.

Sealing In Energy Savings.
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; v13 n12 ; Dec 2005
New-generation insulation can enhance energy efficiency and minimize moisture problems. This article discusses roofing applications, wall insulation, duct applications, and pipe insulation.

Chiller Technology That Saves
Piper, James
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2005
Electric chillers represent the single largest electrical load in most buildings, accounting for 35-50 percent of a building’s annual electricity use. For this reason, maintenance and engineering managers who look closely at their building’s chiller system can identify ways to reduce operating and energy costs. This discusses high-efficiency chillers, software, high-efficiency purge systems, oil-less centrifugal chillers, multiple-chiller installations, and alternative-fuel chillers

Tapping Creative Energy.
Tanem, Michelle
American School and University; v78 n3 , p284,285 ; Nov 2005
Explores the involvement of students in saving energy, recycling, and other sustainable practices, featuring student-led initiatives in K-12 and higher education institutions.

Tired of Expensive School Buildings? Try Sustainable Design.
Vujovic, Vuk
School Construction News; v8 n7 , p30-32 ; Nov 2005
Explains how LEED-based projects can cost no more than non-LEED, or only marginally more if the highest LEED rating is sought. This is due to deeper design and construction industry experience with sustainability, state incentives to build "green," savings in energy and water consumption, and easier maintainability. Benefits of sustainable design to student health and academic performance are described.

Maximizing Efficiency.
Parks, Rick; Grubb, Kip
American School and University; v78 n1 , p32,34,35 ; Sep 2005
Describes the energy-saving strategies of sophisticated integration of natural and artificial light, reduced building envelopes, and integrated systems on multi-building campuses.

Energy-Efficient Renovation of Educational Buildings. Adobe PDF
Erhorn-Kluttig, Heike
PEB Exchange; v2005/2 n55 , p13,14 ; Jun 2005
Compares energy-efficient ventilation strategies from nine European countries and the U.S., assembled from 25 case studies of retrofit measures and presented with graphic analysis. Denmark's Egebjerg school is presented in detail, with a sectional view of its ventilation system.

Window Film to the Rescue!
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v44 n6 , p55-57 ; Jun 2005
Describes the benefits of window film that can limit solar heat gain, glare, and deterioration of furnishings from ultraviolet radiation. Minimal shattering protection is also obtained when these films are applied, but safety films (which can also control light) are required if window strengthening is sought.

Fundamentally Green.
Rush, Richard
American School and University; v77 n11 , p24,26,29 ; Jun 2005
Advocates compact, wraparound school design to achieve maximum energy efficiency. Classrooms should surround less densely populated areas, such as the library, gymnasium and administrative areas. Skylights and clerestories are recommended to illuminate these interiors spaces. For large campuses, a linked network of wraparound buildings is recommended.

Rethinking School Potable Water Heating Systems. Adobe PDF
Hiller, Carl
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p48-50,52,54-56 ; May 2005
Describes results from potable water heating system field tests in two schools, providing recommendations on alternative school water heating system designs and operating practices that significantly reduce operating costs with significantly lower first cost. Designing for better adjacencies of sinks to reduce piping length, point of use water heaters in many locations, and timers to turn off recirculating loops are recommended. Includes 12 references.

Making the Case for Green Building.
Wilson, Alex
School Planning and Management; v44 n5 , pGB3,GB4,GB6,GB8,GB10,GB12,GB14 ; May 2005
Examines benefits of environmentally conscious building design, including lower energy and water costs, greater durability, reduced cleaning and maintenance, less waste, improved health of occupants, reduced absenteeism, improved learning, and reduced demand on municipal services. General contributions to the community's environmental and social well-being are also outlined.

A Good LEEDer
Gourley, Steve
American School and University; v77 n9 , hp14-hp17 ; Apr 2005
Advises on ways to achieve LEED certification, explaining the six categories of assessment and listing typical ways to earn points in each.

Seeing the Big Picture.
Martin, Craig; Tracy, Brent
American School and University; v77 n6 , p26-28 ; Feb 2005
Discusses uses for the data obtained in a utility analysis which may reveal where energy can be saved. Load factors, ratios of consumption to demand, effects of weather, and benchmarking are considered.

Making the Most of It.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v77 n5 , p51-53 ; Jan 2005
This discusses 10 ways that administrators can try to accomplish more with the resources they have: facility assessment, computerized maintenance management systems, commissioning, performance contracting, life-cycle costs, outsourcing, online procurement, alternative fuels, cool roofs, and sharing space.

Boosting Budgets by Building Green.
Vujovic, Vuk; Ogurek, Douglas
School Business Affairs; v71 n1 , p5-9 ; Jan 2005
Describes goethermal heat pumps, photovoltaics, daylighting, and green roofs as energy-saving design features for school buildings. Estimates of what these systems can save are offered. Includes 15 references.

A View to Safety.
Larkin, Jay
American School and University; v77 n4 , p35-37 ; Dec 2004
Describes glass films that improve impact resistance and can be retrofitted onto existing windows at significantly less cost than replacing the glass. Also described are solar films for use in reducing heating and cooling costs.

The Road to Sustainability.
Holland, Mary
American School and University; v77 n3 , p354-356 ; Nov 2004
Describes low-cost methods for improving the energy consumption of school buildings. Landscaping that is redesigned and planted to reduce heat build-up can also serve as an outdoor environmental classroom. Energy performance contractors can help replace outdated systems and make improvements to the exteriors of buildings.

Energy Ideas.
Leisner, Hava
School Construction News; v7 n8 , p12-13 ; Nov-Dec 2004
Presents and interview with Lisa Heschong that describes energy-saving school facility management ideas such as restructuring the school day, insulating pipes, and ways to control heat loss through windows.

Putting The Squeeze on HVAC Costs
Vito, Dennis
Building Operating Management; Nov 2004
Good system design, careful management and effective maintenance are keys to reducing mechanical system energy expenditures. This discusses the following steps to take: adjust space temperature setpoints, use preventive maintenance, seek energy independence, optimize system efficiency, and negotiate better prices.

Small School District Scores Big on Energy Savings.
(Schoolfacilities.com, Orange, CA, Oct 2004)
Describes enthalpy wheels in a school HVAC system that recover heat and moisture from the exhaust air stream and transfer it to the supply air stream to save on heating and humidification costs. The wheels can also remove heat and moisture from the supply air stream during Summer months. 3p.

It's So Easy Being Green. Adobe PDF
Shorr, Pamela
American School Board Journal; v191 n10 , p22-25 ; Oct 2004
Describes the growing realization of the value of energy-efficient and eco-friendly schools, describes several innovative green school facilities and programs, and offers tips and resources for implementing a sustainable building program.

Submeters: The Best-Kept Secret.
Millstein, Don
School Construction News; v7 n6 , p31 ; Sep 2004
Advocates metering individual buildings, systems, or departments to determine where energy might be being wasted or where systems might need maintenance.

Low Maintenance, Sustainable Solutions for Chicago Schools.
Olsen, Erik
ASHRAE Journal; v46 n9 , pS12-S14,S16, S17 ; Sep 2004
Describes improved HVAC systems designed to help the Chicago Public Schools initiative to maximize sustainable building potential for its schools. The new systems provide a good mix of first cost, operating costs, maintainability, and indoor environmental quality. The condensing boilers, air-cooled chillers, dual-path air handling units, displacement ventilation, and demand-controlled ventilation (CO2 sensors) are described. (Includes five references.)

Where is LEED Leading Us?
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , p54 ; Jul 2004
Reviews misconceptions about requirements for LEED certification, affirms the values of LEED schools, and advocates designing around the educational program first, and then adjusting the school building to meet LEED requirements.

Energy Class.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , p36,38,41 ; Jul 2004
Describes the use of methane from a landfill to heat and provide electricity for the neighborhood Antioch Community School of Antioch, Illinois. The school district partnered with private companies to mine, purify, and pressurize the gas. Excess electricity is sold to a local utility.

Low Energy Schools in Ireland. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2004/2 n52 , p20-23 ; Jun 2004
Describes two Irish schools that reduced energy consumption through building envelope improvements, careful materials selection, natural ventilation, daylighting, greywater toilets, and wind power.

Building Green.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v76 n10 , p16-18,21,22 ; May 01, 2004
Defines five areas of consideration for sustainable building design and operations, citing studies that indicate their economic and educational benefits. Examples of sustainability put into practice and the benefits that followed are provided.

What Makes Green Buildings Green?
Kollie, Ellen
School Planning and Management; v43 n4 , pGB3,GB5,GB6,GB8 ; Apr 2004
Discusses the six sustainability standards of the United States Green Building Council, under which there are 69 elements that can be implemented and translated into points. A building must comply with at least 29 of the 69 elements to obtain LEED certification. Achieving sustainability in K-12 construction is often hampered by outdated design guidelines within the school districts, high-volume, energy-hungry spaces such as gymnasia and auditoria, and inappropriate siting of schools in remote locations.

The Next Frontier.
Leonard, Thomas
American School and University; v76 n9 , p39,40,42,44 ; Apr 2004
Discusses the use of dimmers, timers, occupancy sensors, and photocells to control lighting and energy use. A new Department of Energy regulation will require the inclusion of lighting controls in state building codes beginning July 15, 2004.

Getting Serious about Power Failures.
McClure, James
School Business Affairs; v70 n4 , p14-17 ; Apr 2004
Describes internal combustion electrical generation systems for emergency use and for "peak shaving" power production when the cost of peak electricity makes it economically feasible to generate power in-house. Case studies from four school systems are included.

Daylight Savings.
Soleau, David S.; Ross, Alan S.
American School and University; v76 n9 , hp11-hp14 ; Apr 2004
Discusses energy recovery and savings techniques involving lighting, HVAC, and site planning.

Remembering the Lessons of the 70's.
Abramson, Paul
School Planning and Management; v43 n1 , p79 ; Jan 2004
Compares the increase in per pupil energy costs during the energy crisis of the 1970's with a comparable increase during the 2000's. Similarities indicate that energy awareness programs from the 1970's should be re-implemented.

Searching for Savings.
Gryzkewicz, Renee
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004
As a result of management’s vision and the maintenance department’s expertise, the Portland School District is now reaping cost-saving benefits estimated to be about $9 million over the past eight years. In 1990, the district undertook a series of aggressive measures to enhance the energy efficiency in its 100 schools and better control its utility costs. It launched energy-efficiency programs and retrofit projects designed to maintain energy use and costs at the lowest level possible without compromising the schools’ learning environment.

School Boards and the Utility Companies.
MacNeil, Byrdena M.
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p43-44 ; Dec 2003
Cites Canadian cases where school boards experienced dramatic utility rate increases, with no additional funding from their provincial governments to compensate. The boards challenged rate increases before the regulatory agencies, winning significant savings and establishing new rate structures.

Increasing Independence.
Martin, Gene
American School and University; v76 n4 , p29-30,32 ; Dec 2003
Emphasizes the importance of a reliable electrical supply to support sensitive instruments in sophisticated educational settings. Urges the installation of backup and cogeneration capabilities and describes recent innovations in cogeneration technology that have made this possible for a wide variety of institutions.

Geothermal Heat Pump Technology Saves Energy for America's Schools.
McCray, Kevin
School Business Affairs; v69 n11 , p35-39 ; Dec 2003
Describes how geothermal systems work, how they are designed for various buildings, possible savings that can be realized, and how they are installed. Variables include building type, geology, hydrology and materials selection. Decommissioning of abandoned systems is also covered.

Resisting Costs.
Kukhahn, Tom
American School and University; v76 n3 , p310-13 ; Nov 2003
Describes the insulating value of innovative exterior masonry products and how to calculate the overall insulating value of an exterior wall system by adding up the values of the individual components and then subtracting the loss from thermal breaks, such as windows and doors.

Environmental Impact.
Nasis, George; Tola, Ron
American School and University; v76 n3 , p321-23 ; Nov 2003
Explains the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System developed by the members of the U.S. Green Building Council. The LEED System awards up to 69 points in five categories: 1)sustainable site, 2)energy and atmosphere, 3)materials and resources, 4)water efficiency and 5)indoor air quality. Levels of certification are obtained at 26, 33, 39 and 52 points.

Daylight Again.
Westfall, Robert
American School and University; v76 n3 , p318-20 ; Nov 2003
Describes the benefits of energy savings and improved student performance when schools are daylit. Decreased student absenteeism also results from increased school aid if that aid is linked to attendance. Sources of financial assistance for daylighting efforts are outlined.

An Ultra Energy-Efficient School in Quebec. Adobe PDF
PEB Exchange; v2003/3 n50 , p24-25 ; Oct 2003
Describes the siting, materials and systems of Le Tournant School. Designed in 2002 for maximum energy efficiency, it is the second most energy-efficient institutional building in Canada.

Energy Upgrades.
School Planning and Management; v42 n10 , p32-33 ; Oct 2003
Describes energy savings realized by the Johnston County, North Carolina, school system when HVAC use was retimed and an ice thermal storage system was installed for cooling.

Placing Students First: Promoting Innovation in Sustainable Design.
Samish, Rob
School Construction News; v6 n6 , p25-27 ; Sep 2003
Describes the innovative features of the Truckee Middle School in Truckee, California. The school utilizes daylighting, environmentally sensitive building materials, water management and geothermal energy to create a high performance learning environment.

Lighting: Green Light.
Maniccia, Dorine
American School and University; v75 n12 , p154,156-57 ; Aug 2003
Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies), focusing on their use in common school spaces.

Get Started: Energy Efficiency Makes More Sense Than Ever.
Alban, Josh; Drabick, J.R
School Business Affairs; v69 n6 , p20-24 ; Jun 2003
Describes the benefits of making school building more energy efficient. Provides examples of physical retrofits and behavioral changes to save energy costs. Describes four-step process to create an energy efficiency plan. Includes resources and information such as U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy STAR program.

New Life for an Older School.
Ladesich, Jim
School Planning and Management; v42 n6 , p32-36 ; Jun 2003
Describes the exterior renovation of Central Lee Community School District's high school, near Donnellson, Iowa, particularly the installment of a standing-seam metal roof system and other energy-related improvements.

Cutting Energy Costs.
Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.
American School Board Journal; v190 n6 , p32-34 ; Jun 2003
Describes school-district energy-conservation efforts including teaching students to save energy, retrofitting schools, hiring energy consulting companies, and activating the sleep function on computer monitors. Also describes the federal Energy Star program.

Ice Thermal Storage for Colorado School.
Haughey, Michael D.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p50-53 ; May 2003
Describes installation of a hybrid chilled water/ice thermal storage plant for the Lucile Erwin Middle School in Loveland, Colorado, which has saved more than $18,000 in energy costs annually.

Cool & Dry: Dual-Path Approach for a Florida School.
Khattar, Mukesh; Shirey, Don, III; Raustad, Richard
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p58-60 ; May 2003
Describes how the Brevard County School District in Florida teamed with companies EPRI and Florida Power and Light to implement a dual-path, low temperature air-distribution system used in conjunction with thermal energy storage.

Helping the Earth and the Budget.
Wood, William
School Planning and Management; v42 n4 , p35-37 ; Apr 2003
Describes how Fairfax County Public Schools embraced the Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star program to help schools save money and energy.

On-site Opportunities.
Qayoumi, Mohammad
Maintenance Solutions; Mar 2003
This article discusses how advances in microturbine and fuel-cell technology are helping managers address facilities’ concerns about power cost, quality and reliability.

Modular Buildings.
Reynolds, Pamela
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p36-38 ; Mar 2003
Describes the testing by Berkeley lab scientists of an experimental ventilation system to improve indoor air quality in portable classrooms and use a third of the energy of current systems.

Trends in Education.
School Planning and Management; v42 n1 , p14-16 ; Jan 2003
Discusses trends noted by experts in education facilities management in the areas of construction, energy, security, and athletic facilities.

The Educational Advantages of Green: Saving, Teaching, Learning.
Leary, Ken
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n2 , p35-36 ; 2003
Advocates sustainable design and LEED certification for school renovations. (Includes four references.)

Maine's Noble Success.
Marcotte, Robert M.; Greim,Clifton W.
EnergyVortex.com; 2003
This discusses energy management in the new Noble High School in North Berwick, Maine. The graphical user interface, located in the custodian's office, allows staff to control the indoor environment throughout the building. The staged operation of two, 4,000-MBtuh oil-fired boilers is another method for energy savings. The air conditioning system found in the library, and other parts of the school, is designed with an economizer cooling cycle. The school's EMS also helps control a problem with wastewater.

Smart Energy Choices Free Up Dollars for Capital Improvements.
Ritchey, David
School Business Affairs; v69 n1 , p38-40 ; Jan 2003
Describes several ways to design or renovate school building to save thousand of dollars of energy costs. Considers site design, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, water conservation, and transportation. Describes how to obtain information about the Department of Energy’s EnergySmart Schools program and Schools Going Solar initiative.

Pathway to Sustainable Schools.
Spearnak, Mike; Brelig, George
Educational Facility Planner; v38 n3 , p16-19 ; 2003
Describes the process by which Colorado's Poudre School District created a prototype sustainable elementary school. PSD developed sustainable design guidelines to ensure all new construction would be environmentally friendly based on a LEED model.The resulting design was built below budget and has an energy performance 60 percent above ASHRAE standards.

Ongoing Savings.
Bevington, E. Milton
American School and University; v75 n4 , p28-31 ; Dec 2002
Education institutions rely heavily on good HVAC systems. Maintaining these systems can be expensive and are a significant factor in operating costs. Energy conservation is a real resource that is often overlooked. This article addresses what causes energy waste, how schools can find sources of energy waste, and how schools can improve maintenance, upgrade operations, and optimize building systems and the building itself.

Take the EPA's Energy Test.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v41 n11 , p21-22 ; Nov 2002
Discusses how the Environmental Protection Agency's Star labeling program offers benchmarks for K-12 schools to analyze the energy efficiency of their buildings, help set a strategy to control energy cost hikes, and generate good will among taxpayers.

Energy Efficiency in Schools: State Incentive Options.
Rewey, Christie
National Conference of State Legislatures Legisbrief; v10 n39 , 2p. ; Oct 2002
Several states have enacted incentives to help school districts reduce their exposure to volatile energy prices and save money by being more energy efficient. Primarily, assistance for energy efficiency in schools takes the form of grants or loans. This takes a look at actions taken in California, Indiana, Missouri, Oregon, Iowa, South Carolina, Texas, and Massachusetts.

Improving a Good Thing.
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , pMB12-MB13 ; Jul 2002
Summarizes research from the Florida Solar Energy Center at the University of Central Florida which demonstrated that improvements in portable classrooms involving illumination and ventilation saved Florida 40 percent in electric use and $6 million in energy costs.

Green Pays Its Way--Performance-Based Fees. Adobe PDF
Burns, Cameron M.; Eubank, Huston
Solar Today; v16 n4 , p36-39 ; Jul-Aug 2002
Reports that giving building and design professionals a financial incentive to create high-efficiency schools has proven to be a winning strategy for both the firms that design and build schools and the students who learn in them. Uses the North Clackamas High School project in Oregon as a case study. The benefits of performance contracting are described.

Monolithic Domes.
Lanham, Carol
School Planning and Management; v41 n7 , p47-49 ; Jul 2002
Describes how the energy savings, low cost, and near-absolute protection from tornadoes provided by monolithic domes is starting to appeal to school districts for athletic and other facilities, including the Italy (Texas) Independent School District. Provides an overview of monolithic dome construction.

An Infrastructure Roadmap.
Furgeson, Steven P.
American School and University; v74 n10 , p26-29 ; Jun 2002
Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital- improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans.

Energy Boost. Q & A with Steve Kiesner.
Schneider, Jay W.
School Construction News; v5 n4 , p24-26 ; May-Jun 2002
Presents an interview with the director of national accounts for the Edison Electric Institute in Washington, DC about the association, its booklet on energy conservation within education facilities, and ways in which educational facilities can reduce costs by boosting energy conservation.

High Performance Schools. Energy Supplement.
School Planning and Management; v41 n3 , p25-26,28,30,32 ; Mar 2002
Offers tips on energy efficiency and building design that can help schools reduce operating costs, improve academic performance, address health and safety issues, and protect the environment.

Designed To Maximize Learning and Minimize Costs.
Dolan, Thomas G.
School Planning and Management; v41 n1 , p27-29 ; Jan 2002
Describes how the Durant Road Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina sets a new standard in environmental school design. "Daylighting," bringing daylight into the building for psychological, health, and energy-saving benefits, plays a central role in the design.

Meeting Demands.
Hashempour, Darr
American School and University; v74 n4 , p32-34 ; Dec 2001
Discusses the energy crisis facing today's schools and universities and the alternative funding methods they have used to meet increasing energy costs. The article concludes with several quick, inexpensive, and easy solutions that schools can use to control their energy costs.

Lighting. Deterrent to Crime.
Sowell, David
American School and University; v74 n4 , p46-47 ; Dec 2001
Explores security issues that schools should consider before deciding to reduce campus lighting in order to control energy costs. Highlights factors to consider before creating a lighting reduction action plan.

More (and Better) for Less.
Ernst, Skip
School Planning and Management; v40 n11 , p46-47 ; Nov 2001
Examines how energy recovery systems can help school districts lower facility heating and cooling costs and improve schools' air quality. Offers ways that schools can evaluate the appropriateness of using energy recovery systems.

Utilities Expenditure Report.
Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v40 n11 , p17-18 ; Nov 2001
Examines how deregulation has affected school district utility costs. Offers ideas that can help school districts save money and energy. Provides several examples of state-wide initiatives intended to help school districts control utility costs.

The Coming Energy Crunch.
Drago, Bud
School Planning and Management; v40 n8 , p33-35 ; Aug 2001
Presents new observations on California's energy consumption problems and school lighting needs. Suggests that reducing lighting to save money can be costly when considering the effect on productivity, including educational productivity. Proposes tailoring lighting to optimize specific tasks as a way to maximize energy savings and productivity.

Power Struggle
Cook, Glenn
American School Board Journal; v188 n7 , p29-31 ; Jul 2001
California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to improvement.

Avoiding the Energy Crunch.
Rowland, Dave
American School and University; v73 n11 , p20,22,24 ; Jul 2001
Explores strategies for upgrading facility energy equipment that can cut energy costs and help substantially cover the costs of capital asset improvements. Discusses use of performance contracts to help schools leverage their operating budgets. Highlights how energy savings helped one school district finance $9.4 million in retrofits.

Feeling the Squeeze.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n10 , p24,26-27 ; Jun 2001
Discusses how school facilities managers are using performance contracting to help them reduce energy waste and save money. Highlights recommendations for using performance contracts and examines strategies for improving energy efficiency in schools.

Staying Cool.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n10 , p28,30-31 ; Jun 2001
Illustrates how roofs that deflect the sun's heat away from the building can significantly reduce school energy budgets. Discusses the installation of white polymer roofs and use of reflective coatings.

How To Attack Rising Energy Costs.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning and Management; v40 n5 , p31-34 ; May 2001
Presents manufacturer and engineer suggestions on how schools can solve their rising energy costs in the face of more demanding classroom needs placing greater demands on heating and air conditioning ventilation systems. The use of CO2 sensors, boiler technology and two-pipe systems are explored.

Eco-Friendly, Affordable, School.
Molina, Jean
ASHRAE Journal; v53 n5 , p52,54,56 ; May 2001
Describes green components of Montreal's St. Johns School, an affordable and eco-friendly building with a solar wall, a geothermal system, and heat recovery.

Electric Utility Deregulation and School Finance in the United States.
Walters, Lawrence C.; Cornia, Gary C.
Journal of Education Finance; v26 n4 , p345-72 ; Spring-Summer 2001
Examines, state-by-state, the decline in assessed property values of electric utilities due to deregulation and the resulting impact on school district revenues. Concludes school revenue shortfall problems are more likely to occur in 12 states. Suggests strategies state governments can employ to respond to lost valuation and revenue.

Energy Supplement. Supplement to School Planning and Management.
Schoff, Larry
School Planning and Management; v40 n3 , p42-44,46-48 ; Mar 2001
Presents the following articles on energy efficiency and American public schools: "High Performance Schools Reduce Costs and Improve Student and Staff Environment" (Larry Schoff); "ASHRAE s Standard 90.1: Educating the Engineer" (Mack and Melanie Wallace;" and "Performance Contracting: Meeting the Challenge of Deferred Maintenance in America s K-12 Schools."

Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments Through Energy Performance Contracting
Birr, David
School Business Affairs; v66 n12 , p34-36 ; Dec 2000
Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average daily attendance).

Turning On Savings.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v73 n4 , p20-22 ; Dec 2000
Explores how schools are upgrading equipment and altering routines to cut energy consumption costs. How to determine the energy efficiency of school buildings using a new assessment tool provided by the Federal government is highlighted.

Power, Politics, and Purchasing.
Moore, Deborah P.
School Planning and Management; v39 n11 , p26-29,31 ; Nov 2000
Explores the overlapping of energy efficiency, budget-cutting, and facility needs in K-12 schools. Utilities expenditures in schools are discussed for electricity and natural gas as are energy-saving alternatives such as daylighting, solar energy, wind production of power, and geothermal energy. Sources for further information conclude the article.

Power Shopping.
Chen, C. Martel
American School and University; v73 n1 , p30,32-34 ; Sep 2000
Discusses important factors schools and universities should consider when selecting an energy service provider (ESP). A checklist of questions and criteria for navigating the ESP selection process is included.

Three Overlooked Ways to Save Energy in Your Building
Gartland, Lisa
The Construction Specifier; v53 n9 , p17-24 ; Sep 2000
Daylighting, cool roofing, and correct equipment sizing are three measures generally not taken when building energy retrofits are made. Yet all three measures have the potential to save 20 percent or more of the energy used for lighting, cooling, or equipment operations. None of these ideas are new, but their technology has matured, and the utility climate has changed making these measures ripe for efficiency retrofits.

New Label To Help Schools Learn Lessons Of Efficiency
Rospond, Kathryn M.
Building Operating Management Online; Sep 2000
One year after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched its Energy Star Building Label for office buildings, EPA has expanded the criteria to include the nation’s thousands of primary and secondary schools. By extending the Energy Star Label to schools, EPA is offering school facility executives the first online benchmarking tool by which they can compare the operating efficiency of their facilities to others across the country.

Facilities Upgrade and Retrofit. Strategies for Success.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n11 , p26 ; Jul 2000
Provides three articles on the subject of educational facility upgrading and retrofiting that address setting guidelines for classroom acoustics, making sports facilities brighter and more energy-efficient, and cutting energy bills and protecting interiors.

ESCOs: Helping Schools Save Money and Energy.
School Planning and Management; v39 n6 , suppl 2 p1-6 ; Jun 2000
Discusses the use of energy savings performance contracts to help reduce costs and improve school infrastructure and the educational environment. Further discussed are how indoor air quality reduces health, productivity, and costs; and examples are provided of how other schools have achieved better school environments and reduced energy costs.

Raising the Roof.
Savage, John
American School and University; v72 n10 , p26-28 ; Jun 2000
Discusses how metal standing-seam roofs can help conserve energy, and with proper maintenance, be long-lasting. Provides an example of how one high school replaced its leaking roof with a metal standing-seam roof.

Shining a Light on Savings.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v72 n8 , p32,34 ; Apr 2000
Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted.

Planning for Optimal Performance.
Mason, Craig
American School and University; v72 n6 , p36,38,40,42,44 ; Feb 2000
Explains how schools can take advantage of energy-saving opportunities to better meet the needs of the future without increasing energy demands. Energy-savings ideas as components of a complete energy management control system are highlighted as are tips on saving energy through equipment and classroom design selection, and energy conservation measures for building operators.

Nature's Design Rules.
Reicher, Dan
Learning By Design; n9 , p16-18 ; 2000
Discusses school design considerations for energy-efficient schools that provide learning environments that lead to improved student performance. Design myths are addressed as are use of daylighting and designing schools that can teach students and adults about the importance of conserving energy and money. Two online resources are included.
TO ORDER: Learning by Design; Email: lbd@strattonpublishing.com
http://www.learningbydesign.biz

Four Steps to Energy Savings.
Stellar, Arthur
American School Board Journal; v187 n4 , p62-64 ; Dec 1999
An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future.

Lighting the School of the Future.
Clanton, Nancy
School Planning and Management; v38 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1999
Discusses the Austin Independent School District's (Texas) school redesign efforts to allow more daylight in its schools, increase the students' comfort and productivity, and lower utility costs. Return on investment potential from savings in maintenance, replacement, and productivity of the school are highlighted.

Back to the Earth.
Abnee, Conn
American School and University; v72 n3 , p316-18 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how schools can use geothermal technology to conserve energy and save money. How geothermal climate control works and its payback are examined, and examples of development and use are highlighted.

School Solutions. Special Report: IAQ and Energy
Birr, Dave
Energy Decisions; , p32-36 ; Nov 1999
Discusses how energy service companies (ESCO) can help schools upgrade their indoor air quality and make them environmentally sound. How ESCO's help in arranging funding for indoor environmental improvements through energy performance contracts is discussed. Tips on energy-efficiency measures for improving indoor environmental quality are highlighted.

What Energy Deregulation Means for Your District.
Costello, Richard J.
School Planning and Management; v38 n11 , p47-49 ; Nov 1999
Provides advice on how school districts might reduce energy costs in an era of electric industry deregulation. The competitive environment is described along with suggestions about joining purchasing groups to achieve pricing discounts. Final comments reveal the importance of energy contract negotiation.

Quebec Energy Performance Contracts for the School System: New Rules of the Game. Adobe PDF
Drouin, Jean
PEB Exchange; n38 , p18-20 ; Oct 1999
Examines the new rules covering energy performance contracts for Quebec school boards and their responsibilities relative to their educational buildings and energy performance. Regulations with regard to the awarding of contracts in the public and quasi-public sectors are also discussed.

Alternative Thinking.
Herman, Dan
American School and University; v72 n2 , p42,44,46 ; Oct 1999
Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored.

Innovation & Risk Management Result in Energy and Life-Cycle Savings
Anstrand, David E.; Singh, J. B.
HPAC Engineering; v71 n8 , p52-54,56,58-59 ; Aug 1999
Examines a Pennsylvania school's successful planning, design, and bidding process for acquiring a geothermal heat pump(GHP)system whose subsequent efficiency became award-winning for environmental excellence. Charts and statistical tables describe the GHP's energy-savings. Concluding comments review the lessons learned from the process.

Dealing With Deregulation.
Mineo, Ronald W.; Stehn, John L.
American School and University; Jul 1999
School administrators dealing with the economic effects of deregulation will have to grapple with a complex set of issues. This describes several points that officials should keep in mind.

The Balance of Power.
Matasek, David E.
American School and University; v71 n10 , p30,32,34 ; Jun 1999
Explains how schools can prepare, through the gathering of information, training, and the adoption of technology, to meet and profit from the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Tips for fully understanding a school's energy position are examined, including advice on leveraging a school's position in a competitive power market.

Cut Next Winters Heating Bill Today.
Sturgeon, Julie
School Planning and Management; v39 n4 , p30,32-33 ; Apr 1999
Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and considering the human side of energy consumption.

Energy Equity Lost and Found: Rebuilding America's K-12 Schools.
Schoff, Lorenz
(APPA: the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Mar-Apr 1999)
Facilities Manager; v 15 n2 , 23-24, 26-28 ; Mar-Apr 1999
The Department of Energy's Rebuild America program presents new opportunities for schools to repair and upgrade their facilities by using the energy equity that can be captured by improving energy efficiency. Energy efficiency can play an important role in providing high-quality learning environments, lowering operational costs, and maintaining the fiscal ability to respond to facility needs.

Energy Equity Lost and Found: Rebuilding America's K- 12 Schools.
Schoff, Lorenz V.
Discusses reversing the trend of school building deterioration and inefficient energy usage through the Rebuild America program. It explains what Rebuild America is and why schools should join the program. Also provided are overviews of successful programs involving schools.

Plugging into Energy Savings.
Harrigan, Merrilee
American School Board Journal; v186 n1 , p12-16 ; Jan 1999
The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle.
TO ORDER: American School Board Journal, 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314; Tel: 703-838-6722
http://www.asbj.com

Waste Not, Want Not
Jones, Rebecca
American School Board Journal; v186 n1 , p16-19 ; Jan 1999
A conservation program is credited with saving schools $9 million in Portland, Oregon, over the last eight years. Effective retrofits include a computerized energy-management system, new lighting, and credit meters in school sprinkling systems. Teachers incorporate energy conservation into classrooms by encouraging students to conduct energy audits.

A Combined Geothemal Heat Pump System - the Results After Two Years
Matthey,Bernard;Freiburghaus,Sonia; Langel, Sylvian
IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter; v17 n2 ; 1999
An installation consisting of an electric heat pump coupled to an underground thermal storage system and a combined heat and power unit has made spectacular energy savings possible for a secondary school complex. The storage system is recharged by 306 m2 of selective, unglazed solar collector. Financial balance would be attained if the fuel (natural gas) were to cost 46 cents per KWh, which is slightly higher than current prices. This article describes the system and evaluates the technical and financial results after 2 years of operation.

Power of a Plan.
Mineo, Ronald W.; Stehn, John L.
American School and University; v71 n4 , p36, 38, 39 ; Dec 1998
Discusses the effects of electric power deregulation on an educational facility's planning and purchasing for future power needs. How schools can take advantage of deregulation is highlighted. Also examined are various chiller technologies and economically assessing these technologies on a life-cycle cost basis.

Exploring Deregulation.
Hubbard, Roy S.
(Primedia Intertec, Overland Park, KS, Nov 1998)
American School and University; Nov 1998
The deregulation of the electric power industry, along with real-time pricing and retail wheeling, is fostering a fiercely competitive supply arena. While chiller plant management and specification may require more analysis and greater planning, having a variety of electric and alternative drive chillers on tap offers school and university energy users the flexibility to choose the most economical option and reap the benefits of electric restructuring.

Heating and Cooling from the Ground Up.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning and Management; v37 n11 , p32,34,36,37 ; Nov 1998
Explains why converting to geothermal heating and cooling is a good option when constructing or retrofitting schools. Reasons discussed include competitive installation costs, lower operating and maintenance costs, greater building design flexibility, and greater user satisfaction.

Middle-Aged Thinking.
Nixon, Charles W.
American School and University; v70 n12 , p148-150 ; Aug 1998
Examines renovation issues involving 30- and 40-year-old school facilities. It explores ways a school district can renovate old buildings to first-class cost-effective facilities while avoiding excessive transition costs. Discussions include installation of new technology and the resulting wiring demands and developing more energy efficient heating and air conditioning operations.

Case Study: An Elementary School that Saves Energy and is Visually Comfortable
Rodgers, Paula A.
Architectural Record; v186 n8 , p159-60+ ; Aug 1998
Discusses lighting solutions at Mary McLeod Bethune Elementary School in Rochester, New York. The design aimed to give the school an intimate scale. The lighting designers used energy-efficient lighting products to cut lighting energy use;simplified maintenance by restricting the number of lamp types and used lamps that the school district already stocks; and supplied low-glare ambient lighting to create a visually comfortable environment for students and teachers.

Ice Storage System for School Complex
Montgomery, Ross D.
ASHRAE Journal; v40 n7 , p52-56 ; Jul 1998
Describes the pilot project conducted at the Manatee Education Center in Naples, Florida, which won the 1998 ASHRAE Technology Award for Institutional Buildings/New. Project involved the implementation of ice storage technology in 19 elementary and middle school buildings. Discusses the project performance and compares the energy efficiency and cost savings of ice storage systems with the traditional chiller plant design of two other schools. Provides four tables illustrating annual maintenance costs, construction and energy costs, energy dollars spent in 1995-96 and energy usage in 1995-96 for the three campuses. Addresses the maintenance and operation of the ice storage system and the ASHRAE guidelines that the project followed.

Breaking Ground.
American School and University; v70 n10 , p30-32,34 ; Jun 1998
Explains how using geothermal systems can reduce energy costs and improve heating and cooling in multipurpose schools. What geothermal systems are and their potential benefits in simplifying the school infrastructure and streamlining operating costs are highlighted.

Geothermal Systems for School
Dinse, David H.
ASHRAE Journal; v40 n5 , p51-54 ; May 1998
Describes an award winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy efficient technologies, variable flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided.

Turned On to Savings.
Salamone, Brad
American School and University; v70 n8 , p34,36 ; Apr 1998
Explains how to upgrade inefficienct lighting systems that will dramatically cut energy use and costs while simultaneously improving the learning environment. Advice for using outside consultants is offered.

Energy Management
Bete, Tim, Ed.
School Planning & Management; v37 n1 , p13-14 ; Jan 1998
Presents the opinions of three energy experts on the issue of school facility energy management. The experts respond to the following questions: will energy deregulation occur in all 50 states and will it provide real savings; and will the majority of districts hire ESCOs to manage their energy needs?

Investing in Energy Efficiency: A Proven Strategy For Reducing Operating Costs
Lynch, Melissa; Johnson, Deborah
American School and Hospital Maintenance; 1998
Each year, our nation's schools struggle to deliver the best educational environment for the fewest dollars. Similarly, health care facilities strive to cost-effectively meet demanding, specialized energy requirements. By looking at energy use strategically, school and health care facility managers can meet or exceed specific facility needs, improve their indoor and outdoor environments, and drastically cut energy costs.

More Than a View.
Goyal, Raj
American School and University; v70 n4 , p16, 18 ; Dec 1997
Explains how window replacement produces significant energy and maintenance cost savings and offers an implementation process once a decision on window replacement has been made. The assessment of fuel bills, review of maintenance costs, and analysis of security features are covered.

Signed, Sealed and Delivered.
Jackson, Lisa M.
School Planning & Management; v36 n12 , p33-35 ; Dec 1997
Describes one Massachusetts school district's solution to rising energy costs by using contract services to head off capital costs and guarantee savings. Keys to successful management of this contracting system and the elements that make up a successful contract services candidate are highlighted.

Nine Steps to Prepare for Electricity Deregulation.
Robertson, Wayne
School Planning & Management; v36 n10 , p37 ; Nov 1997
Discusses the prospects of electricity deregulation and highlights nine steps school districts can take to reassess and update their plans for maximizing the benefits of deregulation. Suggestions include forming an energy management team, seeking discounts and rate incentives, getting involved in competitive user groups, and aggressively seeking rate options.

Using Mother Nature to Subdue Energy Costs.
Fickes, Michael
School Planning & Management; v36 n10 , p24-27 ; Oct 1997
Describes a Kansas City elementary school's successful energy conservation via its environmental design that includes the use of ground source heat pumps and computer energy management systems. Also discussed is how this design concept contributes to the educational experience of the school's students.

All Systems Go.
Lang, Joseph G.
American School and University; v70 n1 , p23, 26-28 ; Sep 1997
Provides guidelines for making schools more energy efficient that includes the development of an architectural (usage) program; the prudent use of lighting that combines natural and artificial light augmented by interior finishes; and the use of site orientation, landscaping, and building organization. An example of one school's use of this type of energy conservation methodology is provided.

A Whole-Building Approach to Lighting and Energy Efficiency
Garland, Glenn; Johnson, Deborah
School Planning & Management; v36 n7 , p33-36 ; Jul 1997
The Energy Star Buildings program assists school districts in reducing energy costs. Traditional and creative funding opportunities are outlined. For the voluntary program, the Environmental Protection Agency provides no-cost technical support, software, workshops, technology updates, and other tools to all participants.

Confronting Deregulation.
Madget, James
American School & University; v69 n9 , p34+ ; May 1997
Discusses how schools can capitalize on new opportunities for cost savings and improved service in a deregulated electric industry. It discusses strategies for preparing to buy electrical power on the open market and examines two forms of purchasing called "wholesale-wheeling" and "retail-wheeling." Steps in conducting a utility audit are highlighted.

Energy-Smart Schools
Energy Ideas; v4 n3 ; Spring 1997
This entire issue covers energy-smart schools, and includes articles on energy effieciency, minor retrofits, system conversions, transportation, energy education, and financing. Energy Ideas is published by the Center for Study of Responsive Law's Governing Purchasing Project.

An Energy Audit in Action.
Leach, Ken
School Planning and Management; Mar 1997
Since 1980 an Ohio school district, by combining new technologies and equipment, new funding mechanisms, and common sense, has been able to reduce energy-related costs in two test schools by $4 million. The Energy Conservation Merit Plan has a cash-back clause that returns a portion of the money saved by energy conservation to the school. Contains an energy-audit checklist.

The Flip of a Switch.
Fuller, Al
American School and University; v69 n4 , p31-32 ; Dec 1996
Describes how integrated electronic control systems can provide multibuilding districts with cost savings and improved efficiency. Explores how such systems can quickly locate problem areas and save money. Describes how cooling, heating, lighting, and other components can be preprogrammed and offers some suggestions for selecting a system.

Power Tactics.
Freeman, Laurie
School Planning and Management; v35 n7 , p28-30 ; Jul 1996
Boulder Valley (Colorado) finds savings with an energy-management strategy that makes conservation automatic. Phase-one strategies included a complete lighting system upgrade and a computerized climate-control system. The energy program has helped the district cut monthly kilowatt consumption by 42 percent, and natural gas consumption has dropped 27 percent.


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